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A CRITICAL REVIEW OF
“Study of Application Properties of Novel Trisazo Hetero Bi-Functional Reactive Dyes Based on J-Acid Derivatives for Cotton”
BY AVINASH KALAMEGAM
M.Tech (First Year) Dept. of Fibres and Textile Processing Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai -400019 Guided By- Prof.(Dr.) R.V.Adivarekar
Submitted On: 10-11-2010
Critical Review of Research Paper CRITICAL REVIEW OF A RESEARCH PAPER TITLE OF THE RESEARCH PAPER- “Study of Application Properties of Novel Trisazo Hetero Bi-Functional Reactive Dyes Based on J-Acid Derivatives for Cotton”. AUTHORS- Javad Mokhtari, A. Akbarzadeh, D.A.S. Phillips and J.A. Taylor JOURNAL- The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Volume 34, Number 2A, July 2009
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF AUTHORS WORK The Authors Synthesized Three novel trisazo hetero bi-functional reactive dyes based on J-acid derivatives were prepared using the diazonium salt of [4-(4sulphophenylazo-)-2,5-dimethylazobenzene-2-sulphonic acid] and a hetero bifunctional coupling component, derived from 1-hydroxy-6-aminonapthalene-3-sulphonic acid (Jacid), 1-hydroxy-6-methylaminonapthalene-3-sulphonic acid (methyl J-acid), and 1hydroxy-6-aminonaphthalene-3,5-disulphonic acid(sulpho J-acid). The Authors found that On balance, the dye derived from sulpho J-acid displayed the most attractive set of technical properties, building up and fixing more efficiently than those derived from Jacid and methyl J-acid. In addition, the sulpho J-acid based dye offered better migration and, therefore, level dyeing and ease of wash off. REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PAPER Before critically reviewing authors work, I would like to highlight some importance of Hetero Bi-Functional reactive dyes . While cotton fabric is an essential element in today's world, reactive dyes are needed to complete ready to wear clothing requirements. With the introduction of the three Procion dyes by ICI for cellulosic fabric in 1956, the covalent bonding of cellulosic
[1.' It can easily be assessed that dyes with two identical reactive groups and dyes with two different reactive groups exhibit a higher fixation yield than-dyes with one group Studies have demonstrated their excellent solubility. yet none were commercialized except one by Hoechst in 1975.C. containing both a monochloro-s-triazinyl (MCT) and a β- 3 . Bifunctional dyes with good dyeing properties are created by the careful selection of the right reactive groups and right chromophores. the major dyestuff manufacturers have applied for more than 100 patents related to dyes with two or more different reactive groups.1 After 1980. In previous researches the Authors J.Mokhatri et al.' The term heterobifunctional dyes became widespread after the 1980's through the involvement of four dyes containing monochloro-triazine masked vinyl sulphone (VS/MCT) by Sumitomo. However. and predates the appearance of the first mixed reactive system in the 1980's. Further research on cotton goods resulted in the eventual introduction of a newly variable reactive system in reactive dyes. by introducing several dyes. In 1959.2] synthesised and evaluated some novel trisazo monochloro-s-triazinyl(MCT) reactive dyes and hetero bi-functional reactive dyes. Bifunctional dyes carry two reactive groups. A major advantage of MCT/VS.g. in 1961. I. This fact demonstrates the importance of the bifunctional dyes in the field of research as a new generation of reactive dyes. good levelling and good-to-excellent fastness properties as observed by various researcher.3 to 2. bis-sulphato ethyl sulphonyl and bis-triazinyl types) as well as a number of less commercially successful electrophillic groups date back to the early days of reactive dyes.I and. higher degree of fixation. They are known for their excellent dyeing efficiency and overall fastness properties. dyes over the dyes containing either MCT or VS reactive group is the higher degree of fixation of the former and is 1. the concepts of dyes with two reactive groups of the same type (e. The present research article deals with the synthesis and application of the Trisazo Hetero BiFunctional Reactive Dyes Based on J-Acid Derivatives for Cotton.Critical Review of Research Paper fiber to the reactive systems proved to be noteworthy.3 times more than the latter. Hoechst and a few other manufacturers claimed the development of two different reactive groups. which was later called Sumifix Supra dyes.
