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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

TAGUIG BRANCH

“Relationship of Interpersonal Skills, Work Motivation, and Job Performace”

An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to


The Faculty of College of Business Administration

In partial fulfillment of the requirements of Thesis Writing


(OALT 4063)

Researchers:

Concordia, Marianne S.
Madronio, John Henry N.
Rangel, Melvin B.
Roldan, Rachel M.

Prof. Margarita T. Sevilla

April 2019
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This paper would not have been possible without the help of different people

in achieving this kind of paper. So we, the researchers would like to render our

warmest thanks and appreciation to those people who helped us.

We, the researchers would like to express our special appreciation and

thanks to our Research Professor, Ms. Margarita Sevilla, who have been our

tremendous mentor and teacher. We would like to thank you first for approving

our research paper. We would also like to thank you for your patient guidance

and encouragement. The pieces of advice and lectures you gave to us really

helped us in achieving our paper.

We would also like to appreciate and render our deepest thanks to the

panelists in our defense who help us improve our paper through their given tips

and pieces of advice.

Also, we, the researchers, of course, deserved to be appreciated and

acknowledged because we are the ones who did this paper despite all the

exerted efforts, time, and the financial help just to achieve and finished this kind

of paper.

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ABSTRACT

Title: Relationship of Interpersonal Skills, Work Motivation, and


Job Performance of Legal Practitioners in Del Rosario and
Del Rosario Law Office

Researchers : Concordia, Marianne S.

Madronio, John Henry N.

Rangel, Melvin B.

Roldan, Rachel M.

Degree: Bachelor of Science in Office Administration major in Legal


Transcription

Institution : Polytechnic University of the Philippines Taguig Branch

Year : 2019

Adviser : Margarita T. Sevilla

The main reason of this study was to identify the Relationship of Interpersonal

Skills, Work Motivation, and Job Performance of Legal Practitioners in Del Rosario and

Del Rosario Law Office. This study utilized the descriptive research method using the

survey questionnaire. These were distributed to 100 legal practitioners of Del Rosario

and Del Rosario Law Office.

Majority of the respondents were female and was 2-6 years in service. In terms

of their Interpersonal Skills, the respondents were capable to a great extent in giving

positive feedback and capable to a moderate extent in giving negative feedback. In

terms of the respondents Level of Work Motivation, they always feel the sense of

camaraderie and teamwork among their co-workers and often feel being recognized for

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doing a job well such as being complimented by the boss or receiving a company

reward, promotion, or salary increase. And in terms of their Level of Job Performance,

the respondents successfully accomplished the task or functions assigned to them. And

therefore, this study rejected the null hypothesis.

Keywords: Interpersonal Skills, Work Motivation, Job Performance, Legal Practitioners,

Law Office.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i

Recommendation for Oral Presentation and Approval Sheet ii

Acknowledgment iii

Abstract iv

Table of Contents vi

List of Table viii

Chapter

1 The Problem and Its Setting

Introduction 1

Theoretical Framework 3

Conceptual Framework 5

Statement of the Problem 7

Hypothesis 7

Scope and Limitation of the Study 8

Significance of the Study 8

Definition of Terms 9

2 Review of Related Literature 11

3 Methodology

Research Method 27

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vi
Populations and Samples 27

Description of the Respondents 28

Sampling Technique 29

Instrumentation/Scale 29

Sources of Data 31

Data Gathering Procedure 31

Statistical Treatment of Data 32

4 Results and Discussions 33

5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Summary of Findings 43

Conclusions 45

Recommendations 46

References

Letter of Request to Conduct Survey

Research Instrument

Statistician’s Certificate

Editor’s Certificate

Biographical Statement

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LIST OF TABLES

Number Title Page

1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the 34


Respondents In terms of Gender

2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the 34


Respondents In terms of Civil Status

3 Frequency and Distribution of the Respondents In terms 35


of Position

4 Frequency and Distribution of the Respondents In terms


35
of Age

5 Frequency and Distribution of the Respondents In terms


of Length of Service 36

6 Respondents’ Perceived Interpersonal Skills 36

7 Respondents’ Level of Work Motivation 37

8 Respondents’ Perceived Level of Job Performance 38

9 Pearson Correlation: Correlation between the 40


Respondent’s perceived Interpersonal Skills and their
perceived job performance

10 Pearson Correlation: Correlation between the 41


Respondent’s Level of Work Motivation and their
perceived Job Performance

11 Multiple Correlations: Correlation Among the


Respondent’s perceived Interpersonal Skills, Work 42
Motivation and Job Performance.

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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction

Employees are the center point for an organization’s success. In fact, most of the

people have heard the famous saying, “Manpower is the greatest asset of an

organization.” Most of the people believe in it but can it still be called the greatest asset

of an organization even if they can’t achieve their tasks on time or can’t have a good

relationship with their employers or co-workers? Employees need to be productive and

work together with his or her co-worker to have a good relationship with them.

In this study, the main focus is on the legal practitioner in Del Rosario and Del

Rosario Law Office. According to Legal Dictionary, when we say legal practitioner, it can

be advocate, attorney, barrister, counsel, lawyer, legal professional, member of the bar,

solicitor, specialist, etc. Basically, legal practitioner is a person whose job has something

to do with legal matters.

The study focuses on the relationship of the work motivation, interpersonal skills,

and job performance of legal practitioners in Del Rosario and Del Rosario Law Office.

The first variable is the interpersonal skills. All of us use interpersonal skills every single

day. Basically, when we say interpersonal skills, it refers to a person’s capability to deal

with other people. Interpersonal skills are very important especially in the business world

or other working environment. Without interpersonal skills, it will be hard for the

employees to perform their task or duty. In every workplace, communication is

significant. All aspect of work involves communication. There are also jobs that need

collaboration, interaction, and cooperation with different people especially when an

employee needs to talk with his or her manager or supervisor. In that situation, the
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interpersonal skill is very vital. According to Jimmy L Smith (2017), the term

interpersonal skills have is related to term soft skills, social skills, and people skills. He

also stated that even if a person is good at technical or academic aspects of their job,

the presence of them is not likely well-received if they are a disaster to work with.

The second variable is work motivation. Motivation is one of the variable

commonly use in research, maybe because motivation deals with different variables.

Basically, motivation derived from the word “motive” which means needs and wants of

an individual. Everyone needs motivation, especially employees in order for them to

perform their tasks effectively and efficiently. Everyone needs motivation. An employee

can’t work effectively if he or she is not motivated even though employees have a big

salary and safe workplace.

There are different ways to get an employee motivated. An employee can be

motivated by his salary or rewards. When a person feels that he or she is fairly

rewarded, they will feel dissatisfied and will reduce the quality and quantity of their

output. The worst case scenario of person who feels that he or she is fairly rewarded is

when they even leave or resign from the organization. But if a person thinks that the

rewards are equitable, they will continue the level of output they are producing. Because

of these rewards, the person will work harder from him or her to achieve that.

In motivation, the workplace is another factor to consider in order for an

employee to be motivated. No one will be motivated if the workplace is messy. If you feel

unsafe towards to your workplace, you will surely not get motivated to go to your office. It

is important to have a clean, neat, and safe working place to employees.

The last variable is the job performance. When we say job performance, it refers

to the evaluation of whether an employee has done job well or not. It is an assessment

individually measured based on the single person’s effort towards to his or her work. As

we all know, job performance of an employee has a huge impact in the entire company
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or organization’s success. As we also know that the main objective of a company or

organization is gain profit from their clients or customers. In job performance, there many

factors affecting it. Employers and employees need to be aware of and should work for

them to improve themselves at all times.

Now, this study will determine if the said variables, interpersonal skills, work

motivation, and job performance, have a relationship between each other. This study will

also determine how those variables affect the legal practitioners of the Del Rosario & Del

Rosario Law Office.

Theoretical Framework

In the Symbolic Interaction Theory, Symbolic Interactions are the basis for the

development of society. Aside from that, symbolic interactions are the basis for the

emergence of our mind and sense of self. Charon (2007) wrote, “Mind is defined as all

symbolic covert action toward oneself.” Another, the mind connects symbols to objects

which serve as the basis for assigning meaning and interpretations. The next factor is

“self.” Self is used to reflect our ability to see ourselves as objects in the same way that

other people see us and attribute symbols and meanings to their perceptions. Our

perception of ourselves is symbolically and socially based. The self and the social are

systemically linked together, each affecting the other, each changing over time, each co-

dependent upon the other. The last factor in the Symbolic Interaction Theory is the

society. The essence of a society is the interaction and communication of individuals

through symbols. Society arises in social interaction; it continues through social

interaction; it ends without social interaction.

