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A Century of Language


18th Western world FLL = 1 The 2 method
Asian countries= focus on 3
translation of texts

Late 18th Francois Gouin----overshadowed by 4 ----Direct Method

The 5 Method (language is a means of thinking and of representing reality directly

translation, no grammar rules)

19th The Grammar Translation Method (for the sake of being scholarly and gaining 6

1887 The Direct Method (learned as the 7 , spontaneous use of 8 )

Half of the 20th 9 (tenets of the DM)- Revolution / US Military Sponsored Program/WW II
oral proficiency

1950 AL M used widely ( MIM-MEM)

1950 The Designer Methods Era

10 Carl Rogers Counseling Learning
Person-centered, focus on 11
Social dynamics of the classroom, counselors
1972 The 12 Way Gattegno
More cognitive than 13
Humanistic approach—problem/solving
14 learning (Ausubel)
1972 Communicative Language Teaching Hymes (1972) ( 15 competence)
Grammatical knowledge
Canale/Swain Communicative competence 16
Sociolinguistic knowledge
17 knowledge
1977 Total 18 Response/the Natural Approach (comprehension-based) Asher
19 theory Memory increased if stimulated/traced through
Association with motor activity

1979 20 Lozanov
Right conditions for learning (a state of 21 , giving over of control of the teacher)