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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL…………………………………………………………………………………….1
1.2 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF PROJECT…………………………………………………...4
1.3 ORGANISATION OF PROJECT REPORT………………………………………………….4

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
REVIEW OF LITERATURE……………………………………………………………………..5

Chapter 3
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
3.1 CONVENTIONAL REINFORCED CONCRETE…………………………………………..10
3.2 FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE………………………………………………………..10
3.3 FLY ASH CONCRETE...……………………………………………………………………11
3.4 MANUFACTURING METHOD……………………………………………………………11
3.4.1 STEEL-FIBRE………………………………………………………………………..11
3.4.2 FLY ASH……………………………………………………………………………..11
3.5 MECHANISM……………………………………………………………………………….12
3.5.1 FIBRE MECHANISM……………………………………………………………….12
3.5.2 FLY ASH……………………………………………………………………………..12
3.6 BRIDGING ACTION OF STEEL FIBRE…………………………………………………..13
3.7 WORKABILITY…………………………………………………………………………….15
3.7.1 STEEL FIBRE………………………………………………………………………...15
3.7.2 FLY ASH……………………………………………………………………………...15
3.8 ADVANTAGES……………………………………………………………………………..15
3.8.1 STEEL FIBER…………………………………………………………………………15
3.8.2 FLY ASH………………………………………………………………………………15
3.9 DISADVANTAGES………………………………………………………………………...16
3.9.1 STEEL FIBER………………………………………………………………………....16
3.9.2 FLY ASH………………………………………………………………………………16
3.10 APPLICATION…………………………………………………………………………….17
3.10.1 STEEL FIBER………………………………………………………………………..17
3.10.2 FLY ASH……………………………………………………………………………..17
3.11 USAGE IN INDIAN PROJECT…………………………………………………………...18
3.11.1 SFRC………………………………………………………………………………….18
3.11.2 FLY ASH……………………………………………………………………………..18

Chapter 4
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME
METHODOLOGY
4.1 MIX DESIGN AND CASTING OF CONCRETE SAMPLES……………………………...19
4.1.1 FOR M40 GRADE OF CONCRETE………………………………………………….20
4.1.2 MIX DESIGN FOR FLY ASH AS PER IS CODE…………………………………....25
4.2 TESTS CONDUCTED ON FRESH CONCRETE…………………………………………..27
4.2.1 WORKABILITY TEST………………………………………………………………..27
4.2.2 SLUMP TEST………………………………………………………………………….27
4.2.3 COMPACTION FACTOR TEST……………………………………………………...29
4.3 TEST CONDUCTED ON HARDENED CONCRETE…………………………………......31
4.3.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST…………………………………………………31
4.3.2 FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST……………………………………………………...32
4.3.3 SPLIT CYLINDER TEST…………………………………………………………….34
Chapter 5
MATERIALS USED AND TEST
PERFORMED ON
MATERIALS
5.1 MATERIALS………………………………………………………………………………...36
5.1.1 CEMENT………………………………………………………………………………36
5.1.2 AGGREGATE…………………………………………………………………………37
5.1.2.1 FINE AGGREGATE……………………………………………………………...37
5.1.2.2 COARSE AGGREGATE…………………………………………………………37
5.1.3 STEEL FIBRES………………………………………………………………………..39
5.1.3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF STEEL FIBRES………………………………………...39
5.1.4. FLY ASH……………………………………………………………………………...41
5.1.4.1 CLASS F FLY ASH……………………………………………………………..41
5.1.4.2 CLASS C FLY ASH……………………………………………………………..41
5.1.5 SUPER PLASTICIZER………………………………………………………………..43
5.1.5.1 SULPHONATED NAPHTHALENE FORMALDEHYDE(SNF)…………..……43
5.1.6 WATER………………………………………………………………………………..44
5.2 TESTS PERFORMED ON MATERIALS………………………………………………….45
5.2.1 TESTS ON CEMENT…………………………………………………………………45
5.2.1.1 FINENESS OF CEMENT………………………………………………………...45
5.2.1.2 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF CEMENT…………………………………………….46
5.2.1.3 STANDARD CONSISTENCY TEST FOR CEMENT…………………………..47
5.2.1.4 INITIAL SETTING TIME FOR CEMENT………………………………………48
5.2.1.5 FINAL SETTING TIME FOR CEMENT………………………………………...48
5.2.1.6 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CEMENT……………………………………49
5.2.2 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FLY ASH………………………………………………….51
5.2.3 AGGREGATES………………………………………………………………………..51
5.2.3.1 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FINE AGGREGATE………………………………..51
5.2.3.2 SIEVE ANALYSIS OF FINE AGGREGATE (SAND)…………………….…...51
5.2.4 TESTS ON CRUSHED STONE AGGREGATE(10 mm MAXIMUM SIZE)…….….52
5.2.4.1 SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION TEST……………….…..52
5.2.4.2 AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE TEST……………………………….…….53
5.2.4.3 SIEVE ANALYSIS………………………………………………………….…...53
5.2.5 PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATE(MAX. 20 mm SIZE)………………………….…..54
5.2.5.1 SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION TEST…………………...54
5.2.6 PROPERTIES OF STEEL FIBERS…………………………………………………...55
5.3 CASTING OF TEST SPECIMENS………………………………………………………....55
5.3.1 PREPARATION OF MATERIALS………………………………………………..….55
5.3.2 PROPORTIONING…………………………………………………………………....55
5.3.3 WEIGHING…………………………………………………………………………....55
5.3.4 MIXING CONCRETE………………………………………………………………...55
5.3.5 COMPACTION OF THE TEST SPECIMEN……………………………………..….56
5.3.5.1 COMPACTION BY VIBRATION……………………………………………....56
5.3.5.1.1 PLACING MOULDS ON THE VIBRATING TABLE…………………...…57
5.3.6 CURING OF THE TEST SPECIMENS…………………………………………...…..57