Motivation is significant because even people with the required knowledge, skills,

and abilities, just like a legal practitioner, will perform poorly if they are not motivated to

devote their time and effort to work. A motivated and qualified workforce is crucial to
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increase productivity and the quality of the organizational services in order to achieve

organizational objectives.

In this study, it discusses two leading motivation theories. This study believe that

motivation theories are basis for this study because achieving higher levels of job

performance requires attending to how best legal practitioners can be motivated through

incentives and performance management approaches.

According to Herzberg’s Motivation- Hygiene theory, there are job factors that

result in satisfaction while there are other job factors that prevent dissatisfaction.

According to Herzberg, the opposite of “Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction” and the

opposite of “Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction”. Herzberg divided these job factors

into two factors namely hygiene factors and motivational factors.

The hygiene factors symbolized the physiological needs which the individuals

wanted and expected to be fulfilled. Hygiene factors are the following: Salary is receiving

compensation in exchange of showing efforts and hard work. Company Policies and

administrative policies refers to flexible working hours, dress code, breaks, vacation, etc.

Fringe benefits are the offered health care plans, benefits for the family members, and

employee help program. Physical Working conditions is about the safety, cleanliness,

and hygienic of the workplace of the employee. Status is the employee’s status within

the organization. Interpersonal relations refer to the relationship of the employees with

his peers, superiors and subordinates. And lastly, Job Security refers the security of the

organization or company to its employees.

The motivational factors are inherent to work. Also, motivational factors motivate

the employees for a superior performance. Motivational factors include: Recognition

refers to the recognition given by the managers for the accomplishment of their

employees. Next is the Sense of achievement that states that employees must have a

sense of achievement. Growth and promotional opportunities states that the organization
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or company needs to have growth and promotional opportunities to motivate the

employees to perform well. Another factor is the Responsibility where the manager

should give to his employees the ownership for their work in order for them to hold

themselves responsible for their work. Lastly, Meaningfulness of the work refers to the

work itself that should be meaningful and challenging for the employees to perform and

to get motivated.

According to the job characteristics theory of work attitudes and performance

(Hackman & Oldham, 1975, 1980), the employee job satisfaction, intrinsic work

motivation, and their productivity are a function of the characteristics of a job. The main

characteristics are the skill-variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and

feedback. It also states that employees’ attitudes and performance are moderated by the

needs of the employees for psychological growth. Employees with low growth need

strength are the one that has less responsive to the job characteristics than the

employees with high growth need strength. The job characteristics theory of work

attitudes and performance of Hackman & Oldham is also known as the Job

Characteristics Model (JCM).

This study relate these three (3) theories of motivation, interpersonal skills, and

job performance to the legal practitioner who are working in Del Rosario and Del Rosario

Law Office. In every institution or company, it is important to motivate employees, to

know their interpersonal values, and the relationship of it to the job performance in order

to perform to achieve organizational objectives and goals.

Conceptual Framework

This study will show if there is a significant relationship among interpersonal

skills, work motivation, and job performance of the respondents. We will use the
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independent and dependent framework. The independent variable is the interpersonal

skills that will be patterned to the Symbolic Interaction Theory having three important

factors: society, self and mind, and other variables under independent variable is the

work motivation that will be patterned to the Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation. The

independent variable affects the dependent variable which is the job performance that

will be patterned after the evaluation system used by China Banking Corporation

wherein it will cover these following factors: Job Knowledge, Quality of Work, Quantity of

Work, Dependability, Judgment, Creativity, Organization, Initiative, Industry, and

Attaining Objectives.

Dependent Variable
Independent Variable
Job Performance
Interpersonal Skills
 Job Knowledge
 Society
 Quality of Work
 Self
 Quantity of Work
 Mind
 Dependability
Work Motivation  Judgment
- is a set of  Organization
energetic forces  Initiative
that originate  Industry
both within as  Attaining
well as beyond Objectives
an individual's
being, to initiate
work-related
behavior, and to
determine its
form, direction,
intensity, and
duration.
- is a person's
internal dispositio
n to be
concerned with
and approach
positive
incentives and
avoid negative
incentives.
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Statement of the Problem

This study determined the relationship among interpersonal skills, work

motivation, and job performance. Specifically, it will answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

A. Age

B. Position

C. Gender

D. Length of service

E. Civil Status

2. How do the respondents perceive their interpersonal skills?

3. What is the respondents’ level of work motivation?

4. What is the respondents’ perceived level of job performance?

5. Is there a significant relationship between the respondents' perceived interpersonal

skills and their perceived job performance?

6. Is there a significant relationship between the respondents' level of work motivation

and their perceived job performance?

7. Is there a significant relationship among respondent’s perceived interpersonal skills,

work motivation, and job performance?

Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between the respondent's perceived

interpersonal skills and their perceived job performance.

There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ level of work

motivation and their perceived job performance.

There is no significant relationship among the respondent’s perceived

interpersonal skills, work motivation, and job performance.


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Scope and Limitation of the study

The study focused on the relationship between interpersonal skills and work

motivation of legal practitioners and how each variable affects the respondents’ job

performance. The legal practitioners from Del Rosario and Del Rosario Law Firm will be

the respondents.

The measurement of the interpersonal skills will be done through the

administration of the Symbolic Interaction Theory of Blummer.

This study also examined the level of motivation based from the Herzberg’s Two-

Factor Motivation theory, the hygiene factors and the motivator factors. In this study,

hygiene factor includes the variables interpersonal relations, status, physical working

conditions, fringe benefits, company policies and administrative policies, salary, job

security. The Motivator factor, on the other hand, includes the variables recognition,

sense of achievement, growth and promotional opportunities, responsibility, and

meaningfulness of the work. The third variable in this study is the job performance. It

measured by self-rating survey questionnaire on their job performance. The job

performance variables include efficiency or competency, attendance, interpersonal

relationship and professionalism.

Significance of the study

The study focused on explaining the relationship of interpersonal skills, work

motivation and job performance of legal practitioners of Del Rosario and Del Rosario

Law Office. Moreover, the results of the study will be beneficial to the following:

Legal Practitioner. This study will determine the importance of work motivation

and interpersonal skills to the job performance of a legal practitioner. This study will

show that a motivated legal practitioner can handle uncertainty more easily, a better

problem-solver, have higher levels of innovation and creativity his or her work. This will
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also show the importance of the interpersonal values that refers to a strong association

among legal practitioners working together in the same organization.

Students of law-related courses. This study will show the future legal

practitioner the importance of having a work motivation, interpersonal values and how it

affects the job performance of a legal practitioner. It can give facts and information

related to legal practitioner. And it can also help them to know what they need to

prepare after they graduate and become a legal practitioner in the future.

Future researcher. This study will serve as a guide of facts and information

related to legal practitioner. It also serves as a guide to those who are willing to have a

further investigation on legal practitioner’s motivation, interpersonal values, and job

performance. This study can also serve as an inspiration to people who want to continue

what the researcher has started.

Definition of Terms

For clarification and understanding purposes, the following terms are defined in

the way they were used in this study.

Hygiene factors. It refers to the factors necessary to maintain a reasonable level

of job satisfaction which covers interpersonal relationship company policy and

administration, supervision, salary and fringe benefits, and working condition. These are

also called as the extrinsic motivators.

Independence. It refers to an individual who scores high in is described as

having the right to do whatever he wants to do, being free to make one’s own decisions,

and being able to do things in one’s way

Interpersonal. It refers to something related to communications, relationships or

interactions between people. It can also define as involving relations between persons.
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Interpersonal Skills. Interpersonal skills are the skills we use every day when

we communicate and interact with other people, both individually and in groups.

Job Performance. It refers to the actual accomplishment as distinguished from

the potential ability.

Leadership. It is the quality of an individual who want to be in charge for other

people, having authority over others and being in a position of leadership power.

Legal practitioner. It refers to a person one whose profession is to give a legal

advice and assistance to clients and represent them in court or in other legal matters.

Motivation. It refers to one’s willingness to exert effort to achieve a goal or

objective or meet individual’s wants, desires, or needs.

Motivator Factors. It includes achievement, responsibility, work itself,

advancement, and recognition. These are also called as the intrinsic motivators.