their Build-up properties of dyes.a level Dyeing and easy wash-off. their higher E-F (exhaustion-fixation) values resulted in poor wash-off performance. the novel MCT reactive dyes were aimed at good build-up.4'-disulphonic acid onto 1-hydroxy-N-(4-chloro6-[4-β-sulphatoethylsulphonyl-]phenylaminotriazin-2-yl)-6-aminonaphthalene-3 sulphonic sulphonic acid. The Authors came to know from work of W. resulting in improved wash-off performance and Migration Properties. Three novel dyes (Table 1) designed by the authors is by coupling the diazonium salt derived from 4-aminoazobenzene-3. especially relatively low fixation. high wet fastness products which could be applied to cotton by an exhaustion process in the presence of reduced levels of electrolyte (NaCl) (0-30 g/l). Although the fixation efficiencies of two of the dyes were similar to those of the commercial controls. were synthesised and evaluated technically viz. Also the Other Synthesis and application research of Hetero bi-functional dyes were generally found to be strong chromophorically but were all dull in shade. 2.Thus. Measurement of SER5F profiles of dyes.Zuwang et al that by introducing either a methyl group on the linking bridge by  or a sulphonic acid group into a dye molecule can result in increases in the solubility of a dye. Though. These dyes displayed good build-up in the presence of reduced levels of electrolyte (NaCl) and improved fixation relative to the mono-functional MCT dyes. acid.Determination of migration indices of dyes and ICI short liquor ratio wash-off test (ICI SL WOT) 3 . probably resulting from the presence of a single reactive group in the molecule. The measured migration indices of the dyes were similar to those of some commercial dyes. But was found that all the MCT dyes exhibited modest build-up and poor level of dyeing and wash fastness properties .Critical Review of Research Paper sulphatoethylsulphonyl (SES) reactive group respectively. respectively. 3.. 1-hydroxy-N-(4-chloro-6-[4-β3sulphatoethylsulphonyl-]phenylaminotriazin-2-yl)-6-methylaminonaphthalene- 1-hydroxy-6-(4-chloro-6-[4-β-sulphatoethylsulphonyl] phenylaminotriazin -2-yl)-aminonaphthalene-3.5-disulphonic acid. and 1.
. General Reaction Scheme 3 3 . Scheme 1.Critical Review of Research Paper The general reaction is depicted in scheme 1 carried out by authors is depicted below.
An advanced model which is meant for research applications. The same Instruments were used in their previous work too. • The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were performed using a Hewlett Packard 1100 liquid chromatograph.Critical Review of Research Paper Instrumental and Analytical Methods Used While the Instrumental and analytical methods used characterization of novel dyes and intermediates are as follows • UV/visible spectrometry (Phillips model PU 8700 UV/visible spectrophotometer). nitrogen and sulphur were carried out on on a Carlo Erba 1108 elemental analyser. i. • Mass spectrometry was performed using two different techniques.The Authors should have used Philips model PU 8800.e. by the authors for 3 . FAB (fast atomic bombardment) and MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation). hydrogen. • Elemental analysisfor carbon.
