Parking in America The Third Annual Review of Parking Rates in North America

2010 Parking in America Study
A Special Thanks
The National Parking Association wishes to express our sincere thanks and appreciation to the parking facility managers and state associations who participated in this annual survey. Without their willingness to participate in this survey and provide highly confidential data, the publication of this document would be impossible. We would also like to thank the following individuals for their effort and support in this effort: Herbert Anderson, chairman and CEO, Royal Parking LLC Jed Hatfield, president, Colonial Parking Inc. William Kilpatrick, executive director, New Haven Parking Authority Jeff Wolfe, president, The Car Park Rob Zuritsky, president, Parkway Corporation Sincerely,

John Fiegel Interim President National Parking Association

Kevin Whorton Principal Whorton Marketing & Research

Michael Casey President Survey Advantage

Table of Contents
Introduction and Highlights.......................................2 Central Business District: Average Parking Rates ...4 Hospital Rates..........................................................9 Hotel Rates ............................................................10 Airport Rates ..........................................................11 College/University Rates........................................13 Wages ....................................................................14 Volume ...................................................................17 Changes.................................................................19 Appendices A: CBD Facility Executive Summary...................... 21 B: College/University Executive Summary ............ 24 C: Hospital Executive Summary ............................ 27 D: Hotel Executive Summary ................................. 29 E: Airport Executive Summary ............................... 31

About The National Parking Association
The National Parking Association (NPA) has proudly served the industry since 1951. We are an international network of companies representing thousands of parking industry professionals, including private operators, parking consultants, colleges and universities, airports, municipalities, parking authorities, hospital and medical centers, valets, developers, hotels and chain restaurants, and equipment manufacturers. Our mission is to serve as a resource to the parking industry and our members by offering quality education, networking opportunities, advocacy, products and services. For more information, please go to www.npapark.org or call 800.647.PARK.

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page1

Introduction
We are pleased to present Parking in America, The National Parking Association’s third annual review of the parking industry in the United States and Canada. This study offers the most comprehensive and detailed snapshots of the parking industry today, providing rates and industry trends from nearly 5,900 facilities with over 2.4 million parking spaces. Utilizing standard statistical tests, the margin of error for the data in this study is better than +/- 5%, and based upon these tests, we can predict with a 95% degree of certainty that the national averages and percentages cited throughout this document represent not only those of the participants but of the entire parking industry. Reflecting the wide range of parking operations, this study not only examines monthly, daily, and hourly rates throughout Central Business Districts (CBD) markets, but also explores a range of specialty parking facilities that operate both in cities and suburban areas throughout North America. Included among these are hotels, hospitals, airports and educational institutions.

Parking Revenues Not Sheltered from Recession
This study revealed that revenues are down in most parts of the country. On-airport and off-airport facilities were hit hardest, with 56% of on-airport and 44% of off-airport facilities reporting a decrease in revenues. In addition, 40% of CBD private operators and 35% of hotel operators reported decreases in revenues. The only operations sheltered from the recession were CBD municipal operators, colleges and universities, and hospitals. 46% of CBD municipal operators, 63% of colleges and universities, and 30% of hospitals reporting increases in revenues. As municipalities try to make up for drops in overall government revenues, it appears that possibly CBD municipal parking operations are increasing rates to help generate additional city revenues. In this year's study we asked participants to explain the reasons for changes in revenues. In the CBD, airport, and hotel sectors, decreases stemmed from the poor economy, with decreases in business travelers, decreases in workers reporting to city businesses, and less overall tourism as consumers tighten their belts. Despite falling revenues, most operators kept rates the same, with over 50% of all operations stating they kept rates the same, 25% stating they raised rates, and 5% stating they lowered rates over the previous year. Market conditions have been challenging to many operators, reducing profitability particularly in specific categories. These challenges also present operators with opportunities to make the difficult decisions that separate industry leaders from laggards. We hope you will enjoy reading this report and we welcome your comments and suggestions. We are grateful to the many individuals in the industry who chose to share their data with us, and we look forward to further expansion of the study's coverage in the years ahead. Thank you again for your participation and best wishes in 2010 and beyond.

About the Survey
This study was conducted to provide you with benchmarks for revenue changes, wages and other industry metrics critical to your success. It also provides you with a statistically valid overview of average parking rates for your size and type of operation. NPA commissioned Survey Advantage of Jamestown, RI, and Whorton Marketing & Research of Bethesda, MD, to undertake this survey of parking organizations throughout the U.S. and Canada. Data was collected using online survey software during July and August. A total of 1,800 active and prospective NPA members were sent invitations and reminders to participate in this study. NPA also reached out to state associations and the Canadian Parking Association to expand the possible number of participants and increase the validity of the data collected. NPA members operating multiple facilities assigned staff to track their responses by metropolitan area to ensure a wide representation. The study yielded a total of 775 complete responses, double the total participation in 2009. This year the responses included 269 CBD parking, 96 CBD municipal, 98 hospitals, 29 on-airport, 53 off-airport, 72 hotel, and 158 educational parking facility operators.
NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page2

Highlights
! Because study results are subject to a margin of error, and a larger number of operators participated in the 2010 study, we asked respondents to report their rates and tell us if how they changed. Only 27% of CBDs increased, while 66% stayed the same and 7% decreased their rates. Increases were common in several sectors, specifically college/universities and hotels. Hospitals and airport facilities are generally unlikely to have increased rates this year. Total parking revenues grew in 2010 for several sectors including college/university and municipal operators, while hotels remained stable and CBD, hotel, and on- and off-airport facilities declined. Not all operators are reporting the same results: for example CBD operators generally report the same revenues (27%), a slight (22%), or substantial decrease (18%), or a slight increase (25%). Average CBD 12-hour daily parking rates in 2010 were $15.92 and $8.48 for the most and least expensive rates in the respondent's metro area, while early bird averages were $10.99 and $6.47. The maximum 12-hour rate decreased form the last study, but the other rates represent slight increases. Average CBD monthly rates were $169 and $91 for unreserved and $240 and $148 for reserved most and least expensive rates. Average CBD municipal hourly rates were $0.88. Average overnight hotel rates in 2010 were $23.71 and $16.13 for self park and $30.44 and $24.60 for valet (most and least expensive), all increases over 2009 averages. Average daily hospital patient/visitor rates were $8.61 and $5.72 for self park and $7.68 and $5.85 for valet. Average educational facility rates per student per semester were $203 and $120, and per year were $481 and $235, while average faulty rates per year were $581 and $250 (most and least expensive). Average first hour on-airport rates were $2.92 (long-term), $2.80 (short-term), and $2.67 (economy) for self park and $12.07, $13.03, and $4.50 for valet. All hourly self park rates declined from 2009. Average off-airport 24 hour rates were $11.46 and $9.84 for self park and $15.62 and $13.70 for valet, while weekly rates were $75 and $65 for self park and $92 and $77 for valet. These are sharp declines from average 2009 rates. Average reported starting hourly wages (excluding benefits) appear to be increasing: managers now earn an average of $20.31 in CBD facilities, up almost 7% from 2009. Managers earn more than this in municipal and airport operations, and less in hospital and hotels. The average starting hourly wage for clerical staff in CBD facilities is $13.47, up 9% from 2009. As with other salaries, clerical staff are paid more in municipal, and less in all other sectors.

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NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page3

CBD Parking Rates
Historical Trend Comparing parking rates over time indicate shows that the average least expensive rates have increased substantially for maximum first hour weekday, daily weekday, 12-24 hour weekday, and early bird. However, at the same time average most expensive rates have declined for almost all of these categories in the past year, and also declined for reserved and unreserved monthly. This suggests a compression in market rates as the high and low prices in the market dip and increase, respectively, and there is a narrower range of pricing in major markets.
! Comparison Over Time First hour weekday daytime rate Maximum daily weekday rate up to 12 hours Maximum 12-24 hour weekday rate Maximum early bird rate Maximum weekend rate Reserved monthly parking Unreserved monthly parking Least Expensive $2.98 $8.48 $10.62 $6.47 $8.50 $142 $86 2010 Most Expensive $5.85 $15.92 $20.06 $10.99 $16.22 $240 $169 Least Expensive $2.56 $7.64 $8.13 $5.82 NA $140 $84 2009 Most Expensive $7.73 $20.01 $21.27 $10.75 NA $281 $194

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NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page4

CBD Parking Rates: Trends by Geography and City Size The table below presents regional average rates by region, including the four official U.S. Census areas and Canada. The map below is provided as a guide to whom states are included in each region. We also created an Index this year to make easier year-to-year comparisons. With this year's sharp increase in participation, some of the apparent annual changes may represent the effect of additional respondents from small markets. The Index represents 115 total responses from the 34 largest urban markets in the U.S.
Means First hour weekday daytime rate Daily weekday rate up to 12 hours Maximum 12-24 hour weekday rate Maximum early bird rate Maximum weekend rate Reserved monthly parking Unreserved monthly parking Least Most Least Most Least Most Least Most Least Most Least Most Least Most
Northeast Midwest South West Canada Index*

$3.01 $5.86 $9.10 $15.67 $12.27 $20.71 $7.23 $14.55 $8.72 $15.57 $174 $277 $98 $184

$2.83 $5.19 $6.79 $15.05 $9.32 $17.48 $5.11 $9.14 $8.50 $16.13 $139 $203 $82 $158

$3.45 $6.83 $7.38 $14.72 $9.13 $17.96 $6.15 $8.67 $10.01 $15.88 $134 $221 $76 $139

$3.06 $6.51 $10.91 $18.53 $13.23 $24.56 $7.12 $11.74 $7.67 $17.73 $160 $257 $99 $174

$2.49 $4.69 $8.65 $15.83 $9.81 $20.26 $7.86 $13.50 $7.29 $15.64 $148 $262 $102 $197

$4.29 $8.65 $9.22 $20.15 $11.84 $24.57 $6.72 $11.87 $9.02 $19.06 $183 $301 $112 $215

Size Index * The Index series represents 34 large U.S. markets each with central business districts with at least 400,000 population: Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Boston, Charlotte, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Houston, Indianapolis, Kansas city, Los Angeles, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New Orleans, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, Seattle, St. Louis, and Washington, DC.

