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TEACHER GUIDE FOR ORAL

COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT
MAT SY·SATURDAY, AUGUST 12, 2017

Content-based curriculum guide recommended for Oral Comm English teachers/students


adopted from the DepEd k-12 curriculum for grade 11/12 Oral Communication in
Context course as powered by

https://oralcom.wordpress.com/2016/10/14/speech-acts/

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ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

CHAPTER I Nature and Elements of Communication (EN11/12OC) 1. Definition 2. The


Process of Communication 3. Communication Models 4. Five Elements of
Communication 5. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication 6. Effective Communication
Skills 7. Intercultural Communication CONTENT STANDARD The learner understands
the nature and elements of oral communication in context. PERFORMANCE
STANDARD The learner designs and performs effective controlled and uncontrolled oral
communication activities based on context. LEARNING COMPETENCIES: The
learner… 1. (EN11/12OC-1) defines communication. 2. (EN11/12OC-2) explains the
nature and process of communication. 3. (EN11/12OC-3) differentiates the various
models of communication. 4. (EN11/12OC-4) distinguishes the unique feature(s) of one
communication process from the other. 5. (EN11/12OC-5) explains why there is a
breakdown of communication. 6. (EN11/12OC-6) uses various strategies in order to
avoid communication breakdown. 7. (EN11/12OC-7) demonstrates sensitivity to the
socio-cultural dimension of communication situation with focus on: culture
(EN11/12OC-7.1) gender (EN11/12OC-7.2) age (EN11/12OC-7.3) social status
(EN11/12OC-7.4) religion (EN11/12OC-7.5) RELATED ORAL COMMUNICATION
IN CONTEXT SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL-GRADE 11 CHAPTER II CHAPTER III
TEACHERS’S GUIDE IN ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT

PREPARED & DEVELOPED BY MATSY B. TUMACDANG, MASPED SY 2017-


2018

Note: Content-based curriculum guide recommended for Oral Comm English teachers
adopted from the DepEd k-12 curriculum for grade 11/12 Oral Communication in
Context course as powered by

https://oralcom.wordpress.com/2016/10/14/speech-acts/

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COMMUNICATION What is communication? Communication (from the Latin term


“communis” which means to share and inform ideas, feelings, etc.) is the act of
transmitting intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of
mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The different categories of communication
include: Spoken or Verbal Communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or television
and other media. Non-Verbal Communication: body language, gestures, how we dress or
act – even our scent. Written Communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the
Internet or via other media. Visualizations: graphs and charts, maps, logos and other
visualizations can communicate messages. RELATED LESSON I- What is
communication? ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT SENIOR HIGH
SCHOOL-GRADE 11

TEACHERS’S GUIDE IN ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT

PREPARED & DEVELOPED BY MATSY B. TUMACDANG, MASPED SY 2017-


2018

Note: Content-based curriculum guide recommended for Oral Comm English teachers
adopted from the DepEd k-12 curriculum for grade 11/12 Oral Communication in
Context course as powered by

https://oralcom.wordpress.com/2016/10/14/speech-acts/

Page | 3
CHAPTER I-NATURE & ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION en THE PROCESS
OF COMMUNICATION THE BASIC STEPS OF COMMUNICATION ARE: 1. The
forming of communicative intent– (the speaker generates an idea) 2. Message encoding–
(the speaker encodes an idea or converts the idea into words or actions) 3.
Transmissionof the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or
medium– (the speaker transmits or sends out a message) 4. Receptionof signals-(the
receiver gets the message) 5. Reconstructionof the original message 6. Interpretationand
making sense of the reconstructed message- (the receiver decodes or interprets the
message based on the context) 7. The receiver sends or provides feedback. RELATED

TEACHERS’S GUIDE IN ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT

PREPARED & DEVELOPED BY MATSY B. TUMACDANG, MASPED SY 2017-


2018

Note: Content-based curriculum guide recommended for Oral Comm English teachers
adopted from the DepEd k-12 curriculum for grade 11/12 Oral Communication in
Context course as powered by

https://oralcom.wordpress.com/2016/10/14/speech-acts/

Page | 4

ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION MODELS


INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

POWERED BY WORDPRESS.COM.

