Hardware, Software Systems and Networks II

Hardware, Software Systems and Networks II

Submitted by
Tharanga Chandrasekara (CB002976)

Submitted to
Mr. Balachandran Gnanasekaraiyer

Module Code
CE00382-2

Intake Code
HF09B1COM

Assignment Title
Individual Assignment

Due Date
12th October 2010

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Hardware, Software Systems and Networks II

Acknowledgement
I would like to extend my gratitude to those who helped me in completing the individual assignment for the module Hardware, Software Systems and Networks II. I would like to express my appreciation and thankfulness to my Hardware, Software Systems and Networks II module Lecturer Mr. Balachandran Gnanasekaraiyer for giving me the guidelines towards the successfulness of this project. His expertise on concepts of networking helped me to complete the assignment in the given timeframe. I‟m very grateful for his guidance and the manner he helped me with the encountered problems. Finally, I would like to thank my institute, Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology, for providing me the necessary laboratory and library facilities.

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Abstract
This project is an individual assignment in the module Hardware, Software Systems and Networks for the HF09B1SE. Main aim if this project is to design a network proposal to a popular business company in Malaysia. Company would like to invest large amount of money to implement new network system to the company. Addition to that owner would like to know about the networks before he make a huge investment. So this document is mainly based on research which is conducted on network models and network devices and new network technologies.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................... 1 Abstract ........................................................................................................................... 3 1 Requirement Analysis .............................................................................................. 9 1.1 Essential requirements ....................................................................................... 9 Create a LAN (Local area network) within the buildings .............................. 9 Connect the sub branches to the main building by a network...................... 9

1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 2

Indirect requirements ....................................................................................... 10 Assumptions..................................................................................................... 11 Scope ............................................................................................................... 13

Research ................................................................................................................ 14 2.1 Data Networks.................................................................................................. 14 What is a network ...................................................................................... 14

2.1.1 2.2

Network types .................................................................................................. 18 Client Server Architecture .......................................................................... 18 Peer-to-peer Architecture .......................................................................... 19

2.2.1 2.2.2

Problem should be expected ..................................................................................... 21 2.3 Connect the computers and other peripherals together to share the resources within the buildings .................................................................................................... 23 2.3.1 LAN - Local Area Network ......................................................................... 23

Size of the Network ................................................................................................ 23 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network ...................................................... 24 Network topologies .................................................................................... 25 Device names ............................................................................................ 31

Connect the sub branches to the main building to share the resources ........... 32

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2.4.1 2.4.2 2.5

Wide Area Networks (WANs) .................................................................... 32 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) ................................................................ 37

Security ............................................................................................................ 40 Firewall ...................................................................................................... 40 Encryption.................................................................................................. 41 Internet Protocol Security Protocol (IPSec) ............................................... 42

2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.6

Transmission Media ......................................................................................... 45 Twisted Pair Cables ................................................................................... 45 Coaxial Cable ............................................................................................ 47 Installing Cable - Some Guidelines ............................................................ 49

2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.7

Servers ............................................................................................................. 51 Video Server .............................................................................................. 51 Application Server ..................................................................................... 51 SIP server .................................................................................................. 51 Print Server................................................................................................ 51 DHCP server ............................................................................................. 51 Mail Server ................................................................................................ 52 Proxy Server .............................................................................................. 52 File Server ................................................................................................. 52 Database Server ........................................................................................ 52

2.7.1 2.7.2 2.7.3 2.7.4 2.7.5 2.7.6 2.7.7 2.7.8 2.7.9

2.7.10 Backup Server ........................................................................................... 52 2.8 Internet connections ......................................................................................... 53 Broadband ................................................................................................. 53 Dial-Up....................................................................................................... 53 Leased Line ............................................................................................... 53

2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3

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3 4

Critical Evaluation .................................................................................................. 54 Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 58 4.1 Connect the computers and other peripherals together to share the resources within the buildings .................................................................................................... 58 4.2 Connect the sub branches to the main building to share the resources. .......... 58

4.3 Maintain a centralized database for all the branches around the world to access. ...................................................................................................................... 59 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 Security ............................................................................................................ 59 Backup ............................................................................................................. 60 Communication ................................................................................................ 60 Monitoring ........................................................................................................ 60 Transmission media ......................................................................................... 61 Internet connection........................................................................................... 61

Reference .............................................................................................................. 66

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List of Tables
Table 1: Comparing P2P and Client Server .................................................................. 20 Table 2 Network Topology ............................................................................................ 26 Table 3: Comparison of the LAN network Topologies ................................................... 27 Table 4: Comparison between LAN and WLAN ............................................................ 28 Table 5: Device Used in LAN networks ......................................................................... 29 Table 6: Price of the Devices (Switches) ....................................................................... 30 Table 7: Main Type of WAN Connections ..................................................................... 34 Table 8: Advantages of WAN Connections ................................................................... 36 Table 9: VPN Types ...................................................................................................... 38 Table 10: Comparison between WAN and VPN ............................................................ 39 Table 11: Encryption Methods ....................................................................................... 41 Table 12: Encrypt Types ............................................................................................... 43 Table 13: Comparison of Security Type ........................................................................ 44 Table 14: Categories of Unshielded Twisted Pair ......................................................... 46 Table 15: Comparison of cables .................................................................................... 48 Table 16: Cable standards ............................................................................................ 50

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List of Figuers

Figure 1: Client Server Architecture .............................................................................. 18 Figure 2: WAN Network................................................................................................. 33 Figure 3: Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable ............................................................ 46 Figure 4:Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable ................................................................. 47 Figure 5: Coaxial Cable Source: University of South Florida (2010) ............................. 47 Figure 6: Main Network Diagram ................................................................................... 62 Figure 7: Overview of the main building network ........................................................... 64 Figure 8: VPN Connection............................................................................................. 65

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1 Requirement Analysis
Company requirements can be separate into main 2 parts which are essential requirements and indirect requirements.