Census Areas

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page5

CBD Highlights
United States
City, State Akron OH Albany NY Anchorage AK Ann Arbor MI Asheville NC Atlanta GA Austin TX Baltimore MD Barnstable MI Bellevue WA Bellingham WA Berkeley CA Bethesda MD Bethlehem PA Boise ID Boston MA Boulder CO Bozeman MT Buffalo NY Canton OH Canton PA Chapel Hill NC Charleston SC Charlotte NC Chicago IL Cincinnati OH Cleveland OH Colorado Springs CO Columbus OH Concord NH Dallas TX Dayton OH Decatur IL Denver CO Des Moines IA Detroit MI Elizabeth NJ Erie PA Evanston IL Fargo ND Galveston TX Glendale CA Grand Rapids MI Honolulu HI Houston TX Indianapolis IN Irvine CA Ithaca NY Jamestown NY Jefferson City MO Kansas City MO Las Vegas NV Lexington KY Los Angeles CA Madison WI Manitou Springs CO First hour weekday, daytime Most $3.00 $3.00 $4.00 $1.10 . $6.56 $6.00 $8.40 $2.00 $7.50 $0.75 $1.50 $2.00 $1.00 $3.00 $11.50 $1.75 $0.25 $2.88 $4.00 $2.75 $1.30 $2.00 $6.00 $15.71 $3.50 $6.00 $0.75 $2.00 $0.50 $5.00 $2.00 $0.25 $6.50 $1.50 $8.13 $1.00 $1.50 . $1.50 $15.00 $2.00 $2.00 . $4.31 $8.00 $2.00 . $0.70 $0.50 $3.00 $8.00 $2.00 $15.08 $1.40 $1.00 Least $0.50 $3.00 $1.00 $0.90 . $4.44 $1.00 $5.80 $2.00 $5.00 $0.75 $1.00 $2.00 $1.00 $1.00 $11.50 $1.25 $0.25 $1.13 $1.25 $1.00 $1.00 $2.00 $3.00 $9.14 $2.50 $2.38 $0.75 $2.00 $0.50 $3.00 $1.00 $0.25 $1.50 $1.00 $5.63 $0.75 $0.50 . $1.00 $3.50 $1.50 $2.00 . $2.38 $1.50 $1.25 . $0.70 $0.25 $3.00 $2.00 $2.00 $4.63 $0.70 $1.00 Maximum daily up to 12 hrs Most $8.00 $11.00 $15.00 $15.00 $8.00 $14.00 $18.00 $20.80 $16.00 $18.50 $6.00 $20.00 $12.00 $6.00 $12.00 $26.00 $22.50 $5.50 $7.00 $6.75 $5.00 $20.40 $20.00 $20.00 $29.00 $11.00 $11.50 $6.75 $9.67 $4.50 $10.00 $24.00 $2.00 $12.50 $9.00 $16.75 $12.00 $8.00 $8.00 $7.50 $15.00 $6.00 $14.00 $5.00 $13.75 $25.00 $19.00 $10.00 $3.50 $6.00 $12.00 $20.00 $8.00 $25.70 $16.80 $5.00 Least $0.50 $11.00 $12.00 $10.80 $5.50 $5.94 $6.00 $12.30 $16.00 $12.00 $6.00 $15.00 $12.00 $6.00 $2.00 $20.50 $22.50 $5.50 $4.25 $1.25 $3.00 $12.00 $16.00 $15.00 $10.25 $7.00 $5.00 $6.75 $9.67 $4.50 $6.00 $1.50 $2.00 $4.00 $7.50 $10.25 $9.00 $4.00 $8.00 $5.00 $3.50 $6.00 $6.00 $5.00 $3.88 $5.00 $19.00 $10.00 $3.50 $2.50 $5.00 $6.00 $8.00 $9.08 $8.40 $5.00 Maximum 12-24 hour weekday Most $16.00 $16.00 $24.00 $15.60 $8.00 $17.63 $18.00 $21.80 . $20.00 . $35.00 $12.00 $6.00 $12.00 $27.50 $55.00 $11.50 $14.00 $6.75 $5.00 $27.60 $20.00 $40.00 $35.25 $11.00 $12.50 $6.75 $9.00 . $10.00 . $2.00 $19.00 $13.00 $16.75 $20.00 $8.00 $13.00 . $10.00 $6.00 $28.00 . $12.00 $25.00 $19.00 $10.00 . $6.00 $12.00 $20.00 $8.00 $29.13 $21.80 . Least $1.00 $16.00 $24.00 $10.80 $8.00 $6.56 $6.00 $15.60 . $12.00 . $30.00 $12.00 $6.00 $2.00 $22.00 . $11.50 $4.25 $1.25 $3.00 $17.00 $16.00 $15.00 $20.41 $7.00 $5.00 $6.75 $8.00 . $6.00 . $2.00 $5.75 $11.00 $10.25 $18.00 $4.00 $13.00 . $10.00 $6.00 $12.00 . $5.00 $5.00 $19.00 $10.00 . $2.50 $5.00 $6.00 $8.00 $10.25 $13.40 . Early Bird Weekday Most . . . . . $6.13 . $10.20 $2.00 $10.00 . . . . $6.00 $21.63 . . $6.50 . . . . $10.00 $16.25 $8.50 $7.25 . $6.00 . . $4.00 . $7.33 . . . $5.00 . . . . . . $6.00 $8.00 . . . . $5.00 . . $14.00 . . Least . . . . . $2.13 . $8.60 $2.00 $7.00 . . . . $6.00 $16.13 . . $5.00 . . . . $5.00 $8.78 $4.25 $4.00 . $6.00 . . $4.00 . $5.33 . . . $4.00 . . . . . . $6.00 $4.00 . . . . $5.00 . . $5.00 . . Maximum Weekend Most $12.50 $5.00 . $1.10 $8.00 $16.22 $10.00 $19.19 . $6.00 . $15.00 . . $12.00 $14.00 . $0.50 $5.00 $13.50 . $27.60 $60.00 $10.00 $29.13 $8.00 $7.00 $1.00 $6.00 . $10.00 . . $9.25 . $10.00 $1.00 $4.00 . . . . . . $10.00 $25.00 . . . . $5.00 $2.00 $8.00 $16.00 $5.00 . Least $10.00 $5.00 . $0.90 $8.00 $8.06 . $4.25 . $5.00 . $15.00 . . $2.00 $11.00 . $0.50 $3.00 $2.50 . $17.00 $60.00 $6.00 $16.88 $3.67 $2.00 $1.00 $6.00 . $10.00 . . $4.00 . $6.50 $0.75 . . . . . . . $3.67 $5.00 . . . . . $2.00 . $7.75 $5.00 . Monthly reserved Most $100 $165 $175 $138 $175 $317 $390 $80 Least $45 $155 $175 $73 $140 $273 $225 $32 Monthly unreserved Most $75 $140 $115 $130 $100 $92 $150 $194 $210 $150 $55 $100 $398 $88 $35 $111 $85 $50 $85 $175 $329 $145 $198 $60 $122 $120 $15 $130 $140 $200 $25 $15 $183 $110 $235 $85 $44 $85 $62 $50 $60 $143 $25 $165 $155 $56 $38 $80 $95 $140 $65 $233 $210 $15 $85 $100 $145 $85 $25 $85 $50 $35 $30 $25 $25 $64 $50 $45 $20 $60 $55 $50 $99 $103 Least $20 $140 $85 $130 $70 $32 $100 $163 $100 $150 $30 $28 $298 $88 $35 $54 $25 $35 $85 $25 $167 $88 $88 $50 $122

$175 $570 $265 $45 $177 $110 $60 $85 $225 $406 $198 $295 $80 $157 $112 $120 $15 $211 $150 $313 $44