COMMUNICATION MODELS 1. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication One


of the most popular communication models was introduced by Claude Shannon and
Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories in 1949. The original model was designed to mirror
the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three
primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a
person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of
the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized
that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation,
which they deemed noise. Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured this model
based on the following elements: 1. An information source, which produces a message. 2.
A transmitter, which encodes the message into signals 3. A channel, to which signals are
adapted for transmission 4. A noise source, which distorts the signal while it propagates
through the channel 5. A receiver, which ‘decodes’ (reconstructs) the message from the
signal. 6. A destination, where the message arrives. 2. The Sender-Message-Channel-
Receiver Model In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weaver’s (1949) linear
model of communication and created the SMCR Model of Communication. The Sender-
Message-Channel-Receiver Model of communication separated the model into clear parts
and has been expanded upon by other scholars. Communication is usually described
along a few major dimensions: Message (what type of things are communicated), source /
emisor / sender / encoder (by whom), form (in which form), channel (through which
medium), destination / receiver / target / decoder (to whom), and Receiver. Wilbur
Schram (1954) also indicated that we should also examine the impact that a message has
(both desired and undesired) on the target of the message. Between parties,
communication includes acts that confer knowledge and experiences, give advice and
commands, and ask questions. These acts may take many forms, in one of the various
manners of communication. The form depends on the abilities of the group
communicating. Together, communication content and form make messages that are sent
towards a destination. The target can be oneself, another person or being, another entity
(such as a corporation or group of beings). RELATED THE PROCESS OF
COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

TEACHERS’S GUIDE IN ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT

PREPARED & DEVELOPED BY MATSY B. TUMACDANG, MASPED SY 2017-


2018

Note: Content-based curriculum guide recommended for Oral Comm English teachers
adopted from the DepEd k-12 curriculum for grade 11/12 Oral Communication in
Context course as powered by
https://oralcom.wordpress.com/2016/10/14/speech-acts/

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INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION 1.


Speaker- the source of information or message 2. Message- the information, ideas, or
thoughts conveyed by the speaker in words or in actions 3. Encoding- the process of
converting the message into words, actions, or other forms that the speaker understands 4.
Decoding- the process of interpreting the encoded message of the speaker by the receiver
5. Receiver- the recipient of the message, or someone who decodes the message 6.
Barrier- the factors that affect the flow of communication 7. Channel (Medium). It refers
to the way the message is sent. In public speaking the medium is vibrations in the air
between speaker and listener, set in motion by the speaker’s voice. The message could
also be written in any language, put into some code known to both speaker and listener,
tape-recorded or videotaped, put into sign language, translated into Braille, or even sent
by smoke signal. 8. It includes all messages, verbal or nonverbal, sent by the listener to
the speaker. 9. (1) the occasion during which communication occurs, the occasion refers
to the reason why people assembled; it could be serious or festive, planned or
spontaneous, relaxed and informal, traditional or formal and (2) the physical setting or
site where communication occurs; it includes the size of the room, the number of
audience, the facilities present, the light etc. 10. These are barriers to effective
communication.  The use of jargon. Over-complicated, unfamiliar and/or technical
terms.  Emotional barriers and taboos. Some people may find it difficult to express their
emotions and some topics may be completely ‘off-limits’ or taboo.  Lack of attention,
interest, distractions, or irrelevance to the receiver.  Differences in perception and
viewpoint.  Physical disabilities such as hearing problems or speech difficulties.

TEACHERS’S GUIDE IN ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT

PREPARED & DEVELOPED BY MATSY B. TUMACDANG, MASPED SY 2017-


2018
Note: Content-based curriculum guide recommended for Oral Comm English teachers
adopted from the DepEd k-12 curriculum for grade 11/12 Oral Communication in
Context course as powered by

https://oralcom.wordpress.com/2016/10/14/speech-acts/

Page | 6

 Physical barriers to non-verbal communication. Not being able to see the non-verbal
cues, gestures, posture and general body language can make communication less
effective.  Language differences and the difficulty in understanding unfamiliar accents. 
Expectations and prejudices which may lead to false assumptions or stereotyping. People
often hear what they expect to hear rather than what is actually said and jump to incorrect
conclusions.  Cultural differences. The norms of social interaction vary greatly in
different cultures, as do the way in which emotions are expressed. For example, the
concept of personal space varies between cultures and between different social settings.
RELATED THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION VERBAL & NON-VERBAL
COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