6.5-dimethylaniline. 1-hydroxy-6. cyanuric chloride.2-yl-amino-)naphthalene-3-sulphonic acid A solution of cyanuric chloride (19. pH and time varied for J-acid and other two J-acid derivatives based synthesis may be due to the best optimized conditions suited for them. MW=184. Synthesis and Characterisation of Dyes The Authors used the following synthesis method for the coupling components (product 1.105 mol) in acetone 3 . • • • • • • • • • 4-Aminoazobenzene-3. which we should appreciate them since they took the significant findings of the work done by  W.3) and the dyes (product 5.In case of synthesising 1-hydroxy-6-(4-chloro-6-[4-b- sulphatoethylsulphonyl] phenylamino triazin. The cotton fabric used for dye evaluation was a plain weave bleached cloth. strength 99%.Critical Review of Research Paper Materials The Materials used by them for the Experiment are as follows.2.5-disulphonic acid (sulphyl J-acid) and other chemicals were supplied by Aldrich Chemical Company Limited (UK). p-Aminobenzenesulphatoethylsulphone (PABSES) was supplied by Everlight Chemical Industrial Corporation (Taiwan).32 g. For example . In the previous  experiment authors used only J-Acid as intermediate whereas in this research they have used J-acid derivatives (methyl.7) . 0. the quantity of the chemicals.However. 7-amino-4-hydroxynaphthalene sulphonic acid.methylamino naphthalene-3-sulphonic acid (methyl J-acid).sulphyl based) to overcome the shortcomings of the previous experiment. 2.Zuwang et al.4'-disulphonic acid. 1-hydroxy-6-aminonaphthalene-3. Visking tubing used for dialysis was supplied by Merck. 1-hydroxy-6-amino naphthalene-3-sulphonic acid (J-acid).
5) of 4-(β. pH 6.5 and 4. over 20min ( when they use Methyl J-acid and Sulphyl J-acid) and 60 min( when they use J-acid) .1 mol) was added dropwise at 0-5 ºC. pH 6. The mixture was stirred for a further 60 min to complete the reaction. The coupling components (i.3) used is as follows. An aqueous solution (50 ml.6 g. strength 95%.) product 1. MW=184.e.5) of 4 (bsulphatoethylsulphonyl) aniline (29.product 2 and product 3 were then used without isolation for conversion to dyes.2. A solution of cyanuric chloride in acetone was poured into a vigorously stirred mixture of crushed ice and water . 0. 3 . An aqueous solution of 4-(bisulphatoethylsulphonyl) aniline was added dropwise at 0-5 ºC.5 using sodium carbonate solution . over 60 min.5 using sodium carbonate solution. An aqueous solution (200 ml.5 and 4. with the pH maintained between 3. with the pH maintained between 3. The solution was stirred for a further 60 min to complete the reaction. strength 95%.0 using sodium carbonate solution (10%w/v).The solution was stirred for a further 60 min to complete the reaction.09 g. 0. strength 99%.51g. MW= 281.Methyl acid) and J-acid Sulphyl (1J-acid (1hydroxy-6hydroxy-6- aminonaphthalene-3.5 and 4.022 mol) was added dropwise at 0–5 °C over 20 min with the pH maintained between 2.Critical Review of Research Paper (80 ml) was poured into a vigorously stirred mixture of crushed ice (200 g) and water (200 ml).5-disulphonic acid) respectively were added dropwise at 35 ºC over 60 min with the pH maintained between 4 and 4.sulphatoethylsulphonyl) aniline (6. 0. To the resulting solution. an aqueous solution of J-acid (6-amino-1 hydroxynaphthalene-3-sulphonic methylaminonaphthalene-3-sulphonic acid). But In case of synthesising 1hydroxy-N-(4-chloro-6-[4-β -sulphatoethylsulphon yl-] phenylaminotriazin-2-yl)-6 methylaminonaphthalene-3-sulphonic acid A solution of cyanuric chloride (4.022 mol) in acetone (20 ml) was poured into a vigorously stirred mixture of crushed ice (50 g) and water (50 ml).5 using sodium carbonate solution (10% w/v). The solution was stirred for a further 60 min to complete the reaction General Synthesis method and Characterization for the coupling components(1.