Recognition. It is a motivator factor measured in the work motivation that refers

to an act of acknowledging the physical presence or work achievement of a person.

Skills. Skills are the ability to carry out a task with determined results often

within a given amount of time, energy, or both

Support. It refers to an individual that holds this value likes being treated with

understanding, receiving encouragement from other people, and being treated with

kindness and considerations.

Work motivation. It refers to the extent to which employees are induced by

hygiene factors and work motivators to perform their work.


Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presented a collection of related documents drawn from literature

and studies review here in the Philippines and in other countries. The materials

compiled in this chapter were carefully selected from books, magazines, journals,

researchers as well as internet resources to facilitate the readers’ better understanding

of the study.

INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

Manalo and Fermin (2000) stated that interpersonal communication is the

process of understanding and sharing meaning between at least two persons. This

happens when a relatively mutual opportunity for speaking and listening occurs.

Interpersonal, likes intrapersonal communication occurs for a variety of reasons, to solve

problems, to resolve conflicts, to share information, to improve our perception of

ourselves, or to fulfill such social needs as the need to belong or to be loved. Though our

interpersonal communication, we are able to establish relationships with others that

include friendships and romantic relationships, interpersonal communication includes

Dyadic Communication and Small Group Communication.

As stated by Akrivan (2000), interpersonal communication skills are ability to

respond to staff has needs positively, fostering a non-discriminatory work environment

where staff can develop to their full personal potentials, and delegating authority. While

Peled (2000) defined interpersonal skills as the ease and comfort of communication

between individuals and their colleagues, superiors, clients, and other stakeholders
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Adler and Rodman (2001) said that the most obvious way to define interpersonal

communication is by context. Looking at the number of people involved. In this sense we

could say that all dyadic communication—all two person interaction—is interpersonal.

For example, unlike threesomes and other groups, dyads are complete and cannot be

subdivided. If one person withdraws from the other, the relationship is finished. The

indivisibility means that, unlike groups, the partners in a dyad cannot form coalitions to

get their needs met: They must work matters out with one another. Virtually every verbal

statement contains two kinds of messages. Content message that focus on the subject

being discussed, are the most obvious. Content messages are not the only kind

exchanged when two people interact. In addition, virtually all communications—both

verbal and nonverbal—can toward one another. These relational ones deal with one or

more social needs most often inclusion, control affection, or respect.

Interpersonal communication is one of the skills model in every type of workplace

setting. The ability to actively and empathetically listen, adapt communication style

according to others and situations confirm others in communication, resolve conflict,

manage tone in writing, and effectively communicate in a group are all crucial skills for

employees that require exceptional interpersonal communication. However,

constructivism theory suggests that due to variances in cognition, not everyone is able to

communicate interpersonally at the same level. The research study examines the history

of constructivism theory, interpersonal communication and its relevance in the workplace

and interpersonal communication-training to further study how they all interrelate. The

project builds upon constructivism theory and phenomenological philosophy to develop

an interpersonal communication-training curriculum for adult employees that provides

improvement in cognition by aiding employees in awareness of possible deficiencies and

using skills to overcome them and interpersonally communicate effectively. The projects’

goal is to decrease the divide in interpersonal communication differences in employees


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so that all employees have a stronger possibility of job satisfaction and have the

opportunity to excel in careers.

For Wheeler (2005), Interpersonal skills are built over a lifetime but there are

several steps you can take to start building these skills faster and more effectively such

as reading, talking with your team, and working with a coach. Relational Development

and Maintenance - Qualitatively Interpersonal relationship are not stable. Instead, they

are constantly changing. Communication scholars have described the way relationship

develop and shift in two ways. One of the best-known models of relational development

was created by Mark Knapp, who broke down the rise and fall relationship into ten

stages, contained in the two broad phases of coming together and coming apart (a)

Initiating- The stage of initiation involves the initial making of contact with another

person. Knapp restricts this stage to conversation openers, both in initial contacts and

with previous acquaintances. (b) Experimenting- In this stage of experimenting, the

conversation develops ass the people get acquainted making small talks. Though small

talk might seem meaningless Knapp points out that it serves four purposes – It is useful

process for uncovering integrating topics and openings for more penetrating

conversation. It can be an audition for a future friendship or a way of increasing the

scope of a current relationship, and it allows us to maintain a sense of community with

our fellow human beings. The relationship during this stage is generally pleasant and

uncritical, and the commitments are minimal. There are stages of Rational Development:

(1) Intensifying- At the next stage the kind of truly interpersonal relationship defined

earlier to develop. Several changes in communication patterns occur during intensifying.

The expression of feeling toward the other becomes common. (2) Integrating- As the

relationship strengthens, the parties begin to take on an identity as a social unit.

Invitation begins to come addressed to the person. Social circles merge. The partners

begin to take on each other’s commitments. As we integrated with others, our sense of
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obligation to them grows. We feel obliged to provide a variety of resources such as class

notes and money, whether or not the other person ask for them. (3) Differentiating-Now

that the two people have formed this commonalty, they need to re-establish individual

identities. This is to point where the hold-me right orientation that has existed shifts, and

put me down messages begin to occur. Partners use a variety of strategies to gain

privacy from one another. Sometimes they confront each other directly explaining that

they do not want to continue a discussion. (4) Circumscribing- the circumscribing stage,

communication between members decreases in quantity and quality. Restriction and

restraints characterize this stage, and dynamic communication becomes static. (5)

Avoiding- When stagnation becomes too unpleasant, parties in a relationship to create

distance between each other. Sometimes this is done under the guise of excuses and

sometimes it is done directly. (6) Terminating- Characteristics of this final stage include

the summary dialogues about where the relationship has gone and the desire to

dissociate.

According to Tenedero (2011), interpersonal intelligence is a facility in relating to

other people, this referred to as “people skills”. Individuals with this kind of genius are

highly sociable, able to work well with various kinds of people. They lead and influence

others, mediate conflict and build consensus.

WORK MOTIVATION

Ignacio (2005) conducted a study on work motivation and job satisfaction among

rank-and-file employees of the Department of Public Works and Highways Central office

and found out that employees are motivated regarded to their level of work motivation in

terms of intrinsic factors related to their job and moderately motivated with regards to

their level of work motivation in terms of extrinsic factors related to their present job.

Other findings revealed that the significant relationship between respondent’s level of
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work motivation and job satisfaction. The demographic profile of respondents such as

gender, civil status, and highest educational attainment and salary grades affects the

relationship between motivation and job satisfaction. In general, the study concluded

that motivation is only factor that can predict job satisfaction.

Kreitner and Kinicki, (2001) good reward system attracts talented people,

motivate, and satisfy them once they have joined the organization. Further, a good

reward system foster personal growth and development and keep talented people from

leaving.

Goleman as cited by Ecle, (2006) described the five components of emotional

intelligence by defending each one and identifying its hallmark attributed and behaviors.

He regarded motivation as the third component of emotional intelligence. One of the

most important areas of research in organization, motivation, behavior came from the

word move. Consistently, Goleman defines motivation as the passion to work for go

beyond money or status. It is also the prosperity to pursue goals and persistence.

Employee job satisfaction and motivation can be studied through several broad

approaches vis-à-vis content or need-based theories, process theories, and

reinforcement theories. However, the term employee motivation is a complex and

difficult term to define; therefore, a precise definition of this concept is elusive as the

notion that comprises the characteristics of an individual and a situation as well as the

perception of that situation by the individual (Rosenfeld & Wilson, 1989) An

organization’s liveliness, whether public or private, comes from the motivation of its

employees, although their abilities play just as crucial a role in determining their work

performance and their motivation (Lewis, Goodman and Frandt, 1995).Golemblewski

(1973, p. 597) refers to motivation as the degree of readiness of an organization to

pursue some designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and focus of

forces including the degree of readiness.


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In short, Dessler (2001) defined motivation as the intensity of the person’s desire

to engage in some activity. From the above definitions, some issues are brought to mind

that deal with what starts and energizes human behavior, how those forces are directed

and sustained as well as the outcomes they bring about (performance). It follows,

therefore, that there is relationship between motivation and job satisfaction, which is

paramount in any organization’s existence. However, the concepts of motivation and job

satisfaction are often confused with one another.

Pinar, (2011) stated that employees work harder when they are recognized and

appreciated for their effort toward the work and tasks have been given and this is a

simple, easy and powerful strengthen system. When employees get recognized and

appreciated, they do their best to prove the skill, talents and abilities they have.