VERBAL & NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Verbal communication consist of


messages being sent and received continuously with the speaker and the listener, it is
focused on the way messages are portrayed. Verbal communication is based on language
and use of expression, the tone in which the sender of the message relays the
communication can determine how the message is received and in what context. Factors
that affect verbal communication:  Tone of voice  Use of descriptive words  Emphasis
on certain phrases  Volume of voice The way a message is received is dependent on
these factors as they give a greater interpretation for the receiver as to what is meant by
the message. By emphasizing a certain phrase with the tone of voice, this indicates that it
is important and should be focused more on.

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Along with these attributes, verbal communication is also accompanied with non-verbal
cues. These cues make the message clearer and give the listener an indication of what
way the information should be received. Example of non-verbal cues  Facial expressions
 Hand gestures  Use of objects  Body movement In terms of intercultural
communication there are language barriers which are affected by verbal forms of
communication. In this instance there is opportunity for miscommunication between two
or more parties. Other barriers that contribute to miscommunication would be the type of
words chosen in conversation. RELATED ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
LESSON I- What is communication? COMMUNICATION

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EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Features of an Effective Communication

In their pioneer book Effective Public Relations, Professors Broom, Cutlip, and Center
(2012) list the 7 Cs of Effective Communication. The list is widely used today, especially
in public relations and advertising.

1. Completeness

Complete communication is essential to the quality of the communication process in


general. Hence, communication should include everything that the receiver needs to hear
for him/her to respond, react, or evaluate properly.

2. Conciseness

Conciseness does not mean keeping the message short but making it direct or straight to
the point. Insignificant or redundant information should be eliminated from the
communication that will be sent to the recipient.

3. Consideration

To be effective, the speaker should always consider relevant information about his/her
receiver such as mood, background, race, preference, education, status, needs, among
others. By doing so, he/she can easily build rapport with the audience.

4. Concreteness
Effective communication happens when the message is concrete and supported by facts,
figures, and real-life examples and situations. In this case, the receiver is more connected
to the message conveyed.

5. Courtesy

The speaker shows courtesy in communication be respecting the culture, values, and
beliefs of his/her receivers. Being courteous all the time creates a positive impact on the
audience.

6. Clearness

Clearness in communication implies the use of simple and specific words to express
ideas. It is also achieved when the speaker focuses only on a single objectives in his/her
speech so as not to confuse the audience.

7. Correctness

Correctness in grammar eliminates negative impact on the audience and increases the
credibility and effectiveness of the message.

FIVE ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION:

1. APPROACH

Timing of communication; choice of medium; tone and point of view (perspective,


attitude, and relationship regarding audience, purpose, and material); recognition of
audience (reader vs. writer orientation); direct vs. indirect presentation (ordering of
evidence and conclusions); persuasive strategies and rhetorical appeals (logos, pathos,
ethos)

Checkpoints:

□Timing and choice of medium are appropriate to the purpose, audience, and material.

□Tone is appropriate to the purpose, audience, and material.

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□Material is made relevant to the reader (reader’s interests and concerns are recognized).

□Conclusions are presented directly (conclusion first, evidence last) to a sympathetic


audience, indirectly (evidence first, conclusion last) to an unsympathetic or hostile
audience.

□Persuasive strategy incorporates a mixture of rhetorical approaches (appeals to logic,


feelings, and ethics or credibility).

2. DEVELOPMENT

Organization (logical arrangement and sequence); evidence and support (relevance,


specificity, accuracy and sufficiency of detail); knowledge of subject and material;
quality of perception, analysis, and insight

Checkpoints:

□Material is arranged in a logical and coherent sequence.

□Conclusion or closing restates the argument and identifies the action to be taken.

□Examples are relevant, specific, detailed, sufficient, and persuasive.

□Quotations support the argument.

□Handling of material demonstrates knowledge and insight.

