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中 国 航 空 技 术 国 际工 程 有 限 公 司

China National Aero-Technology International Engineering Corporation

Design Report Cover Sheet

File No Document No

Details Description: Expressway / Structure / RCV-H Type Cover Slab

Job Code Data 015th June 2016


Letter No Revision 0

Submission History
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Original hard copy TL-FSDI 01 Nos PD-RDA Nos

Softcopy TL-FSDI Nos PD-RDA Nos


4 Analysis Results

The reinforced concrete cover slab was considered as a simply supported slab spanning 1000mm length.
Dimensions of shell are 1200mmx500mm & the thickness is 200mm.

4.1 Dead load


Self-weight (SF) of concrete slab was taken as UDL
SF = 0.5 x 0.2 x 25
=2.5 kN/m
Maximum Bending Moment at center =wl2/8
=2.5x1.02/8
=0.31kNm
Maximum Shear Force at Support =1.0x0.5x0.2x25/2
=1.25 kN

4.2 Live Load

Pressure of HA Wheel load on 300mmx300mm squire =1.1N/mm2


Dispersal length =300 + 2 x 200
=700mm
Wheel pressure as UDL at bottom =100/0.7
=142.85 kN/m
Maximum Bending Moment at center =100/2 x 1.0/2 – 100/2 x 0.7/4
=16.25 kNm
Maximum Shear Force at Support =100/2
=50 kN

Analysis was performed for the ULS & SLS load combinations

Design Report – Standard Ditches Page 3


Table of Contents
List of Figures ............................................................................................................................. ii
List of Tables .............................................................................................................................. ii
Design Codes and References ................................................................................................... iii
1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1
2 Material Characteristics....................................................................................................... 1
2.1 Concrete ....................................................................................................................... 1
3 Loading................................................................................................................................ 2
3.1 Dead loads ................................................................................................................... 2
3.2 Live Loads ................................................................................................................... 2
3.3 Load combinations and partial factors of safety .......................................................... 2
4 Analysis Results .................................................................................................................. 3
4.1 Dead load ..................................................................................................................... 3
4.2 Live Load ..................................................................................................................... 3
5 Design Calculations............................................................................................................. 5
6 Reinforcement Arrangement ............................................................................................. 12

Design Report – Standard Ditches Page i


List of Figures
Figure 1-1Cover Slab Details ..................................................................................................... 1
Figure 6-1 Reinforcement Arrangement................................................................................... 12

List of Tables

Table 3-1 Partial Safety Factors ................................................................................................. 2


Table 4-1 Results Summary ....................................................................................................... 4

Design Report – Standard Ditches Page ii


Design Codes and References
For the analysis and design of the Underpass Structure and for material properties
Following codes are used
i) British Standard BS 5400:2006-Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges Part 2:
ii) British Standard BS 5400:1990-Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges Part 4:
iii) Reinforced Design Structures.(Volume 01) Dr. B.C.Punmia
iv) Reynolds’s Reinforced Concrete Designer’s Hand Book , 10th Edition

Design Report – Standard Ditches Page iii


1 Introduction
This report contains the load calculation and structural design for 1200mmx 500mm Size Cover Slab
Standard Ditched Type H for Extension of Southern Expressway (ESE)

Figure 1-1Cover Slab Details

The structural designs were carried out for 1200mm x 500mm size 230 mm thickness as shown on above
figure.

2 Material Characteristics

2.1 Concrete

Unit weight of concrete is assumed as 25 kN/m3. The grade of concrete of was considered as 30N/mm2.
Elastic modulus of concrete was taken as 28kN/mm2 and Poisson’s ratio was considered as 0.2.

Design Report – Standard Ditches Page 1


3 Loading

The loads were calculated in accordance with BS 5400-2:2006, Clause 6. The following loads
have been considered

o Dead loads

o Live Loads

3.1 Dead loads

In this case, self-weight of the structure was considered as a dead load. Density of concrete was
considered as 25 kN/m3. Grade 30 concrete to be used for the construction of the ditches.

3.2 Live Loads

It is assumed that HA 100 kN single nominal wheel load is placed on the cover slab and uniform
distribution over 300mmx300mm square contact area. The effective pressure of contact area is 1.1 N /mm2.
Dispersal through concrete cover slab was taken as 1:2 spread to depth ratio.