Furthermore, recognizing employees is also considered a way of communication that

strengths and rewards the outcomes people create for your business. For that, leaders

should develop recognition system which is powerful for both employees and

organization (Hsiu-Fen, 2007). Employees who feel appreciated and recognized are

more positive about themselves and their abilities to contribute. It also guarantees

positive, productive, and innovative organization environment. Saying thank you as

recognition will make the business successful (David, Louis, Micheal, 2004).

Organizational practitioners often concentrate on developing leaders and

managers to effectively motivate their employees. Knicki and Kreitner (2006) as cited in

Benson ( 2008) defined motivation as “those of psychological processes that caused the

arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed.” The

employees’ performance is directly related to how motivated they are to achieve their

goals. Having the skills alone is often not enough for an employee to achieve his

performance at their job. As such, it is the leaders’ jobs to motivate their employees to

the extent that they can achieve high performance with their current skills and limitations.
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Motivation can be looked at from three perspectives-needs, process and reinforcement

(Lussier, 2005). The needs theories of motivation are critical to the effectiveness of

one’s leadership. It is in the context of the needs theories that the leadership principles

discussed in the first section can be applied. The following paragraphs give an overview

of the most well-known needs theories of motivation.

Benson (2008) believed that the most widely-known motivational theory

preached by today’s organizational practitioners is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

Tutt (1989 as cited in Benson, 2008) noted that human behavior continues to be based

on instinct, and that humans desire to fulfill the institutional needs. The theory suggests

that one’s needs are categorized by five categories of a hierarchy, that is, one must

satisfy the lowest level before satisfying the higher level needs. These levels, from

lowers to highest, are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, and the need for

self-actualization. Lussier (2005 cited in Benson). Many suggest that excellent leaders

understand where their employees’ needs fall within this hierarchy, and as such can

satisfy them accordingly.

A second widely-used needs theory was developed by David MaClelland (Knicki

et al., 2006, cited in Benson, 2008). MaClelland suggested that individuals have three

needs – a need for achievement, a need for power, and a need for affiliation. He

suggested that every individual is different with regards to his or her needs, and in order

adequately motivate someone, a leader should have a clear understanding of their own

employees’ needs with regards to these three areas. For example, someone with a high

need for affiliation might be well-suited for human resources position, while someone

with a high need for achievement might be well-suited for a sales position.

Understanding each employee as a unique individual can help a leader or manager

determine the best position and the best job-tasks for a particular employee.
18

The third prevalent need theory was developed by Frederick Herzberg, and is

often referred to as a Hygiene Theory of job satisfaction Knicki et al, (2006 cited in

Benson, 2008). Herzberg suggested that organizations have things that can be

classified as satisfiers and dissatisfiers, and that in order to satisfy a need to motivated

employees, a leader and manager should alleviate the things dissatisfy employees and

improve the things that satisfy employees. Such as rules and regulations, salary, work

environment, and supervisors are examples of things that are classified as dissatisfiers,

or hygiene factors. Promotion opportunities, learning opportunities, job recognition, and

challenging work are things that are classified as satisfiers. While both are important to

motivating an employee, oftentimes, organizations only concentrate on removing the

dissatisfiers, which does not intrinsically motivate the employee, especially in the long

run.

The term motivation can be traced from the Latin word “movere”, which means to

move (Luthans, 2008). Motivation is the set of attitude and values that can predisposes a

person to act a specific goal-directed manner. It is invisible inner state that energizes

human goal directed behavior which can be divided into two components: 1.) the

direction of behavior (working to reach a goal), and 2.) the strength of the behavior (how

hard or strongly the individual will work) (Ivancevich, 2007)

Heller (2005) attested that teachers have one of the highest attrition rates of any

profession; in particular, new teachers are apt to leave our schools. A study published in

the American Educational Research Journal and conducted by Richard M. Ingersoll, an

associate professor of education and sociology at Philadelphia University, corroborates

this point. According to Ingersoll’s finding, the average yearly turnover rate in education

is 13.2 percent as compared to 11 percent in other professions. Even more significant to

the problem under discussion here is that 29 percent of new teachers leave education

with their first three years, and by the end of five years, 39 percent have left. (Viadero,
19

2002 as cited in Heller, 2005). Ingersoll includes that educators should spend time on

recruitment efforts and put more effort into retaining teachers they have.

Viadero 2002 as cited in Heller (2005) suggested that schools might better luck

meeting their teachers… by making improvements in job such as increasing support for

teachers, raising salaries, reducing students misbehavior, and giving faculty members

more say in school decision making.

According to the article of Bryan Tracy, “the key to motivation your real goal is to

become a transformational leader, a kind of person that motivates and inspires people to

perform at levels that they had previously thought possible.”

According to motivational guru, Alfie Kohn, (cited in Straub, 2005) rewards

should never be made an end in themselves. If they are, motivation becomes one-

dimensional because employees pursue rewards for their own sake. Worse,

management’s reasons for offering them, such as improving product quality, productivity,

or customer service, are overlooked or lost in the shuffle. The simple act of saying

“thank you” for a job well done can be productive on the “thanker” and exhilarating for

the “thankee.” According to a survey by the personnel consulting and recruiting firm

Robert Half International, lack of praise and recognition causes more employee turnover

than such factors as compensation, inadequate authority, or

JOB PERFORMANCE

According to Luthans (2002) effective job performace can move organization

forward. Job performance as a result of accomplishment, a person maximizes his

potential to reach the set goals because of the quality of job performance influences of

organizational environment and in increasing efficient workers, much work in a way that

will make possible results for workers to accept support.


20

Reysio – Cruz (2001) identified the factors that contributed to the job satisfaction

and dissatisfaction of the employees in the Ateneo Grade School. The administrator,

teachers and non-teaching staff regarded achievement as the greatest source of

satisfaction of the job and none of these groups found any dissatisfying factor at the

motivation level. All the three groups did not consider any factor in the hygiene level as

dissatisfying. The administrator and teachers considered status number of the hygiene

level while the non-teaching staff regarded interpersonal relationship as number one.

Canlas (2001) correlated job satisfaction, job performance, and organizational

commitment among the full-time and part-time faculty members of a State University in

Manila. The results showed that there is no significant relationship between job

satisfaction and job performance. There is also no significant relationship between full-

time and part-time faculty members. He also found out in both groups that the

demographic profile of age, gender, and faculty rank are not associated with over-all job

satisfaction and organizational commitment. Age, however, positively associated with

job performance, as rank increases, job performance ratings also increase.

Several studies identified and compared which among the Motivations and

Hygiene Level contribute to the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among teachers in

different schools in different here in the Philippines.

Chowdhury (2004) conducted a study on enhancing motivation and work

performance of the sales people the impact of supervisors’ behavior. His findings

revealed that intrinsic motivation is shown to produce a relatively greater impact on

performance. However, results indicated that extrinsic motivation had negative

relationship with salespersons work performance which indicates that there is a positive

but not significant relationship.


21

For the supervisory behaviors under study, the authoritarian is expected to have

weak relationship with overall motivation and performance as opposed positive

achievement motivation behavior. The data suggest that to the extent that supervisors

Engaged in positive motivational behaviors and expected greater performance

from the salespeople, employee intrinsic motivation is increased.

He also demonstrated that positive achievement motivation behavior produces

strong intrinsic motivation among the salespeople. Supervisors’ behavior strongly

influences salespersons’ motivation and work performance is, however, to be noted that

salespeople’s perceptions of supervisory behavior have considerable impact on their

motivation and work performance. On supervisory behaviors investigated, the more

important is using the positive methods of motivation for their force. Determining

rewards based on salespersons’ perceptions.

Hochwavier and Ferris (2006) examined the moderating effect perceived

organizational support (POS) on the relationship between social skill and supervisor

rated job performance. On the basis of regulatory and activation, models of behavior,

the authors argued that low-POS environments activate social skill because they reflect

situations in which interpersonal acuity is required to demonstrate effective job

performance. Accordingly, the authors hypothesized that social skill is more strongly

related to performance among workers reporting low rather than high levels of

organizational support. Results of hierarchical moderated multiple regression analyses

on data gathered from sample support the hypothesis. These results suggest that the

relevance of implications for substantive research, strengths and limitation, and

directions future research offered.

