Orchard Publications
www.orchardpublications.com
Circuit Analysis II
with MATLAB® Computing and
Simulink® / SimPowerSystems®
Modeling
Steven T. Karris
Copyright 2009 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in USA. No part of this publication may be
reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior
written permission of the publisher.
Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, 39510 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, California 94538, U.S.A.
URL: http://www.orchardpublications.com
Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MathWorks, Inc., and Microsoft
Corporation. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.
ISBN10: 1934404201
ISBN13: 9781934404209
TX 5745064
Disclaimer
The author has made every effort to make this text as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty is implied.
The author and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss
or damages arising from the information contained in this text.
This text is written for use in a second course in circuit analysis. It encompasses a spectrum of
subjects ranging from the most abstract to the most practical, and the material can be covered in
one semester or two quarters.The reader of this book should have the traditional undergraduate
knowledge of an introductory circuit analysis material such as Circuit Analysis I with
MATLAB®Computing and Simulink®/ SimPowerSystems®Modeling, ISBN 9781934404171.
Another prerequisite would be a basic knowledge of differential equations, and in most cases,
engineering students at this level have taken all required mathematics courses. Appendix H serves
as a review of differential equations with emphasis on engineering related topics and it is
recommended for readers who may need a review of this subject.
There are several textbooks on the subject that have been used for years. The material of this
book is not new, and this author claims no originality of its content. This book was written to fit
the needs of the average student. Moreover, it is not restricted to computer oriented circuit
analysis. While it is true that there is a great demand for electrical and computer engineers,
especially in the internet field, the demand also exists for power engineers to work in electric
utility companies, and facility engineers to work in the industrial areas.
Chapter 1 is an introduction to second order circuits and it is essentially a sequel to first order
circuits discussed in the last chapter of Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB®Computing and
Simulink®/ SimPowerSystems®Modeling, ISBN 9781934404171. Chapter 2 is devoted to
resonance, and Chapter 3 presents practical methods of expressing signals in terms of the
elementary functions, i.e., unit step, unit ramp, and unit impulse functions. Accordingly, any
signal can be represented in the complex frequency domain using the Laplace transformation.
Chapters 4 and 5 are introductions to the unilateral Laplace transform and Inverse Laplace
transform respectively, while Chapter 6 presents several examples of analyzing electric circuits
using Laplace transformation methods. Chapter 7 is an introduction to state space and state
equations. Chapter 8 begins with the frequency response concept and Bode magnitude and
frequency plots. Chapter 9 is devoted to transformers with an introduction to self and mutual
inductances. Chapter 10 is an introduction to one and twoterminal devices and presents several
practical examples. Chapters 11 and 12 are introductions to threephase circuits.
It is not necessary that the reader has previous knowledge of MATLAB®. The material of this
text can be learned without MATLAB. However, this author highly recommends that the reader
studies this material in conjunction with the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version package that
is available at most college and university bookstores. Appendix A of this text provides a practical
introduction to MATLAB, Appendix B is an introduction to Simulink, and Appendix C
introduces SimPowerSystems. The pages where MATLAB scripts, Simulink / SimPowerSystems
models appear are indicated in the Table of Contents.
The author highly recommends that the reader studies this material in conjunction with the
inexpensive Student Versions of The MathWorks™ Inc., the developers of these outstanding
products, available from:
The MathWorks, Inc.
3 Apple Hill Drive
Natick, MA, 01760
Phone: 5086477000,
www.mathworks.com
info@mathworks.com.
Appendix D is a review of complex numbers, Appendix E is an introduction to matrices,
Appendix F discusses scaling methods, Appendix G introduces the per unit system used
extensively in power systems and in SimPwerSystems examples and demos. As stated above,
Appendix H is a review of differential equations. Appendix I provides instructions for
constructing semilog templates to be used with Bode plots.
In addition to numerous examples, this text contains several exercises at the end of each
chapter. Detailed solutions of all exercises are provided at the end of each chapter. The
rationale is to encourage the reader to solve all exercises and check his effort for correct
solutions and appropriate steps in obtaining the correct solution. And since this text was
written to serve as a selfstudy or supplementary textbook, it provides the reader with a
resource to test his knowledge.
The author is indebted to several readers who have brought some errors to our attention.
Additional feedback with other errors, advice, and comments will be most welcomed and
greatly appreciated.
