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Past Open Test Circulation Questions

[2003]
1. In cardiac muscle, calcium ions can move freely between adjacent cells through which of the
following?
A. tight junctions
B. gap junctions
C. calcium pumps
D. plasmodesmata

2. The order of normal blood flow through the human heart is


A. right ventricle, right atrium, lungs, left ventricle, left atrium, body
B. right ventricle, right atrium, body, left ventricle, left atrium, lungs
C. right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle, body
D. right atrium, right ventricle, body, left atrium, left ventricle, lungs

[2004]
3. Hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein in erythrocytes, binds oxygen molecules. Myoglobin,
a protein in muscle cells, is used for oxygen storage. What can be deduced about the relative
oxygen affinities of hemoglobin and myoglobin?
[a] Myoglobin has greater oxygen affinity than hemoglobin
[b] Hemoglobin has greater oxygen affinity than myoglobin
[c] Both have roughly the same oxygen affinity
[d] Neither has a significant oxygen affinity

[2005]
4. An animal experiences an acid-base imbalance in the arterial blood that results in acidosis. To
increase
pH toward normal, which direction would the ventilation rate be changed and what would be the
corresponding change in arterial PCO2?
A. ventilation rate increases, arterial PCO2 increases
B. ventilation rate increases, arterial PCO2 decreases
C. ventilation rate decreases, arterial PCO2 increases
D. ventilation rate decreases, arterial PCO2 decreases
E. none of the above

[2006]
5. During alcoholism, the protein content and osmotic potential of the blood decreases
severely because the liver is the major producer of blood proteins. In this situation,
which of the following outcomes is to be expected?
A. body tissues will swell
B. blood impurities will not be filtered out appropriately
C. capillaries will become more impermeable to blood proteins
D. solute concentration in the blood will decrease
E. thoracic ducts will produce more blood proteins to compensate
[2007]
6. [repeat]
7. Fat enters the venous system from the digestive system via the:
A. hepatic artery.
B. hepatic vein.
C. thoracic duct.
D. epithelial cells lining the duodenum.
E. hepatic portal system.

8. Which of the following situations would result in the greatest degree of O2 saturation for
hemoglobin, assuming PO2 remains constant?
A. Decreased PCO2, decreased temperature
B. Elevated levels of 2, 3 – DPG
C. Low pH
D. Decreased PCO2, increased temperature
E. Increased PCO2, decreased temperature

9. The normal human physiological response to a DECREASE in blood pressure and volume
includes which of the following?
A. A decrease in arteriole pressure in the juxtagolmerular apparatus results in a decrease in the
enzyme rennin.
B. An increase in angiotensin II that constricts arterioles and decreases blood flow to the
capillaries.
C. Aldosterone is released from the kidneys and increases distal tubule reabsorption of sodium.
D. Antidiuretic hormone is decreased with the decrease in the blood volume.
E. An increase in atrial natriuretic factor from the walls of the atria increases the release of the
enzyme rennin.

[2008]
10. The following graph shows the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen at three
different pH levels.
What effect would vigorous exercise have on hemoglobin in the muscles
compared to normal physiological conditions?
A. Hemoglobin will have the same affinity for oxygen.
B. Hemoglobin will have a higher affinity for oxygen.
C. Hemoglobin will have a higher affinity for oxygen only at very low or very
high oxygen concentrations.
D. Hemoglobin will have a lower affinity for oxygen.
E. Hemoglobin will have a lower affinity for oxygen only at very low or very high
oxygen concentrations.
11. Which of the following graphs signifies the total cross-sectional area of blood
vessels in humans as the blood flows from the aorta -> arteries -> arterioles -
> capillaries -> venules -> veins -> venae cavae?

12. The inspiratory phase of mammal respiration is characterized by:


A. expansion of the rib cage and contraction of the diaphragm.
B. expansion of the rib cage and relaxation of the diaphragm.
C. collapse of the rib cage and contraction of the diaphragm.
D. collapse of the rib cage and relaxation of the diaphragm.
E. contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm.

