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7/23/2011

Photojournalism Presentation Outline:


Fundamentals
• Introduction: What is Photojournalism
• Photography as Building Blocks
| Dep-Ed RIZAL > Exposure Controls; quality of light
| 23 July 2011
> Depth of Field, Point of Interest
JIMMY A. DOMINGO
> Framing, composition and the
Freelance Photojournalist decisive moment
Chair (2004-2006) and current Board Member • General Photojournalism Categories
Philippine Center for Photojournalism (PCP)

Program Coordinator & Instructor – Diploma in


Photojournalism Program @ Ateneo de Manila University

Associate Professor – Photography and Photojournalism


@ De La Salle University - Manila

Photography + Texts and Captions

Photography
+ Texts and Captions Photography
+ Texts and Captions

artistic techniques +
striking images data & info
striking pictures
WITH
+ data & info
gathering
gathering

artistic techniques

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VARIOUS SUBJECTS AND


THEMES…

– the mosaic of our lives


captured on film and on
electronic disks.”

Associated Press Guide to Photojournalism – page 14

SIMPLE JOYS HAPPINESS…

RELIEF… DAILY LIFE

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DAILY LIFE in a RAILROAD TRACK PROTESTS…

PARTY… EXCITEMENT…

DAILY LIFE MURDERS…

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Photo-
journalism
is a photo
of Asi on a
sports
page…

It’s also a photo of backyard game played


with passion by the common folks… Anywhere, the mission is the
same–

“to INFORM, TO REPORT, TO


CARRY THE SCENE to the readers,
whether they are thousands of
miles away or just down the
street. To show them something
they might not have had a chance
to see themselves.”
Associated Press Guide to Photojournalism – page 14

“TO GRAB A MOMENT OF


HISTORY AND PRESERVE
IT FOR THE FUTURE.”

Associated Press Guide to Photojournalism – page 14

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CONTENT
What is the photograph all
about?

Who are represented?

5 Ws + 1 H

It is our duty to write the


caption and info– it is a
must in photojournalism.

Assume that any viewer


don‟t know anything
about the picture.

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MESSAGE
The purpose of a press
photograph is to inform the
viewer about what can be seen
and what the facts are.

BUT, what is the message?

CONTENT
AND
MESSAGE…

Denotative meaning,
Connotative meaning…

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PHOTOGRAPHIC STYLE
What can you see?
How was it photographed?

• Light
• Composition, Frame, Perspective
• Details, close up
• Color, tone
• Movement, motion

Photography is more than just


taking a photograph with a
camera…
light + drawing
… it is an active
engagement with
science, technology &
society and art…

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Digital VS Film

same principle…

only the FILM is OUT,


SENSOR and STORAGE
DEVICE is IN…
Henry Cartier-Bresson

Image Storage Devices

FILM

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Digital Pixels Pixels

"picture" and "element” The larger the pixel


size (now measured in
Pixels - the smallest MEGAPIXELS), the
electronic elements that better the image…
compose digital images

Pixel Dimensions of 8MP Camera


NSPC Requirement:
Quality Pixel Dimension / No. of photos
with 1 GB storage card Camera with 10-14
Large Fine 3456 x 2304 / 239 megapixel image size?
Large Normal 3456 x 2304 / 474
Medium Fine 2496 x 1664 / 415
Medium Normal 2496 x 1664 / 832
Set the IMAGE QUALITY
Small Fine 1728 x 1152 / 726 (or IMAGE SIZE) of your
Small Normal 1728 x 1152 / 1004 camera to LARGE.
Raw 3456 x 2304 / 100

WHITE BALANCE
FIRST THING:
Digital cameras are
Set the date and time of designed to primarily
your camera… designed to “see” sunlight –
that is containing all the
Metadata… (show sample spectrum.
image)

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WHITE BALANCE

Unlike the human eye, digital


cameras can’t automatically
adjust to compensate for
variations in the color of light,
potentially causing
Shade | Tungsten | Fluorescent | Flash
unnaturally colored pictures.

Key Areas
of Technical Excellence:

EXPOSURE:

Light is the main ingredient of


photography…

IT MUST BE RIGHT…

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EXPOSURE CONTROL:

ASA/ISO – light sensitivity rating

50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200

If scene is bright, use low number…


AND VICE VERSA

> SAFE SETTING: Auto ISO

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What is Aperture (opening in the


EXPOSURE CONTROLS: lens?
The aperture is a hole whose
the aperture and the size can be varied to allow
shutter speed controls… more or less light to pass
through it.
And the principle of The size of apertures is expressed in
reciprocity f-numbers.
f1.4, f2.0, f2.8….. f5.6….. f32

What is Shutter Speed (of curtain)?


