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FINAL EXAMINATION

ENGINEERS/COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS FOR

ENGINEERS

COURSE CODE : CES512/513/508

EXAMINATION : DECEMBER 2016

TIME : 3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

2. Answer ALL questions in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page.

3. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the

invigilator.

ii) an Answer Booklet – provided by the Faculty

iii) a two-page of graph paper

iv) a five-page Appendix 1

This examination paper consists of 5 printed pages

CONFIDENTIAL 2 EC/DEC 2016/CES512/513/508

QUESTION 1

SIX (6) sub-grade soil samples have been studied from a borehole report. The relationship

between the vertical stress, Sc, of sub-grade material and the soil depth, x, is given as

follows:

SC = a0 + a1x + a2x2

The soil vertical stresses were measured at various depths in a clay stratum as shown in

Table Q1.

Table Q1

No. (m) SC (kPa)

1 1.9 2.1

2 3.1 7.7

3 4.2 13.6

4 5.1 35.2

5 5.8 40.9

6 6.9 61.1

a) Formulate the problem on finding the equations between the depth and the vertical

stress based on the given data in Table Q1 using the least square method.

(18 marks)

b) Solve the formulation for finding the coefficient a0, a1 and a2 using the LU

Decomposition method.

(7 marks)

CONFIDENTIAL 3 EC/DEC 2016/CES512/513/508

QUESTION 2

beginning of the heavy metal exposure. By using any of the Runge-Kutta second

order method, compute the concentration of the heavy metals after 6 weeks, by

considering the beginning exposure time as 0 week. The differential equation of the

concentration is given by the following equation.

dC

+ 0.06C=0

dt

where

C is the heavy metal concentration level (part/m3)

t is the time (weeks)

(15 marks)

b) Figure Q2(b) shows a schematic diagram of combined pad footing and its loadings. The

combined pad footing is imposed by an uplift earth pressure which has been converted

to a uniformly distributed load of 904 kN/m and two column loads at point B of 1720 kN

and C of 2440 kN. The moment equation for segment BC of range 0.54 ≤ x ≤ 3.54 m is

given as follows:

MBC = 452x2 - 1720x+928.8

1720 kN 2440 kN

m m

B C

904 kN/m

m m Q2(b)

Figure m

Determine the position of distance, x, where the value of the bending moment is 10%

from the maximum negative moment given by MBC equation using the Bisection

method. Perform the iteration until the approximate relative error, εa falls below 1%.

(10 marks)

CONFIDENTIAL 4 EC/DEC 2016/CES512/513/508

QUESTION 3

a) A simply supported beam with a point load, P, and a uniformly distributed load, w is

shown in Figure Q3 has elastic modulus of 200 GPa and moment of inertia of

1.07 x 10-3 m4. The structural engineer is required to decide the P and w values that

satisfy two types of requirements; the load carrying capacity of the beam requirements

and load capacity as shown in Table Q3(a). The engineer has also to ensure that the

decided P and w values will produce the maximum beam deflection. The total deflection

at the mid-span is contributed by the deflection of uniformly distributed load and point

5wL4

load. Consider that δw = 384 EI

is the deflection of uniformly distributed load, w, while

3

PL

δP = is the deflection due to point load, P.

48EI

P kN

w kN/m

2.5 m 2.5 m

Figure Q3

Table Q3(a)

Point Load, P ≤ 40 kN

Uniform Distributed Load, w ≤150 kNm

Shear Force at support ≥ 30kN

Bending moment at mid-span, M ≥ 60 kNm

Using the Graphical method, formulate the problem to solve the P and w values that

satisfying the above situation.

(10 marks)

b) Based on the plotted feasible region obtained in Q3(a), compute the feasible region

area using single Trapezoidal Rule.

(15 marks)

CONFIDENTIAL 5 EC/DEC 2016/CES512/513/508

QUESTION 4

Figure Q4 shows a two-bar truss structure subjected to a point load of 1500 kN. The

segment truss bars, AB and BC, have a circular cross-section of 50 mm diameter and the

truss is made of steel with elastic modulus of 200 GPa.

a) Explain with the suitable diagrams the principles of Finite Element method to solve a

truss structure.

(10 marks)

b) Assemble the element stiffness matrix equation for elements 1 and 2 as the structural

global equation.

(8 marks)

c) By using the structural global equation established in Q4(b), determine the nodal

displacements and the reaction forces.

(7 marks)

1500 kN

1 2

A 45° 45° C

1.8 m 1.8 m

m m

Figure Q4

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