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In-Mg

Mg-Mn
Structure; Experimental; #) 75Iwa: H. Iwasaki, "Effect of Pressure on the Long-Period Struc-
*69Picl: K.M. Pickwick, W.A. Alexander, and R.H. Gamble, ture of Alloys," Proc. 4th Int. Conf. High Pressure, O. Jiro,
"Constitution of Magnesium-Indium Alloys Containing 23 to Ed., Phys. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 331-334 (1975). (Pressure;
100 Atomic % Indium," Can. J. Chem., 47, 3417-3427 (1969). Experimental)
(Equi Diagram; Experimental; #) 75Kog: M. Kogachi and K. Katda, "Stability of the Long-Period
69Pic2: K. M. Pickwick and W. A. Alexander, "Kinetics of Trans- Stacking Order in Mg3In and Mg3Inl_yCdy Alloys," J. Phys.
formations in the Solid Solution of the Magnesium-Indium Sys- Chem. Solids, 36, 501-507 (1975). (Crys Structure; Theory)
tem," J. Less-Common Met., 19, 105-112(1969). (Equi Diagram; *75Watl: Y. Watanabe, "Constitution of the Magnesium-Indium
Experimental; #) System Near the Composition of Mg3In and Phase Transition of
70Neb: H. Nebell, "Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid fl~ Phase," Acta Metall., 23, 691-696 (1975). (Equi Diagram;
Magnesium-Lead, Magnesium-Indium and Magnesium- Experimental; #)
Gallium Alloys," Rev. Roum. Chim., 15, 59-65 (1970). (Thermo; 75Wat2" Y. Watanabe, "Composition Dependence of the Long-
Experimental) Period Layer Stacking Sequence in the Structure of the Ternary
71Hit: T. Hirata, "The Order-Disorder Transformation in Mg- Alloy Mg3In]_,Cd~," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 38(1), 141-149 (1975).
25.7 at.% In Alloy," Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met., 12, 375-377 (1971). (Crys Structure; Experimental)
(Crys Structure; Experimental) *76Fes: P. Feschotte, "Le Systeme Binaire Magnesium-Indium,"
71Kog: M. Kogachi and Y. Matuso, "Phase Changes of the Disor- J. Less Common Met., 46, 51-54 (1976) in French. (Equi Dia-
dered In-Mg and AI-Mg Alloys," J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 32, gram; Experimental; #)
2393-2401 (1971). (Crys Structure; Theory; #) 77Mos: Z. Moser and R. Castanet, "EMF and Calorimetric Mea-
72Mro: E. Mrosan, W. John, and H. Eschrig, "Calculation of surements of the Mg-In Liquid Solutions," Czech. Conf. Cal-
the Structural Energy of the Intermetallic Compound MgIn," orimetry, Inst. Inorg. Chem., Czech. Acad. Sci. Prague, A 3, 1-4
Phys. Status Solidi (b), 51 (2), 793-800 (1972). (Crys Structure; (1977). (Thermo; Experimental)
Theory) 79Kin: V.V. Kinzhibalo and I.I. Zalutskiy, "Reactions Between
73Iwa: H. Iwasaki, Y. Watanabe, and S. Ogawa, "Pressure De- Magnesium and Metals of the Gallium Subgroup," Russ. Met-
pendence of the Long-Period Stacking Sequence in Mg3In Al- all., 5, 176-181 (1979). (Crys Structure; Experimental)
loy," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 35, 1265 (1973). (Pressure; Experi- 79Mos: Z. Moser and R. Castanet, "EMF and Calorimetric Mea-
mental) surements on the Mg-In Liquid Solutions," Metall. Trans. B.
73Kog: M. Kogachi, "Ordering Behaviors of the fcc and bcc Phase lOB, 483-487 (1979). (Thermo; Experimental)
Alloys in the In-Mg, Li-Mg, and A1-ZnSystems," J. Phys. Chem. 80MaL D. L. Martin, "Specific Heat of Ordered Equiatomic InMg,
Solids, 14, 67-75 (1973). (Crys Structure; Theory) CuPt, and CuAuI below 30 K," Can. J. Phys., 58, 164-167
74Iwa: H. Iwasaki, Y. Watanabe, and S. Ogawa, "Pressure- (1980). (Thermo; Experimental)
Induced Change in the Long-Period Stacking Sequence of the
Closed-Packed Layers in Mg3In." J. Appl. Crystallogr., 7, *Indicates key paper.
611-615 (1974). (Pressure; Experimental) #Indicates presence of a phase diagram.
In-Mgevaluation contributedby A. A. Nayeb-Hashemi and J. B. Clark, DepartmentofMetallurgicalEngineering,The University of Missouri-Rolla,Rolla,
MO, 65401, U.S.A. This work was supportedby AmericanSocietyfor Metals. Literature searched through 1984.Professor Clark is ASM/NBSData Program
Category Editor for binary magnesium alloys.

