MICHAEL FULLAN

Presentation — Turnaround Schools/Turnaround Systems National Title 1 Annual Conference Long Beach, California, January 2007 Using Change Knowledge NCLB    NCLB as been a massive failure of opportunity lost. The key to success is to use practical change knowledge as the basis for strategizing. Success is defined as raising the bar and closing the gap on a very large scale — whole districts, whole states, whole countries.

England – Literacy: Percentage Level 4 or Above

— DfES, England, 2004

England - Numeracy: Percentage Level 4 or Above

— DfES, England, 2004

1

Turnaround Schools/Turnaround Systems

Tri-Level Reform

The Turnaround Problem

   

Awful Adequate Good Great

Gap Consequences

 

The biology of low psychological factors as they affect health hinge on the extent to which they cause frequent or recurrent stress. Low status has corrosive social consequences such as feeling looked down on, which lead to depression, anxiety, helplessness, hostility, insecurity and a lack of sense of control.
— Wilkinson, 2005

Turnaround Strategies

• • •

Have a heavy preponderance of external input and control, and fail to produce internal capacity and motivation. Under conditions of external control teachers either comply (thus getting short term gains) or if they have options (often the better teachers) leave. Initial focus on control reduces gross inefficiencies, and reverses decline, but only initially — from awful to adequate and then at best plateau.
— Minthrop, 2004

www.MichaelFullan.ca

2007

2

Turnaround Schools/Turnaround Systems

Newish Concepts

     

Capacity building with a focus on results Learning in context Professional learning communities Lateral capacity building De-privatization and precision System identity

What is Change?

  

New materials New behaviour/practices New beliefs/understanding

The Pathways Problem

6 Key Insights:

Insight #1

Shared vision or ownership is more an outcome of a quality process than a precondition. The size and prettiness of the planning document is inversely related to the amount and quality of action, and in turn, to student achievement.
— Reeves, 2006

Insight #2

Insight #3 Insight #4

Behavior changes before beliefs.

The Implementation Dip
— Fullan, 2003

The J Curve
— Jellison, 2006

www.MichaelFullan.ca

2007

3

Turnaround Schools/Turnaround Systems

Insight #5

Brain Barriers
BB#1: Failure to See BB#2: Failure to Move BB#3: Failure to Finish
— Black & Gregersen, 2002

BB #1: Failure to See
   The comprehensiveness mistake The ‘I get it’ mistake Illuminate the right thing
— Black & Gregersen, 2002

BB #2: Failure to Move The clearer the new vision the more immobilized people become! Why?
— Black & Gregersen, 2002

Right Thing Poorly The clearer the new vision, the easier it is for people to see all the specific ways in which they will be incompetent and look stupid. Many prefer to be competent at the old wrong thing than incompetent at the new right thing.
— Black & Gregersen, 2002

BB #3: Failure to Finish People get tired. People get lost.
— Black & Gregersen, 2002

Insight #6

Technical vs Adaptive Challenge Heifetz distinguishes between technical problems and adaptive challenges. Technical problems are ones for which our current know-how is sufficient. Adaptive challenges are more complex and go beyond what we know. Heifetz identifies several properties of adaptive challenges: 1. The challenge consists of a gap between aspiration and reality demanding a response outside our current repertoire. 2. Adaptive work to narrow the gap requires difficult learning. 3. The people with the problem are the problem, and they are the solution. 4. Adaptive work generates disequilibrium and avoidance. 5. Adaptive work takes time.
— Heifetz & Linsky, 2002

www.MichaelFullan.ca

2007

4

Turnaround Schools/Turnaround Systems

10 Elements of Successful Change

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Define closing the gap as the overarching goal Attend initially to the three basics Be driven by tapping into people’s dignity and sense of respect Ensure that the best people are working on the problem Recognize that all successful strategies are socially-based Assume that lack of capacity is the initial problem and then work on it continually Stay the course through continuity of good direction by leveraging leadership Build internal accountability linked to external accountability Establish conditions for the evolution of positive pressure Use the previous nine strategies to build public confidence
— Fullan, 2006

The Three Levels

  