Orchard Publications
39510 Paseo Padre Parkway
Suite 315
Fremont, California 94538
www.orchardpublications.com
info@orchardpublications.com
Table of Contents
1 Second Order Circuits 11
1.1 Response of a Second Order Circuit ....................................................................11
1.2 Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation ...............................................................12
1.2.1 Response of Series RLC Circuits with DC Excitation ...............................13
1.2.2 Response of Series RLC Circuits with AC Excitation .............................111
1.3 Parallel RLC Circuit ...........................................................................................115
1.3.1 Response of Parallel RLC Circuits with DC Excitation ..........................117
1.3.2 Response of Parallel RLC Circuits with AC Excitation..........................126
1.4 Other Second Order Circuits .............................................................................130
1.5 Summary .............................................................................................................136
1.6 Exercises..............................................................................................................138
1.7 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises .............................................................140
MATLAB Computing: Pages 16, 17, 19, 113, 119, 1through 123,
125, 126, 128, 129, 132 through 134, 142,
144, 145
Simulink/SimPowerSystems Models: Pages 110, 114, 129, 153
2 Resonance 21
2.1 Series Resonance.................................................................................................. 21
2.2 Quality Factor Q0s in Series Resonance .............................................................. 24
2.3 Parallel Resonance ............................................................................................... 26
2.4 Quality Factor Q0P in Parallel Resonance........................................................... 29
2.5 General Definition of Q ....................................................................................... 29
2.6 Energy in L and C at Resonance........................................................................ 210
2.7 HalfPower Frequencies Bandwidth ............................................................... 211
2.8 A Practical Parallel Resonant Circuit................................................................ 216
2.9 Radio and Television Receivers ......................................................................... 218
2.10 Summary ............................................................................................................ 221
2.11 Exercises ............................................................................................................. 223
2.12 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises............................................................. 225
MATLAB Computing: Pages 25, 26, 225, 227, 230, 231
Simulink / SimPowerSystems models: Pages 215, 216
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling iii
Copyright © Orchard Publications
6.8 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises............................................................... 627
MATLAB Computing: Pages 66, 68, 615, 619 through 621,
629 through 632, 637
Simulink / SimPowerSystems models: Pages 68 through 611, 620 through 622
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling vii
Copyright © Orchard Publications
E.11 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices .......................................... E24
E.12 Exercises ............................................................................................................ E31
MATLAB Computing: Pages E3, E4, E5, E7, E8, E9, E10, E12,
E15, E16, E18, E22, E25, E6, E29
Simulink Modeling: Page E3
Excel Spreadsheet: Page E27
F Scaling F 1
F.1 Magnitude Scaling .................................................................................................. F1
F.2 Frequency Scaling ................................................................................................... F1
F.3 Exercises.................................................................................................................. F8
F.4 Solutions to EndofAppendix Exercises............................................................... F9
MATLAB Computing: Pages F3, F5
viii Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 1
Second Order Circuits
T
his chapter discusses the natural, forced and total responses in circuits that contain resis
tors, inductors and capacitors. These circuits are characterized by linear secondorder dif
ferential equations whose solutions consist of the natural and the forced responses. We will
consider both DC (constant) and AC (sinusoidal) excitations.
As we know from previous studies,* the response is found from the differential equation describ
ing the circuit, and its solution is obtained as follows:
1. We write the differential or integrodifferential (nodal or mesh) equation describing the circuit.
We differentiate, if necessary, to eliminate the integral.
2. We obtain the forced (steadystate) response. Since the excitation in our work here will be
either a constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC) in nature, we expect the forced response to have
the same form as the excitation. We evaluate the constants of the forced response by substitu
tion of the assumed forced response into the differential equation and equate terms of the left
side with the right side. The form of the forced response (particular solution), is described in
Appendix H.
3. We obtain the general form of the natural response by setting the right side of the differential
equation equal to zero, in other words, solve the homogeneous differential equation using the
characteristic equation.
4. We add the forced and natural responses to form the complete response.
5. Using the initial conditions, we evaluate the constants from the complete response.
* The natural and forced responses for firstorder circuits are discussed in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB®
Computing and Simulink®/ SimPowerSystems® Modeling, ISBN 9781934404171.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 11
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
R L
+
C
vS u0 t it
and by differentiation 2
di d i i dv
R  + L 2 +  = S t 0
dt dt C dt
To find the forced response, we must first specify the nature of the excitation v S , that is DC or
AC.
If v S is DC ( v S = cons tan t ), the right side of (1.1) will be zero and thus the forced response com
ponent i f = 0 . If v S is AC ( v S = V cos t + , the right side of (1.1) will be another sinusoid
and therefore i f = I cos t + . Since in this section we are concerned with DC excitations, the
right side will be zero and thus the total response will be just the natural response.
The natural response is found from the homogeneous equation of (1.1), that is,
2
di d i i
R  + L 2 +  = 0 (1.2)
dt dt C
whose characteristic equation is
2 1
Ls + Rs +  = 0
C
or
2 R 1
s +  s +  = 0
L LC
from which
* The unit step function and other elementary functions used in science and engineering are discussed in Chapter
3.
12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
2
R R 1
s 1 s 2 = –  2 –  (1.3)
2L 4L LC
We will use the following notations:
R 1
S =  0 = 
 S = S – 0
2 2
nS =
2
0 – S
2
2L LC
(1.4)
or Damping Resonant Beta Damped Natural
Coefficient Frequency Coefficient Frequency
where the subscript s stands for series circuit. Then, we can express (1.3) as
2 2 2 2
s 1 s 2 = – S S – 0 = – S S if S 0 (1.5)
or
2 2 2 2
s 1 s 2 = – S 0 – S = – S n S if 0 S (1.6)
Case I: If 2S 20 , the roots s 1 and s 2 are real, negative, and unequal. This results in the over
damped natural response and has the form
s1 t s2 t
in t = k1 e + k2 e (1.7)
Case II: If 2S = 20 , the roots s 1 and s 2 are real, negative, and equal. This results in the critically
damped natural response and has the form
–S t
i n t = Ae k1 + k2 t (1.8)
Case III: If 20 2S , the roots s 1 and s 2 are complex conjugates. This is known as the under
damped or oscillatory natural response and has the form
–S t –S t
in t = e k 1 cos n S t + k 2 sin n S t = k 3 e cos n S t + (1.9)
Typical overdamped, critically damped and underdamped responses are shown in Figure 1.2, 1.3,
and 1.4 respectively where it is assumed that i n 0 = 0 .
