CHAPTER 7 (6) – A TOUR OF THE CELL Light microscope (LM) – used to view specimens 10 - 100μm long Electron microscope (EM) – has power

a thousand fold greater than that of a LM - Scanning electron microscope (SEM) – view cell surface - Transmission electron microscope (TEM) – view organelles Small cells - Large surface area to volume ratio Large cells - Small surface area to volume ratio - Surface area of plasma membrane needs to be large enough to exchange material



Small size (1-10μm) Nucleotide

Cytosol Chromosomes Plasma Membrane Ribosome

Large size (10-100μm) Nucleus with nuclear envelope Membrane Bound Organelles

Nucleotide (P) – where chromosomes are Cytosol (P & E) – semifluid in which organelles are found Chromosome (P & E) – carry genes in form of DNA Plasma Membrane (P & E) – acts as a selective barrier & regulate cell’s chemical composition Ribosome (P & E) – make proteins - free – proteins made act in cytosol (export within cytosol) - bound to endomembrane system / nuclear envelope – transport proteins to distant places Nucleus (E) - nuclear envelope – protector / regulates what comes in and out - chromatin – made up of DNA and proteins - nucleolus – has ribosomes and can make rRNA - nuclear pores – transport things in and out

Nucleus . white blood cell) (A) o Structure: sac of hydrolytic enzymes . protein transport.Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (P & A) o Rough ER  Structure: ribosomes stud the outer surface of membrane  Function: isolation.e. break down carbohydrates.Animal Cell Plant Cell Endomembrane System – a series of intracellular membranes that compartmentalize the cell . store. detoxify .Golgi apparatus (P & A) o Structure: cisternae separates internal space from cytosol o Function: modify. membrane factory o Smooth ER  Structure: outer surface lacks ribosomes  Function: lipid synthesis.Lysosome (i. modification.Regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions . and ship ER products & make macromolecules .

guide. and development • Tonoplast – enclose central vacuole Energy Organelles (Not part of Endomembrane system): Mitochondria & Chloroplast . cytoplasmic streaming. support.Three Components: o Microtubules – compression resistant. generate ATP .Cilia (P & A) & Flagella (Some P sperm & A) o Structure: basal body. power cilia & flagella o Microfilaments (actin) – support. prevent excessive uptakes of water .Structure: middle lamella. shape maintenance. thylakoids suspended in stroma  3 Compartments: Intermembrane space.Common Characteristics o Membrane bilayer o Membrane proteins made by free and own ribosomes o Contain own DNA and ribosomes o Grow and reproduce on their own . contains enzymes that produce and dispose H2O2. plasmodesmata (channel of cell communication) o Primary cell wall – thin & flexible in young plant cells o Secondary cell wall – strong & durable matrix in mature plant cells . movement. centrioles (A only) o Function: “microtubule-organizing centre” .Peroxisome (P & A) o Structure: single membrane o Function: center for oxidation reactions.Function: protection.Chloroplast (P) o Structure: double membrane creates an intermembrane system. metabolize fatty acids. contraction o Intermediate filament – anchors organelles support . Stroma. shape.Centrosomes (P & A) o Structure: located near nucleus.- o Function: engulfs damaged organelles & autophagy (recycle cell’s organic material) & apoptosis (program cell death) o Autodigestion – lysosome engulf too much o Cause of Tay-Sachs disease Vacuole (P) o Structure: large blob (usually largest compartment in plant cell) o Function: storage  Food vacuole – sac formed by phagocytosis (eat food particles/organisms)  Contractile vacuole – pump excess water out of cell to maintain appropriate concentration  Central vacuole – sac in mature plant cells with diverse roles in reproduction. dynein  Cilia = short cellular appendage  Flagella = long cellular appendage o Function: locomotion Cell Wall (P) . cristae creates an inter membrane space and matrix o Function: cellular respiration (chemical energy conversion). Thylakoid space o Function: photosynthesis (solar to chemical energy) . growth. detoxify Cytoskeleton (P & A) – network of fibers that organize structures and activities in the cell .Mitochondria (P & A) o Structure: phospholipids bilayer.