$110 $570 $265 $45 $123 $110 $50 $85 $150 $311 $130 $151 $80 $148 $84

$100 $198 $271 $175 $100 $38 $113 $160 $85 $417

$35 $156 $193 $105 $100

$65 $120 $85 $172

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page6

United States
Miami FL Middletown CT Milwaukee WI Minneapolis MN Modesto CA Monterey CA Morgantown WV New Haven CT New Orleans LA New Rochelle NY New York NY Newark NJ N. New Jersey NJ Oakland CA Oklahoma City OK Orlando FL Philadelphia PA Phoenix AZ Pittsburgh PA Plymouth MA Portland ME Portsmouth NH Prince George's MD Princeton Jct. NJ Racine WI Raleigh NC Reading PA Richmond VA Riverside CA Roanoke VA Rochester NY Rome GA Sacramento CA Salem MA Salt Lake City UT San Antonio TX San Diego CA San Francisco CA San Jose CA San Juan PR Santa Ana CA Santa Clara CA Santa Monica CA Seattle WA Shreveport LA Silver Spring MD Sioux City IA Spokane WA Springfield MA Springfield MN Springfield MO St. Louis MO St. Paul MN State College PA Syracuse NY Toledo OH Towson MD Tucson AZ Urbana IL Vancouver BC

First hour weekday, daytime $9.00 $2.00 $0.50 $0.25 $4.67 $2.00 $5.67 $2.00 . . . . $1.50 $1.50 $3.00 $1.38 $5.33 $1.67 $1.00 $0.50 $22.00 $9.33 $10.00 $6.00 $5.00 $2.00 $6.00 $2.00 $2.00 $1.00 $6.00 $6.00 $14.00 $4.75 $6.92 $2.33 $12.50 $5.50 $1.00 $0.50 $3.00 $1.25 $0.75 $0.75 $3.00 $0.75 . . . . $1.00 $1.00 $2.00 $2.00 $4.00 $4.00 $2.00 $2.00 $3.75 $2.00 $3.50 $1.95 $45.00 $10.00 $3.38 $2.13 $1.50 $0.35 $3.50 $1.00 $8.00 $2.00 $8.00 $7.00 $10.75 $6.33 $3.38 $2.63 $2.50 $0.75 $2.50 $1.25 $3.00 $3.00 $1.20 $1.00 $9.63 $5.63 $4.00 $3.00 $2.00 $2.00 $0.75 $0.75 $2.00 $1.00 $1.63 $1.63 $1.50 $1.50 $1.00 $1.00 $4.43 $1.61 $5.00 $4.00 $0.75 $0.75 $2.00 $2.00 $1.75 $1.75 $4.00 $4.00 $6.00 $5.00 $0.25 $0.25 $8.60 $2.55

Maximum daily up to 12 hrs $22.00 $9.00 $7.00 $2.00 $13.67 $5.33 $18.67 $3.33 . . . . $8.00 $8.00 $18.50 $17.50 $15.33 $4.50 $12.00 $6.00 $35.33 $11.00 $14.50 $10.00 $11.50 $2.00 $25.00 $6.00 $7.00 $6.00 $15.00 $15.00 $30.25 $10.75 $19.50 $15.50 $23.00 $13.00 $10.00 $5.00 $25.00 $12.00 $0.75 $0.75 $6.00 $6.00 . . . . $8.00 $8.00 $12.00 $11.00 $10.50 $3.00 $8.00 $8.00 $6.00 $2.00 $6.85 $4.38 $5.00 $2.00 $18.00 $14.00 $12.00 $3.00 $12.50 $5.50 $8.00 $5.00 $28.00 $24.00 $31.80 $20.40 $19.00 $5.00 $19.00 $3.50 $19.00 $13.00 $18.00 $18.00 $10.00 $9.00 $26.50 $12.25 $12.00 $3.00 $6.00 $6.00 $5.25 $4.75 $10.00 $3.00 $17.38 $17.38 $15.75 $15.75 $6.00 $0.50 $19.71 $6.57 $12.00 $8.00 $9.00 $9.00 $6.00 $6.00 $7.00 $7.00 $10.00 $10.00 $6.00 $5.00 $5.00 $5.00 $28.40 $8.25

Maximum 12-24 hour weekday $25.00 $11.00 . . $15.67 $7.67 $19.33 $10.17 . . $18.00 $10.00 $8.00 $8.00 $19.00 $15.50 $13.75 $5.38 $24.00 $12.00 $44.00 $18.33 $25.00 $25.00 $11.50 $2.00 $25.00 $6.00 $7.00 $6.00 $30.00 $30.00 $36.75 $12.50 $24.50 $15.00 $23.00 $13.00 $10.00 $5.00 $25.00 $12.00 $7.88 $7.88 $6.00 $4.00 $5.00 $5.00 $1.50 $1.50 . . $12.00 $11.00 $10.50 $3.00 $8.00 $8.00 $6.00 $2.00 $14.50 $5.00 . . $27.00 $17.50 $24.00 $1.36 $18.00 $9.67 $32.50 $4.00 $28.00 $24.00 $40.17 $24.00 $19.00 $5.00 $25.00 $5.00 $19.00 $13.00 $18.00 $18.00 $24.00 $24.00 $33.95 $13.50 $12.00 $3.00 $6.00 $6.00 $6.75 $6.25 $10.00 $4.00 $29.75 $29.75 $15.75 $15.75 $6.00 $5.00 $20.00 $5.17 $18.00 $10.00 $16.00 $16.00 $6.00 $6.00 $8.00 $8.00 $10.00 $10.00 $6.00 $5.00 $5.00 $5.00 $32.60 $11.85

Early Bird Weekday $11.00 $11.00 . . $7.00 $4.25 $13.33 $5.17 . . . . . . $12.00 $8.00 $6.00 $5.00 . . $23.50 $11.00 $12.00 $7.00 . . . . . . $5.00 $5.00 $20.00 $6.63 $12.00 $0.00 $16.00 $0.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4.00 $4.00 $2.00 $2.00 $5.00 $5.00 $4.00 $4.00 . . $8.00 $6.00 . . $5.00 $3.00 . . $15.00 $15.00 $21.20 $12.80 . . . . $2.50 $1.25 . . . . $14.25 $8.44 . . . . . . $7.00 $5.00 . . . . . . $6.00 $3.21 . . . . $3.50 $3.50 $2.00 $2.00 . . . . . . $13.80 $10.20

Maximum Weekend $52.00 $42.50 $4.00 . $5.50 $4.00 $10.00 $2.33 . . $18.00 $7.00 . . $3.00 $3.00 $11.67 $7.50 $48.00 $48.00 $41.00 $10.50 $20.00 $5.00 . . $6.00 $2.00 . . $9.00 $9.00 $24.67 $9.00 $25.00 . $9.00 $9.00 . . . . $0.75 $0.75 . . $5.00 $5.00 $1.50 $1.50 . . $2.00 $2.00 $5.00 $3.00 . . $6.00 $2.00 $5.00 $4.00 . . $16.50 $10.00 $48.00 $2.72 $22.00 $6.50 $10.00 $3.00 $28.00 $10.00 $48.00 $19.00 $11.50 $4.00 $25.00 $5.00 $19.00 $13.00 $18.00 $18.00 $10.00 $8.00 $18.70 $4.75 $5.00 $5.00 $30.00 $30.00 . . $10.00 $2.00 . . . . . . $20.40 $7.00 $36.00 $20.00 $16.00 $16.00 . . $12.00 $12.00 $1.00 $1.00 . . . . $16.65 $7.05

Monthly reserved $217 $105 $55 $55 $220 $160 $310 $82

$65 $178 $108 $738 $40 $250 $127 $360 $509 $115 $446

$65 $70 $35 $150

$107 $360 $287 $58 $494

Monthly unreserved $131 $50 $55 $55 $132 $65 $258 $50 $66 $66 $61 $37 $45 $45 $139 $38 $110 $60 $77 $25 $588 $150 $290 $75 $250 $30 $205 $52 $100 $79 $180 $180 $386 $157 $85 $43 $330 $202 $130 $100 $110 $50

$85 $65 $43 $15 $156 $135 $42 $100 $126 $45 $198 $133 $60 $260 $492 $200 $250 $109

$85 $40 $37 $10 $93 $130 $42 $75 $126 $20 $128 $65 $40 $220 $364 $30 $45 $65

$90 $103 $65 $85 $85 $32 $193 $60 $88 $60 $200 $333 $105 $150 $109 $122 $291 $75 $70 $50 $120 $95 $90 $50 $104 $163 $95 $60 $62 $98 $70 $45 $285

$82 $48 $35 $20 $58 $10 $83 $25 $40 $40 $190 $214 $65 $40 $65 $83 $176 $55 $70 $35 $70 $85 $35 $35 $38 $98 $80 $60 $59 $93 $50 $45 $134

$450 $100 $70 $75 $185 $130 $130 $70 $134

$260 $65 $70 $67 $170 $110 $100 $35 $75

$95 $110 $100 $393

$85 $110 $100 $198

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page7

United States
Washington DC West Hartford CT Wichita KS Wilmington DE

First hour weekday, daytime $10.63 $5.25 $1.50 $0.75 $2.25 $0.50 $2.33 $1.17

Maximum daily up to 12 hrs $21.38 $9.13 $7.00 $7.00 $12.00 $5.00 $11.67 $5.67 Maximum daily weekday up to 12 hrs Most $5.50 $24.50 $24.00 $9.00 $12.40 $17.50 $10.00 $5.60 $11.00 $8.00 $12.50 $17.00 $6.00 $14.67 $7.00 $8.00 $10.00 $22.50 $11.00 . $22.80 $12.00 $13.50 $12.00 $12.00 $11.20 Least $5.50 $8.50 $4.25 $9.00 $5.00 $11.50 $8.50 $5.60 $5.00 $5.50 $10.00 $10.00 $3.00 $12.00 $7.00 $4.80 $6.00 $5.00 $8.50 . $14.00 $5.00 $13.50 $12.00 $12.00 $9.40