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 13
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
Voltage
Time
Time
Time
Example 1.1
For the circuit of Figure 1.5, i L 0 = 5 A , v C 0 = 2.5 V , and the 0.5 resistor represents the
resistance of the inductor. Compute and sketch i t for t 0 .
Solution:
This circuit can be represented by the integrodifferential equation
t
di 1
Ri + L  + 
dt C
0
i dt + v C 0 = 15 t 0 (1.10)
14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
0.5 1 mH
+ 100 6 mF
i t
15u 0 t V
The roots of the characteristic equation of (1.11) are s 1 = – 200 and s 2 = – 300 . The total
response is just the natural response and for this example it is overdamped. Therefore, from (1.7),
s1 t s2 t – 200 t – 300 t
i t = in t = k1 e + k2 e = k1 e + k2 e (1.12)
The constants k 1 and k 2 can be evaluated from the initial conditions. Thus from the first initial
condition i L 0 = i 0 = 5 A and (1.12) we obtain
0 0
i 0 = k1 e + k2 e = 5
or
k1 + k2 = 5 (1.13)
We need another equation in order to compute the values of k 1 and k 2 . This equation will make
dv
use of the second initial condition, that is, v C 0 = 2.5 V . Since i C t = i t = C C , we differ
dt
entiate (1.12), we evaluate it at t = 0 + , and we equate it with this initial condition. Then,
di di
 = – 200k 1 e –200 t – 300k 2 e –300 t and  = – 200k 1 – 300 k 2 (1.14)
dt dt +
t=0
+
Also, at t = 0 ,
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 15
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
+ di +
Ri 0 + L  + v c 0 = 15
dt +
t=0
– k 1 – 1.5 k 2 = 50 (1.16)
Simultaneous solution of (1.13) and (1.16) yields k 1 = 115 and k 2 = – 110 . By substitution into
(1.12) we find the total response as
– 200 t – 300 t
i t = i n t = 115e – 110 e (1.17)
Check with MATLAB*:
syms t; % Define symbolic variable t
% Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
R=0.5; L=10^(3); C=100*10^(3)/6; % Circuit constants
y0=115*exp(200*t)110*exp(300*t); % Let solution i(t)=y0
y1=diff(y0); % Compute the first derivative of y0, i.e., di/dt
y2=diff(y0,2); % Compute the second derivative of y0, i.e, di2/dt2
% Substitute the solution i(t), i.e., equ (1.17)
% into differential equation of (1.11) to verify that
% correct solution was obtained. We must also
% verify that the initial conditions are satisfied.
y=y2+500*y1+60000*y0;
i0=115*exp(200*0)110*exp(300*0);
vC0=R*i0L*(23000*exp(200*0)+33000*exp(300*0))+15;
fprintf(' \n');...
disp('Solution was entered as y0 = '); disp(y0);...
disp('1st derivative of solution is y1 = '); disp(y1);...
disp('2nd derivative of solution is y2 = '); disp(y2);...
disp('Differential equation is satisfied since y = y2+y1+y0 = '); disp(y);...
disp('1st initial condition is satisfied since at t = 0, i0 = '); disp(i0);...
disp('2nd initial condition is also satisfied since vC+vL+vR=15 and vC0 = ');...
disp(vC0);...
fprintf(' \n')
16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
We denote the first term as i 1 t = 115e –200t , the second term as i 2 t = 110e –300t , and the total
current i t as the difference of these two terms. The response is shown in Figure 1.6.
– 200 t – 300 t
i t = 115e – 110 e
– 300 t
i 2 t = 110e
Current (A)
– 200 t
i 1 t = 115e
Time (sec)
Figure 1.6. Plot for i t of Example 1.1
In the above example, differentiation eliminated (set equal to zero) the right side of the differen
tial equation and thus the total response was just the natural response. A different approach how
ever, may not set the right side equal to zero, and therefore the total response will contain both
the natural and forced components. To illustrate, we will use the following approach.
t
1
The capacitor voltage, for all time t, may be expressed as v C t =  i dt and as before, the cir
C –
cuit can be represented by the integrodifferential equation
t
di 1
Ri + L  + 
dt C
–
i dt = 15 u 0 t (1.18)
and since
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 17
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
dv
i = i C = C C
dt
we rewrite (1.18) as 2
dv dv
RC C + LC 2C + v C = 15 u 0 t (1.19)
dt dt
We observe that this is a nonhomogeneous differential equation whose solution will have both
the natural and the forced response components. Of course, the solution of (1.19) will give us the
capacitor voltage v C t . This presents no problem since we can obtain the current by differentia
tion of the expression for v C t .
