You are on page 1of 23

Heat & Temperature

A Hot Topic!
Heat and Temperature

In this unit we will cover the following:

1) Heat vs. Temperature


2) Temperature Scales
3) Expansion and Contraction
4) Changes of State
5) Methods of Heat Transfer
Heat and Temperature
Heat and temperature are different.

Heat is a type of energy.

All things are made of atoms


and the atoms are always moving

Heat is the total kinetic energy


of all the atoms in an object

Even cold things, like an ice cube


have heat energy… just not a lot!
Heat vs. Temperature

Objects with slower


moving atoms have
LOW heat energy

Objects with faster


moving atoms have
HIGH heat energy
Test Your Knowledge:
Which has more heat energy?

Huh? How is that possible?


Remember that heat is is the total kinetic
energy of all the atoms in an object

The iceberg is colder, but it has way more atoms!


Thermometers
Hi, I’m Galileo. I was an Italian scientist who
lived in the 1500-1600s. I’m famous for my
ideas about gravity, motion and for inventing
the very first telescope and thermometer

Thermometers work because things expand


when they are heated. The more heat energy
something has, the more the liquid in the
thermometer expands and moves up the tube
Galileo’s Thermometer

The lowest floating


ball in the upper
part of the cylinder
shows the correct
temperature.
Thermometers
They way thermometers work is pretty
simple, if you know about how atoms move.
Nowadays, you have at least three
temperature scales to choose from…

Yes, like mine! It’s used only in the USA!

Get lost Fahrenheit! This is my PowerPoint!


Temperature Scales
As Galileo said, there are 3 temperature scales.

Fahrenheit (oF)

Celsius (oC)

Kelvin (K)

One is used primarily in America


One is used by the rest of the world
and by most “regular” scientists
One is used by a few scientists
Temperature Scales
Each scale has different values for the same things.

boiling point of water

freezing point of water

“absolute zero”
When Objects Are Heated
Materials expand when they are heated.

This is because the increase in heat energy


makes the atoms move around more

The atoms bounce into each


other, moving further apart
and the material expands

When a material is cooled,


the atoms move together,
and the material contracts
Changes of State
Substances change state when heated or cooled.

Increasing heat energy

Decreasing heat energy

The 3 major states of matter are:

solid liquid gas


Changes of State
Know the names of the changes of state!
Changes of State
Changes of state occur at a fixed temperature
Heat Transfer
Heat energy travels from hotter places
towards cooler places.

There are 3 ways that heat can travel:

Conduction

Convection

Radiation

Let’s look at each individually…


Conduction
Conduction occurs in solids only.

Conduction is the transfer of heat energy


from atom to atom by physical contact
Convection
Convection occurs in liquids and gases.

Convection is the transfer of heat energy by


the movement of the atoms themselves
Convection
The movement of atoms forms convection currents
Convection
The movement of atoms forms convection currents
Radiation
Radiation is heat transfer with NO atoms!

Radiation is the transfer of heat


energy through waves
Radiation
Heat radiation can travel through space.

YAY!

It is what keeps Earth warm!


Radiation
Radiation is heat transfer with NO atoms!

Radiation is the transfer of heat


energy through waves
Any Questions?