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Scheme Answer

STRUCTURE
TRIAL SBP 2008

NO. ANSWER MARK


1. (a) Fast moving electron 1
(b) GM tube 1
(c) (i) Decrease//low 1
(ii) The beta particle is block by the juice 1
(d) Low penetrating power 1
TOTAL 5

TRIAL SBP 2011

NO. ANSWER MARK


2. (a) Total number of proton and number of neutron 1
(b)
1
1

(c) Pb 210 1
(d) 3α 1
2β 1
TOTAL 6

TRIAL SBP 2012

NO. ANSWER MARK


3. (a) Nucleus Helium 1
(b) Deflect to negative plate 1
(c) Alpha particle has positive charge 1
(d) Increase 1
TOTAL 4
TRIAL MRSM 2013

NO. ANSWER MARK


4. (a) Time taken for undecayed nuclei to be reduce to half from its 1
original number // mass // activity
(b) (i) 1
6C® C+ e
14 14
7
0
-1
(ii) To achieve stable nucleus // to become stable // parent nuclide 1
is unstable
(c) (i) 1
(ii)

1
1

(iii) 16 ® 8 ® 4 ® 2 1
= 3 T1/2
= 3 ( 5730 )
1 (awu)
= 17190 years
(d) Mass defect
E = mc 2
E
m= 2
c
2.56 X 10-15
m= 1
(3x108 )
2

m = 2.844 x 10-15 kg 1 (awu)


TOTAL 10

TRIAL TERENGGANU 2015

NO. ANSWER MARK


5. (a) Graphite 1
(b) Water change to steam 1
Rotate the turbine 1
Rotate the generator Max. 2
(c) 0.1958 x 1.66x10-27/ 3.25028x10-28 1
E = mc2
= 3.25028 x 10-28 x (3 x108)2 1
= 2.9253 x 10-12 J 1 (awu)
TOTAL 6

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TRIAL TERENGGANU 2015

NO. ANSWER MARK


6. (a) The half-life of a radioactive material is the time taken for the 1
activity of radioactive fall to half its original activity
(b) From graph 1
T1/2 = 5000 years 1
(c) (i) a: 227 1
b: 90 1
(ii) Proton: 89 1
Neutron: 227-89//138 1
(d) (i) Beta 1
can penetrate the box 1
(ii) Long half-life 1
Long lasting 1
(e) C 1
TOTAL 12

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UNDERSTANDING & CONCEPT
TRIAL ANSWER MARK
EDITED 1
FINAL F5

• Axis 1
• Shape 1
• N = initial activity 1
1
• T½
SPM 2006 2 • Not suitable 1
• It has high energy/high penetrating power 1
• Can destroy the body cells/cause mutation/ cause 1
sterility

PERFECT 3 • Put the radioactive source opposite the detector 1


SCORE • Detector is connected to the thickness indicator 1
2013 • Detector detect the reading of the changes in counts 1
• Thickness is measured with the thickness indicator 1
• If the reading of the detector is less than the specified 1
value, the thickness of the paper is too tick/ vice versa
Max.4

radioactivity@Awesome physics_ 4
JOHOR 4
2018

Loss in mass
= 209.982 – (205.969 + 4.004)
= 0.009 u 1
= 0.009 × 1.66 × 10–27
= 1.494 × 10–29 kg 1 (awu)

Energy released
E = mc2
= 1.494 × 10–29 × (3.0 × 108)2 1
= 1.345 × 1012 J

1
=
= 8.4 × 106 eV
= 8.4 MeV 1 (awu)

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SECTION B
SPM 2009

NO. ANSWER MARK


1. (a) (i) Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable nucleus 1
becomes stable by emitting radioactive rays
(ii) • The graph in Diagram 10(a) has a steeper gradient than 1
the graph in Diagram 10(b)
• Activity of both processes decreases with time 1
• Activity shown in Diagram 10(a) decreases at a faster rate 1
compared to that shown in Diagram 10(b)
1
• The time for the activity to become half of the original
activity shown in Diagram 10(a) is less than that shown in
Diagram 10(b)
1
• The time taken for the activity to become half of the original
activity is the half-life
(b) • Alpha particles have the weakest penetration power and 1
has a range of a few cm in /air
• They cannot pass through the body tissues of the patient, 1
therefore cannot be detected outside the body
• The power of ionisation of alpha particles is very high 1
• and may destroy human cells 1
(c) Modification