Substitution of the given values into (1.19) yields
2
50 dv dv
 10 –3 C + 1 10 –3 100
 10 –3 2C + v C = 15 u 0 t
6 dt 6 dt
or 2
dv C dv 5
2 + 500 C + 60000v C = 9 10 u 0 t (1.20)
dt dt
The characteristic equation of (1.20) is the same as of that of (1.11) and thus the natural response
is
s1 t s2 t – 200 t – 300 t
v Cn t = k 1 e + k2 e = k1 e + k2 e (1.21)
Since the right side of (1.20) is a constant, the forced response will also be a constant and we
denote it as v Cf = k 3 . By substitution into (1.20) we obtain
0 + 0 + 60000k 3 = 900000
or
v Cf = k 3 = 15 (1.22)
The total solution then is the summation of (1.21) and (1.22), that is,
– 200 t – 300 t
v C t = v Cn t + v Cf = k 1 e + k2 e + 15 (1.23)
As before, the constants k 1 and k 2 will be evaluated from the initial conditions. First, using
v C 0 = 2.5 V and evaluating (1.23) at t = 0 , we obtain
0 0
v C 0 = k 1 e + k 2 e + 15 = 2.5
or
k 1 + k 2 = – 12.5 (1.24)
Also,
dv dv i dv iL 0 5
i L = i C = C C C = L and C = 
 = 
 = 300 (1.25)
dt dt C dt t=0
C 100 6 10
–3
18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
From (1.24) and (1.27), we obtain k 1 = – 34.5 and k 2 = 22 . By substitution into (1.23), we obtain
the total solution as
– 300 t – 200 t
v C t = 22e – 34.5 e + 15 u 0 t (1.28)
Check with MATLAB:
syms t % Define symbolic variable t. Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
y0=22*exp(300*t)34.5*exp(200*t)+15; % The total solution y(t)
y1=diff(y0) % The first derivative of y(t)
y1 = 6600*exp(300*t)+6900*exp(200*t)
y2=diff(y0,2) % The second derivative of y(t)
y2 = 1980000*exp(300*t)1380000*exp(200*t)
y=y2+500*y1+60000*y0 % Summation of y and its derivatives
y = 900000
Using the expression for v C t we can find the current as
The same results are obtained with the Simulink/SimPowerSystems* model shown in Figure 1.8.
The waveforms for the current and the voltage across the capacitor are shown in Figure 1.9.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 19
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
Voltage (V)
– 300 t – 200 t
v C t = 22 e – 34.5 e + 15 u 0 t
Time (sec)
Figure 1.7. Plot for v C t of Example 1.1
110 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
Example 1.2
For the circuit in Figure 1.10, i L 0 = 5 A , v C 0 = 2.5 V , and the 0.5 resistor represents the
resistance of the inductor. Compute and sketch i t for t 0 .
0.5 1 mH
vS
100 6 mF
it
whose solution consists of the summation of the natural and forced responses. We know its natu
ral response from the previous example. We begin with
– 200 t – 300 t
i t = in t + if t = k1 e + k2 e + if t (1.31)
where the constants k 1 and k 2 will be evaluated from the initial conditions after i f t has been
found. The steady state (or forced) response will have the form i f t = k 3 cos 10 000t + in the
time domain ( t – domain ) and the form k 3 in the frequency domain ( j – domain ).
To find i f t we will use the phasor analysis relation I = V Z where I is the phasor current, V is
the phasor voltage, and Z is the impedance of the phasor circuit which, as we know, is
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 111
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
–1
1 1 2 1
Z = R + j L –  = R + L –  tan L –  R
2
(1.32)
C C C
Then,
1 2
= 0.5 = 0.25 and L –  = 10 – 6 10 = 99.88
2 2 –3 2
R
C
Also, –1 –3 –1
–1
1 10 – 6 10 9.994
tan L –  R = tan  = tan 
C 0.5 0.5
and this yields = 1.52 rads = 87.15 . Then, by substitution into (1.32),
o o
Z = 0.25 + 99.88 = 10 87.15
and thus o
V 200 0 o o
I =  = o = 20 –87.15 20 cos 10000t – 87.15 = i f t
Z 10 87.15
As before, the constants k 1 and k 2 are evaluated from the initial conditions. From (1.33) and the
first initial condition i L 0 = 5 A we obtain
0 0 o
i 0 = k 1 e + k 2 e + 20 cos – 87.15 = 5
or
i 0 = k 1 + k 2 + 20 0.05 = 5
or
k1 + k2 = 4 (1.34)
We need another equation in order to compute the values of k 1 and k 2 . This equation will make
dv
use of the second initial condition, that is, v C 0 = 2.5 V . Since i C t = i t = C C , we differ
dt
entiate (1.33), we evaluate it at t = 0 , and we equate it with this initial condition. Then,
di
 = – 200k 1 e –200 t – 300k 2 e –300 t – 2 10 5 sin 10000t – 87.15 o (1.35)
dt
112 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
and at t = 0 ,
di 6 o 5
 = – 200k 1 – 300k 2 – 2 10 sin – 87.15 = – 200k 1 – 300k 2 + 2 10 (1.36)
dt t=0
Also, at t = 0 +
+ di +
Ri 0 + L  + v c 0 = 200 cos 0 = 200
dt +
t=0
– 300t
i 2 t = 42 e
i t
Current (A)
– 200t
i 1 t = – 38e
Time (sec)
Figure 1.11. Plot for i t of Example 1.2
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 113
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
The same results are obtained with the Simulink/SimPowerSystems model shown in Figure 1.12.