Chapter 6
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
6.1 CUBE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH……………………………………………………....59
6.2 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH………………………………………………………………62
6.3 FLEXURAL STRENGTH……………………………………………………………..…….63
6.4 DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………………..…69
6.4.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH……………………………………………………..….69
6.4.2 TENSILE STRENGTH…………………………………………………………….….70
6.4.3 FLEXURAL STRENGTH………………………………………………………….…70
Chapter 7
7. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………...….71

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………….……..74
LIST OF FIGURES
FIG 1.1 TYPES OF FIBRES…………………………………………………………………...…3
FIG 1.2 FLY ASH………………………………………………………………………………...3
FIG 3.1 REACTION OF C3A WITH WATER……………………………………………….....13
FIG 3.2 FIBRE PULL OUT……………………………………………………………………..14
FIG 3.3 CONCRETE WITH AND WITHOUT FIBER……………………………………...…14
FIG 4.1 SLUMP TEST…………………………………………………………………………..28
FIG 4.2 DIFFERENT SLUMP CONDITIONS…………………………………………...……29
FIG 4.3 COMPACTION FACTOR APPARATUS…………………………………………….30
FIG 4.4 PARTS OF COMPACTION FACTOR APPARATUS……………………………….30
FIG 4.5 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTING OF CUBE………………………………...31
FIG 4.6 CUBE SAMPLE UNDER UTM……………………………………………………….32
FIG 4.7 TWO POINT LOADING ARRANGEMENT FOR FLEXURAL STRENGTH TEST.33
FIG 4.8 FLEXURAL TEST ON BEAM………………………………………………………..33
FIG 4.9 FLEXURAL FAILURE ON BEAM…………………………………………………..34
FIG 4.10 TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING OF CYLINDER………………………………...35
FIG 4.11 TENSILE FAILURE OF CYLINDER………………………………………………35
FIG 5.1 CEMENT SAMPLE…………………………………………………………………...36
FIG 5.2 FINE AGGREGATE( SAND)………………………………………………………...37
FIG 5.3 COARSE AGGREGATE……………………………………………………………...38
FIG 5.4 DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGGREGATE……………………………………………..38
FIG 5.5 STEEL FIBRES………………………………………………………………………..39
FIG 5.6 TWISTED FORM OF STEEL FIBRES……………………………………………….40
FIG 5.7 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF FLY ASH………………………………………....42
FIG 5.8 FLY ASH DUMPING GROUND……...……………………………………………...42
FIG 5.9 SNF…………………………………………………………………………………...…43
FIG 5.10 MOLECULAR FORMULA OF SNF……………………………………………..….44
FIG 5.11 DIFFERENT SIZES OF SIEVE……………………………………………..……….45
FIG 5.12 SPECIFIC GRAVITY BOTTLE……………………………………………………46
FIG 5.13 VICAT APPARATUS………………………………………………………………47
FIG 5.14 SIEVE FOR COARSE AGGREGATE……………………………………………..53
FIG 5.15 CONCRETE MIXER………………………………………………………………..56
FIG 5.16 VIBRATING TABLE………………………………………………………………..57
FIG 5.17 CURING OF SPECIMEN..………………………………………………………….58
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 4.1 ASSUMED STANDARD DEVIATION ACCORDING TO IS- 10262…………...21
TABLE 4.2 DURABILITY CRITERIA AS PER IS:456-2000…………………………………21
TABLE 4.3 MAXIMUM WATER CONTENT…………………………………………………22
TBALE 4.4 MINIMUM CEMENT CONTENT FOR DIFFERENT EXPOSURE
CONDITIONS…………………………………………………………………………………..23
TABLE 4.5 VOLUME OF COARSE AGGREGATE PER UNIT VOLUME OF TOTAL
AGGREGATE FOR DIFFERENT ZONE OF FINE AGGREGATE……………………….......23
TABLE 4.6 MIX PROPORTION OF CONVENTIONAL M-40 GRADE CONCRETE………27
TABLE 5.1 FINENESS OF CEMENT………………………………………………………….46