The Mg-Mn (Magnesium-Manganese)System


24.305 54.9380

By A. A. Nayeb Hashemi and J. B. Clark


University of Missouri-Rolla

Equilibrium Diagram is different from that given by [Hansen] and [Metals


Handbook].
The complete Mg-Mn e q u i l i b r i u m diagram has not
been determined, except for the Mg-rich region (0 to Liquidus. [43Gro], [50Sch], and [57Pet] determined the
3.7 at.% Mn). [27Ruh], [31Schl], [31Sch2], [35Saw], (Mg) liquidus temperatures by thermal analysis and
[37Got], [43Gro], [44Bee], [45Tin], [48Sie], [50Sch], showed that the liquidus curve, starting at the melting
[57Pet], [58Chu], and [64Dri] investigated the Mg-rich point of pure Mg, ascends with increasing Mn to the peri-
end, but t h e r e is no g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t . [31Schl], tectic horizontal, which they placed between 651 and
[31Sch2], [35Saw], [37Got], and [44Ish] reported a eutectic 653 ~
reaction, and others, [43Gro, 44Bee, 45Tin, 48Sie, 50Sch, The liquidus t e m p e r a t u r e s for alloys of more t h a n
57Pet, 58Chu], reported a peritectic reaction in the 0 to 0.9 at.% Mn (2.0 wt.% Mn) were reported in [43Gro],
3.7 at.% Mn composition range. [Hansen] noted that the [44Gru], [45Tin], [48Sie], [50Sch], [57Pet], and [58Chu].
more recent studies, [43Gro, 44Bee, 45Tin, 48Sie, 50Sch], The results of these authors, shown in Fig. 2 and Table 1,
established conclusively that the reaction is peritectic. are significantly different. [Hansen] selected the results of
This view is further supported by the work of [57Pet], [48Sie] for "their consistency," and their data agreed with
[58Chu], and [64Dri], and later assessments of [60Rob] the average results of the other investigations published
and [80Bra]. up to 1950. [48Sie] and [50Sch] prepared massive amounts
The partial Mg-Mn equilibrium phase diagram shown in of Mg-Mn alloy with more than 3.0 at.% Mn by reduction
Fig. 1 is based on thermal analysis, microscopic obser- of anhydrated MnC1 in an Fe crucible. [57Pet] employed a
vation, and hardness measurements of [57Pet] and the similar method, but used a carborundum crucible. [45Tin]
resistometric measurements of [64Dri]. This diagram prepared his alloys by melting 99.98% pure Mg and elec-

160 Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams Vol. 6 No. 2 1985


Mg-Mn

Fig. 1 Assessed Mg-Mn Phase Diagram

Weight Percent Manganese


1 2 3 4 5 6
900 ......... r ......... I I ........ I p ..... .

800

L + (flMn)

7OO 700~
0
~oOc ~ c ~ 0 . 9 9 e 653Oc L + (aMn)

"~ 600
q9

E
500-

400 -

300
0.5 1 1.5 2 ~5
M Atomic Percent Manganese

A.A. Nayeb-Hashemi and J. B. Clark, 1985.