Figure 1.13. Waveform displayed in Scope 1 for the Simulink/SimPowerSystems model in Figure 1.12
114 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Parallel RLC Circuit
Figure 1.14. Waveform displayed in Scope 2 for the Simulink/SimPowerSystems model in Figure 1.12
iG iL iC
vt G L C
iS u0 t
By differentiation, 2
dv dv di
C 2 + G  + v = S t0 (1.40)
dt dt L dt
To find the forced response, we must first specify the nature of the excitation i S , that is DC or AC.
If i S is DC ( v S = cons tan t ), the right side of (1.40) will be zero and thus the forced response com
ponent v f = 0 . If i S is AC ( i S = I cos t + , the right side of (1.40) will be another sinusoid and
therefore v f = V cos t + . Since in this section we are concerned with DC excitations, the
right side will be zero and thus the total response will be just the natural response.
The natural response is found from the homogeneous equation of (1.40), that is,
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 115
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
2
dv dv v
C 2 + G  +  = 0 (1.41)
dt dt L
whose characteristic equation is
Cs + Gs + 1 = 0
2
L
or
2 G i = 0
s +  s + 
C LC
from which
2
G G 1
s 1 s 2 = –  2 –  (1.42)
2C 4C LC
and with the following notations,
G 1
P =  0 =  P =
2
P – 0
2
nP =
2
0 – P
2
2C LC
(1.43)
where the subscript p stands for parallel circuit, we can express (1.42) as
2 2 2 2
s 1 s 2 = – P P – 0 = – P P if P 0 (1.44)
or
2 2 2 2
s 1 s 2 = – P 0 – P = – P nP if 0 P (1.45)
Note: From (1.4), Page 13, and (1.43), Page 114, we observe that S P
As in the series circuit, the natural response v n t can be overdamped, critically damped, or
underdamped.
Case I: If 2P 20 , the roots s 1 and s 2 are real, negative, and unequal. This results in the over
damped natural response and has the form
s1 t s2 t
vn t = k1 e + k2 e (1.46)
Case II: If 2P = 20 , the roots s 1 and s 2 are real, negative, and equal. This results in the criti
cally damped natural response and has the form
–P t
vn t = e k1 + k2 t (1.47)
Case III: If 20 2P , the roots s 1 and s 2 are complex conjugates. This results in the under
damped or oscillatory natural response and has the form
116 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Parallel RLC Circuit
–P t –P t
vn t = e k 1 cos nP t + k 2 sin nP t = k 3 e cos nP t + (1.48)
Example 1.3
For the circuit of Figure 1.16, i L 0 = 2 A and v C 0 = 5 V . Compute and sketch v t for t 0 .
iR iL iC
vt 32 10 H 1 640 F
10u 0 t A
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 117
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
and the constants k 1 and k 2 will be evaluated from the initial conditions.
The second equation that is needed for the computation of the values of k 1 and k 2 is found from
dv dv
the other initial condition, that is, i L 0 = 2 A . Since i C t = C C = C  , we differentiate
dt dt
(1.50), we evaluate it at t = 0 + , and we equate it with this initial condition.Then,
dv dv
 = – 4k 1 e –4 t – 16k 2 e –16 t and  = – 4k 1 – 16 k 2 (1.52)
dt dt +
t=0
+
Also, at t = 0
1 + + dv
 v 0 + i L 0 + C  = 10
R dt +
t=0
Simultaneous solution of (1.51) and (1.54) yields k 1 = 291 6 , k 2 = – 261 6 , and by substitution
into (1.50) we obtain the total response as
291 –4 t 261 –16 t –4 t – 16 t
v t = v n t =  e –  e = 48.5e – 43.5 e V (1.55)
6 6
Check with MATLAB:
syms t % Define symbolic variable t. Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
y0=291*exp(4*t)/6261*exp(16*t)/6; % Let solution v(t) = y0
118 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Parallel RLC Circuit
– 4t
v 1 t = 48.5 e
Voltage (V)
vt
– 16t
v 2 t = – 43.5 e
Time (sec)
Figure 1.17. Plot for v t of Example 1.3
From the plot of Figure 1.17, we observe that v t attains its maximum value somewhere in the
interval 0.10 and 0.12 sec., and the maximum voltage is approximately 24 V . If we desire to com
pute precisely the maximum voltage and the exact time it occurs, we can compute the derivative
of (1.55), set it equal to zero, and solve for t . Thus,
dv –4 t – 16 t
 = – 1164e + 4176e = 0 (1.56)
dt t=0
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 119
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
1.2775
t = t max =  = 0.106 s
12
By substitution into (1.55)
– 4 x0.106 – 16 x0.106
v max = 48.5e – 43.5 e = 23.76 V (1.57)
A useful quantity, especially in electronic circuit analysis, is the settling time, denoted as t S , and it
is defined as the time required for the voltage to drop to 1% of its maximum value. Therefore, t S
is an indication of the time it takes for v t to dampout, meaning to decrease the amplitude of
v t to approximately zero. For this example, 0.01 23.76 = 0.2376 V , and we can find t S by sub
stitution into (1.55). Then,
– 4t – 16t
0.01v max = 0.2376 = 48.5e – 43.5e (1.58)
and we need to solve for the time t . To simplify the computation, we neglect the second term on
the right side of (1.58) since this component of the voltage damps out much faster than the other
component. This expression then simplifies to
–4 ts
0.2376 = 48.5e
or
– 4 t S = ln 0.005 = – 5.32
or
t S = 1.33 s (1.59)
Example 1.4
For the circuit of Figure 1.18, i L 0 = 2 A and v C 0 = 5 V , and the resistor is to be adjusted so
that the natural response will be critically damped.Compute and sketch v t for t 0 .
