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REVIEW JOURNAL

“TEACHING NUMBER SENSE FOR 6TH GRADERS


IN TAIWAN”

Program Study
ENGLISH MATHEMATICS

Lecturer: Reflina, M.Pd

Reviewed by:
Auliya Febrianti (0305171056)
Dwi Habsyah (0305171062)
Intan Maharani Batubara (0305171055)
Khairani Safitri (0305172125)
Nuraini Hasanah (0305172115)
Putri Sri Rezeki(0305171029)
Rafika Putri (0305172126)

FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHER TRAINING


STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF NORTH SUMATERA
MEDAN
2018
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Preface
Alhamdulillah for the blessings and graces of the authors can complete the task
of this paper to fulfill the task of review journal provided by the lecture.

Thank you also to supervisor who has guided us so we can finish this paper.

In writing this paper the writer feels there are many shortcomings both on
technical writing and material, given the ability of the writer. For that criticism
and suggestions from all parties very authors hope for the completion of making
this paper. Thank you.

Medan, June 27th 2018

Author
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TABLE OF CONTENT

Preface ............................................................................................................................................ i
Table of Content ........................................................................................................................... ii

CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 1
A. Background .......................................................................................................................... 1
B. Journal Summary .................................................................................................................. 2
1. Journal Identity................................................................................................................ 2
2. Resume .............................................................................................................................. 2
a. Limitation of the study .............................................................................................. 2
b. Significance of the study ........................................................................................... 3
c. Research Methodology .............................................................................................. 4
d. Discussion .................................................................................................................. 5
e. Conclutions and Recommendations........................................................................ 6

CHAPTER II : DISCUSSION................................................................................................... 8
A. The relevance of journal topics to the works and areas of the author's expertise ......... 8
B. The main points of the author's argument in the introduction ....................................... 8
C. The selection and scope of the theory review .................................................................... 8
D. The research methodology used and its relevance............................................................ 8
E. The author's frame of mind in the discussion section ....................................................... 9
F. The research methodology used and its relevance ............................................................ 9
G. Approval, criticism, refutation, explanatory descriptions and the author's
position of journal review of the journal ................................................................................. 10
CHAPTER III : CLOSING ................................................................................................... 11
A. Conclutions .................................................................................................................. 11
B. Recomendation .................................................................................................................. 12
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
Number sense refers to a person’s general understanding of numbers and
operations and his ability to handle daily-life situations that include
numbers. This ability entails the usage of useful, flexible, and efficient
strategies, such as mental computation and estimation, to handle
numerical problems. Number sense implies meaningful learning and
understanding, therefore, it has been extensively discussed and is widely
accepted in mathematics education. However, no two researchers in the
research fields “define number sense in exactly the same way”. Due
to its importance, number sense has produced many discussions and
studies from different fields, such as mathematics educators, researchers,
educational psychologists, and so on. Based on a review of the number
sense literature, the activities used in this study specifically narrow their
focus to include:
1. Developing and using benchmarks appropriately
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This implies a person can use benchmarks, such as 1, 2 , 100, and so on, to

solve problems flexibly and appropriately under different situations. For


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example, when children were asked to select the best estimation for ×
19 23
17 9 1
, they knew 23 is less than 1 and 19
is less than 2 , so the result should be
1
less than 2 .

2. Developing estimation strategies and judging the reasonableness of


computational results.
This implies that individuals can mentally apply estimation strategies to
problems without using the written method and be able to judge the

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reasonableness of the result. For example, when children were asked to


place the decimal point using this estimation: 49.05×6.044=2964582, they
should not need to rely on the rule-based method to determine the answer.
They should know that 50 (49.05 is about 50) multiplied by 6 is about 300,
and that the answer 29.64582 is unreasonable. The importance of teaching
and learning number sense Why is the teaching and learning of number
sense for elementary and middle grade students so important? Firstly,
number sense is often characterized as “flexibility”,
“inventiveness” and “reasonableness”. It should play a key role for
helping children develop holistic understanding of quantitative concepts.
Secondly, number sense should “be a holistic concept related to everyday
use of number and to encompass skills, understanding, disposition, and
flexibility”. Thirdly, overemphasis on written computation often hinders
the children’s mathematical thinking and understanding. Fourthly, human
should posses an intuitive number sense and it should be nurtured to
support future development of mathematical thinking and application.
Finally, several number sense related research studies internationally
show that children in elementary and middle grade levels are lacking of
number sense. Therefore, teaching and learning number sense should be
highlighted in elementary and middle schools mathematics classrooms.