The present study contributes to an emerging literature linking social with job

performance. Recent research has demonstrated that social skill both main and

interactive effects on job performance, indicating that the social skill on performance is
22

dependent on other et.al.,2001; Witt & Ferris, 2003). The present study indicates the

social skill on performance is also dependent on differences of employee’s work

motivation is an important research topic having both practical and theoretical

implications.

Ecle (2006) discussed the causes of poor performance; she stressed that

excessive worry effective planning depends upon the anticipating trouble. It is good to

plan in order to minimize poor ability to enjoy your work and family. Worries almost

always results from misleading of reality. This leads to loss of inspiration, power, drive

and perspective. When a person loses perspective, he/she forgets about his/her work,

focus and most of all his/her reason for being alive.

According to her, unhealthy environment, improper ways, unhealthy habits, poor

nutrition, and laziness will cause poor performance. Furthermore, Ecle enumerated

negative attitudes which also contribute to poor performance (a) Indifference – Some

workers do not listen to instructions; They don’t even listening during meetings. They

attend just so they won’t be marked absent. (b) Tardiness – Being late is the worst

enemy. One who is not around can prepare adequately. (c) Money-centered – Some

workers count the days of attendance and not the days of achievement and excellent

performance. Instead improving their work they think of getting more money from

them.(d) Unfaithfulness – Every degree of profession aspires for loyalty because they

like it. They like the benefit they derive from work.

Employee job satisfaction and motivation can be studied through several broad

approaches vis-à-vis content or need-based theories, process theories, and

reinforcement theories. However, the term employee motivation is a complex and

difficult term to define; therefore, a precise definition of this concept is elusive as the

notion that comprises the characteristics of an individual and a situation as well as the

perception of that situation by the individual (Rosenfeld & Wilson, 1989) An


23

organization’s liveliness, whether public or private, comes from the motivation of its

employees, although their abilities play just as crucial a role in determining their work

performance and their motivation (Lewis, Goodman and Frandt, 1995). Golemblewski

(1973, p. 597) refers to motivation as the degree of readiness of an organization to

pursue some designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and focus of

forces including the degree of readiness. According to Holy and Miskel (1987, p. 176),

employee motivation is the complex forces, drives, needs, tension states, or other

mechanisms that start and maintain voluntary activity directed towards the achievement

of personal goals. In short, Dessler (2001), defined motivation as the intensity of the

person’s desire to engage in some activity. From the above definitions, some issues are

brought to mind that deal with what starts and energizes human behavior, how those

forces are directed and sustained as well as the outcomes they bring about

(performance). It follows, therefore, that there is relationship between motivation and job

satisfaction, which is paramount in any organization’s existence. However, the concepts

of motivation and job satisfaction are often confused with one another .Peretomode

(1991, citing Gibson, et al.) pointed out that the two terms are related but are not

synonymous. They acknowledged that job satisfaction is one part of the motivational

process. While motivation is primarily concerned with goal-directed behavior, job

satisfaction refers to the fulfillment acquired by experiencing various job activities and

rewards. It is possible that employee may display low motivation from the organization’s

perspective enjoy every aspect of the job. This state represents high job satisfaction.

Peretomode (1991, p. 113) also argued that highly motivated employee also be

dissatisfied with every aspect of his or her job. He demonstrated that a motivated worker

is easy to spot by his or her dedication, enthusiasm, focus, zeal, and general

performance and organizational objective and goals.


24

Ariola (2015) defined job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept,

which can mean different things to different people. Job satisfaction is usually linked with

motivation, but the nature of this relationship is not clear. Satisfaction is not the same as

motivation. "Job satisfaction is more an attitude, an internal state. It could, for example,

be associated with a personal feeling of achievement, either quantitative or qualitative."

In recent years attention to job satisfaction has become more closely associated with

broader approaches to improved job design and work organization, and the quality of

working life movement (Buchanan, 2006). Job satisfaction has been defined as, the

attitude of an employee toward a job, sometimes expressed as a hedonic response of

liking or disliking the work itself, the rewards pay, promotions, recognition, or the context

such as working conditions, benefits (Corsini, 1999 cited by Tillman, 2008).

Chung (1977) stated that is the key to individual’s productive life. Most workers

spend a major portion of their waking in work organizations. Organizational life

constitutes a central interest for many people in this society. The ways people manage

their work lives differ. Some find their job interesting or make the job interesting, they

become committed and involved. These individuals make creative use of their energies

and organizational resources to accomplish more things for themselves and their

organizations. In addition, they play productive roles in society by becoming good

providers for their families by contributing their fruitful skills and talents to produce goods

and services, and by sharing their accomplishments with others in the society. There

are, however, people who are bored and alienated from their job and search for every

opportunity to decrease their work commitment. These individuals not only waste their

energies but also consume organizational resources for non-productive uses.

Straub (2005) stressed that “In one company I worked for where every other day

seemed to be Malfunction Junction, we had two standards mottoes: “You don’t get paid

for the job; you get paid for the frustration.” And “When you’re right, no one remembers.
25

When you’re wrong no one forgets.” He pointed that paychecks provide compensation.

They don’t provide lasting motivation.

Generally, most performance problems are thought to be due to ability,

motivation, or situation factors (Carson, 1991 as cited in Brown and Lent, 2000). The

ability factors include the employee’s skills and talents (e.g. job knowledge, intelligence,

interpersonal skills). Gomez-Mejia (2004 as cited in Brown, 2005) stressed that

motivation refers to the effort expended. Situation system factors include many

organizational characteristics that can possess negative impact performance.

Chung (1977) explained a person’s job performance depends on factors other

than motivation. For example, one’s ability is as important as his/her motivation in

determining the level of his performance.

Pilarta (2015 as cited in McShane, 2003) a unique characteristic of motivator-

hygiene theory is that it does not view job satisfaction as opposites. Improving

motivators increase job satisfaction, but it does not decrease job dissatisfaction.

Improving hygienes reduces job dissatisfaction, but it does not increase job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction is produced by growth fulfillment and other work content outcomes,

whereas job dissatisfaction is produced by the work context. Thus, Herzberg theory

differs from Maslow’s and alderfer’s Hierarchy models suggesting that growth needs

represent the source of motivation (McShane, 2003)

Campbell (1991 as cited in Brown and Lent, 2005) defined work performance as

behavior associated with the accomplishments of expected, specified, of formal role

requirements on the part of individual organizational members. Thus, work performance

includes in-role behavior that can be contingently tied to rewards. One framework that

has historical been use to understand the components of performance follows Steers,

Porter, and Bigler (1996), and Vroom (1964 as cited in Brown and Lent, 2005) explained

Performance = Ability x Motivation (Effort) where, Ability = Aptitude x Training,


26

Resources, Motivation = Desire x Commitment. Thus, performance is the product of

ability multiplied by motivation. Ability is the product of aptitude mental capabilities a

person brings to the job, multiplied by resources (technical, personnel,

political).Motivation is the product employee’s desire and commitment (persistence) to

perform. Thus, motivation is defined in terms of the direction, intensity, and persistence

of individual effort (Campbell and Pritchard, 1976,Kanter, (1991 as cited in Brown and

Lent, 2005). The multiplicative nature suggests that all elements are essential for

performance to exists. Thus, a person’s performance will be limited by his or her ability

and motivation (e.g., a person with low motivation yet high ability will not have high

performance and vice-versa).

Although a person’s job performance depends on some combination of ability,

effort, and opportunity, it is often measured in terms of outcomes and result produced.

Thus, performance has been defined as the record of outcomes produced on a specified

job function or activity during a specified time or period (Bernardin, Russell, and Kane,

2003 as cited in Brown and Lent, 2005). For example, college professors are typically

evaluated on three general work functions-researches, teaching, and service.

Performance in each of these areas is defined with different outcome measures (e.g.,

research publications, teaching ratings, service awards). Performance on the job as a

whole is equal to the sum or average of performance on the job functions or activities.

The measurement of employees’ performance is important to an individual and to

the organizations. For individuals, how their performance is evaluated is related to the

outcomes they receive from work (e.g., future competitors, promotions, selection into

training or other developmental programs, outcomes are then related to employees’

satisfaction with their work organizations is presented.


Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presented the research methodology of the study including the:

research method, population and samples, description of the respondents, sampling

technique, instrumentation and scale, sources of data, data gathering procedure, the

statistical treatment of data that will be used in this study.

Research Method

This study used the descriptive method of research, a present-oriented method.