6H. 4.87-7. 3''-H.52%. 6-H. 8. 5'-H.77 and 2.48%. 5''''-H.The progress of the reaction was followed by HPLC.2. 2H. The product 2.21-8.16%.2.60%.52-8. used in situ for conversion to dye. 8. O-H.40 min for J-acid and the intermediate dichlorotriazine.10 min.7) used is as follows. 2H.147. For Product 5. H 2. the retention time was 2. Purity 91% by HPLC. The diazonium salt was then added very slowly to the stirred solution over 2 h. 1H. 4H. and the mixture stirred for an additional 30 min.19.09%). The product was desalinated by dialysis using Visking tubing. General Synthesis method and Characterization for the Dyes (5. filtered off and dried.86. εmax=66.81 min. H 3. was converted to dye directly without isolation.200 l mol-1 cm-1. 2H. HPLC retention time was 2. 2. 2H. 7'''-H. 8.51 min.03%.3) was adjusted to pH 5–6 at 25–30 ºC. 2''''-H.7 were precipitated by adding industrial ethanol.96. 1H.92. and starting material 1. 8'''-H.32. 6.77 for the starting material and 0. 2 ph-CH3.53.6. TLC Rf 0. was diazotized (Product 4) A solution of the coupling component(Product 1. respectively.71. The product 5. 3H. The sodium salt of the disazo dye. CH2-O . S 14. 3'''-H.24.3-7. 2H. OH.74 for the product 5. 8. N 13. 6. retention timeof 4. while maintaining the pH in the range 5–6. 1H. Elemental analysis results for C41H34ClN11O16S5 (calculated: C 43. 3''''-H. S 14.75-6.45. HPLC analysis indicated a purity of 100%.20%. found: C 43.6. 1H NMR analysis: δ 1. 2'''-H. TLC showed anRf of 0. 4H.67.63. The progress of the reaction was followed using TLC and HPLC.60 min for the product compared with retention times of 0. 3-H. 5-H. λmax= 539 nm.79. 7. 1H. 7.97%. 5''-H.69. 2-H. 3. 3.Critical Review of Research Paper For Product 1 . 1H.53 min. which indicated a purity of 93% and a retention time of 2.Here the authors did not mention the purity of Product 2.39. N 13. S-CH2.69. 2 NH. 2H. 6'-H. 5. 3'-H 3 . They did not mention about the purity of the product 2 and The completion of the reaction was verified by HPLC and the product 3. 6''''-H. 7.
Critical Review of Research Paper For Product 6 . S-CH2.The progress of the reaction was followed using TLC (Rf 0.14.74-6.48.20 min). 2-H. 8. 2H.68. εmax= 62. 1H. 3H. 5''''H. 1H. 2-H. CH2-O. 7.31.21-8.57. 2'''-H. 3H. found: C 44. 8.59. 1H. λmax= 540 nm. The progress of the reaction was followed using TLC (Rf 0. 7'''-H. H 3.S 13.80%. 2H. 3-H. S 15. 5-H. 6'-H. 3-H.42.36. 2 ph-CH3. 3'-H Determination of effective agent contents of dyes 5. 4. 5'-H.31-7.09%.50-8. 6'-H.81-7.77) and HPLC (purity 100%. retention time 4. 5'-H. Murtagh. 2 N-H.28.93.79-7. 2''''-H.05%). 3. 4. 5''-H. 7. 1H.57-8.01. 2. 8.97.34 min). 2H.85%. 6''''-H. 2H. 6-H. H 3. 3H. O-H. 7.9. 3''-H. 7. εmax= 70. N 12. 4H.45%. 7. 4.A. 8'''-H.61 2H.1H.98%. 3''-H. 3''''-H. 2H. 6H. 1H. 1H.44%. 8. 6. 4H. OH. 2H. 2H.72. 1H NMR analysis: δ 184.108.40.206. 5.59) and HPLC (91% main component. 3'''-H. 1H.91%). retention time 4. Elemental analysis results for C42H36ClN11O16S5 (calculated: C 44. 7. CH2O . 3. J. 4H. S 14. 1H. 1H NMR analysis: δ 1.24-8. N-CH3.72. 6H. O-H.39. N 13. S 15. OH. 3'''-H.33-7. thus providing a simple and rapid method for the determination of dye fixation. λmax= 540 nm. and 7 The authors used the titration method from “A Simple titrimetric method for the estimation of reactive dye fixation on cellulosic fabrics developed by V. 3'-H For Product 7. 6-H. 3''''-H. 8. 6.16%.87%. 2'''-H.37. 1H. 2''''-H. N 13.900 dm3mol-1cm-1.75%. N 12.21-7. found: C 40.61%. 5-H. 2 NH.22.8%.33. 5.72-6. 6.087.38.02%. 7'''-H. 6. 4H. 2H.39.67.71%. S-CH2.8.87. Elemental analysis results for C41H34ClN11O19S6 (calculated: C 40. 8'''-H. 3. 5''-H. 2H. 6. 2H. 8. The results of this method were in good agreement with those of the 3 . 1H.200 dm3mol-1cm-1.00%.79. H 3. Taylor” .24.81. H 2. 8.38. 3.Thus the quantity of titanous chloride utilised in this process is readily quantified by titration. 5''''-H. 2 ph-CH3. 2.