3. CLARITY

Presentation of thesis or central argument (statement of purpose, delineation or narrowing


of topic, relevance of subordinate or secondary arguments); word choice; technical
language and jargon; structure (sentence, paragraph, document); coherence devices
(organizational statement, repetition of words and phrases, progression from familiar to
unfamiliar, topic and transitional sentences); textual markers (headings, highlighting,
formatting features)

Checkpoints:

□Purpose or central idea is sufficiently limited for meaningful discussion.


□Purpose or central idea is stated clearly, usually in the opening.

□Organizational statement is offered, usually at the end of the opening.

□Subordinate ideas are effectively identified and related clearly to the main purpose or
central idea.

□Language is clear, specific, accurate, and appropriate to the audience, purpose, and
material.

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□Word choice is clear, specific, accurate, unassuming, and free of clichés and misused
jargon.

□Technical language and terms are defined and explained as needed (depending on
knowledge of the audience).

□Sentences are free of ambiguity.

□Text is coherent, with new information linked to previously discussed information


(ordered within sentences as “something old/something new”).

□Transitions between paragraphs are clear and helpful.

□Text is appropriately highlighted (bullets, paragraphing, boldface, italics, underlining,


etc.) to engage the reader and reinforce the main points.

4. STYLE

Word choice (economy, precision, and specificity of language and detail; abstract vs.
concrete language; action verbs vs. linking or weak verbs with nominalizations; figures
of speech: schemes and tropes); tone (personality and humor); active vs. passive voice;
sentence variety

Checkpoints:

□Word choice is economical, clear, specific, accurate, unassuming, and free of clichés
and misused jargon.
□Action verbs are preferred over weak verbs with nominalizations (as in recommend
over make a recommendation).

□Language is appropriately concrete or abstract (signifying or not signifying things that


can be perceived by the senses).

□Figurative language (metaphors and similes, as well as other tropes and schemes) enrich
and deepen the argument.

□Active voice is preferred over passive voice (active voice is used to emphasize the
performer of the action; passive voice is used to emphasize the receiver of the action).

□Sentences are free of wordiness and unnecessarily complex constructions.

□Variety in sentence structure and sentence length creates emphasis.

□Author’s values, personality and – when appropriate – humor are conveyed in a way
that reinforces the message.

5. CORRECTNESS

Rules and conventions of spelling, grammar, punctuation, usage, and idiom; style
(appropriateness of word choice and level of formality to audience, purpose, and
material); social and cultural appropriateness; accuracy in proofreading

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Checkpoints:

□Spelling (including technical terms and proper names) is correct.

□Correct words are used to convey the intended meaning.

□Rules of grammar and syntax are followed, including pronoun-noun agreement, subject-
verb agreement, appropriate verb tense, pronoun case, possessive forms, parallel
construction, etc.

□Punctuation (particularly comma placement) reflects standard usage.

RELATED
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

COMMUNICATION MODELS

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

Intercultural communication is a form of communication that aims to share information


across different cultures and social groups. It is used to describe the wide range of
communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or
social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and
educational backgrounds. Intercultural communication is sometimes used synonymously
with cross-cultural communication. In this sense it seeks to understand how people from
different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them.
Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how
individuals encode

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messages, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are
interpreted.

With regard to intercultural communication proper, it studies situations where people


from different cultural backgrounds interact. Aside from language, intercultural
communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the cultures of different
groups of people. It also involves understanding the different cultures, languages and
customs of people from other countries.

PROBLEMS

The problems in intercultural communication usually come from problems in message


transmission. In communication between people of the same culture, the person who
receives the message interprets it based on values, beliefs, and expectations for behavior
similar to those of the person who sent the message. When this happens, the way the
message is interpreted by the receiver is likely to be fairly similar to what the speaker
intended. However, when the receiver of the message is a person from a different culture,
the receiver uses information from his or her culture to interpret the message. The
message that the receiver interprets may be very different from what the speaker
intended.

Attribution is the process in which people look for an explanation of another person’s
behavior. When someone does not understand another, he/she usually blames the
confusion on the other’s “stupidity, deceit, or craziness”.