3.3 Load combinations and partial factors of safety

According 3 and 4 of BS 5400: Part 2:2006, Load Combinations 1, is used for designing of Standard
ditches.

Loads ULS (γfl) SLS (γfl)


1. Concrete 1.15 1.0
2. HA Live Load 1.5 1.2
γf3 1.1 1.0

Table 3-1 Partial Safety Factors

Design Report – Standard Ditches Page 2


4 Analysis Results

The reinforced concrete cover slab was considered as a simply supported slab spanning 1000mm length.
Dimensions of shell are 1200mmx500mm & the thickness is 200mm.

4.1 Dead load


Self-weight (SF) of concrete slab was taken as UDL
SF = 0.5 x 0.2 x 25
=2.5 kN/m
Maximum Bending Moment at center =wl2/8
=2.5x1.02/8
=0.31kNm
Maximum Shear Force at Support =1.0x0.5x0.2x25/2
=1.25 kN

4.2 Live Load

Pressure of HA Wheel load on 300mmx300mm squire =1.1N/mm2


Dispersal length =300 + 2 x 200
=700mm
Wheel pressure as UDL at bottom =100/0.7
=142.85 kN/m
Maximum Bending Moment at center =100/2 x 1.0/2 – 100/2 x 0.7/4
=16.25 kNm
Maximum Shear Force at Support =100/2
=50 kN

Analysis was performed for the ULS & SLS load combinations

Design Report – Standard Ditches Page 3


Load 1200mm x 500mm Cover Slab
Combination
Bending Moment (kNm) Shear Force Shear Force
@ 100mm from @ 2d from
support (kN) support (kN)
ULS 31.33 61.97 61.85
SLS 22.88
SLS_LIVE 22.50
SLS_DEAD 0.31
Table 4-1 Results Summary

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5 Design Calculations

Design Report – Standard Ditches Page 5


Reference Calculation Output

1 Design of 1200mm x 500mm cover slab


Dimensions

Length = 1000 mm
Width = 500 mm
Thickness = 200 mm

Maximum Bending Moment(ULS) = 27.21 kNm


Maximum Shear Force = 61.97 kN @ 100 mm
Max. BM due to Dead load (SLS) = 0.31 kNm
Max. BM due to LIve load (SLS) = 19.50 kNm
BS 5400-4
1990 There is no axial load on walls, therefore it is treated as cantilever slab &
Cl 5.6.1 designed accordance with Clause 5.4
Consider 1000mm length section,
Assume, Cover = 30 mm
Bar dia meter = 20 mm
Effective Depth, d = 200 -20 /2 - 30
= 160 mm
2
BS 5400-4 fcu = 30 N/mm
2
1990 fy = 460 N/mm
Table 6
Reinforcement Design for Ditch wall
BS 5400-4
= 2
1990 0.15x 30 x 500 x 160
Equ. 2 = 57.60 kNm > 27.208
Hence section is Singly Reinforcement

Mu ,Maximum flexural capacity of a singly reinforced section


BS 5400-4
1990
Equ. 1
Equ.5 z, Lever arm

5.057𝑀𝑢
𝑧 = 0.5𝑑 1 + 1 −
𝑓𝑐𝑢 𝑏𝑑2
6
z = 0.5x 160 1+ 1 -5.057 x 27.208 x10^
2
30 x 500 x 160

z = 144.1 mm
0.95d = 0.95 x 160
= 152.0 > 144.1
Therefore z = 144.1 mm
EXTENSION OF SOUTHERN EXPRESSWAY (ESE)
DESIGN OFFICE Designed Asela
CHINA NATIONAL AERO-TECHNOLOGY Checked Nadeesha
INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING CORPORATION Job Code Page 6.....
Reference Calculation Output
𝑀𝑢
Required reinforcement area 𝐴𝑠 = 0.87𝑓𝑦 𝑧
= 27.208 x 10^6
0.87 x 460 x 144.1
2
= 472 mm

BS 5400-4 Minimum reinforcement required = 0.15% bd


1990 = 0.15% x 500 x 160
2
Cl 5.8.4.1 = 120 mm

Hence 𝐴𝑠,𝑟𝑒𝑞 = 472 mm2


Provide T 16 @ 150 , 𝐴𝑠,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣 = 670 mm2 T 16 @
150 mm
BS 5400-4 Secondary Reinforcement
1990 Minimum secondary reinforcement requirement,
Cl 5.8.4.2 𝐴𝑠 = 0.12% bd
= 0.12% x 500 x 160
2
= 96 mm
2
Provide T 10 @ 300 , 𝐴𝑠,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣 = 262 mm T 10 @
300 mm

