This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
y Refers to the measures, such as the division of large properties into smaller ones that are taken to bring about a more equitable apportionment of agricultural land. y Involves the redistribution of land to farmers and regular workers who are landless and are irrespective of tenurial arrangement. y It doesn t only focus on land distribution, but includes a package support services (credit measures, training, irrigation, roads and bridges, marketing facilities) and human resources. y It can refer more broadly to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of a country. What is the difference between Land Reform and Agrarian Reform? Land Reform y Focuses on the redistribution of agricultural land by breaking up large landholdings and apportioning shares to small farmers, peasants, etc. y It is concerned with rights in land, and their character, strength and distribution. Agrarian Reform y Focuses not only on rights in land but also a broader set of issues: the class character of the relations of production and distribution in farming and related enterprises and how these connect to the wider class structure. y It is thus concerned to economic and political power and the relations between them.
American Period Significant legislations: . In turn. y However. y Practically everyone had access to the fruits of the soil. Emilio Aguinaldo declared in the Malolos Constitution his intention to confiscate large estates. maintain peace and order within. it degenerated into abuse of power by the encomienderos. The tribute soon became land rents to a few powerful landlords. especially the so-called Friar lands. However. 1st Philippine Republic Gen. the encomiendero acquired the right to collect tribute from the indios . and support the missionaries. the concept of encomienda (Royal Land Grants) was introduced. and rice served as the medium of exchange. Then.BRIEF HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF AGRARIAN REFORM Pre-Spanish Period y Before the Spaniards came to the Philippines. natives who once cultivated the lands in freedom were transformed into mere share tenants. Aguinaldo s plan was never implemented. Spanish Period y When the Spaniards came to the Philippines. as the Republic was short-lived. This system grants that Encomienderos to defend his encomienda from external attack. Filipinos lived in villages or barangays ruled by chiefs or datus and was composed of different classes in the social structure. Money was unknown.
y Public Land Act of 1903 introduced the homestead system in the Philippines.000. y Land Registration Act of 1902 provided for a comprehensive registration of land titles under the Torrens system. Quezon (1935-1944): Commonwealth Act No. However. 000. 441 created the National Settlement Administration with a capital stock of P20. it did not solve the problem completely as people could not pay the survey cost and other fees required in applying for a Torrens title.y Philippine Bill of 1902 sets the ceilings on the hectarage of private individuals and corporations may acquire: 16 hectares for private individuals and 1. 461 specified reasons for the dismissal of tenants and only with the approval of the Tenancy Division of the Department of Justice. Commonwealth Act No.00 . y Tenancy Act of 1933 regulated relationships between landowners and tenants of rice (50-50 sharing) and sugar cane lands. 178 (An Amendment to Rice Tenancy Act No. Manuel L. 4045) provided for certain controls in the landlord-tenant relationships National Rice and Corn Corporation (NARIC)-established the price of rice and corn thereby helps the poor tenants as well as consumers. y The Torrens system is a system that the Americans instituted for the registration of lands. Commonwealth Period Significant legislations under Pres.024 hectares for corporations. Rural Program Administration provided the purchase and lease of haciendas and their sale and lease to the tenants. Commonwealth Act No.
34 -established the 70-30 sharing arrangements and regulating share-tenancy contracts. President Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953)enacted the following law: Executive Order No. President Manuel Roxas (1946-1948)enacted the following laws: Republic Act No. y Unfortunately. y Upon the arrival of the Japanese in the Philippines in 1942. Many peasants took up arms and identified themselves with the anti-Japanese group. These became worst in certain areas. 355 . The Third Republic After the establishment of the Philippine Independence in 1946. Thus the Congress of the Philippines revised the tenancy law. peasants and workers organizations grew strength. the HUKBALAHAP (Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon).replaced the National Land Settlement Administration with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) which takes over the responsibilities of the Agricultural Machinery Equipment Corporation and the Rice and Corn Production Administration. 3. President Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) enacted the following laws: . Republic Act No. 55 -provided for a more effective safeguard against arbitrary ejectment of tenants. the problems of land tenure remained.Japanese Occupation y Hukbalahap controlled whole areas of Central Luzon y Landlords who supported the Japanese lost their lands to peasants while those who supported the Huks earned fixed rentals in favor of the tenants. 2. 1. the end of the war also signaled the end of gains acquired by the peasants.