Effective communication depends on the informal understandings among the parties


involved that are based on the trust developed between them. When trust exists, there is
implicit understanding within communication, cultural differences may be overlooked,
and problems can be dealt with more easily. The meaning of trust and how it is developed
and communicated vary across societies. Similarly, some cultures have a greater
propensity to be trusting than others.

Nonverbal communication is behavior that communicates without words—though it


often may be accompanied by words. Minor variations in body language, speech
rhythms, and punctuality often cause mistrust and misperception of the situation among
cross-cultural parties.

Kinesic behavior is communication through body movement—e.g., posture, gestures,


facial expressions and eye contact. The meaning of such behavior varies across countries.

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Occulesics are a form of kinesics that includes eye contact and the use of the eyes to
convey messages.

Proxemics concern the influence of proximity and space on communication (e.g., in


terms of personal space and in terms of office layout). For example, space communicates
power in the US and Germany.
Paralanguage refers to how something is said, rather than the content of what is said—
e.g., rate of speech, tone and inflection of voice, other noises, laughing, yawning, and
silence.

Object language or material culture refers to how we communicate through material


artifacts—e.g., architecture, office design and furniture, clothing, cars, cosmetics, and
time. In monochromic cultures, time is experienced linearly and as something to be spent,
saved, made up, or wasted. Time orders life and people tend to concentrate on one thing
at a time. In polychromic cultures, people tolerate many things happening simultaneously
and emphasize involvement with people. In these cultures, people may be highly
distractible, focus on several things at once, and change plans often.

MANAGEMENT

Important points to consider:

 Develop cultural sensitivity

 Anticipate the meaning the receiver will get.

 Careful encoding

 Use words, pictures, and gestures.

 Avoid slang, idioms, regional sayings.

 Selective transmission

 Build relationships, face-to-face if possible.

 Careful decoding of feedback

 Get feedback from multiple parties.

 Improve listening and observation skills.

 Follow-up actions

BASIC TOOLS FOR IMPROVEMENT


The following are ways to improve communication competence:

 Display of interest: showing respect and positive regard for the other person.

 Orientation to knowledge: Terms people use to explain themselves and their perception
of the world.

 Empathy: Behaving in ways that shows you understand the world as others do.

 interaction management: A skill in which you regulate conversations.

 Task role behavior: initiate ideas that encourage problem solving activities.

 Relational role behavior: interpersonal harmony and mediation.

 Tolerance for ambiguity: The ability to react to new situations with little discomfort.

 Interaction posture: Responding to others in descriptive, non-judgmental ways..

TEACHERS’S GUIDE IN ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT

PREPARED & DEVELOPED BY MATSY B. TUMACDANG, MASPED SY 2017-


2018

Note: Content-based curriculum guide recommended for Oral Comm English teachers
adopted from the DepEd k-12 curriculum for grade 11/12 Oral Communication in
Context course as powered by

https://oralcom.wordpress.com/2016/10/14/speech-acts/

Page | 15

IMPORTANT FACTORS

 Proficiency in the host culture language: understanding the grammar and vocabulary.

 Understanding language pragmatics: how to use politeness strategies in making


requests and how to avoid giving out too much information.

 Being sensitive and aware to nonverbal communication patterns in other cultures.


 Being aware of gestures that may be offensive or mean something different in a host
culture rather than your own home culture.

 Understanding a culture’s proximity in physical space and paralinguistic sounds to


convey their intended meaning.

TRAITS

 Tolerating high levels of uncertainty.

 Open-mindedness.

 Engaging in divergent and systems-level thinking.

RELATED

ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL-GRADE 11

CHAPTER I-NATURE & ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

CHAPTER II

Functions of Communication  Regulation/Control  Social Interaction  Motivation 


Information  Emotional Expression CONTENT STANDARD The learner values the
functions/ purposes of oral communication. PERFORMANCE STANDARD The learner
writes a 250-word essay of his/her objective observation and evaluation of the various
speakers watched and listened to LEARNING COMPETENCIES: The learner… 1.
(EN11/12OC-1be-8) discusses the functions of communication 2. (EN11/12OC-1be-9)
identifies the speaker’s purpose(s). 3. (EN11/12OC-1be-10) watches and listens to
sample oral communication activities 4. (EN11/12OC-1be-11) ascertains the verbal and
nonverbal cues that each speaker uses to achieve his/her purpose. 5. (EN11/12OC-1be-
12) comprehends various kinds of oral texts.