1.1 Essential requirements
According to the company their essential requirements are 1. Connect the computers and other peripherals together to share the resources within the buildings 2. Connect the sub branches to the main building to share the resources. 3. Maintain a centralized database for all the branches around the world to access.

1.1.1 Create a LAN (Local area network) within the buildings Under this main requirement following are the sub requirements, i. ii. iii. iv. v. Must be able to connect more than 40 computers to the network. Must be able to connect printers to the network. Must be able to connect LCD projectors to the network. Must be able to connect Audio Devices and microphones. Must be able to connect multifunctional peripherals devices such as fax machines, telephones and bar code readers etc. 1.1.2 Connect the sub branches to the main building by a network Under this main requirement following are the sub requirements i. ii. Must be able to connect all the sub branches to a network. Must be able to expand the network in the future.

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1.2 Indirect requirements
Indirect requirements can be categorized as follow, 1. Security a. Establishing a secured network within the branches. b. Establishing a secured connection between branches when communicating. 2. Backup a. Backing up the database and secured them. 3. Communication a. Establishing a cost effective and fast communication method between the branches b. Establishing a cost effective and fast communication method within the branch. 4. Monitoring a. Establishing a secured and reliable method to monitor the work station from a different location.( security purpose) b. Establishing a secured and reliable method to monitor the payroll system. 5. Other a. Establish a reliable method to provide the e-mail accounts to the company staff. b. Establishing a fast and reliable system to input the product data to the system. c. Establishing a secured and reliable way to make online payments.

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1.3 Assumptions
Following are the main assumptions. 1. Companies have one main branch and other 3 branches are sub branches which are located in different countries in Asia. 2. Main branch will handle all the main functionality of the business. 3. Main branch building will have all the main servers 4. Sub branches can access to the database and other servers via internet 5. Main branch and other sub branches have proper internet connections. 6. Sub branches will have the internet capacity to access the servers without a delay. 7. Cabling is done using the air duct of the building to protect the cables. 8. Building air duct is magnetic fields and noise free. 9. Cables which are connecting the floors are going only through the building air duct. 10. Cables are well protected within the floors. 11. Each user will need to have a valid username and password to log to the system 12. Coverage of the Wi-Fi access –point devices are sufficient to the each floor of the building 13. Backup servers are placed in the main building and it will back up every transaction on real time. 14. All the diagrams shown in the document are to represent the connections between the devices. 15. The places of the devices can be changed according to the situation and the location; diagrams are used to illustrate the logic of the network. 16. All the main switches are locked in a safety box in order to prevent any damage taken by.

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17. Cabling within the floor is done on the ceiling so the noise signal interference will be less. 18. Main branch has 40-50 staff members currently and will grow tit with the time. 19. Staff will not grow up to 70 within next 2 years. 20. Sub branches has a staff of around 30-40 currently and will grow it with the time. 21. Printers and other private equipments which are connected to the network will share among the staff members within the building. 22. In future they will be allowing customers to purchase items online ( electronic commerce) 23. They have a security room to place the CCTV monitors. 24. Each member of the staff want so have their own personal office mail box 25. Each staff member wants to keep their files in the server so they can aces sot them anytime they want. 26. They already have the CCTV cameras installed in the buildings 27. Company has their own server rooms to place the new servers. 28. User levels are given to the users to authenticate the transactions 29. Transaction will process and data will be copied to the backup server only after the relevant authorized person gave the approval to the transaction. 30. Backup has 2 partitions. And one partition will hold the old database and other part will hold the daily updates done to the server. 31. Daily updates should be rolled in by the authorized person after the transactions are over (daily). 32. All the equipments are mention in this proposal are available in the market 33. Company will buy all the necessary computers to the system. 34. This network proposal is valid for next 2 years 35. Sufficient technically capable people are available in the company to access the new system

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1.4 Scope
Main scope is to create the network within the company and connect the sub branches to the main branch so the main branch can monitor the activities happened in the sub branches around the world. Also to maintain a centralized database which will allow other sub branches to access and retrieve the data from the main servers.

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2 Research
Following research part is based on the fact finding of requirement gathering process. This chapter will include the technical diagrams and technical reports on selected topics.

2.1 Data Networks
According to the Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.44) Data networks were created in order to exchange and share the electronic information and electronic resources across long distance and also business needs to address the following problems with the time   To avoid the data duplication To communicate efficiently

2.1.1 What is a network According to the Andrew Tanenbaum (2006, p.4) network is “an attempt to end of the tyranny of geography”. And also there is another explanation to the network which is according to the Lysis (2009) “network is a group of computers share information via wireless or wired technology”.

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2.1.1.1 Advantages and disadvantages of using networks There are many advantages and disadvantages in using the networks in the businesses process. According to the Tanenbaum (2006, p.3) following are the main advantages of having a network within a business, Advantages of using networks  Resource sharing To make all computer programs, equipments and company data available to anyone who connected to the network and who have the authentication to use them without regarding the physical location of the resource or the user.  Do business electronically Company can do business with other companies electronically where they can save the company resources. As a example it will allow placing orders in real time where it reduce the need of placing large orders so company can invest the money on other development project of the company.  Provide a powerful communication medium Users can work on a project simultaneously where others will see the changes on real time and also video conferencing also a main benefit of having a powerful communication medium where company can hold meeting without regarding the physical location of the users.

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Do business with customers over the internet (E-Commerce) This will allow the company to reach to the international market with a very small

invest on the technology where customers can purchase or place the orders via internet and make the payment using electronic payment method. According to the Buzzel (2010) following are the main disadvantages of having a network within a business Disadvantages of using networks

Security Issues:

Major drawback of computer network is the security of the data and the network. Unauthorized people can connect to the network and access the company resources and data without a problem if there is no mechanism to monitor the network traffic and to do the authentication.

Rapid Spread of Computer Viruses:

It is possible to spread the viruses within the network with a very short period of time if a network computer system gets affected with a computer virus and it might affect the entire business process by damaging the servers or Programs or the company database if there is no good mechanism to control the viruses‟ attacks.