The law provided the security of tenure of tenants. 821 (Creation of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration) . y Republic Act No. 3844 (Agricultural Land Reform Code) -. incorporated extension.abolished the LASEDECO and established the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to resettle dissidents and landless farmers. institutionalized leasehold.governed the relationship between landowners and tenant farmers by organizing sharetenancy and leasehold system. It strengthens the position of farmers and expanded the scope of agrarian reform. 6389. (Code of Agrarian Reform) and RA No. institutionalized a judicial system of agrarian cases. 6390 created the Department of Agrarian Reform and the Agrarian Reform Special Account Fund. It also created the Court of Agrarian Relations. 5.Created the Land Tenure Administration (LTA) which was responsible for the acquisition and distribution of large tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares for individuals and 600 hectares for corporations. 1199 (Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954) -. President Ferdinand Marcos (1965-1986) enacted the following laws: y Republic Act No. y Republic Act No. invested rights of preemption and redemption for tenant farmers. .y Republic Act No. 1160 of 1954 . 1400 (Land Reform Act of 1955). provided for an administrative machinery for implementation. set retention limit at 75 hectares. 4. y Republic Act No.provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of six to eight percent.Abolished share tenancy. President Diosdado Macapagal (1961-1965) enacted the following law: y Republic Act No. marketing and supervised credit system of services of farmer beneficiaries y The RA was hailed as one that would emancipate Filipino farmers from the bondage of tenancy. It was particularly aimed at rebel returnees providing home lots and farmlands in Palawan and Mindanao.
Aquino (1986-1992) y The ratified Constitution by the Filipino people during the administration of President Aquino provides under Section 21 under Article II that The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform. It enjoined all agencies and offices of the government to extend full cooperation and assistance to the DAR. y Executive Order No. 131 instituted the CARP as a major program of the government. 6657 or otherwise known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL). This law is still the one being implemented at present. It also determined the value remaining unvalued rice and corn lands subject of PD 27 and provided for the manner of payment by the FBs and mode of compensation to landowners. y Republic Act No. y She enacted the following laws: y Executive Order No. she signed into law Republic Act No. with an initial amount of Php50 billion to cover the estimated cost of the program from 1987-1992. 129.a streamlined and expanded the power and operations of the DAR. y Proclamation No. y Presidential Decree No. y In 1988. . President Corazon C. 6. 6657 (Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law) an act which instituted a comprehensive agrarian reform program to promote social justice and industrialization providing the mechanism for its implementation and for other purposes. 229 provided mechanism for the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). 2-declared the country under land reform program. It also activated the Agrarian Reform Coordinating Council. 228 declared full ownership to qualified farmerbeneficiaries covered by PD 27.y Presidential Decree No. 27 -restricted land reform scope to tenanted rice and corn lands and set the retention limit at 7 hectares. y Executive Order No. It provided for a special fund known as the Agrarian Reform Fund (ARF).