It is a research method wherein events are recorded, described, interpreted, analyzed,

and compared.

The descriptive research method is used in gathering the needed information for

this study. This method enables the researchers to interpret the theoretical meaning of

the findings and hypothesis development for further studies. Specifically, this study

utilized a questionnaire type of descriptive research method which enables this study to

gathered information from the respondents without the respondents having any

difficulties in answering the questions required for this study to have information

regarding the relationship between interpersonal values, work motivation, and job

performance of legal practitioners.

Population and Samples

The population of the respondents, the legal practitioners, was taken from Del

Rosario and Del Rosario Law Firm. The samples from the population computed through

the use of the Slovin’s formula.


28

In this method, the researcher got a sample size of 80 from a total of 100 legal

practitioners from Del Rosario and Del Rosario Law Office.

Slovin’s formula:

100
𝑛=
1 + 100(0.05)2

100
𝑛=
1 + 100(0.0025)

100
𝑛=
1 + 0.25

100
𝑛=
1.25

𝑛 = 80

Where:

n = sample

N = total number of population

e = margin of error

Description of the Respondents

This study aimed to determine the relationship among interpersonal skills, work

motivation, and job performance and the study will be administered to the legal

practitioners of Del Rosario and Del Rosario Law Office. A total of 100 legal practitioners
29

were included in this study. The total number of respondents was taken from the legal

practitioners of Del Rosario and Del Rosario Law Office.

Sampling Technique

Simple Random Technique was applied in this study. Using this method, each

member of the population has equal chance of being selected as subject. The entire

process of sampling in a single step with each subject selected independently of the

other members of the population.

Instrumentation/Scale

This part discussed the instruments that mere used to gather for the pertinent

data for this research.

For effective and flawless data collection, survey, observation, and document

analysis methods used.

This study used questionnaire or the survey method as part of the data collection

wherein it was distributed to the legal practitioners to answer the questionnaires. Survey

method is the most extensively used technique for data collection.

The questionnaire has four parts that used in this study. First was for the

respondents profile, second was for the interpersonal values, third was for the level of

work motivation, and lastly is for the job performance.

The first part of the questionnaire was used to determine the respondents’ profile

which consists of name (optional), civil status, position, gender, age, and length of

service.

The second part of the questionnaire was used to determine the respondents'

perceived interpersonal skills. This questionnaire was patterned to the Symbolic

Interaction Theory of Blummer. This questionnaire measured the understanding level of


30

interpersonal relationship to others. The questionnaire included the following areas:

society, mind, and self.

1 1 to 1.74 Very Low

2 1.75 to 2.49 Low

3 2.50 to 3.24 Moderate

4 3.25 to 4.00 High

The third part of the questionnaire was used to determine the level of work

motivation of the respondents. The questionnaire was patterned from the Herzberg Two-

Factor Theory of Motivation. The questionnaire was covered the variables of the hygiene

factors (interpersonal relationships), compensation, status, working condition,

supervision, job security, work policy and administration) and motivation factors

(recognition, possibility for growth, achievement, work itself, and responsibility) of

Frederick Herzberg. The questionnaire was constructed in a rating scale form with four

response actions and the corresponding point scores as follows:

1 1.00 to 174 Never

2 1.75 to 2.49 Sometimes

3 2.50 to 3.24 Often

4 3.25 to 4.00 Always

The last part of the questionnaire used to determine the job performance of the

respondents. This questionnaire that was constructed was patterned after the evaluation

system used by China Banking Corporation wherein it will cover these following factors:

Job Knowledge, Quality of Work, Quantity of Work, Dependability, Judgment, Creativity,

Organization, Initiative, Industry, and Attaining Objectives. From these factors, the

researcher was able to determine the job performance rating of the respondents. This

questionnaire was administered by the respondents based on their self-rating during


31

their performance in 2017. The questionnaire was constructed in a rating scale form with

four response actions and the corresponding point scores as follows:

1 1.00 to 1.74 Poor

2 1.75 to 2.49 Fair

3 2.50 to 3.24 Good

4 3.25 to 4.00 Very Good

The questionnaire was given and distributed to the legal practitioners in order for

them to answer with their honest response.

Sources of Data

This study was gathered pertinent data from different sources. The primary

source was from the key informants who are the legal practitioners of Del Rosario and

Del Rosario Law Office. This study were gathered data from the respondents through

the questionnaires that was given to them. From that method, This study was had the

direct source of data. The secondary sources of data collection were from books,

journals, internet sources, and from the past studies. From those sources, This study

were able to have more information that helped to conduct the study better.

Data Gathering Procedure

Permission to conduct the study was requested from the Del Rosario and Del

Rosario Law Office. This study was formally express in writing their intention to conduct

the study. Upon approval, this study was conducted the survey and testing on Del

Rosario and Del Rosario Law Office. The survey was explained clearly in order for the

respondents to understand better what is asked from them and in order to elicit a more

honest response. The retrieval of the questionnaires was take place on the same day

after the distribution.


32

Statistical Treatment of Data

The data gathered was grouped, tallied, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. The

following statistical formulas were used in this study:

1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Data was the statistical tool used to

answer the profile of the respondents in terms of age, position, gender, and length of

service.

Formula:

𝑓
P = 𝑁 x 100

Where:

P = percent

f = frequency

N = number of cases

2. Weighted Mean were the statistical tools used to answer the respondents’ perceived

interpersonal skills, level of work motivation, and job performance.

Formula:
∑wx
Weighted mean = ∑w
Where:

n = the sum of
w = the weights

x = the value

3. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was the statistical tool used to answer if there is

significant relationship between the respondents’ perceived interpersonal skills and their

perceived job performance level, level of work motivation and their perceived job

performance, and significant relationship among respondent’s perceived interpersonal

skills, work motivation, and job performance.


33

Formula:

Where:

n = number of pairs of scores


nxy = sum of the products of paired scores
nx = sum of x scores
ny = sum of y scores
n𝑥 2 = sum of squared x scores
Chapter 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Table 1
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents In terms of Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage (%)


Female 60 75.0
Male 20 25.0
TOTAL 80 100.0

Table 1 exhibits the frequency and distribution of the respondents in terms of

gender. Based on the table majority of the respondents were female with 60 or 75% and

20 respondents were male which constitute 25% of the total respondents.

Table 2
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents In terms of Civil Status

Civil Status Frequency Percentage (%)


Single 55 68.8
Married 25 31.3
TOTAL 80 100.0

Table 2 exhibits the frequency and distribution of the respondents in terms of

Civil Status. Based on the table majority of the respondents were single with 55 or 68.8%

and 25 respondents were married which constitute 31.3% of the total respondents.
35

Table 3
Frequency and Distribution of the Respondents In terms of Position

Position Frequency Percentage (%)


Stenographer 13 16.3
Secretary 18 22.5
Legal Staff 1 1.3
Junior Associate 14 17.5
Legal Secretary 27 33.8
Staff 1 1.3
Claims Staff 1 1.3
Assistant Legal Secretary 5 6.3
TOTAL 80 100.0

Table 3 exhibits the frequency and distribution of the respondents in terms of

position. Based on the table majority of the respondents were legal secretaries with 27

or 33.8% while the staff and claim staff have the least number of respondents with 1

which constitute 1.3% of the total respondents.

Table 4
Frequency and Distribution of the Respondents In terms of Age

Age Frequency Percentage (%)


Below 20 years old 3 3.8
21 - 24 years old 16 20.0
25 - 28 years old 35 43.8
29 - 32 years old 10 12.5
33 - 36 years old 13 16.3
37 - 40 years old 2 2.5
41 years old and above 1 1.3
Total 80 100.0
36

Table 4 exhibits the frequency and distribution of the respondents in terms of

age. Based on the table majority of the respondents were 25-28 years old with 35 or

33.8% while 41 years old and above have the least number of respondents with 1 which

constitute 1.3% of the total respondents.

Table 5
Frequency and Distribution of the Respondents In terms of Length of Service

Length of Service Frequency Percentage (%)


Below 2 years 38 47.5
3 - 6 years 38 47.5
7 - 10 years 3 3.8
19 years and above 1 1.3
Total 80 100.0

Table 5 exhibits the frequency and distribution of the respondents in terms of

length of service. Based on the table majority of the respondents were almost 2-6 years

in service with 38 or 47.5% while 19 years and above have the least number of

respondents with 1 which constitute 1.3% of the total respondents.