Evaluation of the Application Properties of Novel Dyes 5. Theoptical densities at the wavelengths of maximum absorbance were plotted against the corresponding concentrations expressed in mol/l and. The effective agent content (strength) of the dyes was determined by titration against titanium (III)  chloride by them .2] experiments in which PU8700 model was mentioned not PU8720. a series of dyeings were conducted using varying amounts of electrolyte (NaCl) at different temperatures in a Mathis Labomat dyeing machine. 6. 6.05 g/land the absorbance values were measured in a 1 cm cell using a Philips model PU8720 spectrophotometer. Spectroscopic characteristics of dyes 5. the molar extinction coefficients (εmax) of the dyes (Table 3) were calculated. therefore. and 7 In order to estimate the Spectroscopic charactersistics of dyes synthesized the authors prepared Solutions of the three novel dyes 5. The Authors did not mention Philips model PU8720 spectrophotometer under the Instruments and analytical methods used in the paper.Thus the authors measured the effective agents contents rapidly thus reducing the time taken for the measurement of the same which I would highlight here. 6. and 7 In order to evaluate and compare the application properties of the novel hetero bifunctional dyes 5. 6.However they reported that the instruments used same as the earlier [1. and 7. For this purpose. and 7 in water buffered to pH 7 to cover the range 0–0. These strengths (Table 2) were then used to calculate the molar quantities of dyes used in the dyebath.Critical Review of Research Paper sulphuric acid. it was necessary for the authors to define the optimum dyeing conditions. The optimum dyeing condition for novel dyes was obtained and their technical 3 .
60 min at neutral exhaustion temperature of 90 °C. . 15 and 30g/l).f. Apart from the critics. which can be denoted as o.6. 20 g/l soda ash. 6. were not measured.Also only wash-fastness testing has been made other buyers essential fastness test like Light fastness . and 7. a series of dyeings were carried out at 1. and 7 The effect of electrolyte (NaCl) concentration and both the (neutral) exhaustion and fixation temperature on thevisual color yield of the dyes was studied.. 3 . Rub fastness. The following were carried out by them to evaluate the application properties of dyes 5.Still authors should have done the Kinetics study (Dye-Fibre) like surface potential and other related studies .f. (pure dye) using three levels of electrolyte (NaCl) concentration (0.m. Effect of electrolyte (NaCl) concentration on the color yield of dyes 5.m.The following are the evaluation made by the authors and its details. liquor ratio 10:1.Critical Review of Research Paper properties were assessed. Post-Mercerising fastness etc. Authors used the % of dye used for each dyeing in this paper was based on mass of fibre.Bleaching water fastness. • • • • • Effect of electrolyte (NaCl) concentration on the color yield Build-up properties of dyes Measurement of SER5F profiles of dyes Determination of migration indices of dyes ICI short liquor ratio wash-off test (ICI SL WOT) Though the main evaluation of the application properties has been made .25% dye o. and 60 min fixation time at a temperature of 90 °C by them. For this purpose. Perspiration fastness .