Maximum 12-24 hour weekday $27.38 $13.25 $7.00 $7.00 $12.00 $5.00 $11.67 $5.67

Early Bird Weekday $11.63 $7.13 . . $4.00 $2.00 $6.25 $5.25

Maximum Weekend $16.43 $8.14 . . $24.00 $10.00 $6.33 $4.67

Monthly reserved $432 $201 $60 $248 $12 $118

Monthly unreserved $243 $113 $117 $117 $40 $10 $165 $70

Canada
CityState Barrie ON Calgary AB Edmonton AB Fredericton NB Greater Sudbury ON Halifax NS Kitchener ON Lethbridge AB London ON Longueuil PEI Moncton NB Montreal QC Nanaimo BC Ottawa ON Peterborough ON Red Deer AB Regina SK Richmond BC Saskatoon SK Thunder Bay ON Toronto ON Vancouver Suburban BC Victoria BC Waterloo ON Whistler BC Winnipeg MB

First hour weekday, daytime Most $0.75 $7.50 $5.50 $1.00 $1.00 $3.25 $2.35 $1.00 $4.00 $3.00 $1.25 $10.50 $1.00 $6.33 . $1.00 $2.50 $2.50 $2.50 $2.00 $10.40 $5.00 $1.00 $2.25 $1.00 $3.40 Least $0.75 $3.50 $2.00 $1.00 $1.00 $2.25 $1.85 $0.85 $2.50 $0.50 $1.00 $6.00 $0.50 $4.00 . $0.60 $2.50 $2.50 $1.50 $2.00 $5.80 $1.00 $1.00 $2.25 $1.00 $2.00

Maximum 12-24 hour weekday Most . $25.50 $33.00 . $12.40 $20.50 $10.00 . $19.00 $8.00 $14.50 $22.00 $8.00 $18.00 $7.00 $8.00 $11.50 $22.50 $11.00 . $29.00 $21.00 $13.50 . $12.00 $16.00 Least . $5.00 $4.25 . $5.00 $13.00 $8.50 . $7.00 $5.50 $10.00 $13.00 $3.00 $12.67 $7.00 $4.80 $6.50 $5.00 $8.50 . $16.40 $5.00 $13.50 . $12.00 $11.75

Early Bird Most . $29.00 $15.50 . . . . . . $5.50 . $13.00 . $13.50 . $8.00 $8.50 . . . $13.88 . . . . $10.00 Least . $10.00 $3.00 . . . . . . $5.50 . $9.75 . $11.00 . $4.80 $2.00 . . . $7.13 . . . . $5.00

Maximum Weekend Most . $12.00 $24.00 . . $6.00 $10.00 . $31.50 $8.00 . $10.00 . $15.00 . . $6.50 $22.50 $10.00 . $17.60 $21.00 $13.50 . . $10.25 Least . $4.00 $4.25 . . $3.00 $8.50 . $12.00 $5.50 . $5.00 . $13.50 . . $2.50 $5.00 $5.00 . $9.20 $5.00 $13.50 . . $8.00

Monthly reserved Most $70 $725 $380 $150 $208 $123 $45 $207 $111 $105 $360 $90 $271 $60 $80 $230 $40 $208 $460 $150 $220 Least $55 $65 $235 $100 $122 $123 $45 $94 $101 $72 $285 $60 $230 $50 $80 $75 $40 $113 $300 $25 $160

Monthly unreserved Most $595 $318 $85 $100 $159 $110 $95 $105 $285 $95 $210 $80 $175 $40 $170 $37 $306 $100 $175 $99 $59 $191 Least $10 $125 $40 $30 $82 $82 $45 $72 $210 $25 $185 $80 $78 $40 $70 $37 $189 $10 $140 $52 $59 $111

$231

$119

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page8

Other Parking Rates
Hospital: Average Parking Rates • The least expensive monthly employee maximum rate is $32.67 and the most expensive is $51.78. The least expensive daily employee maximum rate is $3.09 and the most expensive is $4.22. • The least expensive daily valet patient/visitor maximum rate is $5.85 and the most expensive is $7.68. • The least expensive first-hour valet patient/visitor maximum rate is $2.90 and the most expensive is $4.00. • The least expensive self park patient/visitor daily maximum rate is $5.72 and the most expensive is $8.61. The least expensive self park patient/visitor first hour rate is $1.49 and the most expensive is $2.58.
Least expensive $1.49 $5.72 $2.90 $5.85 $3.09 $32.67 Most expensive $2.58 $8.61 $4.00 $7.68 $4.22 $51.78

Self Park patient/visitor first hour Self park patient/visitor daily max. Valet patient/visitor first hour Daily valet patient/visitor max. Daily employee max. Monthly employee max.

!")'$% !&)*+% !*),&% !+)#"% !&)$(% !')((% !*)+*% !,)#+% !-)($% !')&&% !-&)#,% !*"),+%

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page9

Hotel: Average Parking Rates • The least expensive valet maximum guest overnight rate is $24.60 and the most expensive is $30.44. The least expensive valet 12-hour daily maximum rate is $21.49 and the most expensive is $27.82. • The least expensive valet first hour rate is $9.65 and the most expensive is $13.82. The least expensive self park maximum guest overnight rate is $18.43 and the most expensive is $23.71. • The least expensive self park 12-hour daily maximum rate is $16.13 and the most expensive is $20.73. The least expensive self park first hour rate is $5.55 and the most expensive is $8.19.
Least expensive $5.55 $16.13 $18.43 $9.65 $21.49 $24.60 Most expensive $8.19 $20.73 $23.71 $13.82 $27.82 $30.44

Self park first hour Self park 12 hour daily max. Self park max. guest overnight Valet first hour Valet 12 hour daily max. Valet max. guest overnight

!*)**% !+)"$% !"#)"-% !&(),-% !&-),"%

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NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page10

Off-Airport: Average Parking Rates • The least expensive self park maximum first hour rate is $4.18 and the most expensive is $4.12. The least expensive self park maximum daily rate is $9.88 and the most expensive is $11.68. • The least expensive self park maximum weekly rate is $64.86 and the most expensive is $74.86. The least expensive self park maximum 24 hour rate is $9.84 and the most expensive is $11.46. • The least expensive valet maximum daily rate is $13.70 and the most expensive is $15.62. • The least expensive valet maximum weekly rate is $77.20 and the most expensive is $92.10. The least expensive valet maximum 24 hour rate is $13.70 and the most expensive is $15.62.
Least expensive $4.18 $9.88 $9.84 $64.86 $4.06 $13.70 $13.70 $77.20 Most expensive $4.12 $11.68 $11.46 $74.86 $4.05 $15.62 $15.62 $92.10

Self park max. first hour Self park max. daily Self park max. 24 hour Self park max. weekly Valet max. first hour Valet max. daily Valet max. 24 hour Valet max. weekly

')"+% ')"&% $)++% "")#+% $)+'% "")'#% !#*% ')(#% ')(*% "-),% "*)#&% "-),% "*)#&% !,,% !$&% !,*%

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page11

On-Airport: Average Parking Rates • The self park maximum first hour long term rate is $2.92, the short term rate is $2.80, and the economy rate is $2.67. The self park maximum daily long term rate is $11.73, the short term rate is $21.08, and the economy rate is $9.40. • The self park maximum 24 hour long term rate is $11.93, the short term rate is $22.03, and the economy rate is $9.09. The self park maximum weekly long term rate is $71, the short term rate is $169.16, and the economy rate is $63.13. • The valet maximum weekly long term rate is $134.40, the short term rate is $174, and the economy rate is $140. The valet maximum 24 hour long term rate is $22.14, the short term rate is $24.18, and the economy rate is $22.50. • The valet maximum first hour long term rate is $12.07, the short term rate is $13.03, and the economy rate is $4.50.
Long term Self park max. first hour Self park max. daily Self park max. 24 hour Self park max. weekly Valet max. first hour Valet max. daily Valet max. 24 hour Valet max. weekly $2.92 $11.73 $11.93 $71.00 $12.07 $22.33 $22.14 $134.40 Short term $2.80 $21.08 $22.03 $169.16 $13.03 $24.38 $24.18 $174.00 Economy $2.67 $9.40 $9.09 $63.13 $4.50 $22.50 $22.50 $140.00

!&)$&% !&)+(% !&)#,% !""),-% !$)'(% !$)($% !')*(% !"")$-% !"&)(,% !"-)(-% !&&)--% !&')-+% !&&)*(% !&&)"'% !&')"+% !&&)*(% !&")(+% !&&)(-%

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page12

!,"% !#-%

!"#$%

!"-'% !"'(%

!",'%

College/University: Average Parking Rates • The least expensive multiple day visitor rate (per day) is $5.14 and the most expensive is $7.87. The least expensive one day visitor rate is $5.23 and the most expensive is $7.71. • The least expensive student rate per year is $235 and the most expensive is $481. The least expensive student rate per semester is $120 and the most expensive is $203. • The least expensive event maximum daily rate is $5.27 and the most expensive is $9.84. The least expensive faculty rate is $250 and the most expensive is $581.
Least expensive $5.14 $5.23 $5.27 $120.00 $235.00 $250.00 Most expensive $7.87 $7.71 $9.84 $203.00 $481.00 $581.00

Multiple day visitor (per day) One day visitor Event max. daily Student per semester Student per year Faculty per year

!*)"'% !,)+,% !*)&-% !,),"% !*)&,% !$)+'% !"&(% !&(-% !&-*% !&*(%

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NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page13

Average Starting Hourly Wages
Average Starting CBD Wages The average maintenance worker starting wage per hour is $12.79, clerical worker ($13.47), valet ($9.13), attendant ($10.28), and manager ($20.31).