Initial cost will be high

Initial cost of setting up a computer network will be high because it is necessary to buy network devices such as Hubs, switches or network cards which are really expensive, but this cost will be a onetime cost.

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Dependency on the Server.

If the main server of the computer network fails to perform properly the entire network system will not be functioning properly. So it is necessary to use a server with high performance and security as a main server.

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2.2 Network types
2.2.1 Client Server Architecture According to the Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.228) network services are located on a dedicated computer which is called as a server which replies to the requests of the clients. These central computers are continuously available to respond the client‟s requests for file, print, application, and other services. Servers are designed to handle the request form many clients. Client server architecture simplify the work of a network administrate and also make the easier to backup and maintain and it also allow to add more servers to extend the network with the time. Following illustration will illustrate the architecture of the Client-Server architecture.

Figure 1: Client Server Architecture

Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.228)

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2.2.2 Peer-to-peer Architecture According to the Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.227) networked computers acts as an equal partner to the each other, each computer can act as a server or a client at one time. In P2P network individual users control their own resources. No central point of control to the admin so the individual users have to backup their own system to recover the data and also of user computers will reduce the performance as the computers needs to respond the requests of the other users. Following illustration will illustrate the architecture of the peer-to-peer architecture.

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Table 1: Comparing P2P and Client Server

Advantages of a Peer-to-Peer Network Less expensive to implement. Does not require NOS server software.

Advantages of a Client-Server Network Provides for better security and scalability. Easier to administer when the network is large because administration is centralized.

Does not require a dedicated network administrator Disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer Network Does not scale well to large networks and administration becomes unmanageable

All data can be backed up on one central location. Disadvantages of a Client-Server Network Requires NOS software such as in Windows NT/2000/XP, Novell NetWare, or UNIX.

Each user must be trained to perform administrative tasks. Less secure. All machines sharing the resources negatively impact the performance.

Requires expensive, more powerful hardware for the server machine. Requires a professional administrator. Has a single point of failure if there is only one server, and user‟s data can be unavailable if the server is down.

Source: Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.229)

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2.3 Problem should be expected
Following are the main problems that can be cause in a network  Network cable failure In wired LAN network connection failures caused mainly because of the problems with the connection cables. So it is really important to lay the cables in secured manner and maintain them with a great care.  System Services Failure System service failure can cause problems to the availability of the network. To fix these problems it is need to get the services of a network admin.  Virus outbreak There are various types of virus can be infected to the network system. These viruses can cause networking environment to be flooded with the huge traffic which slow down the network performance also it can harm the files in the network.  Network Devices Failure. These kinds of network failures may cause grate deal of problems to the network it will affect to the segments of the network and fill affect the entire network performance.

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According to the Mitchell (2010) following are the other problems that can be arising in a network;     Special Devices Won't Join the Network Certain Network Applications Won't Function Computers Can't Get on the Internet Network is Too Slow

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2.4 Connect the computers and other peripherals together to share the resources within the buildings
Following are the main types of networks types which will enable the users to create a small network. 1. LAN - Local Area Network 2. WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network

2.4.1 LAN - Local Area Network

According to the Cisco Networks (2010) a LAN is a: “High-speed data network that covers a relatively small geographic area, It typically connects workstations, personal computers, printers, servers, and other devices “ Size of the Network

According to the IEEE (2004) (802 LAN and MAN standards) LAN is capable of supporting around 200 end stations within the area of 2Km, but the distance can be expanded by using repeaters.

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2.4.2 WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network According to the Indiana univercity.com (2010):
A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a local area network (LAN) that doesn't rely on wired Ethernet connections. A WLAN can be either an extension to a current wired network or an alternative to it.

According o the U.S. Robotics (nd) following are the reasons to choose wireless networking over traditional wired networks include:   Running additional wires or drilling new holes in an office could be prohibited Flexibility of location

WLAN has its own IEEE standards which are 802.11a, b, or g standards (this also known as Wi-Fi). According to the Indiana univercity.com (2010):  802.11a: Data transfer rates up to 54Mbps, with this standard it is tested that it has less interference in an area with high radio frequency. This will broadcast in the range of 5GHz which will unable to go through the physical barriers. 802.11b: Data transfer rates up to 11Mbps; it has up to a 300feet radius transmission range which is better than 802.11a. With the frequency of 2.4GHz it will have more interference comparing to the 802.11a 802.11g: Data transfer rates up to 54Mbps; range is 120 feet which is shorter than 802.11b. This use the same frequency which used by the 802.11b so it has the same problems with the interference.

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2.4.3 Network topologies According to the Cisco Networks (1999) LAN topologies describe the ways which devices are connected to the network. There are main 4 topologies exists     Ring Bus Star Tree

Following table will describe the main 4 topologies of the LAN.

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Table 2 Network Topology

Name

Description

Graphical Representation

Ring LAN architecture consists of the devices which are connected to the each other and perform a loop. Ring IEEE 802.5Token Ring topology is the main standards used in here. Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.97) Bus topology is a linear architecture where each device is connected to the main communication line and a packet put in to the main communication media will be received to all the end stations. And IEEE 802.3 networks- bus topology is the main standards used in here. Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.95)

Bus

Star

Star topology is the architecture where the end points are connected to the centralized device such as Hub, Switch Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.96)

Tree

A tree topology is a LAN architecture which is mostly liked as bus topology but in the branches multiple nodes are available in here. Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.99)

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Table 3: Comparison of the LAN network Topologies

Comparison of the LAN network Topologies Implementation Maintenance Suited for No of stations   the  Performance Very High. Achieve the isolation of the each node Failure of the central device (Hub, Switch) causes the entire network failure. Perform well with small number of nodes Damage of the main cable will affect the entire network One fail of the node will cause the entire network failure Changes of the nodes affect the performance of the network. Very High. Achieve the isolation of the each node Failure of the central device (Hub, Switch) causes the entire network failure. Allow more device to connect

Star

Easy to Implement

Very Easy

Small, Medium Depend on business central device.

