Processing
1  Introduction
• Educational objectives and reasons
• DSP for mechatronics: a functional perspective
• Course syllabus & references
• Definitions and basic properties of signals and systems
• Why is digital better than analog?
• Overview of DSP technologies
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Course objectives
• Mathematical representation of digital signals and systems
• Theoretical aspects
Implementation
Theoretical aspects DSP issues
Source: Wikipedia
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DSP and mechatronics applications
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DSP in Mechatronic systems: a
functional perspective
• Digital control
• Digital filtering
• Transforms
• Analog filtering • Parameter estimation
• Feature extractions • D/A conversion
• Amplification
• Optimization • Power Amplification
• A/D conversion
«Embedded» Output signal
Input Signal
Signals Processing conditioning
Sensors conditioning
(MCU, μP, FPGA, & interfacing
& interfacing
PLC, DSP)
Of «external» quantities
(i.e. related to the Signals DSP • Electric valves
environment) • Motors (electric, pneumatic, hydraulic)
of «internal»
quantities (i.e. related Mechanical
to the system) Sensors system Actuators
(gears, axles, …)
Signals
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Types of signalsQuantization &
coding
Amplitude
Continuous Discrete ↓
Continuous continuoustime
analog signals
signals
Time
discretetime
Sampling → Discrete digital signals
signals
Analog/continuoustime signals Discretetime/digital signals (sequences)
x(t)  f: R R or R Z x(n)  f: Z R or Z Z
x(t) x(n)
3 4 5 6 7 t 3 4 5 6 7 n
6 5 43 2 1 1 2 8 9 10 8 7 6 5 43 2 1 1 2 8 9 10
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Overview on A/D Conversion
•The AnalogtoDigital Converters are the interface between the analog and the digital
domains
•Usually the ADCs are the performance bottleneck in processing analog data
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Digital signal processing types
Digital signal processing can be offline or online
• Offline (batch) processing: Signal acquisition from outside world
and processing can occur at distinct times. Suitable if timing is not an
issue (e.g. biomedical signals and photographic image processing)
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Realtime systems classifications
Residual
Computation Time Time
Release
time Period Deadline
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Examples
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General system properties  1
• Linearity: a system is linear if the superimposition principle holds, i.e.
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General system properties  2
Stability: a system is stable in a boundedinput/boundedoutput
(BIBO) sense if the following condition holds
Examples
Ideal delay y (n) = x(n − nd ) Linear, timeinvariant, not always causal
k =M 2 Linear, time
Moving Average y (n ) = ∑
x (n − k )
1 invariant, not
M 1 + M 2 + 1 k =− M always causal
(depends on M1)
1
n
Accumulator y ( n) = ∑ x(k )
k = −∞
Linear, timeinvariant, causal
Limitations
– Bandwidth limited by ADCs and DACs sampling rates
– Limited dynamic range
– Roundoff and quantization errors
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DSP computational requirements
• DSP processing algorithms typically relies on MultiplyAndAccumulate
(MAC) operations
Y = Σ ai * xi
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Overview of DSP technologies
Cost Role of SW/HW on performance

• Singlecore μP and highend microcontrollers (μC) SW HW
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A typical multicore DSP platform
General μA of
a DSP platform
Texas Instrument
TNETV3020
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Design options
• At first glance DSP architectures look similar but major differences exist
integration level (onchip peripherals, memory sizes)
system cost
energy efficiency (power consumption)
ease of software and hardware development
available licensable software
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