6.. The exhaustion (E) was measured 60 min after the addition of 15 g/l soda ash at 90 ºC. and 20 g/l soda ash at L:R 10:1 were prepared and employed by the authors . dyes 5. and 30 g/l NaCl. 6. 6 and 7 The migration properties of reactive dyes were readily estimated using a simple test invented by M.using the dyeing profile shown in Figure 1. 20. For this purpose.J. The build-upresults areshown in Table 5.0.Bradbury et al was conducted by authors. and 7 were determined at 2%. and 7 C. respectively. 15. Measurement of SER5F profiles of dyes 5. using a Spectroflash 600 spectrophotometer from Datacolour International.m. 15. dye.9% dye o. The results are shown in Table 6.m. SDC by the authors . viz.Critical Review of Research Paper The visual color yield was expressed as a K/S value .f. The results are listed in Table 4. this method was taken from Color Physics for Industries. The substantivity (S) of each of the novel dyes was determined by measuring the exhaustion of the dyebath after 60 min at 90 ºC using 15 g/l electrolyte (NaCl). and 6% o. and 2. 2%. a series of dyebaths containing 1.f. Build-up properties of dyes 5.J. determined from the build-up curves shown in Figure 2. Each dye was applied at the same depth to determine its 3 . measured at the λmax of each dye. Hence.way of determining “SER5F profiles” in their work  of the dyes were followed by the authors who compared at the same visual color yield (K/S=14–15). Determination of migration indices of dyes 5. which seeks to define a migration index (MI) for an individual dye when applied under a given set of conditions . 6.Bent et al . 3. and 7 The build-up properties of the dyes were assessed under their optimum dyeing conditions .Thus the authors used the Buildup results for evaluating the SER5F profiles.
Thus the authors used the Build-up and Thus the authors used the Build-up results for evaluating the SER5F profiles results for evaluating the migration indicies. Each was then rinsed in cold running water (2–3 min. which was submitted to the test. Results and Discussion • Color Strength of Dyes The authors found the effective agent strength of the novel dyes varied from 48 to 76%. Each dyed piece of fabric was removed from the dyebath and rinsed in cold running water (2–3 min. The results are shown in Table 8. using 15 g/l soda ash for fixation. three squeezings by hand during rinsing). the chromophonic strengths were similar to that of their mono-functional analogue  3 . Each fabric was hydroextracted and placed in a rotadyer tube. The migration indices are given in Table 7.Thus the incorporation of the methyl and sulphyl J-acid has increased the MI(Mole in) Strength due to more solubility of J-acid derivative based dyes. The stain on the cotton portion of the multi-fibre strip was assessed visually using grey scales. ICI short liquor ratio wash-off test (ICI SL WOT) for dyes 5. • Spectroscopic Characteristics of Dyes The Authors have expected. hot-air dried and submitted to the ISO 105 CO6/C2S wash fastness test  . set with 4 g/l of electrolyte (NaCl) (liquor ratio 10:1 based on 4 g of fabric). the quoted K/S values refer to the dyed fabric. for 25 min at 95 °C.Critical Review of Research Paper SER5F profile. hydroextracted. 15 g/l electrolyte (NaCl). three squeezings by hand during rinsing) to reduce the electrolyte (NaCl) concentration of the dye liquor in the fabric to less than 2 g/l. K/S approximately 15. which gave a K/S value of approximately 15 (see Table 8). indicating strong products for evaluation (Table 2). and 7 The authors used ICI short liquor ratio wash-off test(ICI SL WOT) . 6.The dyes to be compared were applied at a depth of shade.