TABLE 5.2 CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT……………………………………………………48
TABLE 5.3 3-DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH RESULTS………………………………50
TABLE 5.4 7-DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH RESULTS………………………………50
TABLE 5.5 28-DAYS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH RESULTS……………………………..50
TABLE 5.6 SIEVE ANALYSIS OF SAND…………………………………………………….52
TABLE 5.7 AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE……………………………………………..53
TABLE 5.8 SIEVE ANALYSIS OF COARSE AGGREGATE………………………………..54
TABLE 6.1 CUBE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH RESULTS AT DIFFERENT PERCENTAGE
LEVEL OF FLY ASH…………………………………………………………………………...59
TABLE 6.2 CUBE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH RESULTS AT DIFFERENT AGE AND
DIFFERENT PERCENTAGE LEVEL OF STEEL FIBRE…………………………………….59
TABLE 6.3 INCREASE OR DECREASE IN STRENGTH OF CONCRETE AT 7 AND 28
DAYS w.r.t PERCENTAGE REPLACEMENT BY FLY ASH………………………………..60
TABLE 6.4 INCREASE OR DECREASE IN STRENGTH OF CONCRETE AT 7 AND 28
DAYS WITH 0.5% AND 1% STEEL FIBRE………………………………………………….60
TABLE 6.5 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH RESULTS AT DIFFERENT AGE AND
DIFFERENT PERCENTAGE LEVEL OF FLY ASH…………………………………………62
TABLE 6.6 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH RESULTS AT DIFFERENT AGE AND
DIFFERENT PERCENTAGE LEVEL OF STEEL FIBRE…………………………………….63
TABLE 6.7 INCREASE OR DECREASE IN STRENGTH OF CONCRETE AT 7 AND 28
DAYS w.r.t PERCENTAGE REPLACEMENT BY FLY ASH………………………………..63
TABLE 6.8 INCREASE OR DECREASE IN STRENGTH OF CONCRETE AT 7 AND 28
DAYS WITH 0.5% AND 1% STEEL FIBRE…………………………………………………63
TABLE 6.9 FLEXURAL STRENGTH RESULTS AT DIFFERENT AGE AND DIFFERENT
PERCENTAGE LEVEL OF FLY ASH………………………………………………………..66
TABLE 6.10 FLEXURAL STRENGTH RESULTS AT DIFFERENT AGE AND DIFFERENT
PERCENTAGE LEVEL OF STEEL FIBRE…………………………………………………..66
TABLE 6.11 INCREASE OR DECREASE IN STRENGTH OF CONCRETE AT 7 AND 28
DAYS w.r.t %REPLACEMENT BY FLY ASH……………………………………………….66
TABLE 6.12 INCREASE OR DECREASE IN STRENGTH OF CONCRETE AT 7 AND 28
DAYS WITH 0.5% AND 1% STEEL FIBRE………………………………………………….67
LIST OF GRAPHS
GRAPH 6.1 INFLUENCE OF FLY ASH ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH…………………60
GRAPH 6.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AT DIFFERENT FLY ASH CONTENT………...61
GRAPH 6.3 INFLUENCE OF STEEL FIBRE % BY VOLUME ON COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH……………………………………………………………………………………...61
GRAPH 6.4 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AT DIFFERENT STEEL FIBRE CONTENT…...62
GRAPH 6.5 INFLUENCE OF FLY ASH % ON TENSILE STRENGTH……………………...64
GRAPH 6.6 TENSILE STRENGTH AT DIFFERENT FLY ASH CONTENT………………...64
GRAPH 6.7 INFLUENCE OF STEEL FIBRE VOLUME FRACTION ON TENSILE
STRENGTH……………………………………………………………………………………...65
GRAPH 6.8 TENSILE STRENGTH AT DIFFERENT STEEL FIBRE VOLUME
FRACTION……………………………………………………………………………………...65
GRAPH 6.9 INFLUENCE OF FLY ASH % ON FLEXURAL STRENGTH………………......67
GRAPH 6.10 FLEXURAL STRENGTH AT DIFFERENT FLY ASH CONTENT……………68
GRAPH 6.11 INFLUENCE OF STEEL FIBRE % ON FLEXURAL STRENGTH……………68
GRAPH 6.12 FLEXURAL STRENGTH AT DIFFERENT STEEL FIBRE CONTENT……....69