Fig. 2 Assessed M g - M n Phase Diagram with Reported Experimental Data

Weight P e r c e n t I~,lan~anese
2 3 4 5 6

900 ..~h I

800
L ~
~ o 9 E
• o
I O

700 ~ ~o
~5o~ ~,~ ~R L + (aMn)

o []

~ (Mg) j * ~ I 0 43Gro /

E- / - I * "~v" /
5oo ~7~ I • ~i~ /
0 ] v 57Pet i

300|~ . . . . . t . . . . r . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . .

0 0.5 | 1.5 2 2.5 3


Mg Atomic Percent Manganese

A.A. Nayeb-Hashemi and J. B. Clark, 1985.

Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams Vol. 6 No. 2 1985 161


Mg-Mn
Table1 Experimental Liquidus Table2 Experimental Solubility Limits of
Temperatures in Mg-Mn System Mn in (Mg)
Composition, Liquidus temperature, Composition, Temperature,
Reference at.~ Mn ~ Reference at.% Mn ~
[43Gro] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.95 652 [31Sch2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6(a) 653
1.72 736 1.4 635
1.4 702 1.05 600
1.02 650 0.67 550
1.89 758 0.33 500
1.59 724 0.11 400
3.2 836 [43Gro] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 651
2.64 817 0.92 620
2.21 774 0.44 540
1.85 746 0.11 445
[45Tin] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.03 670 [57Pet] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.03 653
1.17 700 0.89 630
1.76 765 0.71 600
3.03 850 0.44 550
[48Sie] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.89 653(a) 0.22 500
1.35 704 0.09 400
1.9 765.6 0.04 300
2.21 799 [64Dri] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.99 653
2.42 821.8 0.85 630
3.2 906.3 0.71 600
[50Sch] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.21 700 0.58 570
1.58 750 0.39 530
2.0 800 0.3 500
2.7 900 0.11 400
[57Pet] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.94 670 0.05 300
1.16 710
1.54 760 Note: The temperature data are presented as published and are not cor-
rected to IPTS-68.
1.73 790 (a) Extrapolated to the peritectic temperature.
2.25 850
[58Chu] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 680
2.0 780 0.9 at.% Mn as a dashed line at temperatures even higher
2.2 800 than those given in [57Pet]. [80Bra] preferred the higher
2.7 860 liquidus temperatures in their evaluation of the Mg-Mn
Note: The ~mperature data are presented as published and are not cor-
phase diagram. In the assessed Mg-Mn phase diagram,
rec~d ~ IPTS-68. Fig. 1, the liquidus temperatures have been taken from
(a) Extracted from graphical results of [48Sie]. [57Pet].
[35Saw] reported an arrest at 726 ~ corresponding to a
trolytic Mn in an Fe crucible with a graphite lining. peritectic reaction. However, this was not confirmed by
[45Tin], [48Sie], [50Sch], and [57Pet] then obtained the any other investigations [43Gro, 45Tin, 50Sch, 57Pet,
liquidus compositions by dip sampling. In this technique, 58Chu]. [Metals Handbook] showed this peritectic as a
the high-temperature liquid is brought to supersaturation dashed line at 707 ~
at a lower temperature, the excess Mn is allowed to pre-
cipitate, and a sample of the liquid is obtained from the top
Solid Solubilities. [29Gan], [29Bak], [30Peal, and [31Man]
recognized the solubility of Mn in Mg. [31Sch2] deter-
of the melt. However, there may be several problems as-
mined the solid solubility limits of X-ray analysis; [43Gro]
sociated with this technique: (1)Equilibrium may not
and [64Dri], by resistometry; and [57Pet], by metal-
have been achieved at the sampling time; (2) There may be
lographic observation and hardness measurements (see
some entrapped solid Mn particles in the extracted liquid
Fig. 2 and Table 2). The results of [57Pet] and [64Dri],
sample; (3)The sampling may disturb the equilibrium
were in good agreement with those of [31Sch2] up to
status and deposition of Mn; (4)Significant segregation
500 ~ however, at higher temperatures [57Pet] showed
can be present even in the chill cast samples of the liquid,
significantly lower solubilities, close to those reported by
which can affect chemical analysis if the whole sample is
[43Gro]. The maximum solubility at the peritectic tern-
not analyzed as shown by [43Gro]; and (5)Fe contamina-
perature, according to [31Sch2], [43Gro], [57Pet], and
tion can occur when an Fe crucible is used. Fe contamina-
[64Dri], is 1.6, 1.1, 1.03, and 0.99 at.% Mn, respectively.
tion, which reduces Mn solubility in liquid Mg, is more
[Hansen] preferred the X-ray results of [31Sch2], rather
significant at high temperatures.
than the resistometry results of [43Gro], whereas [60Rob]
The liquidus curves of [57Pet] and [58Chu] are not in preferred those of [43Gro] and [Shunk], those of [64Dri].
agreement. The liquidus of [57Pet] lies at significantly [Shunk] suggested that the purity of the alloys used by
higher temperatures. The results of [57Pet] are in agree- [31Sch2] in their X-ray analysis might not have been as
ment with those of [44Bee], [44Gru], and [50Sch], and high as indicated. The recent evaluation of [80Bra] also
those of [58Chu] are in agreement with [48Sie]. Because showed preference for the lower solubilities reported in
the dip method has several sources of error that would [57Pet] and [64Dri]. In the assessed Mg-Mn phase dia-
lower the measured liquidus temperatures, it appears that gram, Fig. 1, the solvus curve is based on the data of
the higher liquidus temperatures are preferable. [64Dri] [64Dri] and is in very close agreement with that of [57Pet]
showed the liquidus curve for alloys of more t h a n (see Fig. 2 and Table 2).