[2009]
13. Why are there two primary pulmonary arteries leaving the heart and four
pulmonary veins returning to the heart?
A. Pulmonary veins are the primary site of gas exchange.
B. Rate of blood flow is directly proportional to vessel radius.
C. Pulmonary venous valves inhibit venous return.
D. Stenosis (occlusion) of the pulmonary veins is common.
E. Pulmonary venous return must equal pulmonary arterial outflow.
[2010]
14. Which of the following is not an action of epinephrine or
norepinephrine?
A. Glycogen broken down to glucose.
B. Increased gastric motility and secretion.
C. Increased blood pressure.
D. Increased heart rate.
E. Increased salivation.

15. [repeat]
[2011]
16. [repeat]

[2012]
17. Which component of Fick’s Law of Diffusion is MOST optimized in the ventilation of fish
gills compared to mammalian lungs?
A. Diffusion coefficient
B. Gradient for diffusion
C. Surface area
D. Path length
E. Temperature

18. Fixation is a lab procedure used to prevent biological tissues from decay. In instances where
perfect morphology of the whole animal is desired, cardiac fixation is the preferred method.
Where should the researcher inject the fixative to ensure the best results?
A. Right atrium
B. Abdominal cavity
C. Right ventricle
D. Left atrium

19. Which of the following classes contains organisms lacking a closed circulatory system?
A. Polychaetes
B. Cephalopoda
C. Insecta
D. Reptilia
E. Eutheria

[2013]

20. The lymphatic system is most involved in the absorption of nutrients from which of the
following foods?
A. Bacon
B. Banana
C. Lettuce
D. Skim milk
E. White bread
21. The binding affinity of hemoglobin to O2 in the bloodstream is greatest at relatively
A. High pH and high CO2 concentration.
B. High pH and low CO2 concentration.
C. Low pH and high CO2 concentration.
D. Low pH and low CO2 concentration.
E. Low pH, and does not depend on CO2 concentration.

22. Sam was walking through an alley when he spotted a small lump next to the dumpster.
When he examined the lump, he found that it was a newborn baby that was not
breathing. He called “911” to report the incident. When the police arrived, they
questioned Sam regarding whether the baby was alive when he found it. He said, “No.”
The baby was autopsied to determine if it were alive or dead at birth. Which of the
following results of the autopsy would prove that the baby was born dead and not alive?
A. Discoloration of the lungs.
B. Dissected lung(s) floats in water.
C. Dissected lung(s) sinks in water.
D. Lungs collapsed.
E. Lungs inflated with fluid.

[2014]
23. Which of the following human cell types contains the LEAST amount of RNA involved in
splicing?
A. Lymphocytes
B. Lymphoblasts
C. Erythrocytes
D. Erythroblasts
E. Hepatocytes

24. Select the statement that best describes movement of O2, Na+, and glucose into and outof the
capillaries.
A. O2 and glucose diffuse across endothelial cell membranes; Na+ diffuses through pores
between cells.
B. O2 and Na+ diffuse across endothelial cell membranes; glucose diffuses through pores
between cells.
C. O2 diffuses across endothelial cell membranes; Na+ and glucose diffuse through pores
between cells.
D. O2, Na+, and glucose all diffuse across endothelial cell membranes.
E. O2, Na+, and glucose all diffuse through pores between endothelial cells.
25. Using the following structures, trace the flow of blood entering from the systemic
circulation.
I. Right atrium
II. Left atrium
III. Right ventricle
IV. Left ventricle
V. Vena cavae
VI. Aorta
VII. Pulmonary artery
VIII. Pulmonary veins
A. I,II,VII,VIII,III,IV,VI,V.
B. I,VII,III,XIII,II,IV,VI,V.
C. V,I,III,VII,VIII,II,IV,VI.
D. V,I,III,VIII,VII,II,IV,VI.
E. V,III,I,VII,VIII,IV,II,VI.

[2015]
N/A

[2016]
26.

27.
[Semis]
[2013]
1. Crystal lives in Melbourne, FL and is asked by her employer to work in Denver
for the month of July. After a week adapting to the high altitude, one would
expect a decrease in Crystal’s
A. Alveoli pO2.
B. Alveolar ventilation rate.
C. Blood pressure.
D. Blood pO2.
E. Hematocrit.

2. You develop a pulmonary embolism in your left lung. Over time, you would
expect to observe
A. Distension of the pulmonary veins from the right lung.
B. Increased cardiac output from the left ventricle.
C. Increased cardiac output from the right ventricle.
D. Increased thickness of the right ventricular wall.
E. No appreciable changes in heart structure or function.