!&()-"% !"&),$% !"-)',% !$)"-% !"()&+%

Average Starting Municipal Wages The average collection personnel starting wage per hour is $17.15, enforcement officer ($15.77), maintenance worker ($12.25), clerical ($14.25), attendant ($12.61), and manager ($32.42).

!-&)'&% !",)"*% !"*),,% !"&)&*% !"')&*% !"&)#"%

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page14

Average Starting On-Airport Wages In on-airport facilities, the average starting hourly wage for a manager is $23.09, with lower average starting wages for shuttle drivers ($10.72), maintenance workers ($11.38), clerical workers ($11.74), valets ($10.37), and attendants ($10.37).

!&-)($% !"(),&% !"")-+% !""),'% !"()-,% !"()-,%

Average Starting Hospital Wages In hospital parking facilities, the average starting hourly wage for a manager is $18.83, with lower average starting wages for maintenance workers ($11.55), clerical staff ($12.59), valet ($9.11), and attendants ($9.89).

!"+)+-% !"")**% !"&)*$% !$)""% !$)+$%

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page15

Average Starting Hotel Wages In hotel parking facilities, average starting salaries for managers is $17.92, with lower average starting wages for, maintenance workers ($10.82), clerical staff ($11.49), valets ($8.03), attendant ($9.22), and cashiers ($9.24).

!",)$&% !$)&'% !"()+&% !"")'$% !+)(-% !$)&&%

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page16

Volume
2009/Latest FY Revenue (millions) The average revenue by city/metro area by type of parking facility was $8.35 million for CBD operators, municipal ($2.86 million), hotel ($7.94 million), hospital ($3.1 million), college/university ($4.99 million), off airport ($12.86 million), and on airport ($23.33 million).

!&-.--'% !"&.+#*% !+.-*"% !,.$'"% !'.$$+% !-."-,% !&.+#-%

Revenue per space CBDs report average revenue per space of $1,510. These figures are lower among municipal respondents ($1,249), hospitals ($1,331), and colleges/universities ($635). Hotels report the highest revenue per space of $3,098, while off-airport ($2,254) and on-airport facilities ($2,483) report higher revenue per space.

!-.($+% !&.'+-% !&.&*'% !".*"(% !".--"% !".&'$% !#-*%

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page17

Average Total Spaces per Facility/Operation CBDs report managing an average of 6,836 in the metropolitan area. This is considerably higher than the number reported by off airports (4,977), hospitals (2,704), municipal operators (2,159), and hotels (1,597). Only colleges/universities (8,938) and on-airport facilities (8,184) are larger.

+.$-+% +."+'% #.+-#% '.$,,% &.,('% &."*$% ".*$,%

College/University Spaces Non-metered spaces (structure parking) make up 27% of colleges/universities spaces. 69% are non-metered spaces (surface parking). 2% are multi metered spaces and 2% are single metered spaces. Municipal Parking Spaces Municipal parking operations are comprised of 67% single metered spaces and 33% multi metered spaces. On-Airport Parking Spaces On-airports have a total of 8,184 parking spaces. 1,482 (18%) are short-term, 3,997 (49%) are long-term, and 2,705 (33%) are economy.

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page18

City/Metro Area Overall Change in Parking Revenues in the Past Year • Operators are split in terms of the recent direction of their total revenues. For example, 32% of CBD operators report an increase, while 40% report a decrease. • Municipal operators fared much better, with 46% reporting an increase and 23% a decrease. • Airport facilities show similar patterns: 30% of on-airport operators report increases and 56% decreases; 40% of off-airport operators report increases and 44% decreases. • Most college/university operators (66%) report an increase, and only 16% a decrease. • Hospitals remained largely unchanged, with 30% reporting an increase, 19% a decrease, and 51% staying the same. Hotels were also relatively stagnant: 28% reported an increase and 35% a decrease.

CHANGE IN ANNUAL REVENUES
More than 10% increase Less than 10% increase Stayed same Less than 10% decrease Significant (10+%) decrease

CBD 7% 25% 27% 22% 18%

MUNICIPAL 16% 30% 31% 15% 8%

ON AIRPORT 6% 24% 14% 36% 20%

OFF AIRPORT 20% 20% 16% 0% 44%

COLLEGE/ UNIVERSITY 19% 47% 18% 11% 5%

HOSPITAL 7% 23% 51% 9% 10%

HOTEL 7% 21% 36% 19% 16%

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NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page19

Annual Change in Parking Rates CHANGE IN CBD MUNICIPAL PARKING RATES Increased Stayed same Decreased 27% 66% 7% 25% 74% 1%

ON AIRPORT 28% 68% 4%

OFF AIRPORT 25% 58% 17%

COLLEGE/ UNIVERSITY 45% 54% 1%

HOSPITAL 18% 78% 3%

HOTEL 31% 67% 1%

Highlights Overall over half in every category kept prices the same, very few decreased pricing with the exception of offairport parking, and overall about 25% raised rates with the exception of 45% of the college/universities reporting stating they raised rates.

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NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page20

Appendix A: Privately Operated CBD Executive Summary
The intent of this executive summary is to highlight the significant CBD facts uncovered in the study. It is designed to be a quick overview. Further details about any item can be found in the body of the study and reading the consolidated comments below. Data was tabulated from 269 CBD locations. The CBD segment was hit hard by the recession, with 40% reporting a decrease in revenues and 32% reporting an increase. Most of the 40% reporting decreases attributed the decrease to major local employers going out of business, unemployment keeping workers out of the city, and tourist numbers down. The 32% reporting an increase attributed the growth to the increase in federal hiring and spending such as in Washington, DC, resulting in big business moving inside the Beltway. Some cities reported limited parking spaces helps preserve revenues. Also, in some instances competitor lots were converted to some other uses created a decrease in parking spaces. Most CBD operations kept their rates steady, with 66% reporting no rate change, 27% increased rates, and 7% decreased rates It appears that operators are either trying to cut costs and keep pricing steady, or make up for less demand by raising rates. Comments also revealed increases in parking taxes in certain cities. When parking taxes go up, operators have no choice but to raise rates. We collected and benchmarked wages for five CDB positions: maintenance worker, clerical, valet, attendant, and manager. We plan to ask the same questions every 2 to 3 years to trend wages over time and help you make more informed decisions. In this study we also asked the size of each participating operation. The average annual revenues for CBD operations was $8.35 million in revenues, with an average of 6,836 spaces per operation. Average revenue per space was calculated to be $1,510.

Municipal CBD Executive Summary
The intent of this executive summary is to highlight the significant Municipal CBD facts uncovered in the study. It is designed to be a quick overview. Further details about any item can be found in the body of the study and reading the consolidated comments below. Data was tabulated from 96 municipal locations. During the recession the Municipal CBD segment revenue was not hit as hard as privately owned CBD operations. 23% of Municipal operations reported a decrease in revenue and 46% reported revenue increases. Increases are due to raising rates and enforcing on-street parking penalties. Decreases in revenues were driven by soft demand due to high unemployment, business closings, and less tourism. During this recession most CBD operations are keeping their rates steady with 74% reporting no change in rates, 25% increasing rates, while 1% reported decreasing rates. It appears during the recession that most operations are keeping prices steady. This year we categorized the rates by size of city to help you compare with similar operations. As an example, larger Municipal CBD operations such as Chicago, IL are two to four times more expensive than smaller cities such as Des Moines IA. We collected and benchmarked wages for six municipal CDB positions: maintenance worker, clerical, collection personnel, attendant, enforcement officer, and manager. We plan to ask the same questions every two to three years to trend wages over time and help you make more informed wage decisions. In this study we also asked the size of each participating operation. The average annual revenues for Municipal CBD operations was $2.86 million in revenues, with an average of 2,159 spaces per operation. Average revenue per space was calculated to be $1,249.