Schools District State/Federal

Influences on School Capacity and School Student Achievement

— Newmann, King & Youngs, 2000

School Capacity

The collective power of the full staff to improve student achievement. School capacity includes and requires: 1. Knowledge, skills, dispositions of individuals 2. Professional community 3. Program coherence 4. Technical resources 5. Principal leadership

www.MichaelFullan.ca

2007

5

Turnaround Schools/Turnaround Systems

Professional Learning

    

Reflective dialogue De-privatization of practice Collective focus on student learning Collaboration Shared norms and values
— Kruse, et al, 1994

Worries About PLCs

• • •

Superficiality The latest innovation Bias of school autonomy
— Fullan, 2006a

6 Elements of Professional Learning Communities

1. A focus on learning 2. A collaborative culture re learning for all 3. Collective inquiry into best practice and current reality 4. Action orientation: learning by doing 5. A commitment to continuous learning 6. Results orientation
— Dufour, et al, 2006

Influences on School Capacity and School Student Achievement

— Newmann, King & Youngs, 2000

www.MichaelFullan.ca

2007

6

Turnaround Schools/Turnaround Systems

District-Wide Reform

• • • •

Leading with purpose and focusing direction A comprehensive and coherent implementation strategy Developing precision in knowledge, skills, and daily practices using data informed inquiry and decisions Building administrator and teacher capacity across all schools and levels

State/Federal

• •

Capacity building with a focus on results Operational version of this depends on context; see the Ontario strategy next slide for a full version

The Ontario Strategy

• • • • • • • •

Guiding coalition Peace and stability/distractors The literacy numeracy secretariat Negotiating aspirational targets Building capacity Enhanced and targeted resources The evolution of positive pressure Connecting the dots with key complementary components

Breakthrough Results

• • •

Achieving 95% proficiency in literacy and numeracy by age 11 Professional development is not professional learning Every teacher, every school, every district improving every day

www.MichaelFullan.ca

2007

7

Turnaround Schools/Turnaround Systems

Triple ‘P’ Core Components

— Fullan, Hill & Crévola, 2006

Breakthrough Framework

— Fullan, Hill & Crévola, 2006

www.MichaelFullan.ca

2007

8

Turnaround Schools/Turnaround Systems

CLIP

• • • • • • •

Mapping the instructional path Measuring and monitoring learning Using the data to drive/inform instruction Classroom organization Loops and detours in CLIP Beyond early literacy Locking in ongoing improvement
— Fullan, Hill & Crévola, 2006

Action Bias

It is not learning by doing but learning by “thinking” in relation to doing. Improvement is more a function of learning to do the right thing “in settings where you work”. The problem is that there is almost no opportunity to engage in continuous and sustained learning in the settings in which people actually work (Elmore,2004). If the re-authorization of NCLB does not get the core points about capacity building nothing has been learned about the failure of NCLB to reach anywhere near its potential.

www.MichaelFullan.ca

2007

9

Turnaround Schools/Turnaround Systems

References Black, J. & Gregersen, H. (2002). Leading strategic change. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Dufour, R., Dufour, R., Eaker, R., & Many, T. (2006). Learning by doing: A handbook for professional learning communities at work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Department for Education and Skills (DfES). (2004). Results of school reform in England. London: Author. Fullan, M. (2006). Turnaround leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Fullan, M. (2006a). ‘Leading Professional Learning’. The School Administrator. November. Fullan, M., Hill, P., & Crévola, C. (2006). Breakthrough. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin; Toronto: Ontario Principals Council. Heifetz, R. & Linsky, M. (2002). Leadership on the line. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Jellison, J.M. (2006). Managing the dynamics of Change: The fastest path to creating an engaged and productive workplace. New York: McGraw-Hill. Kruse, S., Louis, K.S., & Bryk, A.S. (1994). Building professional learning communities. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools. Minthrop, H. (2004). Schools on probation. New York: Teachers College Press. Newmann, F., King, B., & Youngs, P. (2004, April). Professional development that addresses school capacity. Paper presented at the American Education Research Association annual meeting. New Orleans. Reeves, D. The learning leader. Alexandra, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 2006. Wilkinson, R. (2005). The impact of inequality. London: New Press.

www.MichaelFullan.ca

2007

10