 Bus Easy to implement Easy Small Business Limited to the  length of the cable. Can connect stations but it increase collision rate of packets. the  will the  the

Ring

Hard to implement, and Central server is not required to Hard maintain the connection.

Small Business

Tree

Hard to implement

Easy

Good for Business.

  Allow more devices  the to connect due to the secondary Hubs 

Source: Buzzel.com, 2010 and Angek.C, 2010

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Table 4: Comparison between LAN and WLAN

Comparison between LAN and WLAN Cost

IEEE Standard

Performance

Installation

Reliability

Security High Low

Cost to Cost to Imple ment Mainta in

IEEE 802.3 networks- bus topology LAN IEEE 802.5Token Ring Easy, but have interferenc e from other devices Source: the Mitchell (2010 54 Mbp s 11 Mbp s. 54 Mbp s Rea sona bly High Very high Low High Hard High 100Mbps High Less High Low

IEEE 802.11a WLA N IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.11g

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According to Cisco Networks (2010) following are the Device Used in LAN networks

Table 5: Device Used in LAN networks

Description Hubs/Switches According to the Cisco Networks (2010) A HUB is a physical layer device which enable user to connect multiple user stations via a dedicated cable. Hub will not look on the routing it will redistribute the packets which it gets from a port to all the other ports available in the Hub. So these devices are good to mirror the traffic to another network. But Switch functions differently. Switches have main 2 categories 1. Layer 2 According to the Sridhar.T (1999) A multiport switch mainly works according to the MAC (Media Access Control) address. It will have a table of all the MAC address and port address of the devices which are connected to the particular switch. These switches ensure that every frame reach to its destination according to the destination MAC address and it will not send any packet to other ports. 2. Layer 3 According to the Sridhar.T (1999) Layer 3 switches mainly based on its hardware. The Layer 3 switches use routing protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) or Routing Information Protocol (RIP), by using these protocols Layer 3 switches build their own routing table which enable it to select the best path to route the packets. Repeaters According to the Cisco Networks (2010) A repeater is a physical layer device which uses to connect the fragment of the same network, main function of the repeaters is to amplify the signal which it gets and re transmit to the media. By this network can keep a steady signal throughout the communication and prevent the signal deterioration by long cable lengths and number of connected devices. According to the windowsnetworking (2010) wireless access points allow the other wireless systems to connect to the network by using wires communication method, these wireless access points connect to each other by using cables. According to the windowsnetworking (2010) these network cards are used to connect to the Access-Points, normally modern laptops are equipped with these cards, but desktop computers will not have these cards installed.

WLAN Access-point :

Network Interface card

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Table 6: Price of the Devices (Switches)

Price of the Devices (Switches) No of Ports 8 Port L1 Cisco (12) 33500 D-Link (4) 13000 Netgear (13) (9) (5) 20200 (8) (Authors work) (1) L2 10100 (10) 51600 (14) (3) (7) 76300 199300 L3 L1 16 Port L2 21000 (11) 48500 539900 (6) 54800 L3 L1 24 Port L2 47300 (2) 71700 L3 L1 48 Port L2 73900 L3

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2.4.4 Device names

1. Netgear Pro Safe GSM7328S-200NAS 2. Cisco SLM2048 48-Port Gigabit Smart Switch 3. D-Link 24-Port DGS-3627G xStack® Gigabit SFP Stackable 4. D-Link DGS-3200-10 Security Gigabit 5. D-Link KVM 16-Port KB 6. D-Link Switch 48-Port 10 7. NETGEAR FSM7352S PROSAFE 48-PORT 10/100MBPS & 4-PORT GIGABIT 8. NETGEAR - PROSAFE 24PORT GIGABIT STACKABLE SMART POE SWITCH 9. Netgear® FS116P ProSafe™ 16-Port 10/100 Desktop Switch 10. Cisco SR2016 16-Port 10/100/1000 Gigabit Switch 11. Cisco SR224G 24-Port 12. Cisco SD208P 13. Netgear Prosafe 8-Port Gigabit Smart Switch 14. D-Link xStack DES-3528 Ethernet switch

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2.5 Connect the sub branches to the main building to share the resources
According to the businesslink.com(2010) Following are the main ways to create a network within the large geographical area. 1. Wide Area Networks (WANs) 2. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

2.5.1 Wide Area Networks (WANs)

According to the Cisco Networks (1999) A WAN is a:
Data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies.

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Figure 2: WAN Network

Source: Cisco Networks (1999) WAN allows the computers, printers and other devices on a LAN to be shared using WAN.

According to the Cisco Networks (1999) WAN is designed to do the followings,    

Function over large geographically areas such as in different continents. Allow users to engage in real time communications. Provide full-time remote resources connected to local services Provide e-mail, World Wide Web, file transfer, and e-commerce service

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According to the Cisco Networks (1999) Main Type of WAN Connections
Table 7: Main Type of WAN Connections

Point-toPoint Links

Circuit Switching

Description Provide a single pre-establish Wan communication path through a carrier network. Point to Point lines are often called as leased lines. For a leased line the provider allocate a pair of wires and facilitate the hardware to the lines. Point to Point connections are generally more expensive and the price is based on the bandwidth and the distance between the connections. Data connections that can be initiated when needed and terminated the connection when the communication process is completed. When a router has data to be transmitted, switched circuit is initiated with the circuit number of the remote network. The devices actually dial a call to the telephone number of the remote ISDN circuit. After the 2 networks are properly connected and authenticated they can transfer the data between 2 locations and after the transmission is done it simply disconnect the connection.