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page21

CBD Comments
CBD Comments for your review. This is a list of all comments shared with us by participating operations to clarify the reasons for some of their answers.
New England U.S. ! Expansion in 2007 with addition of 2 garages (~1000 spaces combined) and 150 on street spaces. (West Hartford, CT) ! Tourist area / county seat. (Salem, MA) ! Municipally owned parking garage, rates set by city council on a 2 year election cycle. (Portsmouth, NH) Mid-Atlantic U.S. ! Empty buildings with available parking has made the area very completive from a rate standpoint. Everyone is making every possible effort to attract business to their facility. (Washington, DC) ! Government and big business moving inside the beltway. (Washington, DC) ! Parking for government employees. (Washington, DC) ! The federal government provides a stabilized market. (Washington, DC) ! Weather and special events. (Washington, DC) ! Government operations. (Washington, DC) ! Parking tax increased which hindered business and the economy was not faring well. (Baltimore, MD) ! Budget cuts with NJT and decrease in commuters, construction projections. (Northern New Jersey, NJ) ! We operate parking only at the Princeton junction train station. (Princeton jct., NJ) ! Revenue decrease due to softness in commercial R.E. Market, especially in the financial sector/banking. (Albany, NY) ! Street closures, massive layoffs, on street parking increasing, large vacancies in office buildings. (New York, NY) ! We are in the northeast I-90 corridor and experience very little economic growth. (Rochester, NY) ! Our city is the county seat so 70% of our monthly parkers are government employees. (Canton, PA) ! Many layoffs in the Pittsburgh central business district in the past year. (Pittsburgh, PA) ! City in Act 47 status. (Reading, PA) ! Penn state university football games. (State College, PA) Southern U.S. ! Slight downturn in tourism, budget constraints to hire/train personnel. (Fort Lauderdale, FL) ! Dismal real estate market. (Miami, FL) ! We have a lot of competition in our area. (Atlanta, GA) ! Future hospital corridor in New Orleans. (New Orleans, LA) ! Limited downtown parking available. (Shreveport, LA) ! Surplus supply is being reintroduced into the parking market as a result of developments completing work and opening. (Charlotte, NC) ! Tourism. (Charleston County, SC) ! Revenue is up, because of hurricane Ike in 2009. (Galveston, TX) ! Summer tourism. (San Antonio, TX) ! Recession and loss of spaces due to conversion to handicap spaces, less events. (Richmond, VA) ! 3rd party parking agreements, subleasing from another operator for monthly parking space to sell client. (Richmond, VA) Midwest U.S. ! 11.5% unemployment. (Chicago, IL) ! Empty office / retail space leading to lack of parkers - soft market. (Chicago, IL) ! For the hotels: city wide conventions means very little parking for the week. Holidays are very busy in the hotels. (Chicago, IL) ! The weather. (Chicago, IL) ! We provide free parking in our CBD. Parking is paid for through a special service assessment, food and beverage tax, and city general revenues. (Naperville, IL) ! Seasonal tourist economy. (Barnstable, MI) ! The economy. (Minneapolis, MN) ! We are a startup company and doing much of the work ourselves. (Kansas City, MO) ! The economy has reduced our monthly parkers demand by about 4%. (St. Louis, MO) ! St. Louis revenue is driven by Cardinals baseball and football. (St. Louis, MO) ! Our employees are state employees and are in the union. (Columbus, OH) ! The two city owned garages have not been operational for a year as yet. (Columbus, OH) ! Required to pay city's living wage $12.02/hour. (Toledo, OH) ! The summer months are very event driven. (Milwaukee, WI) Western U.S. NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page22

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

All parking in the city of Burbank is free. (Burbank, CA) Facilities are either operated, metered or free. Operated lots are contracted-out and cost to operate is on a monthly cost basis. (Los Angeles, CA) More downsizing and bankruptcies filed. (Los Angeles, CA) Business conventions and city special events. (Sacramento, CA) Surrounding hotel events and city holiday parades. (San Diego, CA) San Francisco bay area is a difficult city to work in because of union issues amongst other things. (San Francisco, CA) We are a valet parking service for those in San Francisco and the bay area -- we would like to grow into facility management. (San Francisco, CA) The City operates largest supply of downtown parking and their downtown-wide validation program and parking rates drive other private parking operators parking rates. Union labor and benefit rates encourage automation. (San Jose, CA) Startup companies and convention center and other city events. (San Jose, CA) Large events/ low rates / gas price and economy downturn. (Santa Monica, CA) We have seen a decline in our garage parking since the recession started in fall 2008. (Boulder, CO) The city manages one out of three off-street paid parking lots in downtown Manitou Springs. (Manitou Springs, CO) Many of our parking lots are free to patrons. (Salt Lake City, UT) Software and internet companies moving into the area have shielded some of this area from some of the more drastic impact of the current economy. (Bellevue CBD, WA) Collapse of Washington Mutual has had lingering negative effects on parking in the CBD. (Seattle CBD, WA) Economy is declining and parking rates are falling off in pockets and with unadvertised rates. (Seattle, WA)

Canada ! In 2009, Calgary experienced approximately 75,000 jobs lost to energy sector layoff and downsizing. (Calgary, AB) ! Slow down in economy and increased ridership on transit. (Edmonton, AB) ! Minimal number of municipal facilities off-street. (Richmond, BC) ! Transit levy tax increased from 7% to 21% (14% increase). (Vancouver Suburban, BC) ! Transit tax increase from 7% to 21%. HST implementation July 1, Olympic Games, city of Vancouver bicycle program/traffic measures. (Vancouver, BC) ! The only reason for the increases to rates was because of the 14% transit tax increase. (Vancouver, BC) ! The Translink tax increase from 7% to 21% and now the HST are having profound impacts on parking. (Vancouver, BC) ! We operate a stadium which contributes to the bulk of our operation in San Francisco, parking tax rate is 25%. (Vancouver, BC) ! Off-street market is dominated by one private operator. (Winnipeg, MOB) ! Demand for parking increased when development built on existing surface parking. (privately operated). (Fredericton, NB) ! Other nearby lots closing for development, increasing demand. (Halifax, NS) ! We have had a company on strike for one year – 3,000 high wage earning employees in the city. (Greater Sudbury, ON) ! The perception in Kitchener is that monthly parking rates are too high. We have seen the surplus of spaces increase and this may be attributed the current monthly rates. (Kitchener, ON) ! The city controls approximately 20% of public parking. (London, ON) ! Many city festivals take advantage of the parking. (Ottawa, ON) ! Economy, downtown development, increasing service demands. (Toronto, ON) ! Night time club and movie/ entertainment. (Toronto, ON) ! Downtown location - high restriction of 6'-0". (Regina, SK) ! Heavily subsidized employee parking market. (Regina, SK) ! Growth in the core. (Saskatoon, SK) Puerto Rico ! Armed assaults. (San Juan, PR)

NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page23

Appendix B: College/University Executive Summary and Comments
The intent of this executive summary is to highlight the significant College/University parking facility facts uncovered in the study. It is designed to be a quick overview. Further details about any item can be found in the body of the study and reading the consolidated comments below. Data was tabulated from 158 college/university locations reporting. The College/University segment wasn’t hit as hard by the recession with 16% reporting a decrease in revenues and 66% reporting an increase. Most of the 16% reporting decreases attributed this to decreased enrollment, moving to free parking, or losing lots that generated revenues in the past. The 66% reporting an increase attributed the growth to increased enrollment, increases in parking spaces built, raising rates, and collecting additional revenues during major city events. During this recession 45% of College/University operations stated they raised rates, 54% stayed the same, and 1% decreased rates over last year. It appears that operators are raising rates or opening more garages on campus with increased enrollment. We also collected and benchmarked wages for five College/University positions. We plan to ask the same questions every 2 to 3 years to trend wages over time and help you make more informed wage decisions. Another benchmark was to determine the average size of operation participating. The average annual revenues for the colleges/universities reporting are $5 million with an average of 8,938 spaces. Revenue per space was the lowest of any other facility type with $635 in revenue per parking space. College/University Comments for your review. This is a list of all comments shared with us by participating operations to clarify the reasons for some of their answers:
New England U.S. ! Our close proximity to Fenway Park allows our department to collect parking fees for up to 81 baseball games and any other special events held at Fenway. (Boston, MA) ! Faculty and staff parking facilities parking fees are driven by proximity to your workplace. The most expensive facilities are .64% of one’s base salary. The least expensive facilities are .32% of one’s base salary. (Burlington, VT) Mid-Atlantic U.S. ! Through the by-laws of the property agreement that supports the university, we cannot raise our rates higher than those posted by metro adjacent to the property. (Washington, DC) ! Urban campus in major metropolitan area w/good public transportation. (Washington, DC) ! Parking is being changed from a service unit to a business unit. (Newark, DE) ! Construction. (Baltimore, MD) ! Desire to increase parking revenue to cover more of our parking expenses. (Bethlehem, PA) ! Surprisingly the economy really didn't affect parking this year. We had anticipate parking leases to drop because of the economy, as well as the gas prices; however, that was not the case therefore our revenue stayed constant. (Pittsburgh, PA) Southern U.S. ! Enrollment is being capped much earlier. (Jacksonville, FL) ! First time experiencing furloughs as budget reduction strategy. Recommended fee increase for next year was reduced 3%. (Atlanta, GA) ! With the exception of one parking deck containing 362 spaces, amounts above do not include university housing parking which operates under a different division. (Atlanta, GA) ! Accelerated student growth. (Kennesaw, GA) ! Parking inventory affected by campus development. (Bowling Green, KY) ! Located in a city, limited on campus parking, 20,000 student population. (Lafayette, LA) ! Increased enrollment caused parking shortage, resulting in need for additional parking to be built along with inception of TDM alternatives such as connect by hertz, contracting yellow cab for guaranteed rates, car and van pooling, offsite parking locations with transportation component. (Charlotte, NC) ! Change in class schedules, students able to attend only two days a week, construction. (North Carolina State University, NC) ! Parking is very competitive because there are not many spaces in the core of campus. Everything is assigned based upon seniority. (years of state service for employees and cumulative credit hours earned for students). (Charleston, SC) NPA 2010 Parking in America: Page24