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6. (EN11/12OC-1be-13) identifies strategies used by each speaker to convey his/her ideas
effectively. 7. (EN11/12OC-1be-14) evaluates the effectiveness of an oral
communication activity

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FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION What are communication functions?


Communication functions refer to how people use language for different purposes also
refers to how language is affected by different time, place, and situation used to control
the behavior of people used to regulate the nature and amount of activities people engage
in The most basic functions of communication in an organization are to regulate/ to
control, to inform, to interact socially, to express and to motivate. FIVE FUNCTIONS
OF ORAL COMMUNICATION 1. Regulation/Control- functions to control one’s
behavior Doctors’ Prescription “Take your medicine 3 times a day.” Parents’ Instruction
to their child “Wash the dishes now, or else I won’t allow you to go to the party later.”
Friends giving advice on what to do “Move on. He doesn’t love you anymore” 2. Social
Interaction- used to produce social relationships; used to develop bonds, intimacy,
relations,; used to express preferences, desires, needs, wants, decisions, goals, and
strengths; used for giving and getting information Encouragement “You can do it.”
Marriage Proposal “Will you marry me?” Invitation “Would you like some coffee, tea, or
me?” 3. Motivation- functions to motivate or to encourage people to live better.

TEACHERS’S GUIDE IN ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT

PREPARED & DEVELOPED BY MATSY B. TUMACDANG, MASPED SY 2017-


2018

Note: Content-based curriculum guide recommended for Oral Comm English teachers
adopted from the DepEd k-12 curriculum for grade 11/12 Oral Communication in
Context course as powered by

https://oralcom.wordpress.com/2016/10/14/speech-acts/

Page | 17
4. Information- functions to convey information. Giving information… “Did you know
that there’s a secret apartment at the top of the Eiffel tower?” 5. Emotional Expression-
facilitates people’s expression of their feelings and emotions. Appreciation “I’m so glad
that you came into my life.” “I like you so much! “Are you false teeth? It’s because I
can’t smile without you.” Expressing one’s ambition “I want to finish up my studies with
good grades to be accepted in a good university.” Expressing a need “I need you in my
life.” Expressing prayers “We pray for those who suffered a broken heart from their
crush.” RELATED INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS OF
COMMUNICATION CHAPTER II

CHAPTER III

Communicative Competence Strategies in Various Speech Situations Types of Speech


context 1. Intrapersonal 2. Interpersonal a) Dyad b) Small group 3. Public Types of
Speech Style 1. Intimate 2. Casual 3. Consultative 4. Formal 5. Frozen Types of Speech
Act 1.Locution (Utterance) 2.Illocutionary (Intention) 3.Perlocutionary (Response) Types
of Communicative Strategy 1. Nomination 2.Restriction 3.Turn-taking 4.Topic control
5.Topic shifting 6.Repair 7. Termination

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CONTENT STANDARD The learner recognizes that communicative competence


requires understanding of speech context, speech style, speech act and communicative
strategy. The learner recognizes that communicative competence requires understanding
of speech context, speech style, speech act and communicative strategy.
PERFORMANCE STANDARD The learner demonstrates effective use of
communicative strategy in a variety of speech situations. The learner demonstrates
effective use of communicative strategy in a variety of speech situations. LEARNING
COMPETENCIES The learner: 1. (EN11/12OC-lfj-15) identifies the various types of
speech context 2. (EN11/12OC-lfj-16) exhibits appropriate verbal and non-verbal
behavior in a given speech context. 3. (EN11/12OC-lfj-17) distinguishes types of speech
style. 4. (EN11/12OC-lfj-18) identifies social situations in which each speech style is
appropriate to use. 5. (EN11/12OC-lfj-19) observes the appropriate language forms in
using a particular speech style. 6. (EN11/12OC-lfj-20) responds appropriately and
effectively to a speech act. 7. (EN11/12OC-lfj-21) engages in a communicative situation
using acceptable, polite and meaningful communicative strategies. 8. (EN11/12OC-lfj-
22) explains that a shift in speech context, speech style, speech act and communicative
strategy affects the following:  (EN11/12OC-lfj-22.1) language form  (EN11/12OC-lfj-
22.2) duration of interaction  (EN11/12OC-lfj-22.3) relationship of speaker 
(EN11/12OC-lfj-22.4) role and responsibilities of the speaker  (EN11/12OC-lfj-22.5)
message  (EN11/12OC-lfj-22.6) delivery RELATED CHAPTER IV ORAL
COMMUNICATION ON CLICK! TYPES OF SPEECH STYLES

