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# CONFIDENTIAL 1 EC/DEC 2016/CES512/513/508

## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FINAL EXAMINATION

## COURSE : COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR

ENGINEERS/COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS FOR
ENGINEERS
COURSE CODE : CES512/513/508
EXAMINATION : DECEMBER 2016
TIME : 3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

## 1. This question paper consists of four (4) questions.

2. Answer ALL questions in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page.

3. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
invigilator.

## i) the Question Paper

ii) an Answer Booklet – provided by the Faculty
iii) a two-page of graph paper
iv) a five-page Appendix 1

## DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

This examination paper consists of 5 printed pages

## © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL 2 EC/DEC 2016/CES512/513/508

QUESTION 1

SIX (6) sub-grade soil samples have been studied from a borehole report. The relationship
between the vertical stress, Sc, of sub-grade material and the soil depth, x, is given as
follows:

SC = a0 + a1x + a2x2

The soil vertical stresses were measured at various depths in a clay stratum as shown in
Table Q1.

Table Q1

## Sample Depth, x Vertical Stress,

No. (m) SC (kPa)

1 1.9 2.1
2 3.1 7.7
3 4.2 13.6
4 5.1 35.2
5 5.8 40.9
6 6.9 61.1

a) Formulate the problem on finding the equations between the depth and the vertical
stress based on the given data in Table Q1 using the least square method.
(18 marks)

b) Solve the formulation for finding the coefficient a0, a1 and a2 using the LU
Decomposition method.
(7 marks)

## © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL 3 EC/DEC 2016/CES512/513/508

QUESTION 2

## a) A polluted reservoir has an initial concentration of heavy metals of 1 x 10 7 parts/m3 at

beginning of the heavy metal exposure. By using any of the Runge-Kutta second
order method, compute the concentration of the heavy metals after 6 weeks, by
considering the beginning exposure time as 0 week. The differential equation of the
concentration is given by the following equation.

dC
+ 0.06C=0
dt
where
C is the heavy metal concentration level (part/m3)
t is the time (weeks)

## Use the step size of 1.5 week for the computation.

(15 marks)
b) Figure Q2(b) shows a schematic diagram of combined pad footing and its loadings. The
combined pad footing is imposed by an uplift earth pressure which has been converted
to a uniformly distributed load of 904 kN/m and two column loads at point B of 1720 kN
and C of 2440 kN. The moment equation for segment BC of range 0.54 ≤ x ≤ 3.54 m is
given as follows:
MBC = 452x2 - 1720x+928.8

1720 kN 2440 kN
m m

B C

904 kN/m

## 0.54 m 3.0 m 1.06 m

m m Q2(b)
Figure m

Determine the position of distance, x, where the value of the bending moment is 10%
from the maximum negative moment given by MBC equation using the Bisection
method. Perform the iteration until the approximate relative error, εa falls below 1%.
(10 marks)

## © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL 4 EC/DEC 2016/CES512/513/508

QUESTION 3

a) A simply supported beam with a point load, P, and a uniformly distributed load, w is
shown in Figure Q3 has elastic modulus of 200 GPa and moment of inertia of
1.07 x 10-3 m4. The structural engineer is required to decide the P and w values that
satisfy two types of requirements; the load carrying capacity of the beam requirements
and load capacity as shown in Table Q3(a). The engineer has also to ensure that the
decided P and w values will produce the maximum beam deflection. The total deflection
at the mid-span is contributed by the deflection of uniformly distributed load and point
5wL4
load. Consider that δw = 384 EI
is the deflection of uniformly distributed load, w, while
3
PL
δP = is the deflection due to point load, P.
48EI

P kN

w kN/m

2.5 m 2.5 m
Figure Q3

Table Q3(a)

## Parameter of the beam Constraints

Point Load, P ≤ 40 kN
Uniform Distributed Load, w ≤150 kNm
Shear Force at support ≥ 30kN
Bending moment at mid-span, M ≥ 60 kNm

Using the Graphical method, formulate the problem to solve the P and w values that
satisfying the above situation.
(10 marks)

b) Based on the plotted feasible region obtained in Q3(a), compute the feasible region
area using single Trapezoidal Rule.

(15 marks)

## © Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL 5 EC/DEC 2016/CES512/513/508

QUESTION 4

Figure Q4 shows a two-bar truss structure subjected to a point load of 1500 kN. The
segment truss bars, AB and BC, have a circular cross-section of 50 mm diameter and the
truss is made of steel with elastic modulus of 200 GPa.

a) Explain with the suitable diagrams the principles of Finite Element method to solve a
truss structure.
(10 marks)

b) Assemble the element stiffness matrix equation for elements 1 and 2 as the structural
global equation.
(8 marks)

c) By using the structural global equation established in Q4(b), determine the nodal
displacements and the reaction forces.
(7 marks)
1500 kN

1 2

A 45° 45° C

1.8 m 1.8 m
m m
Figure Q4