Therefore. Effect of electrolyte (NaCl) concentration on the color yield – In Table 4 the authors show the effect of electrolyte (NaCl) concentration on the color yield of dyes 5. 6 and 7. thecorresponding builds up curves of the dyes were constructed using the data shown in Table 5.Thus authors clearly proved the relation between the chromophonic strength and the dullness/brightness of the resulting dye.Critical Review of Research Paper due to having the same chromogen in molecular structures. it can be concluded that dyes 5 and 6 show bettercolor yield with 15g/l electrolyte (NaCl). dye 7. with a view to improving some of the dyeing properties. and an additional sulphonic acid group onto ortho to the linking bridge.f. while dye 7 performs best with 30g/l electrolyte (NaCl). Build up of dyes – In Table 5 the authors show the build up results for dyes 5. was negated by the need for higher levels of electrolyte (NaCl) was also found. 6. and 7 The authors synthesized Novel dyes 6 and 7 by making minor structural modifications to novel dye 5. From Table 5. 6 and 7 were dull violets. The technical properties of the dyes are summarized by authors in the following sections. All the noveldyes showed similar sensitivity to electrolyte (NaCl) in which the maximum color yield is achieved with 15 g/lelectrolyte (NaCl) (Figure 2). 6 and 7. Any beneficial effect imparted by the incorporation of a methyl group in dye 6. the authors have seen that dye 7 builds up better than either dyes 5 or 6. 3 .Thus the zeta potential was achieved with 15 g/l electrolyte(NaCl) and hence it has been taken as optimum electrolyte concentration. The dyes 5. consistent with their broad half band widths (Table 3).m. namely the introduction of a methyl group onto the nitrogen atom of the linking bridge. From the build up curve. both of which tail off at greater than 3% dye o. • Evaluation of the Technical Properties of Dyes 5. dye 6.
Critical Review of Research Paper SER5F profiles of dyes – In Table 6 they have shown the SERF profiles of dyes 5. which increases the solubility of the dye. 6. leading to better migration. The term E-F indicates the amount of unfixed dye to be washed out of the fabric. The extra sulphonic acid group in dye 7 makes it more soluble in water. As would be expected from the slightly lower E-F values listed in Table 6. the novel dyes 6 and 7 showed an improvement over dye 5. leading to less aggregation and as a result the dye molecule tends to be more substantive to the fibre than the dyebath. According to the results. ICI short liquor ratio wash-off test (ICI SL WOT) ICI SL WOT results for dyes 5. Incorporating the methyl group in dye 6 did not offer better substantivity.Thus increase in molecular weight of the dye leads to good wash fastness. which is associated with extra sulphonic acid group available in the dyemolecule. and 7. In this regard. 6 and 7 are shown by the authors in Table 8. Dye 7 showed higher substantivity in comparison to dyes 5 and 6. whilst dye 6 offered the lowest degree in comparison with dye 5. The SER5F profiles indicate that dye 7 had the highest degree of exhaustion and fixation. This improvement is associated with the extra sulphonic acid group available in dye 7.The author shows in Table 7 the migration indices for dyes 5. 6 and 7. 3 . Determination of migration indices of dyes. dyes 6 and 7 performed better than dye 5 in the ICI Short Liquor Ratio Wash-off Test (Table 8) due to having extra methyl (dye 6) and sulphonic acid (dye 7) groups. there is an improvement in the migration index of dye 7 over dye 5 (Table 7) from 48% to 56%.
Bleaching water fastness. Reactive Blue 160. Reactive Blue 171.Also only wash-fastness testing has been made other buyers essential fastness test like Light fastness . Perspiration fastness . it offered better migration and. the synthesised dye Application was made.in method . Processing Parameters. • • Dischargeabilty of the dye has not been measured in Printing point of view by the authors. Reactive Orange 84. The authors made no comparsion with commercially available Hetero Bi Functional Reactive dyes like Reactive yellow 84. • Only. building up and fixing more efficiently than dyes 5 and 6.were not carried out and investigated by the authors. Also effect of Liquor ratio on Sensitivity of Liquor ratio was not carried out . • The Simplified Dyeing /Shortened dyeing methods such as salt at start method. Additionally.Post bleaching etc..Critical Review of Research Paper Summary of the Review • Thus the authors incorporated the extra substituents into the control dye 5 structure yielded improvements over a range of parameters. level dyeing and ease of wash off.Reactive Red 120. therefore.Reactive Red 141. • Though the main evaluation of the application properties has been made . in terms of Recipe/Kg of the fabric costs. The compatibility of the synthesized dye with same class of the dye has not been made by the authors.In short they should have evaluated the Trichromatic dyeing properties in industrial point of view. were not measured. All .Novacron LSG etc.. On balance. Dyeing Properties etc. • Further the Sumifix Supra range of Hetero Bi functional (various gamut of colours commercially available) that carry monochlorotriazine and sulphato ethyl sulphone reactive systems were developed and their dyeing performance were 3 .Still authors should have done the Kinetics study (Dye-Fibre) like surface potential and other related studies . Rub fastness. dye 7 displayed the most attractive set of technical properties.Scour-dye process. Post-Mercerising fastness etc.