iR iL iC
vt 10 H 1 640 F
10u 0 t A
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Parallel RLC Circuit
2
1 = 8  1
 = 
R 640 40
or R = 40 and thus s 1 = s 2 = – P = – 8 . The natural response will have the form
–P t – 8t
v t = vn t = e k 1 + k 2 t or v t = v n t = e k 1 + k 2 t (1.60)
As before, we need to compute the derivative dv dt in order to apply the second initial condition
and find the value of the constant k 2 .
We obtain the derivative using MATLAB as follows:
syms t k2; v0=exp(8*t)*(5+k2*t); v1=diff(v0); % v1 is 1st derivative of v0
% Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
v1 = 8*exp(8*t)*(5+k2*t)+exp(8*t)*k2
Thus,
dv
 = – 8e –8t 5 + k 2 t + k 2 e –8t
dt
and
dv
 = – 40 + k 2 (1.63)
dt t=0
dv i
Also, i C = C  or dv
 = C and
dt dt C
+ + +
dv iC 0 IS –iR 0 – iL 0
 = 
 =  (1.64)
dt +
C C
t=0
or
dv IS – vC 0 R – iL 0 10 – 5 40 – 2 7.875
 =  =  =  = 5040 (1.65)
dt t=0
C 1 640 1 640
– 40 + k 2 = 5040
or
k 2 = 5080 (1.66)
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
Time (sec)
Figure 1.19. Plot for v t of Example 1.4
By inspection of (1.67), we see that at t = 0 , v t = 5 V and thus the second initial condition is
satisfied. We can verify that the first initial condition is also satisfied by differentiation of (1.67).
We can also show that v t approaches zero as t approaches infinity with L’Hôpital’s rule, i.e.,
d
 5 + 5080t
– 8t 5 + 5080t dt 5080
lim v t = lim e 5 + 5080t = lim 
 = lim  = lim 
 = 0 (1.68)
t t t e
8t t d
 e 8t t 8e
8t
dt
Example 1.5
For the circuit of Figure 1.20, i L 0 = 2 A and v C 0 = 5 V . Compute and sketch v t for t 0 .
122 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Parallel RLC Circuit
iR iL iC
vt 50 10 H 1 640 F
10u 0 t A
Figure 1.20. Circuit for Example 1.5
Solution:
This is the same circuit as the that of the two previous examples except that the resistance has
been increased to 50 . For this example,
G = 
P =  1  = 
1  = 6.4
2C 2RC 2 50 1 640
or 2
P = 40.96
and as before,
2 1 1
0 =  =  = 64
LC 10 1 640
Since v f = 0 , the total response is just the natural response. Then, from (1.48),
–P t – 6.4t
v t = v n t = ke cos nP t + = ke cos 4.8t + (1.69)
and the constants k and will be evaluated from the initial conditions.
From the initial condition v C 0 = v 0 = 5 V and (1.69) we obtain
0
v 0 = ke cos 0 + = 5
or
k cos = 5 (1.70)
To evaluate the constants k and we differentiate (1.69), we evaluate it at t = 0 , we write the
equation which describes the circuit at t = 0 + , and we equate these two expressions. Using MAT
LAB we obtain:
syms t k phi; y0=k*exp(6.4*t)*cos(4.8*t+phi); y1=diff(y0)
% Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
y1 = 32/5*k*exp(32/5*t)*cos(24/5*t+phi)
24/5*k*exp(32/5*t)*sin(24/5*t+phi)
pretty(y1)
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
dv i
Also, i C = C  or dv
 = C and
dt dt C
+ + +
dv iC 0 IS –iR 0 – iL 0
 = 
 = 

dt +
C C
t=0
or
dv IS – vC 0 R – iL 0 – 5 50 – 2 = 7.9 640 = 5056
 =  = 10
 (1.73)
dt t=0
C 1 640
Equating (1.72) with (1.73) we obtain
– 32 – 4.8k sin = 5056
or
k sin = – 1060 (1.74)
The phase angle can be found by dividing (1.74) by (1.70). Then,
k sin = tan = –
 1060 = – 212

k cos 5
or –1
= tan – 212 = – 1.566 rads = – 89.73 deg
The value of the constant k is found from (1.70) as
k cos – 1.566 = 5
or
5
k =  = 1042
cos – 1.566
and by substitution into (1.69), the total solution is
– 6.4t
v t = 1042e cos 4.8t – 89.73 (1.75)
The plot is shown in Figure 1.21.