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Increase in enrollment the last two year. (Chattanooga, TN) Parking fees are included in registration fees for all students. (Murfreesboro, TN) Raised rates last year for the first time in 5 yrs for student, 4yrs for staff/faculty. (Denton, TX) Free visitor parking still exists. (El Paso, TX) Parking revenue must pay for all police/public safety costs. (Huntsville, TX) Higher enrollment. (San Antonio, TX) Pressure to reduce parking demand to reduce traffic and reduce environmental impact. Construction projects reducing parking inventory. Pressure to keep pricing steady during difficult economic times. (Charlottesville, VA) Decrease in financial support from the state. (Fairfax, VA)

Midwest U.S. ! We are self supporting, generate all income from permits, fines & meters. (Ames, IA) ! All parking on campus is public first come, first served parking. Reserved spaces for service vehicles only. (Evansville, IN) ! Currently have a new hospital under construction that has temporarily moved 1,200 spaces off campus. (Indianapolis, IN) ! New hospital being built. Loss of 1200 spaces on campus. (Indianapolis, IN) ! Buses recently went fare free and we lowered the price of our park & ride permit. This caused a loss in commuter permit sales and reduced parking tickets. (Lawrence, KS) ! A new stadium opened, bringing football back to campus for the first time in 30 years. Our increased revenue is directly related to football parking on campus. (Minneapolis, MN) ! Urban campus and predominantly structures that have debt. (Cincinnati, OH) ! We did not run all parking operations at the university. (Cincinnati, OH) ! Campus construction is changing parking patterns. (Cleveland, OH) ! College is enrollment based. Parking was at .50 until fy09 where it was increased to .75 per day. (Cleveland, OH) ! At the Ohio state university there is a large amount of construction activity being undertaken. This activity will mean the loss of central campus surface parking and subsequent relocation of several thousand parkers to peripheral parking areas. Such activity will require an increased transit capacity, and other transportation demand management strategies to mitigate parking demand. (Columbus, OH) ! State budget crisis in higher education. (Kent, OH) ! A combination of very limited (and decreasing) surface space and no funds for structures. (Menomonie, WI) ! Commuting students pay a daily fee of either $1.25/hr cashier or $.85/hr pay stations. (Milwaukee, WI) Western U.S. ! Light rail went in next to the downtown campus and connect us to the main campus thereby reducing the need for parking at the downtown campus. (Phoenix, AZ) ! Many large apartment complexes running own shuttle system to campus, not as many students purchasing permits. (Tucson, AZ) ! Parking department must fund all alternative transportation initiatives including bus pass subsidy, disabled cart service and on and off-campus shuttle service. (Tucson, AZ) ! Just displacement as a result of construction. (Los Angeles, CA) ! UCLA operates quarterly basis; student most / least expensive responses are based on a quarterly rate. (Los Angeles, CA) ! The increase in revenue is due to the increase in the cost of an annual permit. (Orange, CA) ! Price of gasoline, driving trends. (San Luis Obispo, CA) ! Some answers are "best estimates." we have 70 "multi space meters" serving 2,970 spaces vice 70 "multi metered spaces." non-metered = subscribed. For us, the term "facility" in this survey can be interchanged with the term "space" depending on location and/or applicable parking rate. (Santa Barbara, CA) ! Decrease in citation revenue, meter revenue, daily permits due to less cars and less violators. (Greeley, CO) ! Demand higher than supply. (Honolulu, HI) ! We are the only location in the city wide area that charges for parking. So, we meet significant resistance to the purchase of permits. 50% of citations issued are for no permit displayed. (Las Cruces, NM) ! Recently went to free parking for all (student/faculty/staff). (College Campus Provo, UT) ! We do not charge for parking at our university. (Provo, UT) ! CWU is on quarter, not semester. Student cost per year is based on 3 quarters not calendar year like staff. (Ellensburg, WA)%

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Canada ! New parkade opened. (Calgary, AB) ! Prorated solely by post secondary institute ticket revenue only approximately $100 000.00/yr. (Lethbridge, AB) ! Have not raised rates in past 10 years, increased enrollment by 30%. (Kelowna, BC) ! We don't have sufficient parking for our population; we are located out of town with limited transit so we have high demand for single vehicle occupancy. (Kelowna, BC) ! University status 2008, sustainable initiatives move people to alternative transportation increased parking rates. (Nanaimo, BC) ! Transit levy tax increased from 7% to 14%. (Vancouver Suburban, BC) ! Los of revenue due to: current economy, loss of stalls due to construction. (Winnipeg, MB) ! New transit terminal built on campus- fewer trips by car. (Guelph, ON) ! Last year had 700 people waitlist, caused clients to use our short term parking lots, which increased our revenue. (Ottawa, ON) ! Consistence parking enforcement. (Peterborough, ON) ! Graduate student strike. (Toronto, ON) ! Massive infrastructure upgrades. (Montréal, QC)

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Appendix C: Hospital Executive Summary and Comments
The intent of this executive summary is to highlight the significant Hospital parking facility facts uncovered in the study. It is designed to be a quick overview. Further details about any item can be found in the body of the study and reading the consolidated comments below. Data was tabulated from 98 hospital locations reporting. The Hospital segment wasn’t hit as hard by the recession with 19% reporting a decrease in revenues and 30% reporting an increase. Most of the 19% reporting decreases in revenues attribute this to policy changes to offer parking free. The 30% reporting an increase attribute growth to offering valet parking, increasing rates, and expanding of facility. During this recession 18% of Hospital operations stated they raised rates, 78% stayed the same, and 3% decreased rates over last year. It appears that hospitals are maintaining prices at current rates to make it affordable to patients. Several offer parking free. Also, it appears parking is viewed as a service rather than a profit center. For the first time this year we benchmarked wages for five hospital positions; Maintenance worker, Clerical, Valet, Attendant, and Manager. We plan to ask the same questions every 2 to 3 years to trend wages over time and help you make more informed wage decisions. In this year’s study we asked the size of participating operation. The average annual revenues for participating hospitals is just shy of $3.14 million annual revenue with an average of 2,704 spaces. Revenue per space was $1,331 in revenue per parking space. Hospital Comments for your review. This is a list of all comments shared with us by participating operations to clarify the reasons for some of their answers:
New England U.S. ! Administer health care to the poor residents of the City of Boston. (Boston, MA) Mid-Atlantic U.S. ! Increasing health care demand. (Washington, DC) ! Constant building, rehab, usage of parking spaces for growth (staging material s and construction equipment). (Baltimore, MD) ! NIH uses a parking contractor to manage our parking facilities on the NIH campus. (Bethesda, MD) ! Not enough self parking; people have to valet. (Edison & Paramus, NJ) ! Construction. (Northern New Jersey, NJ) ! Construction projects. (Erie, PA) ! We noticed elective surgeries are reducing which has lowered revenue. They are beginning to pick up again. (Philadelphia, PA) Southern U.S. ! Just opened garage 11/09. (Gainesville, FL) ! Jackson memorial hospital. (Miami, FL) ! We cross a main high way that is really busy, and it take more employees to be able to run valet at this hospital. (Owensboro, KY) ! Construction project. (Midland, TX) ! Patients and their visitors park for free. University parking operations run day to day for the hospital. Hospital pays university a subsidy to cover free patient parking. (Charlottesville, VA) Midwest U.S. ! Employee parking has been greatly reduced by volume to accommodate additional patient parking needs. (Chicago, IL) ! Hospital ask that we provide a no charge/ non tipped valet service. (Zion, IL) ! Revenue above tremendously low due to employee monthly parking fees collected by hospital and not passed through our accounts as revenue. (Indianapolis, IN) ! The facility is fully complementary. (lee's summit, MO) ! Bad economy. (St. Louis, MO) ! Exceptional service. (Akron, OH) ! Revenue from valet and vendor parking only. (Cincinnati, OH)

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New service of valet added in Oct. 09, has grown by 10% the past 6 months. (Cleveland, OH) Salaries are set by State of Wisconsin. (Madison, WI) The hospital believes in free valet yet it costs money to self-park. (Madison, WI)