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TYPES OF SPEECH CONTEXT 1. Intrapersonal- It refers to the communication with


one’s self. Example: You spent the night thinking and analyzing why a student from the
other class talked to you on the way home and you decided it probably meant nothing. 2.
Interpersonal- This refers to communication between and among people and establishes
personal relationship between and among them. Example: You offered feedback on the
speech performance of your classmate. You provided comfort to a friend who was feeling
down. 3. Public- This type refers to communication that requires you to deliver or send
the message before or in front of a group. Example: You deliver a graduation speech to
your batch. You participate in a declaration, oratorical, or debate contest watched by a
number of people.

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4. Mass communication- This refers to communication that takes place through


television, radio, newspapers, magazines,books, internet, and other types of media.
Example: You are a student journalist articulating you stand on current issues through the
school’s newspaper. RELATED INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS
OF COMMUNICATION TYPES OF SPEECH STYLES

TYPES OF SPEECH STYLES 1. FROZEN STYLE Used generally in very formal


setting. Most formal communicative style for respectful situation Does not require any
feedback from the audience Usually uses long sentences with good grammar and
vocabulary The use of language is fixed and relatively static

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Examples: national pledge, anthem, school creeds, marriage ceremonies, speech for a
state ceremony 2. FORMAL STYLE Used in speaking to medium to large groups May
also be used in single hearers- strangers, older persons, professional Speaker must frame
whole sentences ahead before they are delivered Avoids using slang terminologies
language is comparatively rigid and has a set, agreed upon vocabulary that is well
documented; is often of a standard variety. Examples: meetings, speeches, school lessons,
court, a corporate meeting, at a swearing in ceremony, in an interview or in a classroom

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3. CONSULTATIVE STYLE Used in semi-formal communication Happens in two-way


participation Most operational among other styles Speaker does not usually plan what he
wants to say Sentences end to be shorter and spontaneous Examples: regular conversation
at schools, companies, group discussion, teacher-student, doctor-patient, expert-
apprentice 4. CASUAL STYLE Language used between friends Often very relaxed and
focused on just getting the information out

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Slangs are quite often used in these instances This style is used in informal situations and
language Relationship between speaker and hearer is closed. Examples: casual
conversations with friends, family members, chats, phone calls and messages 5.
INTIMATE STYLE Completely private language used within family of very close
friends or group Uses personal language codes Grammar is unnecessary Does not need
complete language Certain terms of endearment, slangs or expressions whose meaning is
shared with a small subset of persons to person Advertisements

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SPEECH ACTS Concept proposed by John Langshaw Austin in 1962 one of the founders
of pragmatic and later developed by John R. Searle in 1969, both philosophers of
language. Speech acts refer to the moments in which statements occur in the
communicative act within a given context. Speech Acts are group of utterances with a
single interactional function. Theory of Speech Acts A speech act has 3 aspects:
locution= physical utterance by the speaker illocution= the intended meaning of the
utterance by the speaker (performative) perlocution= the action that results from the
locution. Levels of action Locutionary act: is the basic act of utterance, or producing a
meaningful linguistic expressions. Performing an act of saying something. Depending on
the circumstances, do any one of several different things, so we can use a sentence with a
given illocutionary content in a variety of ways. Austin defines it “as belonging to a
certain vocabulary…and as conforming to a certain grammar,…with a certain more or
less definite sense and reference” Illocutionary act: are the real actions which are
performed by the utterance. We form an utterance with some kind of function in mind.
This communicative force of an utterance is known as illocutionary force. Performing an
act in saying something Levels of Action Types of illocutionary acts constitutes:
affirming, announcing, answering, confirming “We find the defendant guilty”