124 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Parallel RLC Circuit
Voltage (V)
Time (sec)
Figure 1.21. Plot for v t of Example 1.5
From the plot of Figure 1.21 we observe that the maximum value occurs somewhere between
t = 0.10 sec and t = 0.20 sec , while the minimum value occurs somewhere between t = 0.73 sec
and t = 0.83 sec . Values for the maximum and minimum accurate to 3 decimal places are deter
mined with the MATLAB script below.
fprintf(' \n');
disp(' t Vc');
disp('');
t=0.10:0.01:0.20; Vc=zeros(11,2); Vc(:,1)=t';
Vc(:,2)=1042.*exp(6.4.*t).*cos(4.8.*t87.5*pi./180);
fprintf('%0.2f\t %8.3f\n',Vc')
t Vc

0.10 274.736
0.11 278.822
0.12 280.743
0.13 280.748
0.14 279.066
0.15 275.911
0.16 271.478
0.17 265.948
0.18 259.486
0.19 252.242
0.20 244.354
fprintf(' \n');
disp(' t Vc');
disp('');
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 125
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
Alternately, we can find the maxima and minima by differentiating the response of (1.75) and set
ting it equal to zero.
Example 1.6
For the circuit of Figure 1.22, i L 0 = 2 A and v C 0 = 5 V . Compute and sketch v t for t 0 .
126 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Parallel RLC Circuit
iR iL iC
vt 50 10 H 1 640 F
iS
This is the same circuit as the previous example where the DC source has been replaced by an AC
source. The total response will consist of the natural response v n t which we already know from
the previous example, and the forced response v f t which is the AC steadystate response, will be
found by phasor analysis.
The t – domain to j – domain j transformation yields
i s t = 20 sin 6400t + 90 = 20 cos 6400t I = 20 0
The admittance Y is
–1
1 1 2 1
Y = G + j C –  = G + C –  tan C –  G
2
L L L
where
1 =  1
1 , C = 6400  1 1  = 
1 
G =  = 10 and  = 
R 50 640 L 6400 10 64000
and thus
1 2 1 2 –1
1 1
Y =   tan 10 –   = 10 89.72
 + 10 – 
50 64000 64000 50
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 127
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
0
v 0 = v C 0 = ke cos + 2 cos – 89.72 = 5
or
k cos 5 (1.77)
To make use of the second initial condition, we differentiate (1.76) using MATLAB as follows,
and then we evaluate it at t = 0 .
syms t k phi; y0=k*exp(6.4*t)*cos(4.8*t+phi)+2*cos(6400*t1.5688); % Must have Sym Math
y1=diff(y0); % Differentiate v(t) of (1.76)
y1 = 32/5*k*exp(32/5*t)*cos(24/5*t+phi)24/5*k*exp(32/
5*t)*sin(24/5*t+phi)12800*sin(6400*t1961/1250)
or
dv
 = – 6.4ke
– 6.4t
cos 4.8t + – 4.8ke
– 6.4t
sin 4.8t + – 12800 sin 6400t – 1.5688
dt
and
dv
 = – 6.4k cos – 4.8k sin – 12800 sin – 1.5688
dt t=0 (1.78)
= – 6.4k cos – 4.8k sin + 12800
With (1.77) we obtain
dv
 = – 32 – 4.8k sin + 12800 – 4.8k sin + 12832 (1.79)
dt t=0
dv i
Also, i C = C  or dv
 = C and
dt dt C
+ + + +
dv iC 0 iS 0 –iR 0 – iL 0
 = 
 = 

dt +
C C
t=0
or +
dv iS 0 – vC 0 R – iL 0 20 – 5 50 – 2 = 11456
 = 
 =  (1.80)
dt t=0
C 1 640
128 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Parallel RLC Circuit
The same results are obtained with the Simulink/SimPowerSystems model shown in Figure 1.24.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 129
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
Example 1.7
The circuit of Figure 1.26 a known as a Multiple Feed Back (MFB) active lowpass filter. For this
circuit, the initial conditions are v C1 = v C2 = 0 . Compute and sketch v out t for t 0 .