B. Journal Summary
1. Journal Identity
Title : TEACHING NUMBER SENSE FOR 6TH GRADERS IN

TAIWAN

Author : Der-Ching Yang and Chun-Jen Hsu

Publisher : International Electronic Journal of Mathematics

Education/Volume 4, Number 2, July 2009


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2. Resume
a. Preliminary

Number sense refers to a person’s general understanding of numbers and


operations and his ability to handle daily-life situations that include
numbers. This ability entails the usage of useful, flexible, and efficient
strategies, such as mental computation and estimation, to handle numerical
problems. Number sense implies meaningful learning and understanding,
therefore, it has been extensively discussed and is widely accepted in
mathematics education. This implies that individuals can mentally apply
estimation strategies to problems without using the written method and be
able to judge the reasonableness of the result. For example, when children
were asked to place the decimal point using this estimation:
49.05×6.044=2964582, they should not need to rely on the rule-based method
to determine the answer. They should know that 50 (49.05 is about 50)
multiplied by 6 is about 300, and that the answer 29.64582 is unreasonable.
Why is the teaching and learning of number sense for elementary and
middle grade students so important? Firstly, number sense is often
characterized as “flexibility”, “inventiveness” and “reasonableness”. It
should play a key role for helping children develop holistic understanding of
quantitative concepts. Secondly, number sense should “be a holistic concept
related to everyday use of number and to encompass skills, understanding,
disposition, and flexibility”. Thirdly, overemphasis on written computation
often hinders the children’s mathematical thinking and understanding .
Fourthly, human should posses an intuitive number sense and it should be
nurtured to support future development of mathematical thinking and
application. Finally, several number sense related research studies
internationally show that children in elementary and middle grade levels are
lacking of number sense. Therefore, teaching and learning number sense
should be highlighted in elementary and middle schools mathematics
classrooms.
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b. Theoritical Review
Several studies and documents suggested that human’s use of number
representation and mathematical thinking partly depend on number sense
found that children skilled in written computation do not necessarily
accompany with the development of number sense. In fact, some studies
and reports documented that excessive reliance on rule-based methods to
solve problems which might suppress this intuitive ability and leaded
children to produce erroneous results and unreasonable answer. Moreover,
several studies suggested that students are more likely to develop number
sense after participating in well-designed number sense activities than they
are through standard instruction that encourages the use of written
algorithms. Furthermore, the number sense related studies had confirmed
that activities and effective teaching not only promote students’ number
sense, but also advance mathematical thinking and learning.

c. Research Methodology

Introduction. It is a new and challenging experience when Taiwanese


students are asked to estimate an answer without being able to do exact
calculations. This is due to the emphasis on written computation in
traditional Taiwanese mathematics instruction, which has always rewarded
the obtainment of an exact answer.

Episode 1: Benchmark, estimation, and deciding the reasonableness of


results.
The question was used to jumpstart a lesson focusing on the use of
benchmarks. Mr. H. knew that his students tend to use written methods to
find the sum of two fractions, as they had been taught through Taiwanese
mathematics textbooks. Mr. H. posed the question, then asked each small
group to determine their answer and be ready to explain their reasoning. At
this time, one student asked: “Can we use a paper and pencil to find the
answer?” Mr. H. responded: “I encourage all of you to develop different
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methods to solve this problem.” He then moved from group to group,


listening to their discussions, probing responses from students for more
details, and checking on their progress.
The final group was able to switch back and forth between the fractions and
their complements and without using the graph. They understood that the
sum of these fractions is one and made sense of the meaning of the fractions
with formal symbolism. They were also able to fluently compare the
relationships of fractions with their complements and know how this
relationship helps to find the best estimate.

