(1) Beam Bending -Review

--Plane sections remain plane. y

M

ρ

M

x ρ : radius of curvature; k = 1/ρ :curvature;

M: moment

Compatibility : εxx= - y/ρ

Independent of material behavior
compression neutral axis tension

y

εxx

Equilibrium: M = -σxx y dA
A

Independent of material behavior

M
y σxx

(2)

Elastic beam bending
elastic material behavior : σxx =E εxx

σ E 1
compression neutral axis tension

ε
y

σxx =E εxx = -E (y/ρ)

σxx=-M y/I

σxx

linear stress distribution

Μ
M = -σxx y dA = E /ρ
A A I : second moment of area

y dA

2

M=EI / ρ EI 1 1/ρ
linear moment-curvature relationship B

I = y dA
A

2

for rectangular beams
for

H

I = BH /12

3

I-b

ea

ms

B h I = (BH -bh )/12
3 3

H

b/2

b/2

(3)

Elastic -plastic beam bending
elastic-perfectly plastic material behavior σ σy E 1
nonlinear Moment-curvature relationship

ε

Mp Me

σy

M ->Mp :fully plastic regime:
|σ|=σy at all fibers of beam
σy
y σxx

y σxx

M>Me : elastic-plastic regime: |σ|=σy at outer fibers of beam

EI
M<Me : elastic regime: |σ| <σy at all points

y
σxx

1

1/ρ

In the elastic regime σxx=-M y /I -> | σmax | =M ymax /I Yielding initiates at the outer fibers of the beam when | σmax |= σy. This corresponds to a bending moment Me :

Me = (σy I )/ymax
for rectangular beams : Me = (σy BH )/6
2

Elastic -plastic beam bending

σ σy
elastic-perfectly plastic material behavior

(4)

εy = σy/E ε
For M>Me the beam is in the elastic-plastic regime: the core of the beam (between y=- c and y=c) is in the elastic regime, while the outer fibers are in the plastic regime (σ=σy).

y
c

for -c<y<c ε=σ/E

y
c

−εy
-c

εy εxx = -y/ρ

−σy
-c

σy σxx

For |y| = c , ε=-σy/E --> -y/ρ = −c/ρ=-σy/E--> the extension of the elastic region is given by:

c= ρ (σy/E)
The moment-curvature relationship is then given by:
c 2 -c ymax For a rectangular beam :

M = -σxx y dA = E /ρ
A -c

y dA +

-σy y dA +
-ymax c

-σy y dA M = σy (3H2 -4c2 ) B/12

For very large curvatures c-->0 and the moment approaches the limit moment Mp, where the entire section is in the plastic regime

σy

y σxx

M p = -σy y dA
A

2 for rectangular beams : Mp = (σy BH ) / 4 = 1.5 Me

Elastic -plastic beam bending . Unloading /springback

(5)

σ

material behavior: elastic unloading ∆σ = E ∆ε
∆σ 1

E 1

E ε

∆ε

The beam unloads elastically
σy
y σxx

M M loaded

∆(1/ρ)=∆M / EI =-M loaded /EI

∆M EI 1 1 (1/ρ)unloaded ∆(1/ρ)
Stress distribution upon unloading
σy
y σxx

EI

(1/ρ)unloaded =(1/ρ)loaded-M loaded /EI

(1/ρ)loaded

1/ρ

y
σxx

y
σxx

stress distribution in the loaded configuration σloaded

Change in stress upon unloading ∆σ=(Mloaded y)/I

Residual stress distribution σresidual

M =0

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