Visual Representation

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This method allows users to share a common carrier resource. Cost of this method is low when comparing to the point to point type. Packet Switching In here many customers have connection to the carrier network and many customers share the same carrier network. When the data need to be transmit it create a virtual circuits between 2 locations to make the connection secure. Source: Cisco Networks (1999)

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Table 8: Advantages of WAN Connections

Point-to-Point Links

Good when  Long connect times          Short distances Critical traffic requirements that must be guaranteed A backup connection is required. You have a small site. Short-term on-demand access is needed. Long connect times Large geographic distances High link utilization High peaks of critical traffic (Authors work)

Circuit Switching

Packet Switching

Advantages   covers a large geographical area can shares software and resources      

Disadvantages Low Security High Latency Cost is High Slow connection Maintenance big hindrance Need full skilled IT workers

(Authors work)

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2.5.2 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) According to the Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.56) A virtual private network (VPN) “Is a private network that is constructed within a public network infrastructure such as the global Internet”

VPN maintain the same security and management policies as a private network and VPN is the most cost-effective method of creating a point-to-point connection between remote and enterprise user.

According to the Cisco Systems, Inc (2003, p.56) there are two common types of VPN 1. Remote-access VPNs 2. Site-to-site VPNs o Intranet-based o Extranet-based

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Table 9: VPN Types

Types

Description “Remote-access VPNs are also called virtual private dial-up networks. These are user-to-local area network (LAN) connections used by businesses with employees who need to connect to the private network from remote locations and use it as if they had a direct connection to the business LAN”

Remote-access VPNs

Intranet-based Site-to-site VPNs

“If a business has one or more remote locations that it wishes to join into a single private network, it can create an intranet VPN to connect LAN to LAN. This allows all parts of the business full access to data, as if they were on a single LAN.”

Extranet-based

“If a business wants to connect directly to a partner, supplier or customer, it can build an extranet VPN. This Provides limited access, only to those data areas that each party wishes the other to see.”

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Table 10: Comparison between WAN and VPN Availability Bandwidth Cost Ease of management Reliability Access control

WAN

Low. ( Some technologies may not be available in all the parts of the world)

Good. ( But cost lots of money for a higher bandwidth)

Very High ( mainly depend on the connection bandwidth and the time)

Hard to manage with the technology.

Good ( having a Backup connection might be necessary)

Good

VPN

High

Very Good ( Cost may be differ according to the connection speed)

Low. ( can Easy to be manage establish by using normal internet connection)

Good ( having a Backup connection might be necessary)

Good

(Authors work)

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2.6 Security
According to the Tyson.J (2010) a well designed VPN and Networks used several methods to secure the data, following are the main methods to secure the data:     Firewalls Encryption IPSec Proxy Server

2.6.1 Firewall According to the Tyson.J (2010) Firewall acts as a barrier between the private network and the internet. Company network administration can restrict the open ports and can set the rules such as what type of packets are passed through and which protocols are to be used. Traffic from the trusted side is not restricted. All other traffic such as mail traffic, ftp, snmp, etc. would not be allowed across the firewall and into the intranet To enable the public servers such as web, ftp and e-mail while maintaining tight security of the intranet companies used method call DMZ (demilitarized zone). In this there are 2 firewalls been used, one between the external network and the DMZ, and another between the DMZ, all the public servers are placed on the DMZ in here also firewall should be well programmed to incorporate with new setup. Internal firewall can block all the incoming connections

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2.6.2 Encryption This has 2 categories,   Symmetric-key encryption Public-key encryption
Table 11: Encryption Methods

Type Symmetric-key encryption

Description “Each computer has a secret key (code) that it can use to encrypt a packet of information before it is sent over the network to another computer. Symmetrickey encryption is essentially the same as a secret code that each of the two computers must know in order to decode the information. The code provides the key to decoding the message” “This uses a combination of a private key and a public key. The private key is known only to user computer, while the public key is given by user computer to any computer that wants to communicate securely with it. To decode an encrypted message, a computer must use the public key, provided by the originating computer and its own private key”

Public-key encryption

Source: Tyson.J (2010)

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2.6.3 Internet Protocol Security Protocol (IPSec) According to the NLST(2010) IPsec is a
Framework of open standards for ensuring private communications over IP networks which has become the most commonly used network layer security control. It can provide several types of protection, including maintaining confidentiality and integrity, authenticating the origin of data, preventing packet replay and traffic analysis, and providing access protection.

According to the Tyson.J (2010) IPSec has two following encryption modes:  Tunnel Tunnel encryption mode encrypts the header and payload of the each packet. 

Transport. Transport encryption mode only encrypt the payload of the each packet

IPSec can encrypt data between various devices, such as:   

Gateway-to-gateway Host-to-gateway Host-to-host.

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Table 12: Encrypt Types

Model Name Gateway-to-gateway

Description “It connects two networks by deploying a gateway to each network and establishing a VPN connection between the two gateways. The gateway-to-gateway is most often used when connecting two secured networks. Gateway-to-gateway VPNs are typically transparent to users and do not involve installing or configuring any software on clients or servers “ It connects hosts on various networks with hosts on the organization’s network by deploying a gateway to the organization’s network and permitting external hosts to establish individual VPN connections to that gateway. Communications are protected between the hosts and the gateway, but not between the gateway and the destination hosts within the organization. The host-togateway model is most often used when connecting hosts on unsecured networks to resources on secured networks, VPNs are typically not transparent to users because each user must authenticate before using the VPN and each host must have VPN client software installed and configured.

Host-to-gateway

Host-to-host.

It connects hosts to a single target host by deploying VPN software to each host and configuring the target host to receive VPN connections from the other hosts. This is the only VPN model that provides protection for data throughout its transit. The host-to-host model is resource-intensive to implement and maintain because it requires configuration on each host involved, including the target.