CHARACTERISTIC REASON
Gamma rays have the highest penetration
power but lowest ionisation
power
high energy can kill cancer cells
Use MRI, X-ray or CT scans • Identify the positions of
to locate the exact positions cancer cells correctly
of cancer cells • To target gamma
radiation accurately on
the cancer cells
• To avoid destroying
other living cells
The dosage of the ray • If the dosage is low, not
required is moderate and all the cancer cells will
sufficient be destroyed
• If the dosage is high,
other cells will be
destroyed
The time of exposure to the To prevent other healthy
rays is not too long cells from being destroyed
10
TOTAL 20

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SPM 2008

NO. ANSWER MARK


2. (a) Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable 1
nucleus accompanied by the
(b) (i) Positive 1
(ii) • In Diagram 10.1(a), the EHT is of lower voltage 1
• The deflection is less 1
(c) (i) • When the voltage is higher, the strength of the electric field 1
is greater
(ii) • When the strength of the electric field increases, the 1
deflection of the radioactive emission increases
(d) (i) • Nuclear fission 1
(ii) • There is a mass defect during the reaction 1
• The mass defect changes to energy 1
• The total energy produced is given by E = mc2 1
(e) Modification

CHARACTERISTIC REASON
Use forceps/remote-control so that the distance between
robot the source and the body is
far
Wear a mask the radiation does not
penetrate our eyes
Wear a film badge to detect the amount of
radiation exposed
Wear a radiation-proof coat the radiation does not
penetrate the body
Use a lead box // container to prevent radiation leakage
with thick concrete to the surroundings
Put a radiation symbol on to inform users of the
the storage box dangerous contents of the
box
Keep the exposure time as the body is not exposed to
short as possible the radiation for a long time
Max. 10

TOTAL 20

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SECTION C
SBP 2009

NO. ANSWER MARK


1. (a) Radioisotopes are isotopes which decay and give out 1
radioactive emission
(b) Decision making

CHARACTERISTIC REASON
Has a long half- life Can be used for a long time
hence save cost // no need
to replace often
Emits beta Can penetrate box and liquid
and is less dangerous than
gamma
Solid form Easy to handle and contain
Low ionising power Does not change the state
and taste of juice
Radioisotope T It has long half-life, emits
beta, in solid form and has
low ionising power

10

(c) (i) Geiger Muller Tube 1


(ii) • Bottle E 1
• Rate meter reading is the highest 1
• Most radiation can reach the detector without being block 1
by juice
(d) 1. Correctly stated that α as 24 He
2. Correctly stated that β as -10 e
3. Working is shown
4. X=3
5. Y=2
5

TOTAL 20

radioactivity@Awesome physics_ 8
SBP 2018

NO. ANSWER MARK


2. (a) Thin mica window 1
(b) • Radiation enters the GM tube through the mica 1
window
• the radiation ionizes the argon gas 1
• negative ion is attracted to tungsten wire/anode and 1
positive ion is attracted to metal case/cathode
• A pulse of current is produced and is counted by a 1
counter / ratemeter

(c) Decision making

Characteristics Reason
State of matter : solid Easy to handle
Types of ray : gamma High penetrating power //
Can penetrate through the
box / /food pack
Half-life : long Long lasting
Ionizing power : low Not change the nutrition of
the food
Choose : Cobalt-60 State of matter is solid,
types of ray is gamma,
half-life is long, Ionizing
power is low
10

(d) (i) mass defect = 136.907089 - 136.905827 - 0.000549


= 0.000713 u
-27
= 0.000713 x 1.66 x 10 kg 1
-30 1
= 1.1836 x 10 kg 1 (awu)
-30 8 2
(ii) E = 1.1836 x 10 x (3 x 10 )
-13 1
= 1.0652 x 10 J 1 (awu)
TOTAL 20

Always
believe
in your

DREAM
radioactivity@Awesome physics_ 9