Episode 2: Benchmark, estimation, and determining the reasonableness of


results.
These students demonstrated that they have developed the ability to flexibly
use different benchmarks in multiple situations. They also applied their
previous knowledge to find the halves of fractions even though the concept
of fractions including decimals is not taught in school. Their number sense
and mathematical thinking greatly improved through their participation in
these activities and discussions. The students were able to transfer and
generalize their knowledge which is mathematical power in action.

d. Discussion
Presented here are only two activities from one class. Yet this study shows
how challenging questions can lead to a rich mathematical learning
experience. In the learning and teaching process, this activity displays:
1) Multiple problem solving strategies were created and used by these sixth
graders.
In the rich classroom discussions, different representations were
developed and shared by the students. For example, Group 1 supported
their first response the only way they could via the written method.
Group 3 solved the problem by using graphic representation. The
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students’ number sense was developed and promoted through the


flexible use of multiple representation.
2) The teacher plays a key role in helping children develop number sense.
Mr. H. Knew how to create a positive learning environment that
encourages exploration, discussion, thinking, and reasoning. He knew
his role was not only to pose challenging problems and encourage
discussion, but also provide opportunities for students to explain and
share their thinking process with classmates. He encouraged his students
to create different problem-solving strategies, to utilize more efficient
solution methods, and to develop higher-level mathematical thinking.
3) Teachers must have different and skillful strategies to help students learn
special mathematical concepts.
During the small group discussion, the teacher moved among groups to
observe students and listen to their ideas and explanations. Mr. H used
the information he had gleaned from each group to decide in which
order to present the groups’ findings. This helped students reflect on
their thinking process and learn from their mistakes. He knew how to
manage the students’ work, how to lead discussions among groups with
varied levels.
4) The teacher needs to pose worthwhile mathematical tasks and help
students develop conceptual understanding.
Questions that focus on using benchmarks and estimation are not
emphasized by the traditional Taiwanese mathematics curricula.
Challenging mathematical problems are not always integrated in the
lesson plan. Mr. H. not only posed worthwhile mathematical tasks, but
also knew how to promote the students’ level of thinking. He understood
that his students were skilled in standard written computation, but that
they did not necessarily have a strong development of number sense.

e. Conclutions and Recommendations


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This study only presented two teaching examples. This limited its
generalization. However, these examples show how the teacher
encouraged students to develop alternate ways to solve fractional
problems, encouraged students to share their ideas, and supported
students in developing meaningful understanding on fractions. These
episodes demonstrated that teacher can apply different approach to help
children develop fractional number sense without reliance on rule-based
method. They also illustrate that the teacher plays a key role in designing
and asking questions, listening carefully to student explanations, and
providing guidance that stimulates students’ understanding on fractions.
Though only two activities were presented here, they clearly showed how
a teacher could include interesting, meaningful, and challenging fraction
questions into his/her teaching to create beneficial learning experiences
for the students. Through use of interactive activities and discussions,
teachers can promote their students’ understanding, and also refine their
own teaching skills.
CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A. Relevance between the topic and the work of the author's field of expertise
The relevance of the topic with the work of the author's field of expertise is
that there is relevance between the topics of the journal to the field of
expertise of the author, where the identity of the journal stating that Der-
Ching Yang is a professor at National Chiayi University Graduate Institute
of Mathematics and Science Education, Xinying city, Taiwan . But the
identity of Chun-Jen Hsu can not be known.
B. Principles of the author's argument in the introduction
The main points of the author's argument in the introduction are as
follows:
1. The instinct of numbers refers to a person's general understanding of
numbers and operations and his ability to handle daily life situations that
include numbers.
2. Excessive emphasis on written calculations often precludes the thinking and
understanding of the mathematics of children.
3. Some of the things that relate to international research show that children at
the elementary and secondary levels are short of number.
C. The selection and scope of the theory review
Research studies are universal and can be developed in the field of
mathematics education throughout the country. The teaching and learning
of numbers is considered an important topic in international mathematics
education. This research can be used as a teaching tool that makes it
possible to create learning that allows learning, discussion, thought, and
teaching.
D. The research methodology used and its relevance
The methodology is very accurate, the authors direct to their school and
meet directly with the teacher and students, and the writing is very

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accurate and complete. this study is considered a pilot in schools across the
country as an international mathematical study.
E. The author's frame of mind in the discussion section
In this discussion the autors think about the framework how challenging
questions can lead to a rich mathematical learning experience. In which there
are activity learning and teaching. this activity displays :

1. Multiple problem solving strategies were created and used by these sixth
graders

In the rich classroom discussions, different representations were developed


and shared by the students. Example : group 1 supported their first response
the only way they could via the written method. Group 3 solved the problem
by using graphic representation.