The dyeing was continued for 45 min longer.The authors should have referred to some more research/review articles that would have made them to have a clear plan of work to conduct research activities. good levelling.Critical Review of Research Paper studied by authors from South Gujrat University. • The Research paper references were very few in numbers. This temperature was then held for 30 min.Thus dye synthesised by Javed Mokhatri et al has its own importance in easy application point of view. cyanuric chloride and 2.5.5% sodium hydroxide and 5 g/l NaHCO3 solution was added so that the pH attainedcomreached11. • Thus the critical review of this paper should be considered to throw more light into the research activity made by authors. a high degree of exhaustion and fixation. 3 . excellentfastness degree and higher substantivity on cotton fabrics.f) in an exhaust process in three step dyeing by heating up to 60°C within 30 min with 50 g/liter NaCl and 5g/litre sodium carbonate. The final dyed pattern was rinsed with water for 5 min(at 30°C) and 10 min (at 60°C) so that the final rinse water was colourless. then gradually 4 ml/litre of 32. The topic has more research potential if my reviews are considered.Surat. Also the dyeing was carried out at a goods to liquor ratio of 1:20 (2% o.w. Though the above said sumifix range of dyes can be applied at 60°C but this application needs three step dyeing which makes the process tedious and chance of problem in addition of dyes by labour.methoxy-5-methyl (sulphato ethyl) sulphonylaniline which was readily coupled with various diazotized 2-aminobenzo-thiazole The results indicated good solubility.The dyes structures were established by preparing the coupling component using H-acid.
and 7 With Electrolyte (NaCl) Concentration Table 5: Build-Up Results for Dyes 5. and 7 3 . Color Strength of Dyes 5. 6. 6.Critical Review of Research Paper Tables . 6.5 MW: Molecular Weight: MI: Mole In MI Strength (%) 1605 76 1995 62 2742 48 Table 3: Spectroscopic Characteristics of Dyes 5. 6. and 7 Dye MW 5 1219.5 7 1321. and 7 Table 4 : Variation in the Color Yield of Dyes 5.5 6 1233. Figures of the Research Paper Table 2.
6. and 7 3 . ICI SL WOT Results for Dyes 5. and 7 Table 8. 6 and 7 Table7. 6.Migration Indices for Dyes 5.Critical Review of Research Paper Table 6. Data for SER5F Profiles of Dyes 5.
Critical Review of Research Paper Figure 1 : Dyeing Time-Temperature Profile Used for Dyes 5. Build up curves of dyes 5.7 Figure 2.6.6 and 7 3 .
430. Dyes Pigments. J Soc Dye Colour. UK: Society of Dyers and Colourists. 38(1–3)(1998). Collishaw. p. Li.Research Paper on“Study of Application Properties of Novel Trisazo Hetero Bi-Functional Reactive Dyes Based on J-Acid Derivatives for Cotton”. 3 . 63(2004). p. A. and J.. A. Annexure ‘i’. A. 1987. p. Bent. S. J. J. Zuwang. and D. 1. and D. L. Mokhtari.  V. 51. p. D. Peng. Taylor. and J. S. p. 163. W. 64(2005). 5th ed. McDonald. A. A. Taylor. Taylor.  W. and L. 326. 1990. Phillips.  Standard Methods for the Determination of the Color Fastness of Textiles and Leather. A. 17. Dyes Pigments. 23.Critical Review of Research Paper List of References of the Research Paper  J. Murtagh and J.  C. 63(2004). p. Phillips. Phillips. Dyes Pigments. P. Color Physics for Industries. Shirong. J Soc Dye Colour. P. Bradford. A. 98(1982). S. Phillips. Bradbury. p. Davies.  R. S. Dyes Pigments.  M. Mokhtari.  J. 108(1992). Bradford: SDC. D. A. S.
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