Source: NLST(2010)

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Table 13: Comparison of Security Type

Name

Primary Strengths

Primary Weaknesses - Can only protect IP-based communications - Requires client software to be configured (and installed on hosts without a built-in client) for host-to-gateway and host-to-host architectures - Does not protect communications between the clients and the IPsec gateway in gateway-to-gateway architectures

IPsec

+ Already supported by most operating systems + Can provide strong encryption and integrity protection + Transparent to clients in gateway-to-gateway architecture + Can use a variety of authentication protocols

L2TP

+ Can protect non-IP protocols + Can support multiple sessions per tunnel + Can use authentication protocols such as RADIUS + Can use IPsec to provide encryption and key management services

- Requires client software to be configured (and installed on hosts without a built-in client)

SSL/TLS

+ Already supported by all major Web browsers + Can provide strong encryption

- Can only protect TCP-based communications - Requires application servers and clients to support SSL/TLS - Typically implemented to authenticate the server to the client, but not the client to the server

Source: NLST(2010)

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2.7 Transmission Media
According to the University of South Florida (2010) following are the main network cable types

1. Twisted Pair Cables o Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable o Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable 2. Coaxial Cable 3. Fiber Optic Cable – (will not be discussed in here)

2.7.1 Twisted Pair Cables Twisted-pair cables are mostly used in modern telecommunications and modern Ethernet networks. Cable name itself describes the physical appurtenance of the cable. Two wires form a circuit which can transmit the data and the pair of cables is twisted to provide the protection over the crosstalk. Twisted-pair cables have divided into 2 types of sub categories according to the cover of the cable, 1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) 2. Shielded twisted pair (STP)

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2.7.1.1 Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Name itself indicate the specialty of the cable, UTP do not have special cover or shield to protect the cable form external damages and external magnetic fields, UTP cables mainly relies on the method of twisting the cable to minimize the unwanted signal interference to the transport signal.

Figure 3: Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable

Source: Cisco Systems Inc, 2006

Registered Jack 45 (RJ-45) is the connecters mainly used in the UTP and it has 8 wire connectors to connect the end station to a local LAN.

2.7.1.2 Categories of Unshielded Twisted Pair
Table 14: Categories of Unshielded Twisted Pair

Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6

Speed 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps (2 pair) 1,000 Mbps 10,000 Mbps

Use Voice Only (Telephone Wire) LocalTalk & Telephone 10BaseT Ethernet Token Ring (Rarely used) 100BaseT Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet

Source: University of South Florida (2010)

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2.7.1.3 Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable STP is designed to provide a proper protection to the cable from the external physical damages and noise interferences to the medium. Each pair of the cable is wrapped with a metallic foil and the four pair of wires is wrapped with another metallic foil.

Figure 4:Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable

Source: Cisco Systems Inc, 2006 STP use special data connectors to connect to the local LAN, however Registered Jack 45 (RJ-45) can also be used to connect.

2.7.2 Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable has a single copper conductor in the center of the cable and plastic layer around it provide the protection to the center copper conductor and it will also provide the insulation between the center conductor and the braided metal shield. This metal shield provides a good barrier to the outside interference. This metal mesh also covers with the plastic cover.

Figure 5: Coaxial Cable

Source: University of South Florida (2010) Bayone-Neill-Concelman (BNC) connectors are the main type of the connecters used to connect the Coaxial cable. There are different types of BNC connectors available, such as T-connector, barrel connector, and terminator. Connectors

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Table 15: Comparison of cables

Speed and throughput Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable 10 to 1000 Mbps

Average cost per node Bit expensive

Unshielded 10 to 1000 Twisted Mbps Pair (UTP) Cable

Coaxial Cable

10 to 1000 Mbps

Maximum cable Advantage length 100 m  Provide High protection against crosstalk  Easy to use  Small size can be helpful during installation  Easy to install  Less expensive  Can be used with most of the major networking architectures Least 100 m  Provide protection against crosstalk expensive  Easy to use  Small size can be advantageous during installation  Easy to install  Less expensive  Can be used with most of the major networking architectures Inexpensive 500 m  Cheaper for a physical bus topology  Can be run with fewer boosts from repeaters for longer distances between network nodes (Authors work)

Disadvantage   Cable is more prone to electrical noise and interference Distance between signal boosts is shorter

 

Cable is more prone to electrical noise and interference Distance between signal boosts is shorter

 

Thickness of the cable Hard to use

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2.7.3 Installing Cable - Some Guidelines

It is good to follow following steps when layering the cables,        Always use more cables than in necessary and leave plenty of slack for future enlargement of the network. Check each cable after it install. Check every part of the network even though the cables are brand-new Select the lowest interference areas of the building to lay the cables If the cables are run across the open areas of the building cover the cable by cable protector. Label the both end of the cables Use cable ties to keep the cables in same location together

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Table 16: Cable standards

Techni cal Name

Cable/ Wire type

Max. Segment/w ire Length

Maximu m number of Nodes/S egment 100

Advantages

Specificatio ns

Speed

10Base 5 10Base 2 10Base T 10Base F

Thick coaxial

500 meters

Long cable length Low cost

IEEE 802.3j

10 Mbits/s 10 Mbits/s 10 Mbits/s

RG58 (thin) 185 meters coaxial Twisted pair (like 100 meters telephon e wire) Fiberoptic 2,000 meters

30

IEEE 802.3ab

1024

Easy to maintain No noise interference

IEEE 802.3i

1024

IEEE 802.3j

10 Mbits/s

Source: Networkdictionary, 2010 and eeherald.com, 2010 and Cisco Networks, 1999

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2.8 Servers
2.8.1 Video Server According to the cctvcamerapros.com (2008) network video servers also known as IP video servers, it turns any CCTV camera into a network security camera. The main function of a network video server is to convert the analog signal getting from the cameras into a digital and also IP based video stream.

2.8.2 Application Server It is a server in a network which provides the business logic for an application program, I other words it used to run the applications in the network.

2.8.3 SIP server It is the main components of the IP PBX, and dealing with all the setup of SIP calls in a network. SIP server is also known as a SIP Proxy or SIP Registrar. Even though the SIP server is called as the most important part of the SIP based phone system it only handle the call setup and call tear down. It will not handle any audio signals.

2.8.4 Print Server According to the wisegeek.com (2010) printer server is a simple device which allows computers to communicate one or more printers which are connected to the network. 2.8.5 DHCP server Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server automatically assign an IP address to a computer or network devices form a defined range of number.

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2.8.6 Mail Server According to the wisegeek.com (2010) mail server is a computer that works as an electronic post office for emails. Mail exchanges are happen via the mail server and it has specially designed software to handle the mails in the network.