162 Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams Vol. 6 No. 2 1985


Mg-Mn

Table 3 Mg-Mn Crystal Structure Data


Homogeneity(a), Pearson Strukturbericht Space
Phase at.% Mn symbol designation group Prototype
(Mg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 to 2.46 hP 2 A3 P 6~mmc Mg
(aMn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 d58 A12 I43m aMn
(flMn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 cP20 A13 P4132 ~Mn
(TMn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 cF4 A1 Fm3m Cu
(SMn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 ci2 A2 Im3m W
(a) From the phase diagram.

Table4 Mg-Mn Lattice Parameter Data from below the peritectic t e m p e r a t u r e (see Table 4).
[31Schl] (see also [31Sch2]) determined the lattice pa-
Homogeneity(a), Lattice parameters, nm rameters of several (Mg) alloys at room temperature.
Phase at.% Mn a c Reference
The alloys were prepared from 99.95% pure Mg. How-
(Mg) . . . . . . . . . . 0 0.32093 0.52107(b) [King1] ever, [Shunk] disputed the purity of the alloys (see
0.44 0.32045 0.52053(c) [50Bus] "Solid Solubility").
1.1 0.32038 0.52045(d) [31Sch2]
0 0.32072 0.52110(e) [63Var] [63Var] m e a s u r e d the lattice p a r a m e t e r s of super-
0.53 0.32056 0.52078 saturated Mg solid solutions. The alloys were quenched
1.17 0.32037 0.52041 from the liquid state at a rate of about 50 000 ~ [63Var]
1.53 0.32026 0.52020 reported that these metastable supersaturated solid solu-
2.04 0.32010 0.51979 tions decomposed when annealed at 250 to 350 ~ (see
2.46 0.31997 0.51969
(aMn) . . . . . . . . . 100 0.89219(b) ... [Kingl] Table 4).
(~Mn) . . . . . . . . . 100 0.63152 ..- [King2]
(TMn) . . . . . . . . . 100 0.38624 ... [King2] (Mn). Mn has four allotropic structures: ~Mn, ~Mn, ~/Mn,
(SMn) . . . . . . . . . 100 0.30806 ... [King2] and 8Mn. All of these forms are cubic, with A12-, A13-,
AI-, and A2-type structure, respectively (see Table 3).
(a)From the phase diagram. (b)Lattice parameters given at
25 ~ (c) Lattice parameters given at 25 ~ for the sample quenched [35Saw] reported a compound of Mg-Mn. However, this
from below peritectic temperature. (d)Lattice parameters given at was not confirmed by the X-ray analyses of [35Bakl],
room temperature for the sample quenched from 600 ~ (e)Lattice
parameters given at room temperature for the samples quenched from [35Bak2], and [50Sch].
melt. The lattice parameters were measured in supersaturated solid solu-
tions. [Pearson2]misread the compositionunit for Mn.
Cited References
2 7 R u h : J. Ruhrmann, "Magnesium-Manganese Alloys," quoted
There is no general agreement as to the identity of the as private communication by W. Schmidt, Z. Metallkd., 19(11),
phase in equilibrium with the (Mg) solid solution. 455 (1927) in German. (Equi Diagram; Experimental; #)
[35Bakl], [46Now], and [64Dri], from their X-ray analysis, 29Bak: H.E. Bakken and R. T. Wood,American Society for Steel