Table 6
Respondents’ Perceived Interpersonal Skills

Interpersonal Skills Weighted Mean Standard Verbal


Deviation Interpretation

1. Identifying feelings. 3.53 0.5506 High

2. Identifying another’s feelings. 3.31 0.6283 High

3. Expressing feelings openly, non- 3.28 0.7287 High


verbally or symbolically.

4. Expressing goals and intentions 3.43 0.632 High


clearly.
37

5. Being aware of self-talk. 3.38 0.6439 High

6. Reading another’s non-verbal 3.05 0.7614 Moderate


communication accurately.

7. Dealing effectively with mixed 3.01 0.7546 Moderate


message, e.g. body says one thing,
words say another.
8. Sharing empathy, identifying with 3.38 0.6033 High
another’s feeling.

9. Coping effectively with conflict. 3.13 0.8624 Moderate

10. Remaining calm in a high stress 3.13 0.7182 Moderate


situation.

11. Giving negative feedback 2.9 0.7564 Moderate


appropriately.

12. Giving positive feedback 3.61 0.4903 High


appropriately.

13. Describing and accepting 3.23 0.6359 Moderate


another’s behaviour non-
judgmentally.
14. Expressing without judging 3.3 0.6038 High
different values, feelings,
perceptions held by another.
15. Distinguishing feelings from 3.21 0.6879 Moderate
opinion.

Grand Mean 3.26 0.6705 High

Table 6 shows the perceived interpersonal skills of the respondents. Based on

the table, the respondents were capable to a great extent in giving positive feedback and

capable to a moderate extent in giving negative feedback appropriately with weighted


38

mean of 3.61 and 2.90 respectively. With an overall weighted mean of 3.26, the

respondents perceived their interpersonal skills are high.

As in most literature, employees need good interpersonal communication. As

stated by Manalo and Fermin (2000) interpersonal communication is the process of

understanding and sharing meaning between at least two persons. This happens when a

relatively mutual opportunity for speaking and listening occurs. Interpersonal, likes

intrapersonal communication occurs for a variety of reasons, to solve problems, to

resolve conflicts, to share information, to improve our perception of ourselves, or to fulfill

such social needs as the need to belong or to be loved. Though our interpersonal

communication, we are able to establish relationships with others that include

friendships and romantic relationships, interpersonal communication includes Dyadic

Communication and Small Group Communication.

Table 7
Respondents’ Level of Work Motivation

Work Motivation Weighted Mean Standard Verbal


Deviation Interpretation
1. Company and administrative 3.48 0.5948 Always
policies Management styles and
practices are clear and fair to all.
2. Immediate supervisor has the 3.35 0.8283 Always
leadership skills and the ability to
treat all employees/subordinates
fairly.
3. A sense of camaraderie and 3.49 0.5952 Always
teamwork among co-workers.
4. Working hours, workplace layout, 3.41 0.5907 Always
facilities, and equipment provided
for the job
5. Salaries and fringe benefits are 3.4 0.7222 Always
commensurate to the work you
have contributed and comparable to
those of other banks.
39

6. A feeling of personal 3.33 0.6894 Always


accomplishment or the feeling of
having done a job well.
7. Being recognized for doing a job 3.19 0.7479 Often
well such as being complimented by
the boss or receiving a company
reward, promotion, or salary
increase.
8. The type and nature of work and 3.36 0.6212 Always
the challenge it brings.
9. Being personally involved in 3.36 0.6005 Always
one’s work and having enough
freedom and power to carry out the
tasks.
10. The chances to learn skills, 3.39 0.5845 Always
acquire knowledge, and achieve
development, growth and
advancement.
Grand Mean 3.37 0.6575 Always

Table 7 shows the respondents’ level of work motivation. With an average

weighted mean of 3.49 and 3.19 respectively, the respondents always feel the sense of

camaraderie and teamwork among their co-workers and often feel being recognized for

doing a job well such as being complimented by the boss or receiving a company

reward, promotion, or salary increase. With an overall weighted mean of 3.37, it shows

that the respondents are always motivated by all of the indicators mentioned above.

This result agreed with some literatures as stated by Pinar, (2011) that

employees work harder when they are recognized and appreciated for their effort toward

the work and tasks have been given and this is a simple, easy and powerful strengthen

system. When employees get recognized and appreciated, they do their best to prove

the skill, talents and abilities they have. Furthermore, recognizing employees is also

considered a way of communication that strengths and rewards the outcomes people

create for your business. For that, leaders should develop recognition system which is

powerful for both employees and organization (Hsiu-Fen, 2007). Employees who feel

appreciated and recognized are more positive about themselves and their abilities to
40

contribute. It also guarantees positive, productive and innovative organization

environment. Saying thank you as recognition will make the business successful (David,

Louis, Micheal, 2004).

Table 8
Respondents’ Perceived Level of Job Performance

Job Performance Weighted Mean Standard Verbal


Deviation Interpretation
1. The extent to which employee 3.54 0.5264 Very Good
knows and understands the details
and nature of his assigned job and
related duties.
2. The extent of accuracy, 3.49 0.551 Very Good
completeness, orderliness, and
neatness of the job performed.
3. The amount of acceptable work 3.46 0.6151 Very Good
accomplished, and the ability to
complete work within time schedule.
4. The degree to which employee 3.49 0.6559 Very Good
can be dependable upon to carry
out instructions, be on the job, fulfill
responsibilities, etc., and ability to
work with minimum supervision.
5. The extent to which his actions 3.26 0.6702 Very Good
are based on facts, sound
reasoning and good common
sense.
6. The ability to think and perform 3.28 0.6931 Very Good
new and innovative things towards
the improvement of present
methods or add to existing
knowledge.
7. The ability to plan and organize 3.4 0.6483 Very Good
work effectively.
8. The extent to which the 3.33 0.6116 Very Good
employee is a self-starter in
attaining the objectives of his job.
9. Extent to which the employee 3.21 0.7745 Good
may be described as a hard worker
and the amount of concentration
and effort exerted in the
performance of his job.
41

10. Overall extent to which 3.55 0.5932 Very Good


employee successfully
accomplished the task or functions
assigned or delivered the desired
results.
Grand Mean 3.4 0.6339 Very Good

Table 8 shows the respondents’ perceived level of job performance. Based

on the table, the 10th indicator which is the overall extent to which employee successfully

accomplished the tasks or functions assigned or delivered the desired results had the

highest weighted mean of 3.55 interpreted to be very good. While the 9th indicator which

is the extent to which the employee may be described as a hard worker and the amount

of concentration and effort exerted in the performance of his job had the lowest weighted

mean of 3.21 interpreted to be good. With an overall weighted mean of 3.40, the

respondents find their perceived level of their job performance very good.

This result was somehow related to some literature. According to Luthans

(2002) effective job performace can move organization forward. Job performance as a

result of accomplishment, a person maximizes his potential to reach the set goals

because of the quality of job performance influences of organizational environment and

in increasing efficient workers, much work in a way that will make possible results for

workers to accept support.

Table 9
Pearson Correlation: Correlation between the Respondent’s perceived Interpersonal
Skills and their Perceived Job Performance

Job Performance
Interpersonal
Skills
Correlation p-value Decision Remarks
Coefficient

0.547 0.000 Reject Ho Significant

*NOTE: if p-value is less than or equal to the level of significance which is 0.05 reject the
null hypothesis otherwise retain.
42

Table 1.1 exhibits the Pearson Correlation between the respondents’ perceived

interpersonal skills and their perceived job performance. The table shows that with 0.547

correlation coefficient the interpersonal skills and job performance have a moderate

correlation. Since the p-value 0.000 is less than 0.05 level of significance, the study

rejects the null hypothesis, thus, there is a significant relationship between the two

variables

Table 10
Pearson Correlation: Correlation between the Respondent’s Level of Work Motivation
and their perceived Job Performance

Job Performance
Work
Motivation
Correlation p-value Decision Remarks
Coefficient

0.603 0.000 Reject Ho Significant

*NOTE: if p-value is less than or equal to the level of significance which is 0.05 reject the
null hypothesis otherwise retain.

Table 2.1 exhibits the Pearson Correlation between the Respondent’s level of

work motivation and their perceived job performance. The table shows that with 0.603

correlation coefficient, the work motivation and job performance have a moderate

correlation. Since the p-value 0.000 is less than 0.05 level of significance we reject the

null hypothesis between Respondent’s level of work motivation and their perceived job

performance. It implies that there is a significant relationship between the two variables.
Chapter 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions generated, and the

recommendations being made.