2.8.7 Proxy Server Proxy server is a computer that offers a computer network service to allow the user to make direct connection to the other network service. Proxy server acts as an agent between a user and the Internet, so that the network can ensure security, administrative control.

2.8.8 File Server File server allows the users to share information over a network without transferring the files physically.

2.8.9 Database Server A database server is computer program or a computer which provide the database services to the other computer programs. These servers need the DBMS software to manage the databases. 2.8.10 Backup Server It is a server which will save server data according to the rules which have predefined by the network administrations.

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2.9 Internet connections
There are 3 different types of internet connections available in the current market those are 1. Broadband 2. Leased Line 3. Dial-Up

2.9.1

Broadband Broadband connection allows high speed and support data, voice and video

information. It is called as broad because multiple kinds of information can be traveled across the wire. Broadband connections typically always on and no need to dial to connect to the servers and it provide a very cheap connections as well.

2.9.2 Dial-Up Dial up is an old method of the internet connection. It has a slow data rate and cost will be really high. User need to dial each time to connect to the server.

2.9.3 Leased Line Connect two locations for a private voice or data telecommunication services. It is not a dedicated Leased Line reserved circuit between two points. And cost will be bit high comparing with the broadband.

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3 Critical Evaluation
  According to the research based on the „Network types‟ there are main 2 types have been identified. Those are peer-to-peer and client server architecture. Peer-to-Peer architecture is less expensive to implement when comparing to the Client-Server architecture. Each computer in Peer-to-Peer need to take backups itself to recover the data but in client server model one centralized location can take the backups so it is easy to maintain the network in client server model.   Security also a major drawback in Peer-to-Peer architecture but in client server architecture it is easy to maintain the security due to the main server architecture. Client server architecture is high costly when comparing with the peer-to-peer architecture because it need to purchase more network equipments to implement.  Considering the all the facts it is good to use client server architecture to a network because it provides security, availability, high performance and ease of management. 

According to the research which was conduct based on the small area network wired LAN technology provides greater values to the network than the wireless LAN. Wired LAN provides a better connection speed comparing with the wireless LAN. Even though wireless LAN do not provide much of a security to the network like wired LAN it provide greater mobility to the network which is really important factor to the users. But most of these security issues can be overcome using newly build security mechanisms. Cost to implement is relatively less in wired LAN comparing with the wireless LAN even though maintain cost of wired LAN is really high.

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Four types of network topologies have been identified in the research; those are ring, bus, tree and star. Tree and star topologies are commonly used in the industry due to its performances. Tree topology provides a network which allows connecting more devices than other topologies.

  

Switches and repeaters are used to create wired LAN. Wireless access points and WLAN Network Interface card are been used in addition to switches and repeaters to connect wireless LAN. CISCO, D-Link, Netgear are the most famous network device providers in the market.

According to the research which was conduct based on the “Connect the sub branches to the main building to share the resources”; Wide Area Networks (WANs) and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are been identified as the best method to create a network.

WAN network type covers a large geographical area; it has 3 main types depend on the connection type those are Point-to-Point Links, Circuit Switching, and Packet Switching.

   

Point-to-Point links are good when it needs to have long connections in a shorter distance. Circuit switching good when the network needs to create in a small area and a backup connection will be preferred. Packet switching mechanism is used when it need a long connection time in a large geographical area. WAN has some major drawbacks. Such as the low security, high latency, implementing and maintain cost is very high and also the connection is very slow. Addition to that the company will need to have well skilled IT workers to maintain the system

VPN provide a great value to the modern networking concepts VPN has main 2 types Remote-access VPNs, Site-to-site VPNs.

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According to the research VPN is the best method to connect or share resource with a long distance network. Availability of the WAN is low in some parts of the world but the availability of VPN is really high comparing to the WAN.WAN provide a lesser bandwidth when comparing to the VPN and cost to implement is very high in WAN. Management is very easy with the VPN comparing to the WAN but having a backup connection will be a good implementation to both the methods.

Security is a main aspect of the modern networking. According to the research conduct there are various methods used to implement security features to the system.

Firewall is a good method to restrict the unwanted traffic to the network. Firewall can be implemented using hardware and software. DMZ (demilitarized zone) is a new concept to use in order to allow the users to connect to the public servers.

 

Encryption also a good way to maintain the security and it also can be achieved using different encryption mechanisms. IPsec, L2TP, SSL are the main frameworks which ensuring private

communications over IP networks. Each of these have its own positive and negatives.  IPsec support most of the operating systems and provide strong encryption mechanism. But the main drawback is it only can protect IP based communications and also need a client software to configured. Also does not protect the communication between client and the IPsec gateway in gateway-togateway architecture  L2TP is a tunneling protocol provides various features. It can protect non IPprotocols and support multiple sessions per tunnel. L2TP is used along with IPsec to provide encryption and key management services. L2TP also need to have client software to be installed and configured.

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SSL can provide strong encryptions and support all the major systems. But this only provides TCP based communications and requires application servers and clients to support SSL/TLS.

     

IPsec addition with L2TP is the best encryption protocol to use with VPN. According to the research based on the „Transmission media‟ main 3 categories have been identified. Twisted Pair Cables, Coaxial Cable and Fiber Optic Cables. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable and Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cables are the sub types of the Twisted Pair Cables STP cables and UTP cables both provide same speed and throughput. STP cables are bit more expensive comparing with the UTP. UTP cables more prone to electrical noise and interference than UTP. UTP cable need more signal boosters than STP to maintain a proper signal voltage. Coaxial cables offer a great speed and throughput comparing with the twistedpair cables. It also reduces the electronic interference form the outside and carries the signal with minimum interrupts. Thickness of the cable will be a disadvantage over the implementation and also can be run with the fewer signal boosters.

It is clear that Coaxial cable is a very good transport media to transport signal when comparing with the twisted pair cables.