Extracellular Matrix (ECM) (A) .Structure: glycoproteins & integrins o Glycoprotein – secretory proteins that have covalently bonded carbohydrates o Collagen – most abundant glycoprotein.Phospholipid bilayer o Amphipathic – hydrophilic and hydrophobic region .Function: embeds animal tissue cell Animal Cells: Three Types of Intercellular Junctions .Surface molecules aid in cell recognition . hydrophobic inside .Cholesterol – “temperature buffer” for membrane o Help maintain fluidity at low temperature o Restrain movement of phospholipids at high temperature .Lateral moving of lipids & flip flopping (rare) .Desmosomes – anchor .Tight junction – prevents material leakage between cells .Glycolipids and glycoproteins .Integrins .Distribution / surface molecules determined by ER and Golgi apparatus Plasma Membrane .Fluidity due to lipids o Unsaturated hydrocarbon tails enhance membrane fluidity .Hydrophilic outside.Determines what comes in and out o Hydrophobic (nonpolar) & small molecules = easy o Polar & large molecules = need help .Gap junction – allows passage of material between cells CHAPTER 8 (7) – Membrane Structure & Function Fluid Mosaic Model – model of cell membrane structure .Functions o Transport o Enzymatic activity o Signal transduction o Cell-cell recognition o Intercellular joining o Attachment to cytoskeleton & extracellular matrix (ECM) Transport .Embedded membrane proteins determine membrane functions o Intergral protein – penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer o Peripheral protein – loosely bound to the surface of the membrane . form strong fibers o Integrins – receptor proteins that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton .Passive transport – molecules move down concentration gradient without use of energy o Diffusion  High concentration  low concentration o Osmosis – diffusion of water  High water potential  low water potential  Hypotonic (less solute)  hypertonic (more solute) .

” take in liquid substance  Receptormediated endocytosis – acquire bulk quantities of substances CHAPTER 9 – CELLULAR RESPIRATION Redox reactions – oxidation and reduction .” take in solid substance (i.oxidation – loss of electrons (+) .Occurs in mitochondria with the help of enzymes .38 ATP .e.oxidizing agent – electron acceptor NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) – coenzyme that helps enzymes transfer electrons . food)  Pinocytosis – “cellular drinking.C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O  6CO2 + 12H2O + ∆E o C6H12O6 is oxidized to 6CO2 o 6O2 is reduced to 12H2O .Oxygen NOT required - .reducing agent – electron donor .Also forms water (2 differences): o H is derived from organic molecules rather than H2 o Electron transport chain – break fall of electrons to oxygen into several energyreleasing steps .NAD+ neutralizes its charge when it is reduced to NADH (excellent energy carrier) Cellular respiration – produces ATP in which oxygen & organic fuels are consumed as reactants . Oxidative phosphorylation Glycolysis – catabolic process that begins splitting glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate .Catabolic .major oxidizing agent & limiting factor during respiration (used to make ATP) . 3 types:  Phagocytosis – “cellular eating.Three Stages: glycolysis.Produces about 36.reduction – gain of electrons (-) .Location: cytosol .Isotonic = equilibrium Osmoregulation – control of water balance Tonicity – cause cell to gain/lose water Tugid – firm (walled cells) • Solute concentration inside > that of its surroundings (entry of water)  Flaccid – limp • Solute concentration outside > that of its inside (water leave) • Plasmolysis o Facilitated diffusion – passage of molecules bound to specific carrier proteins  Carrier protein – change shape to help molecules shuttle across membrane  Channel protein – has hydrophilic channels  Ion channel – allow passage of a specific ion down its concentration gradient     Active transport – use energy to move molecules against gradient o Na-K pump – 3Na for 2K o Electrogenic pump – generates electrochemical gradient o Proton pump – transport gydrogen ions out of the cell o Cotransport – substance pumped can do work by diffusing back across membrane Bulk transport – occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis o Exocytosis – secretes macromolecules (export products) o Endocytosis – take in macromolecules (import products). citric acid cycle (Kreb Cycle).