Summary of Findings

This study was conducted in Del Rosario and Del Rosario Law Office in Bonifacio

Global City, Taguig City to determine the relationship of Interpersonal Skills, Work

Motivation, and Job Performance. The following are the significant findings of the study:

1. On the profile of the respondents in terms of gender, out of 80 respondents, 60 or

75% of them are females and 20 or 25% of them are males.

2. On the profile of the respondents in terms of civil status, out of 80 respondents, 55 or

68.8% of them are single and 25 or 31.3% of them are married.

3. On the profile of the respondents in terms of position, out of 80 respondents, 13 or

16.3% of them are stenographers, 18 or 22.5% of them are secretaries, 14 or 17.5% of

them are junior associates, 27 or 33.8% of them are legal secretaries, 1 or 1.3% of them

is a staff, 1 or 1.3% of them is a claim staff, and 5 or 6.3% of them are assistant legal

secretaries.

4. On the profile of the respondents in terms of age, out of 80 respondents, 3 or 3.8% of

them belong to 20 and below age group, 16 or 20% of them belong to 21-24 age group,

35 or 43.8% of them belong to 25-28 age group, 10 or 12.5% of them belong to 29-32

age group, 13 or 16.3% of them belong to 33-36 age group, 2 or 2.5% of them belong to

37-40 age group, and 1 or 1.3% of them belong to 41 and above age group.
44

5. On the profile of the respondents in terms of length of service, out of 80 respondents,

there are 38 or 47.5 who have been in the service for 2 years and below, 38 or 47.5%

who have been in the service for 3-6 years, 3 or 3.8% who have been in the service for

7-10 years, and there is only one or 1.3% who has been in the service for 19 years and

above.

6. With a grand mean of 3.26, the perceived interpersonal skills of the respondents was

high. The respondents were capable to a high extent when it comes to giving positive

feedback appropriately with a weighted mean of 3.61 considered to be the highest

among all the indicators. While when it comes to giving negative feedback, the

respondents had the lowest weighted mean of 2.90 wherein they were capable to a

moderate extent.

7. Based on the results, the respondents always feel that they were motivated in having

a sense of camaraderie and teamwork among co-workers with a weighted mean of 3.49

considered to be the highest. While having the lowest weighted mean of 3.19, the

respondents often feel motivated by being recognized for doing a job well such as being

complimented by the boss or receiving a company reward, promotion, or salary

increase. With an overall weighted mean of 3.37, the respondents always feel motivated

among all the indicators given.

8. With an overall weighted mean of 3.40, the respondents’ job performance was very

good. The respondents performed very good in terms of overall extent to which

employee successfully accomplished the task or functions assigned or delivered the

desired result with a weighted mean of 3.55 considered having the highest weighted

mean. While in terms of extent to which the employees may be described as a hard

worker and the amount of concentration and effort exerted in the performance of his job,

the respondents performed good with a weighted mean of 3.21 considered having the

lowest weighted mean.


45

9. On the relationship between Interpersonal Skills and Job Performance, with a

Correlation Coefficient of 0.547 it shows that interpersonal skills and job performance

have strong correlation. Since the p-value 0.000 is less than 0.05 level of significance,

we reject the null.

10. On the Relationship between Work Motivation and Job Performance, with a

Correlation Coefficient of 0.603 it shows that work motivation and job performance have

a strong correlation. Since the p-value 0.000 is less than 0.05 level of significance we

reject the null hypothesis between Respondent’s level of work motivation and their

perceived job performance. Implies that there is a significant relationship between the

two variables.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions derived:

1. Majority of the respondents of this study were female. More than half of the

respondents are single in their early adult and adult stage. With regards to the length of

service, almost all of the respondents serve 2-6 years.

2. On the perceived interpersonal skills obtained by the respondents who were the legal

practitioners of Del Rosario and Del Rosario Law Office revealed that they are capable

to great extent in the majority of the indicators given especially in identifying feelings,

identifying another’s feelings, expressing feelings openly, non-verbally, and symbolically,

expressing goals and intentions clearly, being aware of self-talk, sharing empathy, giving

positive feedback appropriately and expressing without judging different values, feelings,

perceptions help by another, therefore the workers had a good relationship to each other.

3. On the Level of Work Motivation of the respondents obtained by the respondents who

were the legal practitioners of Del Rosario and Del Rosario Law Office revealed that they

always feel motivated in terms of management styles, nature of work, leadership skills of
46

their immediate supervisors, teamwork among co-workers, salary increase, benefits,

good working environment, having a job well done and being recognized by giving

rewards and promotions, therefore the workers were highly motivated with their jobs and

the organization meet the standards of their workers.

4. On the perceived level of job performance obtained by the respondents who were the

legal practitioners of Del Rosario and Del Rosario Law Office revealed that they

performed very good in most of the indicators given except being a hard worker, the

amount of concentration to their job, and the effort that they exerted to his job interpreted

as good, therefore the organization must be aware on what factor affects the level of job

performance became low.

5. This study found out that there is a significant relationship between interpersonal skills

and job performance so it conforms that good interpersonal skills can positively affect job

performance.

6. This study found out that there is a significant relationship between work motivation

and job performance so it conforms that work motivation is one of the biggest factors

affecting the performance of the workers.

7. This study found out that there is a significant relationship among interpersonal skills,

work motivation, and job performance.

Recommendations

Based on the conclusion of this study, the following recommendations derived:

1. The employer may encourage their employees to enroll in workshops or in a class

related to their work. By that, employees have more opportunities or chance to be

promoted. It can help employees interpersonal skills because they will meet new people

and they can build good relationship, they can also be motivated and perform well in
47

their work because they feel that the company is providing what they need to improve

their knowledge and skills.

2. Employees or individuals may ask the people they trust or their colleagues for

constructive criticism about their interpersonal skills. They also need to get along with

their co-workers to build good friendship and to have a good ambience in workplace. In

that case, the employees boost their work/job because one factor why employees are

demotivated is work environment.

3. Recognize Collective & Individual Performance. Every employee who did an

accomplishment must be recognized may be monthly or yearly. Recognizing ideas such as

organizing a celebration or go out for lunch to recognize and celebrate someone’s

accomplishment or achievement, posting a monthly recognition for the employees and

giving awards or incentives to the employees can do. In those ideas, the employee being

recognized can feel more motivated and of course, in the future, they can be do more to

level up their job performance.

4. Workers must maintain what attitudes and characters they have inside the workplace.

Dealing with other people nicely especially in the workplace can possibly affect

someone’s performance such as the way you talk to them, the way you express your

feelings with them, and the way you treat them.

5. Employers can have a work buddy. So that if the employee is absent, have a family

emergency, got sick, or in leave, his work buddy can do his job. It can help in employees

interpersonal skills because it involves relationship between the two employees. By having

a relation between persons, there must be a communication. As we all know,

communication is essential to workplace. It can also help employees in terms of work

motivation. They can motivate each other to work hard because they have someone they

can trust or they have a friend.


48

6. Provide Feedback. Employers must provide feedback to their employees for their job

performance so that they will know how are they going to improve their job performace.

Feedback can be seen as a form of recognition when it is constructive and well presented.

Satisfaction goes through a two-sided dialogue, giving the opportunity to learn about the

challenges the employee is confronted to, as well as the aspects they enjoyed the most

about their job. Good feedback can be defined by three criteria: its promptness, its

frequency, and its precision. It’s important to provide feedback quickly, as regularly and

as often as necessary, and with enough details in order for the employees to know about

their job performances.

7. Provide Training Opportunities. An organization must provide training opportunities to

their employees such as team building, coaching and mentoring of employees, job

shadowing, technical skills and soft skills development training and for them to feel their

personal accomplishment within themselves for them to be more motivated. When you

offer training opportunities, you give your employees the chance to deepen their

knowledge and get specialized in a field they enjoy. As a matter of fact, training program

is a win-win solution for employees and employers alike. In the training opportunities that

the organization will offer, employees can also build their interpersonal skills well because

they can have more communication with each other.

8. In order to gain more comprehensive understanding of the relationship of

interpersonal skills, work motivation, and job performance, other respondent categories

can be included in the study, not only the legal practitioners in Del Rosario and Del

Rosario Law Office, but also other professional sectors.

9. Future researchers could use other methodologies that will refine and validate the

instruments used.
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