Treating Handbook, The ASM for Steel Treating, Cleveland,
showed that the phase in equilibrium with (Mg) is (flMn), OH (1929). (Equi Diagram; Review)
but the X-ray analysis of [46Hei, 50Sch, 66Del, 73Muk] 2 9 G a n : J.A. Gann, "Treatment and Structure of Magnesium Al-
and the electron diffraction study of [46Hei] showed that loys," Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 83, 309-332 (1929). (Equi Dia-
the phase in equilibrium with (Mg) is (aMn). [59Dri], in gram; Review)
their X-ray analysis of the particles extracted electro- 3 0 P e a : G.W. Pearson, "Magnesium-Manganese Alloys," Ind.
lytically from Mg-0.67 at.% Mn, found mixtures of aMn Eng. Chem., 22(4), 367-370 (1930). (Equi Diagram; Experi-
and flMn. The results of [73Muk] suggested that Fe con- mental)
tamination promoted formation of (flMn). Because, at tem- 3 1 M a n : W. Mannehen, "Heat Conductivity, Electric Conduc-
peratures below 700 ~ aMn is more stable than flMn, the tivity and Lawrence Number of Light Alloys," Z. Metallkd., 23,
193-196 (1931) in German. (Thermo; Experimental)
aMn is the phase in equilibrium with (Mg), as shown in 31Schl: E. Schmid, ~'Contribution to the Physics and Metal-
Fig. 1. [Hansen], [59Ray], [60Rob], [80Bra], and [Metals lography of Magnesium," Z. Elektrochem., 37(8/9), 447-459
Handbook] showed in their assessments (aMn) as the (1931) in German. (Crys Structure; Experimental; #)
phase in equilibrium with (Mg). 31Sch2: E. Schmid and G. Siebel, "Determination of Solid Solu-
bility of Mn in Mg by X-ray Analysis," Metallwirtschaft, 10(49),
The extent of solubility of Mg in (Mn) has not been estab- 923-925 (1931) in German. (Equi Diagram; Experimental; #)
lished. [45Tin] estimated it to be 42.97 at.% Mg, whereas 35Bakl: E.F. Bakhmetev and I. M. Golovchinev, "DoesThere Ex-
[50Sch] suggested it to be less than 2.23 at.% Mg. [59Dri], ist a Homogeneous Intermetallic Phase in the Magnesium-
by X-ray analysis of (Mn) particles extracted from a Mg- Manganese System," Acta Physicochim. U.R.S.S., 2, 571-574
0.67 at.% Mn alloy, showed that the solid solubility of Mg (1935). (Crys Structure; Experimental)
in (Mn) is negligible, because the particles were almost 35Bak2: E.F. Bakhmetev and J. M. Golovchinev, "Is an Interme-
pure Mn. tallic Homogeneous Phase Formed in the System Magnesium-
Manganese," Zh. Fiz. Khim., 6(5), 597-600 (1935). (Crys
Structure; Experimental)
Crystal Structure and Lattice Parameters 35Saw: H. Sawamoto, "Equilibrium Diagram of Magnesium-
Rich Magnesium-Manganese Binary System," Suiyokwai-Shi,
(Mg). The (Mg) phase has the hexagonal, A3-type struc- 8, 763-768 (1935) in Japanese. (Equi Diagram; Experimen-
ture (see Table 3). [50Bus] determined the lattice parame- tal; #)
ters of (Mg) at 25 ~ containing 0.44 at.% Mn, quenched 37Got: M. Goto, M. Nito, and H. Asada, "Einige Eigenschaften

Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams Vol. 6 No. 2 1985 163


Mg-Mn
Mg-Pd
von Magnesium Blech und Legierungen," Rep. Aeronaut. Res. Experimental)
Inst. Tokyo Imp. Univ., 12, 163-318 (1937) in German and Japa- 58Chu: M.V. Chukhov, "On the Solubility of Mn in Liquid Mg,"
nese. (Equi Diagram; Experimental; #) Legkie Splaavy, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Inst. Met. A.A. Baiko~,a, 1,
43Gro: J.D. Grogan and J. L. Haughton, "Alloys of Magnesium. 302-305 (1958) in Russian; quoted in [63Var]. (Equi Diagram:
Part XIV.-The Constitution of the Magnesium-Rich Alloys of Theory)
Magnesium and Manganese," J. Inst. Met., 69, 241-248 (1943). 59Dri: M.E. Drits, Z.A. Sviderskaya, and L.L. Rokhlin, "The
(Equi Diagram; Experimental; #) Nature of the Manganese Phase of Certain Magnesium Alloys,"
44Bee: A. Beerwald, "On The Solubility of Iron and Manganese Metalloved. Term. Obrab. Met., (10), 33-37 (1959) in Russian;
in Magnesium and Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys," Metall- TR: Brutcher Translation No. 4985. (Crys Structure; Experi-
wirtschaft, 23, 404-407 (1944) in German. (Equi Diagram; Ex- mental)
perimental; #) 59Ray: G.V. Raynor, The Physical Metallurgy of Magnesium and
44Gru: G. Grube, "Magnesium-Manganese Phase Diagram," Its Alloys, G.V. Raynor, Ed., Pergamon Press, Elmsford, New
(1944); quoted in [44Bee]. (Equi Diagram; Experimental; #) York (1959). (Equi Diagram, Crys Structure; Review; #)
441sh: S. Ishida, "Mg-Mn and Mg-Mn-Fe Alloys,"Rep. Aeronaut. 60Rob: C.S. Roberts, Magnesium and Its Alloys, John Wiley &
Res. Inst. Tokyo Imp. Univ., (280), 397-405 (1944) in Japanese. Sons, New York (1960). (Equi Diagram; Review)
(Equi Diagram; Experimental; #) 63Var: N.I. Varich and B. N. Litvin, "Study of Mg-Mn and Mg-Zr
45Tin: N. Tiner, "The Solubility of Manganese in Liquid Mag- Alloys Quenched from the Melt," Fiz. Met. Metalloved, 16,
nesium," Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 161, 351-359 (1945). (Equi 526-529 (1963) in Russian; TR: Phys. Met. Metallogr. (U.S.S.R.)
Diagram; Experimental; #) 16(4), 29-32 (1963). (Meta Phases; Experimental)
46I-Iei: R.D. Heidenreich, L. Sturkey, and H.L. Woods, *64Dri: M.E. Drits, Z.A. Sviderskaya, and L. L. Rokhlin, "Solid
"Investigation of Secondary Phases in Alloys by Electron Dif- Solubility of Mn in Mg," Izv. Navka, Moscow, 272-278 t 1964), in
fraction and the Electron Microscope," J. Appl. Phys., 17, Russian. (Equi Diagram; Experimental; #)
127-136 (1946). (Crys Structure; Experimental) 66Deh R. Deluca and J.G. Byrne, "Work-Hardening in
46Now: H. Nowotny, "Structure of Magnesium-Rich Alloys in Quenched, Fully Hardened, and Overaged Mg-Mn Alloy Single
the Mg-Mn-Hg System," Z. Metallkd., 37, 130-136 (1946) in Crystals," Work Hardening, J.P. Hirth and J. Weertmaa, Ed.,
German. (Equi Diagram; Experimental; #) Gordon and Breach, Science Publishers, New York (1966). (Equi
488ie: G. Siebel, "The Solubility of Iron, Manganese, and Zir- Diagram; Review)
conium in Magnesium Alloys," Z. Metallkd., 39, 22-27 (1948) in 73Muk: I.Y. Mukhina, M.A. Timonova, and G.I. Spiryakina,
German. (Equi Diagram; Experimental; #) "Influence of the Phase Composition on the Corrosion Re-
50Bus: R. Busk, "Lattice Parameters of Magnesium Alloys," sistance of Magnesium Alloys," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Met.,
Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 188, 1460-1464(1950). (Crys Structure; (6), 208-212 (1973) in Russian; TR: Russ. Met., (6), 123-126
Experimental) (1973). (Equi Diagram; Experimental)
50Sch: A. Schneider and H. Stobbe-Scholder, "The Structure and 80Bra: E.A. Brandes and R.F. Flint, Manganese Phase Dia-
Technical Preparation of Corrosion-Resistant Magnesium- grams, The Manganese Center, Ed., Fulmer Res. Inst. Ltd.,
Manganese Alloys," Metall, 4(9/10), 178-183 (1950). (Equi Dia- Paris, (1980). (Equi Diagram; Compilation)
gram; Experimental; #) 81BAP: "Properties ofManganese," Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams,
*57Pet: D.A. Petrov, M. S. Mirgalovskaya, I. A. Strelnikova, and 2(1), 114 (1981). (Crys Structure, Magnetism, Thermo; Com-
E. M. Komova, "The Constitution Diagram for the Magnesium- pilation)
Manganese System," Trans. Inst. Met. A.A. Baikova, Akad. *Indicates key paper.
Nauk SSSR, (1), 142-143 (1957) in Russian. (Equi Diagram; #Indicates presence of a phase diagram.
Mg-Mnevaluationcontributedby A. A. Nayeb-Hashemiand J. B. Clark, DepartmentofMetallurgical Engineering,The UniversityofMissouri-Rolla,Rolla,
MO65401, U.S.A.This workwas supportedby AmericanSocietyfor Metals. Literature searchedthrough 1983.ProfessorClark is ASM/NBSData Program
Category Editor for binary magnesium alloys.