2. The teacher plays a key role in helping children develop number sense
In this discussion teacher not only knewhow to create a positive learning
environment that encourages exploration, discussion, thinking and
reasoning but teacher too must encouraged his students to create different
problem-solving strategies, to untilize more efficient solution methods, and
to develop higher-level mathematical thinking and them need to learn and
then challenging and supporting them to learn it well.

3. Teachers must have different and skillful strategies to help students learn
special mathematical concepts

During the small group discussion, the teacher moved among groups to
observe students and listen to their ideas and explanations. When the class
discussions began, he skillfully

led each group in sharing their explanations, first from the lower-level
method then on to the

higher-level method as shown in the following flow chart :

Written Better

Algorithms Pictorial
Pictorial
Or unclear representation
representation
Explanation
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4. The teacher needs to pose worthwhile mathematical tasks and help students
develop conceptual understanding

Challenging mathematical problems are not always integrated in the lesson


plan. Mr. H. not only posed worthwhile mathematical tasks, but also knew
how to promote the students’ level of thinking. He understood that his
students were skilled in standard written computation, but that they did not
necessarily have a strong development of number sense. Mr. H. knows that
“conceptual understanding is an important component of proficiency” and
that “learning with understanding is essential.
F. The research methodology used and its relevance
From explanation this material conclusion is presented two teaching
examples. This limited its generalization. These episodes demonstrated that
teacher can apply different approach to help children develop fractional
number sense without reliance on rule-based method. They also illustrate
that the teacher plays a key role in designing and asking questions, listening
carefully to student explanations, and providing guidance that stimulates
students’ understanding on fractions. Though only two activities were
presented here, they clearly showed how a teacher could include interesting,
meaningful, and challenging fraction questions into his/her teaching to
create beneficial learning experiences for the students. Through use of
interactive activities and discussions, teachers can promote their students’
understanding, and also refine their own teaching skills.
G. Approval, criticism, refutation, explanatory descriptions and the author's
position of journal review of the journal
This journal contains about the learning of numbers by using two teaching
methods that have been tested against 6th graders in Taiwan and proven to
increase the pupil's thinking on the numbers. So this journal is great for referrals
to students residing in Taiwan and I agree that teachers play a key role in
designing and asking questions, listening carefully to student explanations, and
providing guidance that stimulates students' understanding of fractions.
Although only two activities are presented here, they are clear shows how a
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teacher can incorporate interesting, meaningful, and challenging fractional


questions into his teaching to create a learning experience that benefits students.
My criticism for this journal, this journal is too small to present the example in
the teaching example. In this journal only two examples of teaching alone will
make it difficult for the reader to understand the contents of the journal so that
the reader should be more concentrated in order to understand, as well as the
research content in this journal focusing on only one keystone that should have
taken some other samples such as from other classes and schools. And I do not
agree with the research conducted only in class only without taking samples
from other classes and schools. Then the position of the author of the journal
review of this journal is as readers and observers.
CHAPTER III
CLOSING

A. Conclutions
This study only presented two teaching examples. This limited its
generalization. However, these examples show how the teacher
encouraged students to develop alternate ways to solve fractional
problems, encouraged students to share their ideas, and supported
students in developing meaningful understanding on fractions. These
episodes demonstrated that teacher can apply different approach to help
children develop fractional number sense without reliance on rule-based
method. They also illustrate that the teacher plays a key role in designing
and asking questions, listening carefully to student explanations, and
providing guidance that stimulates students’ understanding on fractions.
Though only two activities were presented here, they clearly showed how
a teacher could include interesting, meaningful, and challenging fraction
questions into his/her teaching to create beneficial learning experiences
for the students. Through use of interactive activities and discussions,
teachers can promote their students’ understanding, and also refine their
own teaching skills.

B. Recommendation
I think this journal has proved that research on teaching sense numbers
can develop the senses and help the children at grade 6. So I suggest that
this journal not only be set at the grade level 6 but also at a higher level
than the previous level because at the grade 6 level it has proved
successful and also should the teaching in this journal not only applied in
Taiwan but also in other countries.

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