Location: Mitochondrial matrix .Oxygen required .ATP generated by substrate level phosphorylation - .- 2 parts: use ATP & no use ATP o Use ATP (2 ATP used) Glucose 6C ATP --------------------↓↑--------------------> ADP Glucose Phosphate 6C ~ P ↓↑ (Isomerase – rearrange) Fructose Phosphate 6C ~ P ATP ---------------------↓---------------------> ADP Fructose Diphosphate P ~ 6C ~ P ↓ ↓ DHAP (isomers) PGAL 3C ~ P 3C ~ P ↓ PGAL  Product: 2 PGAL sent to glycolysis part 2 (no ATP) o No use ATP  Occurs twice because there are TWO PGAL’s  PGAL 3C ~ P + NAD ---free phosphate (P2)--↓---------> NADH DPGA P ~ 3C ~ P ADP ---------------------↓---------------------> ATP PGA 3C ~ P ↓ (Isomerase) PEP P 3C ADP ---------------------↓---------------------> ATP PYRUVATE 3C  Products: 2 ATP (4 ATP – 2 ATP) ATP generated by substrate level phosphorylation NET GAIN: o 2 ATP o 2 NADH o 2 Pyruvate  - Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb Cycle) – completes the glucose breakdown by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to CO2 & happens twice because TWO pyruvates from glycolysis .

Location: inner mitochondrial membrane .Oxygen required .- NAD+ → NADH ↑ PYRUVATE (3C) -----to mitochondria via transport protein------> Acetyl CoA (C-C ↓ ↑ S-CoA) CO2 released Coenzyme A enter | | ----------------------------------------------------------| | + S-CoA | ↓ Acetyl CoA 2C oxaloacetate 4C Citrate 6C CO2 released NAD+ → NADH FAD → FADH2 CoA enter & leave NAD+ → NADH 4C 5C CO2 released ADP + P1 (substrate-level phosphorylation) → ATP NAD+ → NADH Products (times two) o Acetyl-CoA  2 NADH  2 CO2 o Krebs Cycle  6 NADH  2 ATP  2 FADH2  4 CO2 Oxidative Phosphorylation – production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain (electron transfer) .Electron transport & chemiosmosis occur together o Glucose  NADH  electron transport chain  proton-motive force  ATP o Electron transport - .ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation .Makes 90% of ATP generated .

then pass through clockwise-spinning motor.2 x 2 NADH (glycolysis) = 4 ATP .2 x 2 FADH2 (Kreb) = 4 ATP . and produce ATP in mitochondrial matrix • ATP synthase is powered by the flow of H+ back across the membrane o  - o NET: 32 or 34 ATP ATP yield varies on: o NADH: ATP that results are not whole numbers  1 NADH ~ 3 ATP  1 FADH2 ~ 2 ATP o Type of shuttle (NADH in glycolysis)  FAD  2 ATP  NAD+  3 ATP o Pyruvate depends on proton-motor force o Approximately 40% of the energy stored in glucose goes to ATP Krebs therefore: NADH (3 pairs of H+) = 3 ATP FADH2 (2 pairs of H+) = 2 ATP ATP Direct = 2 ATP Total ATP (Glycolysis + Kreb Cycle) = 36 ATP .ATP Direct: o Glycolysis = 2 ATP o Krebs = 2 ATP .Functions to ease the fall of electrons from food to oxygen in 4 stages • Upiquinone (Q) – can move around stages  Electron carriers alternate between reduced and oxidized states (carry down)  Oxygen pulls electrons  Electron transport & proton pumping create an H+ gradient across membrane  Makes no ATP directly o Chemiosmosis – use stored energy to synthesize ATP  Most ATP synthesis occurs by chemiosmosis  ATP synthase – proton gradient (pH) drives phosphorylation • Needs difference in hydrogen ions to work • Like a motor: H+ ions in intermembrane space.

- 3 x 6 NADH (Kreb) 3 x 2 NADH (Acetyl CoA) = 24 ATP Fermentation – produce ATP without use of oxygen .Similarities o Use glycolysis to oxidize glucose to pyruvate o Net production of 2 ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation o NAD+ = oxidizing agent that accepts electrons from food during glycolysis . 2 ATP Aerobic – oxygen present Anaerobic – oxygen not present .Differences o Method of oxidizing NADH back to NAD+  Fermentation: final electron acceptor = organic molecule • Alcohol fermentation = acetaldehyde • Lactic fermentation = pyruvate  Cellular respiration: final electron acceptor = oxygen o Cellular respiration make more ATP than fermentation  38 ATP vs.glycolysis and reactions that regenerate NAD+ by transferring electrons from NADH to pyruvate .lactic acid fermentation – pyruvate reduced by NADH to form lactate with no CO2 released o human muscle make ATP by lactic fermentation when oxygen is scarce Fermentation & Cellular respiration are anaerobic and aerobic alternatives for producing ATP by harvesting the chemical energy of food .alcohol fermentation – pyruvate  CO2 and ethyl alcohol .

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