BS 5400-4 Check for Shear


1990 Maximum Shear Force = 61.97 kN
Cl 5.4.4 Maximum Shear Stress = F/A Max shear
= 61.97 x 10^3 stress
500 x 160 = 0.77
2 2 2
= 0.77 N/mm < 4.75 N/mm N/mm
< 0.75 𝑓𝑐𝑢
2
Hence OK 4.1079 N/mm

BS 5400-4 Depth factor, ξs = = (500/d)^(1/4)


1990 = 500 ^(1/4)
Table 9 160
= 1.33

BS 5400-4 Ultimate shear stress in concrete 0.27 100𝐴𝑠 1/3 1/3


𝑉𝑐 = 𝑓𝑐𝑢
𝛾𝑚 𝑏𝑤 𝑑
1990
1/3 1/3
Table 8 𝑉𝑐 = 0.27 100 x 670 30
1.25 500 x 160.0
2
= 0.633 N/mm Alow shear
stress
Allowable Shear Stress = 𝑉𝑐 x ξs = 0.841
= 0.633 x 1.33 N/mm2
2
= 0.841 N/mm

EXTENSION OF SOUTHERN EXPRESSWAY (ESE)


DESIGN OFFICE Designed Asela
CHINA NATIONAL AERO-TECHNOLOGY Checked Nadeesha
INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING CORPORATION Job Code Page 7.....
Reference Calculation Output
Shear Capacity Enhancement = 2d/av
BS 5400-4 = 2x 160
1990 100
Cl 5.3.3.3 = 3.20

Allowable Shear Stress with Enhancement


= 𝑉𝑐 x ξs x 2d/av
= 0.841 x 3.20
2
= 2.69 > 0.77 N/mm
Hence OK

BS 5400-4 Check for Shear @ "2d" Idstance


1990 Shear Force = 61.85 kN
Cl 5.4.4 Maximum Shear Stress = F/A Shear
= 61.85 x 10^3 stress @2d
500 x 160 = 0.77
2 2
= 0.77 N/mm < 4.75 N/mm N/mm2
< 0.75 𝑓𝑐𝑢
2
Hence OK 4.1079 N/mm

BS 5400-4 Depth factor, ξs = = (500/d)^(1/4)


1990 = 500 ^(1/4)
Table 9 160
= 1.33

0.27 100𝐴𝑠 1/3 1/3


BS 5400-4 Ultimate shear stress in concrete 𝑉𝑐 = 𝛾 𝑓𝑐𝑢
𝑚 𝑏𝑤 𝑑
1990
1/3 1/3
Table 8 𝑉𝑐 = 0.27 100 x 670 30
1.25 500 x 160
2
= 0.633 N/mm

Allowable Shear Stress = 𝑉𝑐 x ξs


= 0.633 x 1.33
2
= 0.841 N/mm
Shear Capacity Enhancement = 2d/av
BS 5400-4 = 2x 160
1990 320
Cl 5.3.3.3 = 1.00

Allowable Shear Stress with Enhancement


= 𝑉𝑐 x ξs x 2d/av
= 0.841 x 1.00
= 0.841 > 0.77 N/mm2
Hence OK

EXTENSION OF SOUTHERN EXPRESSWAY (ESE)


DESIGN OFFICE Designed Asela
CHINA NATIONAL AERO-TECHNOLOGY Checked Nadeesha
INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING CORPORATION Job Code Page 8.....
Reference Calculation Output
BS 5400-4 Creack Width Calculation
1990
Cl 5.8.8.2 Design Crack width
Equation 24
Where,
a cr = Dis tan ce from the crack to the nearest bar
= Calculated strain at level where cracking is being considered
C nom= required nominal cover
h = Overall depth of the section
= Depth of the concrete in compression

BS 5400-4
1990
Equation 25
Where,

Mg = 0.313 kNm
Mq = 19.500 kNm
Cover for the reinforcemen = 30 mm
Bar Spacing = 150 mm
Bar diameter = 16 mm