The shutter speed is a measurement of
the amount of time the shutter on the
body is open to allow light to hit the
film. The most commonly used speeds
are actually fractions of a second.

1=1 second; 2 = ½ sec; 15=1/15


seconds…

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Be careful when the shutter speed so


slow, there maybe movement and motion
blur…

Solution: TURN ON FLASH…

The opening in the lens


and the speed of the
shutter operate in a
principle called
RECIPROCITY to
achieve a photograph with
proper exposure.

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Exposure Controls

MANUAL (M) – you


select the setting of
both aperture (opening
of the lens) and the
shutter to achieve
desired exposure

Exposure Controls Exposure Controls

SHUTTER PRIORITY (TV) – AUTO (A) – the camera does


you select the shutter speed, everything, you cannot
the opening reciprocates override, it uses flash
automatically when needed
(if there’s a built-in flash)
APERTURE PRIORITY (AV) –
you select the aperture
(opening of the lens), the PROGRAM (P) – the camera
shutter speed reciprocates does everything but you can
override, you can turn on or
off the flash

Key Areas
of Technical Excellence:

sharp focus,
Controlling
depth of field to achieve a
selected point of
focus, lead the viewer to a
point of interest…

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Framing / composition
“Arrangements” of all elements
intended to be included in a frame

> Capture an artistic and


content-rich image.

 Compete to get reader‟s


attention

VERTICAL
OR VERTICAL
HORIZONTAL OR
FRAME? HORIZONTAL
FRAME?

DOMINANT FOREGROUND

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FRAMES WITHIN FRAMES / SHAPES

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LINES, PERSPECTIVES

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REFLECTIONS / SYMMETRY

POINT OF ENTRY / low angle

TIPS:

1) Shoot from a variety of angles

2) Avoid the 5‟2” syndrome; Be a


worm, be a bird

3) Experiment, explore--
specialization is for the ants
POINT OF ENTRY / high angle

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POINT OF ENTRY / 5’ 6” Syndrome POINT OF ENTRY / TOP SHOT

Lesson from
Dora the Explorer and Boots…

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The right time to press the


shutter to record the
„ decisive moment‟

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PEAK OF THE ACTION

The key to a
“decisive
moment” capture
is SWIFTNESS &
PATIENCE.

Spot news
pictures of unscheduled
events, no advance planning
was possible
GENERAL CATEGORIES
tragedy to good fortune;
crime to war; fire; accident; rescue;
sudden police dispersal of a rally or
demonstration

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General News

Pictures of planned and scheduled


events; anticipated

Parades, concerts, rallies, press


conference; anniversaries; school
openings and closings

Death and Celebration…

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Feature
Human interest to show “slice of
life”; some are planned events, but
most feature photographs are
“found” situations.
Having a ready camera and eyes
(and minds) open to everything is the
best way to find features…

Sports

The news approach to sports usually


involves getting sharp, freeze frame
action shots of players in mid-air,
grasping for the ball.

A more impressionistic feature


approach can add drama and
reinforce motion in a still photograph.

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Portrait

Close up portraits to show


visual character of the subject.

Environmental portrait – add story-


telling detail in the environment; you
lead the viewer to a hint in what the
subject is involved with.

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Photo Stories / Photo Essays

Any set of photos presented as one…


arranged in a cohesive visual
narrative…

Could cover any genre or category…

For many PJs, telling whole


stories with pictures is the
ultimate professional experience.

 built in minutes…
 built in years…

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Formula for Visual Variety


Formula for Visual Variety
PORTRAIT – either a dramatic, light
OVER-ALL – wide angle to establish headshot or a person in his
the scene, sense of place environmental setting

MEDIUM – focuses on one activity or INTERACTION – people conversing


group or in action

CLOSE-UP – one element, like a SIGNATURE – summarizes the


person‟s hands or an intricate detail of situation with all the key elements
a building

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Formula for Visual Variety


" The real voyage of
SEQUENCE – A how-to, before and discovery consists not
after, or a series with a beginning,
middle, and end (the sequence gives in seeking new
the essay a sense of action) landscapes but in
CLINCHER – A closer that would end seeing with new eyes."
the story

- Marcel Proust

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