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Definitions

• Fluid Mechanics -The branch of mechanics dealing with

the properties of fluids in various states and with their

reaction to forces acting upon them.

• Fluid Statics - the study of fluids at rest in equilibrium

situations.

• Fluid dynamics - the study of fluids in motion, is much

more complex; indeed, it is one of the most complex

branches of mechanics

Density

• Defined as the mass per unit volume of a material. If a

mass 𝑚 of a homogenous material has volume 𝑉, the

density 𝜌 is

𝑚

𝜌=

𝑉

• The SI unit of density is kg/m³

• The cgs unit is g/cm³

1 g/cm³ = 1000 kg/m³

Two objects with different masses and

different volumes but the same density.

Density of Some Common Substances

Material Density (𝒌𝒈/𝒎𝟑 ) Material Density (𝒌𝒈/𝒎𝟑 )

Air (1 atm, 20°C) 1.20 Iron, steel 7.8 x 10³

Ethanol 0.81 x 10³ Brass 8.6 x 10³

Benzene 0.90 x 10³ Copper 8.9 x 10³

Ice 0.92 x 10³ Silver 10.5 x 10³

Water/Freshwater 1.00 x 10³ Lead 11.3 x 10³

Seawater 1.03 x 10³ Mercury 13.6 x 10³

Blood 1.06 x 10³ Gold 19.3 x 10³

Glycerine 1.26 x 10³ Platinum 21.4 x 10³

Concrete 2 x 10³ White dwarf star 1010

Aluminum 2.7 x 10³ Neutron star 1010

• Specific Gravity- The ratio of a material’s density to the

density of water at 4.0°C, 1000 kg/m³.

• Relative Density – synonymous to specific gravity

• Average Density – If there are 2 or more materials with

different densities, average density is used.

Importance of Measuring Density

• Density is a factor to be considered in determining

whether something will float or sink when placed on a

surface of a fluid.

Example 1. The weight of a roomful of air

room with a 4.0m x 5.0 m floor and a ceiling 3.0 m high,

and the mass and weight of an equal volume of water.

Ans. 𝑚𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 72 kg

𝑤𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 700 N or 160 lb

𝑚𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 6.0𝑥104 kg

𝑤𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 5.9𝑥105 N or 1.3𝑥105 lb = 65 tons

Example 2

A hollow cylindrical copper pipe is 1.50 m long and has an

outside diameter of 3.50 cm and an inside diameter of 2.50

cm. How much does it weigh?

Ans. 61.6 N

Pressure in a Fluid

at rest.

The pressure on either side of a surface is force divided

by area. Pressure is a scalar with units of newtons per

square meter. By contrast, force is a vector with units of

newtons.

Pressure in a Fluid

• Pressure is the ratio of normal force per unit area.

𝐹

𝑝=

𝐴

• The SI unit of pressure is Pascal (Pa)

1 Pa = 1 N/m²

• Units used in meteorology

1 bar = 105 Pa

1 millibar = 100 Pa

• Atmospheric Pressure (𝑝𝑎 ) is the pressure of the earth’s

atmosphere, the pressure at the bottom of this sea of air

we live.

• Normal atmospheric pressure at sea level (average value)

is 1 atm.

1 atm = 1.013 𝑥 105 Pa

= 1.013 bar

= 14.70 lb/in² or psi

Example 3

In the room described in Ex. 1, what is the total downward

force on the floor due to an air pressure of 1.00 atm?

= 4.6 𝑥 105 lb

= 230 tons

The forces on an element of

fluid in equilibrium.

Pressure, Depth, and Pascal’s Law

• Atmospheric pressure is less at high altitude than at sea

level

• Using summation of forces in vertical axis

𝑝𝐴 − 𝑝 + 𝑑𝑝 𝐴 − 𝜌𝑔𝐴 𝑑𝑦 = 0

• Dividing by A and rearranging,

𝑑𝑝

= −𝜌𝑔

𝑑𝑦

How pressure varies with depth

in a fluid with uniform density.

height, no matter what its

shape.

Pressure in a Fluid of Uniform Density

• If 𝑝1 and 𝑝2 are the pressures at elevations 𝑦1 and 𝑦2 ,

respectively, and if 𝜌 and 𝑔 are constant, then

𝑝2 − 𝑝1 = −𝜌𝑔(𝑦2 − 𝑦1 )

• Expressing in terms of the depth below the surface of a

fluid,

𝑝𝑜 − 𝑝 = −𝜌𝑔 𝑦2 − 𝑦1 = −𝜌𝑔ℎ or

𝑝 = 𝑝𝑜 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ

Pascal’s Law

• Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted

undiminished to every portion of the fluid and the walls of

the containing vessel.

𝐹1 𝐹2

𝑝= 𝐴1

= and

𝐴2

𝐴2

𝐹2 = 𝐹1

𝐴1

Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure

• The excess pressure above atmospheric pressure is

called Gauge Pressure and the total pressure is called

Absolute Pressure

𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 + 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒

• psig for “pounds per square inch gauge”

• psia “pounds per square inch absolute,” respectively.

• If the pressure is less than atmospheric, as in a partial

vacuum, the gauge pressure is negative.

Example 4

Water stands 12.0 m deep in a storage tank whose top is

open to the atmosphere. What are the absolute and gauge

pressures at the bottom of the tank?

Ans.

absolute: 31.8 lb/in²

gauge: 17.1 lb/in²

Example 5

Scientists have found evidence that Mars may once have

had an ocean 0.500 km deep. The acceleration due to

gravity on Mars is 3.71 m/s²

(a) What would be the gauge pressure at the bottom of

such an ocean, assuming it was freshwater?

(b) To what depth would you need to go in the earth’s

ocean to experience the same gauge pressure?

Ans.

a. 1.86 𝑥 106 Pa

b. 184 m

Pressure Gauge

The simplest pressure gauge is

the open-tube manometer. The

U-shaped tube contains a liquid

of density 𝜌, often mercury or

water. The left end of the tube is

connected to the container

where the pressure p is to be

measured, and the right end is

open to the atmosphere at

pressure 𝑝𝑜 = 𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑚

Another common pressure gauge

is the mercury barometer. It

consists of a long glass tube,

closed at one end, that has been

filled with mercury and then

inverted in a dish of mercury. The

space above the mercury column

contains only mercury vapor; its

pressure is negligibly small, so

the pressure at the top of the

mercury column is practically

zero

1 𝑇𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 1 𝑚𝑚 𝐻𝑔

Buoyancy

Buoyancy is a familiar phenomenon: A body immersed in

water seems to weigh less than when it is in air. When the

body is less dense than the fluid, it floats. The human body

usually floats in water, and a helium-filled balloon floats in

air.

Archimedes’ principle

When a body is completely or partially immersed in a fluid,

the fluid exerts an upward force on the body equal to the

weight of the fluid displaced by the body.

Example 6

A 15.0-kg solid gold statue is

raised from the sea bottom.

What is the tension in the

hoisting cable (assumed

massless) when the statue is

(a) at rest and completely

underwater

and (b) at rest and completely

out of the water?

Ans:

a. 139 N

b. 147 N

Example 7

An ore sample weighs 17.50 N in air. When the sample is

suspended by a light cord and totally immersed in water,

the tension in the cord is 11.20 N. Find the total volume and

the density of the sample.

Ans.

𝑉 = 6.43 𝑥 10−4 𝑚3

𝜌 = 2.78 𝑥 103 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

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