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Directives: advising, asking, forbidding, ordering, permitting Commissives: agreeing,


inviting, offering, promising, I promise to call you tonight” Acknowledgments:
apologizing, congratulating, thanking. Perlocutionary act: are the effects of the utterance
on the listener. Reveals the effect the speaker wants to exercise over the hearer. This is
also known as the perlocutionary effect performing an act by saying something Would
you close the door, please? Example A bartender utters the words, “The bar will be
closed in five minutes, “ The locutionary act of saying that the bar will be closed in five
minutes , where what is said is reported by indirect quotation. The illocutionary act in
saying this, the bartender is informing the patrons of the bar’s imminent closing and
perhaps also the act of urging them to order a last drink. The bartender intends to be
performing the perlocutionary acts of causing the patrons to believe that the bar is about
to close and of getting them to order one last drink. RELATED CHAPTER III ORAL
COMMUNICATION ON CLICK!

TYPES OF COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGY 1. Nomination- collaboratively and


productively establish a topic 2. Restriction- limitation you may have as a speaker 3.
Turn-taking- process by which people decide who takes the conversational floor 4. Topic
control- covers how procedural formality or informality affects the development of topic
in conversations 5. Topic shifting- involves moving from one topic to another 6. Repair-
refers to how speakers address the problems in speaking, listening and comprehending
that they may encounter in a conversation 7. Termination- refers to the conversation
participants’ close-initiating expressions that end a topic in a conversation

8. Types of Speeches According to purpose o Expository/Informative Speech o


Persuasive Speech o Entertainment Speech According to delivery o Reading from a
manuscript o Memorized Speech o Impromptu Speech o Extemporaneous Speech
Principles of Speech Writing o Choosing the Topic o Analyzing the Audience o Sourcing
the Information o Outlining and Organizing.

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CHAPTER IV

Types of Speeches

1. According to purpose

 Expository/Informative Speech

 Persuasive Speech

 Entertainment Speech

2. According to delivery

 Reading from a manuscript

 Memorized Speech
 Impromptu Speech

 Extemporaneous Speech

3. Principles of Speech Writing

 Choosing the Topic

 Analyzing the Audience

 Sourcing the Information

 Outlining and Organizing the Speech Contents

1. Principles of Speech Delivery

CONTENT STANDARD

The learner realizes the rigors of crafting one’s speech.

PERFORMANCE STANDARD

The learner proficiently delivers various speeches using the principles of effective speech
delivery

LEARNING COMPETENCIES

The learner:

1. (EN11/12OC-11cj-23) distinguishes types of speeches.

2. (EN11/12OC-11cj-24) uses principles of effective speech delivery in different


situations.

3. (EN11/12OC-11cj-25) uses principles of effective speech writing focusing on:

 (EN11/12OC-11cj-25.1) audience profile

 (EN11/12OC-11cj-25.2) logical organization

 (EN11/12OC-11cj-25.3) duration

 (EN11/12OC-11cj-25.4) word choice


 (EN11/12OC-11cj-25.5) grammatical correctness

4. (EN11/12OC-11cj-26) uses principles of effective speech delivery focusing on:

 (EN11/12OC-11cj-26.1) articulation

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 (EN11/12OC-11cj-26.1) modulation

 (EN11/12OC-11cj-26.1) stage presence

 (EN11/12OC-11cj-26.1) facial expressions, gestures and movements

 (EN11/12OC-11cj-26.1) rapport with the audience

RELATED

CHAPTER III

PRINCIPLES OF SPEECH DELIVERY

ORAL COMMUNICATION ON CLICK!

PRINCIPLES OF SPEECH DELIVERY

Reading from a manuscript

Speaking with advanced preparation

Planned and rehearsed speech

Reading aloud a written message

Memorized Speech

Speaking with advanced preparation

Planned and rehearsed speech Reciting

REFERENCES:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication
http://www.skillsyouneed.com/general/what is communication.html#ixzz4LcbVE9nG

http://www.wilbers.com/elemcom.htm

http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-are-the-functions-of-communication-definition-
examples.html

https://www.iidc.indiana.edu/pages/Communicative-Functions-or-Purposes-of-
Communication