Western U.S. ! Hospital early this year went complimentary for all parking. (Anaheim, CA) ! A partnership exists between the hotel I operate as well as the hospital across the street. (San Diego, CA) ! We do not accept gratuities at this location. (Greeley, CO) ! Lower transit traffic volumes due to economy, we raised staff rates to compensate. (Seattle, WA) ! We do cancer research and have cancer patients so we try to keep thing affordable for them. We have not had an increase in patient rates for ten years. (Seattle, WA) ! We charge a flat fee every month to provide the service here at this account. (Cheyenne, WY) Canada ! Transit levy, HST implementation, transportation demand management protocols. (Vancouver, BC) ! Transit tax increase 14%. (Vancouver, BC) ! There is no charge for parking at this facility. We manage for parking location compliance for employees. (Bangor, ME) ! Increase in patient/visitor volumes. (Weston, ON) ! No close parking available. (Corvallis, OR) ! We rent offsite & subsidize for employees; never refuse an employee; prioritize and never refuse a patient/family member. (Montréal, QC) Puerto Rico ! Construction and acquisition. (Manati & Mayaguez, PR)

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Appendix D: Hotel Executive Summary and Comments
The intent of this executive summary is to highlight the significant hotel parking facility facts uncovered in the study. It is designed to be a quick overview. Further details about any item can be found in the body of the study and reading the consolidated comments below. Data was tabulated from 72 hotel locations reporting. The Hotel segment was hit hard by the recession with 35% reporting a decrease in revenues and 28% reporting an increase. Most of the 35% reporting decreases attribute this to decrease in business travel and tourism. The 28% reporting an increase attribute growth to increasing rates or an increase in guests tied to large construction projects. During this recession 31% of hotel operations reported they raised rates, 67% stayed the same, and 1% decreased rates over last year. It appears that hotels are maintaining prices at current rates or increasing rates if they can. For the first time this year we collected and benchmarked wages for six hotel positions; Maintenance worker, Clerical, Valet, Attendant, Cashier, and Manager. We plan to ask the same questions every 2 to 3 years to trend wages over time and help you make more informed wage decisions. We also determined the size of operation participating. The average annual revenues for participating hotels was $7.94 million with an average of 1,597 spaces. Revenue per space was $3,089. Hotel Comment for your review. This is a list of all comments shared with us by participating operations to clarify the reasons for some of their answers.
New England U.S. ! Construction last year increased monthly construction worker revenue. (Boston, MA) ! Hotel business and local merchant transients. (Cambridge, MA) ! Court system/tourism/government offices. (Salem, MA) ! Tourist / history / waterfront. (Portsmouth, NH) Mid-Atlantic U.S. ! Tourism and conventions. (Washington, DC) ! There have been several cancellations of large groups at hotel contributed to a decrease in parking revenues. (Baltimore, MD) ! The economy was a factor in the business decrease. (Baltimore, MD) ! The recession along with slot parlor competition in PA, DE, WV & other states has hurt business. (Atlantic City, NJ) ! Enforcement by city not authority staff, and is funded by APA - different wage scale/different performance. (Suny Oswego, NY) ! Validations allowed for hotel guests to reduce parking fee. (Reading, PA) ! 400 mechanical meters soon to be replaced with multi-payment type meters. (Reading, PA) Southern U.S. ! Group and convention. (Orlando, FL) ! Installation of new pay and display meters. (Houston, TX) ! New contract in 2010 with city, still in process of adding street meters. (Houston, TX) Midwest U.S. ! Occupancy for conventions decrease. (Chicago, IL) ! Worst hotel slump in 50 years. (Chicago, IL) ! Casino. (Lawrenceburg, IN) ! University of Michigan. (Ann Arbor, MI) ! The city is just not as busy as it used to be before. Even with new bar opening. Restaurants are begging for customers when 3 years ago there would be an hour wait to get in on a Friday or Saturday. (Detroit, MI) ! Revenue is for collection only. Ticket revenues are general fund and not part of the parking system. (Grand Rapids, MI) ! Our meter collections are contracted out and paid on a per meter basis. (Milwaukee, WI)

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Western U.S. ! Storage parking, convention parking. (Anaheim, CA) ! Lots of short term bookings. (Los Angeles, CA) ! Raised rate city wide Jan. 1, 2009. (Monterey, CA) ! All hotel parking we run in Denver is valet only. (Denver, CO) ! We do not operate the valet for the hotel. Also, the majority of the guests pay the parking charges in conjunction with the room charges so we collect a relatively small amount of revenue. (Salt Lake City, UT) ! We do not have access to revenue figures, we are subcontracted for enforcement only and the municipality does not share revenue information with us. Our manager did indicate that he estimates a revenue decrease of less than 10%. (Salt Lake City, UT) Canada ! Lower conference attendance due to economic climate. (Calgary, AB) ! Enforcement is contracted out to Robbins Parking Service and I don't have their rates of pay. (Nanaimo, BC) ! Bulk of revenue is from enforcement efforts....not from meters. (Richmond, BC) ! Transit levy tax increase from 7% to 21%. (14% increase). (Vancouver Suburban, BC) ! 14% transit tax increase. (Vancouver, BC) ! Tanslink parking tax increase from 7% to 21%. Now HST is having a profound impact on parking. (Vancouver, BC) ! New on-street pay by system will lead to increased revenue. (Victoria, BC) ! Collection staff are unionized, resulting in higher wage costs. No increase to meter rates in 18 years. (Winnipeg, MB) ! Oil industry. (St. John’s, NF) ! FYI enforcement officers are external contract. (Halifax Regional, NS) ! Vale/Inco mine strike - 3000 employees high wage earners on strike. (Greater Sudbury, ON) ! Development in the city centre and demand for more parking. (Mississauga, ON) ! Enforcement is a contract service. (Thunder Bay, ON) ! Events, economy, tourism, taxes, occupancy hotels. (Toronto, ON) ! We are converting our downtown to two-way traffic and modifying parking based on needs for traffic safety. (Regina, SK)

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Appendix E: Airport Executive Summary and Comments
The intent of this executive summary is to highlight the significant airport parking facility facts uncovered in the study. It is designed to be a quick overview. Further details about any item can be found in the body of the study and reading the consolidated comments below. Data was tabulated from 29 on- and 53 off-airport locations reporting. Both on-airport and off-airport parking operators were hit hard by the recession with 56 and 44% reporting a decrease in revenues respectfully. Decreases point toward weak demand for business travelers due to the weak economy. Increases were reported from airports with discount airlines pulling business from other airports in the area. Another growth factor for off-airport facilities was marketing beyond just airport parking patrons. 17% of off-airport parking facilities reported decreasing prices to compete for fewer travelers. 4% of on-airport parking facilities reported decreasing prices. 25% of on-airport and 28% of off-airport facilities reporting raising prices to address increases in parking taxes, not raising prices in a while, or raising rates due to reduced patrons. For the first time we benchmarked wages for 6 airport positions; Maintenance worker, Clerical, Valet, Attendant, Shuttle Driver, and Manager. We plan to ask the same questions every 2 to 3 years to trend wages over time and help you make more informed wage decisions. This year we determined the size of participating operations. The average annual revenues for on-airport facilities was $23.33 million and for off-airport facilities $12,865,000. The average number of parking spaces for on-airport facilities was 8,184 and for off-airport it was 4,977. Revenue per space was $2,254 per space for off-airport and $2,483 for on-airport facilities.

Off-Airport
Airport Com m ents for your review. This is a list of all com m ents shared with us by participating operations to clarify the reasons for som e of their answers.
New England U.S. ! Airport down. (So. Burlington, VT) Mid-Atlantic U.S. ! The change in the economy. (Lester, PA) Southern U.S. ! Moved. (Orlando, FL) ! Disputes with the airport administration over fees, operating privileges. (Dallas/Fort Worth, TX) Canada ! Hotels parking specials, tour operators, on line specials. (Toronto, ON)

On-airport
Mid-Atlantic U.S. ! National economic recession. (Greater Rochester International Airport, NY) Southern U.S. ! Decreased economy rate to compete with off-airport parking. (Ft. Lauderdale-Hollywood International, FL) ! Competition from off-airport parking operators and extreme reduction in air service. (Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, KY) ! OKC opened a new garage and increased rates for the first time in many years in the fall of 2009. Occupancy is down 11% but revenue is up due to the rate increase. (Will Rogers World Airport, OK) ! Lost service of low cost airline, Airtran in Dec. 09. (Charleston International Airport, SC) ! With no low cost major carriers, as much as 60% of our potential clients use other airports which have low cost carriers. We get the rest. (Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport, TN)

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Construction of contract facility has reduced long term parking spaces by approx. 2,000 spaces. (Nashville International Airport, TN) Off airports have increased parking stalls. (Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, TX) General economic slowdown. However, DFW economy is stronger than the nation at large. (Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, TX) Economy will cause folks to not fly as often. (San Antonio International, TX) Competition from other airports. Large percentage of business travelers. (Charlottesville Albemarle Airport, VA)

Midwest U.S. ! Loss of three airlines associated with the economic downturn caused a slump in parking revenue. (Austin Straubel International, WI) Western U.S. ! The average length of stay has increase, in most of our facilities. (Denver International Airport, CO) ! The airport is operated as a separate entity from the commercial operations. Canada ! Opening of the Canada line with service to the airport. Increase of parking sales tax from 7 to 21%. (Vancouver Airport Authority, BC) ! Increase in travel. (Victoria International Airport, BC)

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