407 accelerated the acquisition and distribution of agricultural lands. 8. 8435 (Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act AFMA) plugged the legal loopholes in land use conversion. 405 vested in the Land Bank of the Philippines the responsibility to determine land valuation and compensation for all lands covered by CARP. Ramos (1992-1998) enacted the following laws: Republic Act No. Republic Act No. President Fidel V. DAR forged into joint ventures with private investors into agrarian sector. pasture lands. agro-forestry lands and other lands of the public domain suitable for agriculture.y Executive Order No. Magkabalikat Para sa Kaunlarang Agraryo or MAGKASAKA. 363 limits the type of lands that may be converted by setting conditions under which limits the type of lands that may be converted by setting conditions under which specific categories of agricultural land are either absolutely non-negotiable for conversion or highly restricted for conversion. y Executive Order No. President Gloria Macapacal-Arroyo (2001-Present) enacted the following laws: . fishponds. Executive Order No. Republic Act 8532 (Agrarian Reform Fund Bill) provided an additional Php50 Billion for CARP and extended its implementation for another 10 years. 7. 9. Republic Act No. 7905 strengthened the implementation of the CARP. President Joseph E. Estrada (1998-2001) initiated the enactment of the following law: Executive Order N0. 151 (Farmer s Trust Fund) allowed the voluntary consolidation of small farm operation into medium and large scale integrated enterprise that can access long-term capital. 7881 amended certain provisions of RA 6657 and exempted fishponds and prawns from the coverage of CARP.
provides medical assistance to indigent Filipinos to enhance the ability of Agricultural Reform Beneficiaries to be more economically productive and defray cost of hospitalization expenses. Provision of Support Services Re-named the Department of Agrarian Reform to Department of Land Reform. Department of Agrarian Reform. into rural economic zones that will help in the creation of job opportunities in the countryside. The order commanded the Department of Land Reform to revert back to its original name. President Diosdado Macapagal Agrarian Scholarship Program (PDMASP) another program under the program beneficiary development (PBD) which . Greater Medical Assistance (GMA)sa Bayanihan Program . KALAHI ARZone . 2005. Includes improved land tenure system through land distribution and leasehold. making it accountable for all land reform activities and programs in Philippines. controller and supervisory body of the Philippine Commission on Urban Poor (PCUP) Executive Order No. also provide funds to help increase land productivity.enacted to widen the areas of operation of the Department of Land Reform. Infrastructure Projects to transform the agrarian reform communities (ARCs). Executive Order 364 . Sixty percent of the money is meant for land acquisition.These zones consists of one or more municipalities with concentration of ARC population to achieve greater agro-productivity. 456 signed on August 23.implementation of land acquisition and distribution component of CARP.The KALAHI Agrarian Reform (KAR). It made the department. 2014 to allot more time for the distribution of agricultural lands. an area focused and integrated delivery of support services. Signed CARP extension bill into law extending it until June 30.1 billion) budget. Land Tenure Improvement. Signed RA 9700 or the CARPER law which will extend the funding for Land Acquisition and Distribution with Compulsory Acquisition. The bill has a P150 billion ($3.
including farm-to-market roads. and trainings. COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM y In June 10. y It covers all disposable lands of the public domain devoted to or suitable for agriculture regardless of the agricultural products raised or that can be raised thereon. potable water supply. extension services. Aquino signed into law Republic Act No. y Land to the tiller is the essence of land reform. President Corazon C. post harvest facilities. Land Tenure Improvement. enable them to venture in income generating livelihood projects and actively participate in community governance. rural electrification. multi purpose buildings. and provides them with necessary productive resources needed to ensure their economic viability and productivity. and for other purposes.concerns on giving free college education to children and direct descendants of CARP beneficiaries. proving the mechanism for its implementation. bridges. promotes social equity. 1988. but also on the delivery of support services. 2. credit assistance. y Leasehold programs are implemented to secure the tenure of farmers' in landowners retained areas and CARP covered properties that are not yet distributed. school buildings. irrigation. . Program Beneficiaries Development-the support services component of CARP that aims to capacitate ARB s and provides them access to the necessary support services to make their lands more productive.secures farmers' tenure. 6657 or otherwise known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL) y It is an act instituting CARP to promote social justice and industrialization. Achievements of CARP 1. y Agrarian reform does not rely on land distribution alone.