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4 Conclusion
4.1 Connect the computers and other peripherals together to share the resources within the buildings Both the Wired LAN and Wireless LAN types been used within the branches to

create a network and to share the resources. Wireless LAN is used in order to give an access to the Laptop users. Security authentication mechanisms been used in order to provide the security to network from unauthorized people. Even though the initial cost will be high to implement both the technologies it will add a great deal of value to the network. Virtual LANS will be created within each LAN to categorize the network to different segments.

4.2

Connect the sub branches to the main building to share the resources. VPN technology been used over the WAN technology to connect the sub branches

to the main branch because it provide speed and more secure connection. Been small company and new to the technology it is a must for the company to use more flexible technology which needs minimum number of technical skilled people to operate. Addition to that VPN is more cost effective and been a company which operates in Asia it is good to use a technology which is available in this part of the world

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4.3

Maintain a centralized database for all the branches around the world to access. Client server architecture is used over the peer-to-peer architecture to cope with

the requirement of the company. Client server architecture provides great control over the security and the maintenance of the servers and can backup the entire database/server from one location. And also administration can monitor the entire network from a one place. Addition to all these facts been a new company to the technology and company also growing its business areas it is a need to expand the network and add more features to the network in future so the client server architecture enable to add more servers to extend the network in future without changing the network architecture.

4.4

Security To provide the security to the network hardware firewall is been used with a

software firewall. DMZ (demilitarized zone) concept is used when implementing the firewall to the system because it allows the users to connect to the public servers. IPsec and L2TP are used over the SSL framework when creating VPN connections because IPsec support with most of the operating systems and it provide a great encryption mechanism with the L2TP. It is really need to provide high security to the VPN connection because remote branches will access the main company building via VPN connection and they will be transmitting the data via the VPN connection. .

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4.5

Backup Special backup planes been used to backup the database and the connections

and it will be done using a special backup mechanism. Backup is a very essential in this architecture because entire network is based on the main site of the company and its servers. Two internet connections been used in the main company and special database backup mechanism also been used in here.

4.6

Communication Voice over IP been used in order to communicate within the branch because it is

cost effective and easy to implement. And also the maintain cost will be really low and can expand the network without expending lots of money for a normal communication method.

4.7

Monitoring Video servers and CCTV cameras were used implement IP cameras to the

network which will allow the company headquarters to monitor the activities of other branches and its own. This is very cheap method to use to monitor the live activities of the branches. But to implement this technology it is a must to have a high speed internet connection.

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4.8 Transmission media
Shielded twisted pair and unshielded twisted pair cables been used to connect the devices. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cables been used to connect floor the main floor switch to the main backbone switch. Reason for that is those cables is laid through the air duct with the electric cables which generate electromagnetic fields, to minimize the interference STP cables used even though it is bit costly to use STP over UTP. Unshielded Twisted Pair cables are used within the building floors since there are not much of noises or interferences to the cables comparing with the air duct. Even though the policies created like this; if the data been traveled in UTP is very sensitive then the STP cables been used on those situations.

4.9 Internet connection
Broadband connection been used to connect to the internet because it allow 24/7 connectivity to severs and it is cost effective.

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Network Diagrams

Figure 6: Main Network Diagram

In here two routers been used to take two connections and that have been done as a backup connection. Main firewall been used in the system and a separate proxy server also used to filter the net traffic.

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All the servers been connected to the one main layer 2 switch and floor switches are connected to the layer 3 main backbone switch. Video servers and video cameras are plug to a separate switch which will control the video traffic of the system. Video record system switch is connected to the main layer 3 switch. Each floor has its own Wi-Fi access point, which enables the laptop users to work in different locations. IP PBX is been used to implement the IP telephony to the network which will reduce the communication cost of the company. Separate switch is used to connect database server and the backup server; this is done to reduce the traffic of the main server switch. Telephones can be plugged to the switches of the floors to get the connection to them and also this network implementation allows the company to connect 65 computers to the network. If they want they can create virtual LAN and section the network.

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Figure 7: Overview of the main building network

This is the overview of the main building network.

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Figure 8: VPN Connection

VPN is used in order to connect to the main branch and each branch will have its own Firewall. Main office will have all the main servers and sub branches can connect to the servers and work as they are in the same network.

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5 Reference
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Cisco Systems Inc, 2006, Network Media Types, [Online], Available: http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/searchNetworking/downloads/CCNABasics8.pdf , [Accessed 12th October 2010] Cisco Systems, Inc, 2003, CCNA 1 and 2 Companion Guide, 3rd ed, Cisco Press, Indiana eeherald.com, 2010, Data Communication Standards and Protocols, [Online], Available: http://www.eeherald.com/section/design-guide/ieee802_3.html , [Accessed 12th October 2010] IEEE, 2004, Local and metropolitan area networks, IEEE Recommended Practice [Online], 802.16.2, Available: http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/8022001.pdf , [Accessed 12th October 2010] Indiana univercity.com , 2010, What is a wireless LAN?, [Online], Available: http://compnetworking.about.com/od/homenetworking/tp/commonproblems.htm , [Accessed 12th October 2010] Lysis, 2009, Definition of Computer Networking, [Online], Available: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5478976_definition-computer-networking.html , [Accessed 12th October 2010] Mitchell.B, Top 10 Home Networking Problems and Mistakes to Avoid, [Online], Available: http://compnetworking.about.com/od/homenetworking/tp/commonproblems.htm , [Accessed 12th October 2010] Mitchell.B, Wired vs Wireless Networking, [Online], Available: http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/homenetworking/a/homewiredless.htm , [Accessed 12th October 2010] Networkdictionary.com, 2010, The mostly used Ethernet cable standards and Specifications, [Online], Available: http://www.networkdictionary.com/networking/EthernetCableStandardsSpecifications.ph p , [Accessed 12th October 2010] NLST, 2010, Guide to IPsec VPN,Technology Guide,[Online],vol 1(01), Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-77/sp800-77.pdf , [Accessed 12th October 2010]

67 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology | CB002976

Hardware, Software Systems and Networks II

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68 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology | CB002976

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