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A Kelvin bridge (also called a Kelvin double bridge and in some countries a Thomson bridge) is a measuring instrument invented

by William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin. It is used to measure an unknown electrical resistance below 1 Ω. Its operation is similar

to the Wheatstone bridge except for the presence of additional resistors. These additional low value resistors and the internal

configuration of the bridge are arranged to substantially reduce measurement errors introduced by voltage drops in the high

current (low resistance) arm of the bridge [1].It consist of two ratio arms. The outer ratio arm contains the known resistors and

the inner ratio arm helps to connect the one terminal of the galvanometer at the appropriate point (which was the disadvantage

of the Kelvin first bridge).

Accuracy

There are some commercial devices reaching accuracies of 2% for resistance ranges from 0.000001 to 25 Ω. Often, ohmmeters

include Kelvin bridges, amongst other measuring instruments, in order to obtain large measure ranges, for example, the Valhalla

4100 ATC Low-Range Ohmmeter.

The instruments for measuring sub-ohm values are often referred to as low-resistance ohmmeters, milli-ohmmeters, micro-

ohmmeters, etc.

Principle of operation

The measurement is made by adjusting some resistors in the bridge, and the balance is achieved when:

Resistance R should be as low as possible (much lower than the measured value) and for that reason is usually made as a short

thick rod of solid copper. If the condition R3·R`4 = R`3·R4 is met (and value of R is low), then the last component in the equation

can be neglected and it can be assumed that:

Anderson Bridge

for precise measurement of inductance over a wide range. In this

method the unknown self inductance is measured in terms of a known

capacitance and resistance by comparison. It is actually a modification of

the Maxwell-Wien Bridge and is an example of a more complicated

bridge network. The circuit is shown in fig In which L-1 is self inductance

and R1 is the resistance of the coil under test, R2, R3 and R4 and using an

ordinary galvanometer as detector and then bridge is balanced in

alternating current by varying r and using vibration galvanometer or

telephone depending upon the supply frequency.

𝑅2 𝑅3 𝐶𝑅2

𝑅1 = 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐿1 = 𝑟 𝑅3 + 𝑅4 + 𝑅3 𝑅4

𝑅4 𝑅4

converting the mesh impedance C,R3,R5 to a equivalent star with the star

point 0 as shown in fig(B) by using star/delta transformation

Figure a

As per delta to star transformation

Therefore,

Figure b

Simplifying,

And therefore,

This method is capable of precise measurement of inductance and a wide range of

values from a few µH to several Henry.

Schering Bridge

A Schering Bridge is a bridge circuit used for measuring an unknown electrical capacitance and its dissipation factor. The

dissipation factor of a capacitor is the the ratio of its resistance to its capacitive reactance. The Schering Bridge is basically a four-

arm alternating-current (AC) bridge circuit whose measurement depends on balancing the loads on its arms. Figure 1 below

shows a diagram of the Schering Bridge.

In the Schering Bridge above, the resistance values of resistors R1 and R2 are

known, while the resistance value of resistor R3 is unknown. The capacitance

values of C1 and C2 are also known, while the capacitance of C3 is the value

being measured. To measure R3 and C3, the values of C2 and R2 are fixed,

while the values of R1 and C1 are adjusted until the current through the

ammeter between points A and B becomes zero. This happens when the

voltages at points A and B are equal, in which case the bridge is said to be

'balanced'

𝑍1 𝑅2

= ,

𝐶2 𝑍3

where Z1 is the impedance of R1 in parallel with C1 and Z3 is the impedance of R3 in series with C3. In an AC circuit that has a

capacitor, the capacitor contributes a capacitive reactance to the impedance. The capacitive reactance of a capacitor C is 1/2πfC.

As such,

𝑅1 𝑅1

𝑍1 = =

1 1 + 2𝜋𝑓𝐶1𝑅1

2𝜋𝑓𝐶1 + 𝑅1

2𝜋𝑓𝐶1

While

1

𝑍3 = 2𝜋𝑓𝐶 3 + 𝑅3.

2𝜋𝑓𝐶2𝑅1 𝑅2

=

1 + 2𝜋𝑓𝐶1𝑅1 1

+ 𝑅3

2𝜋𝑓𝐶3

1 𝑅2

2𝜋𝑓𝐶2 + 𝑅3 = 1 + 2𝜋𝑓𝐶1𝑅1

2𝜋𝑓𝐶3 𝑅1

𝐶2 𝑅2

+ 2𝜋𝑓𝐶2𝑅3 = + 2𝜋𝑓𝐶1𝑅2.

𝐶3 𝑅1

When the bridge is balanced, the negative and positive reactive components are equal and cancel out, so

2𝜋𝑓𝐶2𝑅3 = 2𝜋𝑓𝐶1𝑅2 or

𝐶1𝑅2

𝑅3 = .

𝐶2

Similarly, when the bridge is balanced, the purely resistive components are equal, so

𝐶2 𝑅2

= or

𝐶3 𝑅1

𝑅1𝐶2

𝐶3 = 𝑅2

. Note that the balancing of a Schering Bridge is independent of frequency.

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