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# Heat & Temperature

A Hot Topic!
Heat and Temperature

## 1) Heat vs. Temperature

2) Temperature Scales
3) Expansion and Contraction
4) Changes of State
5) Methods of Heat Transfer
Heat and Temperature
Heat and temperature are different.

## All things are made of atoms

and the atoms are always moving

## Heat is the total kinetic energy

of all the atoms in an object

## Even cold things, like an ice cube

have heat energy… just not a lot!
Heat vs. Temperature

## Objects with slower

moving atoms have
LOW heat energy

## Objects with faster

moving atoms have
HIGH heat energy
Which has more heat energy?

## Huh? How is that possible?

Remember that heat is is the total kinetic
energy of all the atoms in an object

## The iceberg is colder, but it has way more atoms!

Thermometers
Hi, I’m Galileo. I was an Italian scientist who
lived in the 1500-1600s. I’m famous for my
ideas about gravity, motion and for inventing
the very first telescope and thermometer

## Thermometers work because things expand

when they are heated. The more heat energy
something has, the more the liquid in the
thermometer expands and moves up the tube
Galileo’s Thermometer

## The lowest floating

ball in the upper
part of the cylinder
shows the correct
temperature.
Thermometers
They way thermometers work is pretty
simple, if you know about how atoms move.
Nowadays, you have at least three
temperature scales to choose from…

## Get lost Fahrenheit! This is my PowerPoint!

Temperature Scales
As Galileo said, there are 3 temperature scales.

Fahrenheit (oF)

Celsius (oC)

Kelvin (K)

## One is used primarily in America

One is used by the rest of the world
and by most “regular” scientists
One is used by a few scientists
Temperature Scales
Each scale has different values for the same things.

## freezing point of water

“absolute zero”
When Objects Are Heated
Materials expand when they are heated.

## This is because the increase in heat energy

makes the atoms move around more

## The atoms bounce into each

other, moving further apart
and the material expands

## When a material is cooled,

the atoms move together,
and the material contracts
Changes of State
Substances change state when heated or cooled.

## solid liquid gas

Changes of State
Know the names of the changes of state!
Changes of State
Changes of state occur at a fixed temperature
Heat Transfer
Heat energy travels from hotter places
towards cooler places.

Conduction

Convection

## Let’s look at each individually…

Conduction
Conduction occurs in solids only.

## Conduction is the transfer of heat energy

from atom to atom by physical contact
Convection
Convection occurs in liquids and gases.

## Convection is the transfer of heat energy by

the movement of the atoms themselves
Convection
The movement of atoms forms convection currents
Convection
The movement of atoms forms convection currents
Radiation is heat transfer with NO atoms!

## Radiation is the transfer of heat

energy through waves
Heat radiation can travel through space.

YAY!