The Mg-Pd (Magnesium-Palladium)System


24.305 106.42
By A. A. Nayeb-Hashemi and J. B. Clark
University of Missouri-Rolla

EquilibriumDiagram 99.9% pure Pd. The alloys were prepared in an induction


furnace under He. [62Sav] showed the (Pd) solidus with a
The Mg-Pd equilibrium phase diagram has not been estab- solid line, based on the solidus temperature of a single
lished. The phase diagram of [62Sav], shown in [Shunk], alloy, Mg-92 at.% Pd. [Shunk] doubted the (Pd) solidus
did not include some of the Mg-Pd compounds reported in curve of [62Sav] and showed it by a dashed line in his
[59Fer], [60Kri], [61Sta], and [68Wes]. The assessed Mg-Pd Mg-Pd phase diagram.
phase diagram shown in Fig. 1 is based on the DTA hard- The liquidus curve of [62Sav] shows five breaks and a
ness, density, metallography, and X-ray analyses of maximum point, corresponding to the two eutectic reac-
21 alloys, reported in [62Sav], and metallography and tions, L ~- (Pd) + Mg2Pd3 and L ~ (Mg) + Mg6Pd; three
X-ray analyses of 39 alloys, reported in [59Fer]. p e r i t e c t i c r e a c t i o n s , L + Mg2Pd3 ~ Mg3Pd, L +
Mg3Pd ~- Mg4Pd, and L + Mg4Pd ~ Mg~Pd. The maxi-
mum point represents the congruent melting of the inter-
Liquidus and Solidus. [62Sav] determined the liquidus mediate MgePd3 phase.
and solidus temperatures of a limited number of alloys,
mostly in the Mg- or Pd-rich regions, and estimated the The results of [62Sav] were given in a small-scale dia-
liquidus curve for the rest of the system (see Fig. 1). The gram, which made the extracted data uncertain within at
starting materials were specified as distilled Mg and least +-10 ~ the original experimental error.

164 Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams Vol. 6 No. 2 1985