3. Agrarian Justice Delivery . and mediation and conciliation. Mission: To lead in the implementation of agrarian reform and sustainable rural development in the countryside through land tenure improvement and provision of integrated development services to landless farmers. Vision: "A nation where there is equitable land ownership and empowered . y DAR is vested with the primary jurisdiction to determine and adjudicate agrarian reform matters and to extend free legal assistance to farmerbeneficiaries affected by agrarian cases as it utilize alternative dispute resolution techniques in mediation to reduce conflicts maturing into court cases. DEPARTMENT OF AGRARIAN REFORM y The leading implementing agency of Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). y It orchestrates the delivery of support services to farmer-beneficiaries and promotes the development of viable agrarian reform communities. ARB representation before judicial and quasijudicial bodies. y Adjudication of cases involves the resolution of cases by the DAR Adjudication Board (DARAB) and any of its salas.has two features: the Agrarian Legal Assistance and Adjudication of Cases. y It conducts land survey in resettlement areas. undertakes land acquisition and distribution and land management studies. and the delivery of agrarian justice". y It undertakes land tenure improvement and development of program beneficiaries. y Agrarian legal assistance is comprised of resolution of agrarian law implementation (ALI) cases. farm workers and small landowner-cultivators.
It was named after Luisita. The estate is said to be as large as the cities of Makati and Pasig combined.which is the wife of the head Tabacalera. the lands would be distributed to the . HISTORY Don Antonio Lopez acquired the estate in 1882 The Hukbalahap rebellion led the Spanish owners of Tabacalera to sell Hacinda Luisita and the sugar mill Central Azucarrera de Tarlac.435-hectare plantation estate located in Tarlac owned by the Cojuangco family.9 million from Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) P12 million was paid to the Azucarrera and P4 million was paid for the land This was guaranteed by the Central Bank and GSIS with a condition such as in a certain period of time. Jose Don Pepe Cojuangco acquired the Azucarrera and the land in August 1957 through a loan of $2. GOALS OF D.1 million from Manufacturers Trust Company of New York and P5.R : y LAND TENURE IMPROVEMENT y PROGRAM BENEFICIARIES DEVELOPMENT y AGRARIAN JUSTICE DELIVERY HACIENDA LUISITA What is Hacienda Luisita? A 6. It was once part of the holdings of Campañia General Tabacos de Filipinas also known as Tabacalera.A. Don Antonio Lopez.agrarian reform beneficiaries who are effectively managing their economic and social development for a better quality of life".
.agricultural workers in line of the social justice policy of the Magsaysay government. in 2005. the Supreme Court issued a temporary restraining order. Teresita Lopa. At present.000 hectares of Hacienda Luisita were placed under a stock distribution agreement between the landowners and farm workers. the property is owned and managed by Hacienda Luisita Incorporated which was established on August 23. However. 1988. the GSIS issued resolutions demanding the Cojuangcos to distribute the lands to agricultural workers. stopping the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council from parceling out the land to the workers. who control 70% of Hacienda Luisita's stock shares. the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council rejected with finality the motion of Hacienda Luisita Incorporated to reconsider the revocation of the stock distribution agreement. are Pedro Cojuangco. Issues regarding Hacienda Luisita The Cojuangcos have often garnered criticism for their ownership of the estate. However. The estate's incorporators. In February 1958. In compliance with the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program nearly 5. In 1985. In May 2006. Josephine Reyes. citing that it had failed to improve the lives of more than 5. then Manila Regional Trial Court judge Bernardo Pardo ordered the distribution of lands to be divided to agricultural workers. all brothers and sisters of the late former President Corazon Aquino.000 farmer beneficiaries. the Department of Agrarian Reform canceled the stock distribution agreement. Hacienda Luisita Incorporated appealed this decision.
The remaining 30% of the stock shares was given to farm workers under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program's stock distribution option scheme. increased benefits and. no arrests were made. . Hacienda Luisita massacre On November 16. 2004. The protesters were pushing for fairer wages. a greater commitment for national land reform. more broadly. twelve picketing farmers and two children were killed and hundreds were injured when police and soldiers dispatched by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo s then Labor Secretary Patricia Sto. government soldiers and security personnel firing into the picket line. Tomas stormed a blockade by plantation workers. Despite witness accounts of police.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.