2 2 1/2
a cr = 150 + 30 + 16/2 - 16
2 2

= 76.1 mm

= 200 / ( 28 /2 )
= 14.29
EXTENSION OF SOUTHERN EXPRESSWAY (ESE)
DESIGN OFFICE Designed Asela
CHINA NATIONAL AERO-TECHNOLOGY Checked Nadeesha
INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING CORPORATION Job Code Page 9.....
Reference Calculation Output

−∝𝑒 𝐴𝑠 ± ∝𝑒 𝐴𝑠 2 + 2𝑏 ∝𝑒 𝐴𝑠 𝑑
𝑥=
𝑏
x =- 14.29 x 670 +
14.29 x 670 2 + 2x 500x 14.29 x 670 x 160 0.5
14.29 x 670500 14.29 x 670
x = 61.438 mm < 0.5d 14.29 x 670
x = 61.44 mm 61.44
z = d-x/3
= 160 - 61.44 /3
= 139.52 mm

Srevice Moment = Mq + Mg
= 19.500 + 0.313
= 19.813 kNm

Servivce Stress, 𝑓𝑠 = 𝑀
𝑧 𝐴𝑠 Service
= 19.813 x 10^6 stress, 𝑓𝑠
139.52 x 670 = 211.88
2 2
= 211.88 N/mm N/mm

Steel Stain ∈𝑠 = 211.88


200 x 103
= 0.00105941

( 200 - 61.44 ) x 211.88


( 160 - 61.44 ) 200 x 103
= 0.0015

∈𝑚 = 0.0015 -

3.8 x 500 x 200 x( 200 - 61.44 ) x


0.001059406 x 670 x( 200 - 61 )

1- 19.500 x 10-9
0.313
BS 5400-4
1990 ∈𝑚 = 0.00148935 - -0.032861
Equation 25 ∈𝑚 = 0.0344 >
∈𝑚 = 0.0015

EXTENSION OF SOUTHERN EXPRESSWAY (ESE)


DESIGN OFFICE Designed Asela
CHINA NATIONAL AERO-TECHNOLOGY Checked Nadeesha
INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING CORPORATION Job Code Page 10.....
Reference Calculation Output
BS 5400-4 Design Crack width
1990 =
Cl 5.8.8.2
Table 1
= 3x 76.1 x 0.001489353
1 +2( 76.1 - 30 )/( 200 - 61.44 )
= 0.20 mm > 0.25 mm
Hence, Crack width is OK

BS 5400-4 Stress Limitations


1990 For concrete
Cl 4.1.2 Compress stress ditribution due to Bending for the SLS
= Mser /Z
2
Section Modulus of section, Z = 1/6 x bd
2
= 1/6 x 500 x 160
3
= 2,133,333.33 mm

Service Stress of concrete = Mser /Z


6
= 19.813 x 10
2,133,333.33
2
= 9.29 N/mm

BS 5400-4 Service Stress limit of concrete = 0.50𝑓𝑐𝑢


1990 = 0.50 x 30
2 2
Table 2 = 15.00 N/mm > 9.29 N/mm
Hence OK

BS 5400-4 Compress stress ditribution due to axial load for the SLS
1990 Axial Load on member = 0 kN
Table 2 Therefore uniform compressive distribution, 0 < 0.38𝑓𝑐𝑢
Hence OK

For Reinforcements
Tensile stress ditribution for the SLS
2
Sevice tensile stress of concrete = 211.88 N/mm

BS 5400-4 Service Stress limit of reinforcment = 0.75𝑓𝑦


1990 = 0.75 x 460
2 2
Table 2 = 345 N/mm > 211.88 N/mm
Hence OK

BS 5400-4 The effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete, temperature difference


1990 & differential settlement need not be considered at the ultimate limit state
Cl 4.1.2 as these effects have been included in the above stress limitation checking
for the serviceabilty limit state.

EXTENSION OF SOUTHERN EXPRESSWAY (ESE)


DESIGN OFFICE Designed Asela
CHINA NATIONAL AERO-TECHNOLOGY Checked Nadeesha
INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING CORPORATION Job Code Page 11.....
6 Reinforcement Arrangement

Figure 6-1 Reinforcement Arrangement

L1 L1

L1

L
1

Design Report – Standard Ditches Page 12