40 k R2 C2 10 nF
R1 50 k
+ v1 R v2
200 k 3 +
vin vout
C1 25 nF
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Other Second Order Circuits
1
 1 1 dv 1 1
 +  +  v 1 + C 1 1 –  v out =  v in (1.84)
R1 R2 R3 dt R 2 R1
and
dv out
v 1 = – R 3 C 2 
 (1.85)
dt
Differentiation of (1.86) yields 2
dv dv out
1 = – R 3 C 2 
2
 (1.86)
dt dt
and by substitution of given numerical values into (1.85) through (1.87), we obtain
1  + 
 1  v + 25 10 –9 dv
1  +  1 
1 –  1
v out = 5 v in
2 10 5 4 10 4 5 10 4 1 dt 4 10 4
2 10
or
–3 –9 dv 1
0.05 10 v 1 + 25 10  – 0.25 10 –4 v out = 0.5 10 –5 v in (1.87)
dt
– 4 dv out
v 1 = – 5 10 
 (1.88)
dt
2
dv – 4 d v out
1 = – 5 10 
2
 (1.89)
dt dt
Next, substitution of (1.89) and (1.90) into (1.88) yields
2
– 4 dv out d v out
0.05 10 – 5 10 
–3
 + 25 10 –9 – 5 10 –4 
 (1.90)
dt dt
2
–4 –5
– 0.25 10 v out = 0.5 10 v in
or 2
– 13 d v out – 7 dv out
– 125 10   – 0.25 10 –4 v out = 10 –4 v in
– 0.25 10 
dt
2 dt
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 131
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
We cannot classify the given circuit as series or parallel and therefore, we should not use the
damping ratio S or P . Instead, for the natural response v n t we will use the general expression
s1 t s2 t – t
v n t = Ae + Be = e k 1 cos t + k 2 sin t (1.92)
where
s 1 ,s 2 = – j = – 1000 j1000
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Other Second Order Circuits
6
– 37438400 k 3 + 12560000 k 4 cos 6280t = – 10 cos 6280t
(1.95)
– 12560000 k 3 – 37438400 k 4 sin 6280t = 0
To evaluate the constant k 2 , we make use of the initial condition v C1 0 = 0 . We observe that
v C1 = v 1 and by KCL at node v 1 we have:
v1 – v2 dv out
 + C 2 
 = 0
R3 dt
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 133
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
or
v1 – 0 – 8 dv out
4 = – 10 
 
5 10 dt
or
–4 dv out
v 1 = – 5 10 

dt
The last step in finding the constant k 2 is to differentiate (1.99), evaluate it at t = 0 , and equate
it with (1.100). This is done with MATLAB as follows:
y0=exp(1000*t)*(0.024*cos(1000*t)+k2*sin(1000*t))...
+0.024*cos(6280*t)0.008*sin(6280*t);
y1=diff(y0)
y1 =
1000*exp(1000*t)*(3/125*cos(1000*t)+k2*sin(1000*t))+exp(
1000*t)*(24*sin(1000*t)+1000*k2*cos(1000*t))3768/
25*sin(6280*t)1256/25*cos(6280*t)
or
dv out – 1000t – 3
 = – 1000e
  cos 1000t + k 2 sin 1000t + e –1000t 24 sin 1000t + 1000k 2 cos 1000t
dt 125
3768 1256
–  sin 6280t –  cos 6280t
25 25
and
dv out –3

 = – 1000  + 1000k 2 – 1256
 (1.100)
dt 125 25
t=0
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Other Second Order Circuits
0.02
Voltage (V)
0.01
0
vt
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Time (sec)
t 3
x 10
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 135
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
1.5 Summary
Circuits that contain energy storing devices can be described by integrodifferential equations
and upon differentiation can be simplified to differential equations with constant coefficients.
A second order circuit contains two energy storing devices. Thus, an RLC circuit is a second
order circuit.
The total response is the summation of the natural and forced responses.
If the differential equation describing a series RLC circuit that is excited by a constant (DC)
voltage source is written in terms of the current, the forced response is zero and thus the total
response is just the natural response.
If the differential equation describing a parallel RLC circuit that is excited by a constant (DC)
current source is written in terms of the voltage, the forced response is zero and thus the total
response is just the natural response.
If a circuit is excited by a sinusoidal (AC) source, the forced response is never zero.
The natural response of a second order circuit may be overdamped, critically damped, or
underdamped depending on the values of the circuit constants.
For a series RLC circuit, the roots s 1 and s 2 are found from
2 2 2 2
s 1 s 2 = – S S – 0 = – S S if S 0
or
2 2 2 2
s 1 s 2 = – S 0 – S = – S n S if 0 S
where
R 1 2 2 2 2
S =  0 =  S = S – 0 nS = 0 – S
2L LC
If 2S 20 , the roots s 1 and s 2 are real, negative, and unequal. This results in the overdamped
natural response and has the form
s1 t s2 t
in t = k1 e + k2 e
If 2S = 20 , the roots s 1 and s 2 are real, negative, and equal. This results in the critically
damped natural response and has the form
–S t
in t = e k1 + k2 t
If 20 2S , the roots s 1 and s 2 are complex conjugates. This is known as the underdamped or
oscillatory natural response and has the form
136 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Summary
–S t –S t
in t = e k 1 cos n S t + k 2 sin n S t = k 3 e cos n S t +
For a parallel RLC circuit, the roots s 1 and s 2 are found from
2 2 2 2
s 1 s 2 = – P P – 0 = – P P if P 0
or
2 2 2 2
s 1 s 2 = – P 0 – P = – P nP if 0 P
where
G 1 2 2 2 2
P =  0 =  P = P – 0 nP = 0 – P
2C LC
If 2P 20 , the roots s 1 and s 2 are real, negative, and unequal. This results in the overdamped
natural response and has the form
s1 t s2 t
vn t = k1 e + k2 e
If 2P = 20 , the roots s 1 and s 2 are real, negative, and equal. This results in the critically
damped natural response and has the form
–P t
vn t = e k1 + k2 t
If 20 2P , the roots s 1 and s 2 are complex conjugates. This results in the underdamped or
oscillatory natural response and has the form
–P t –P t
vn t = e k 1 cos nP t + k 2 sin nP t = k 3 e cos nP t +
If a second order circuit is neither series nor parallel, the natural response if found from
s1 t s2 t
yn = k1 e + k2 e
or s1 t
yN = k1 + k2 t e
or – t – t
yn = e k 3 cos t + k 4 sin t = e k 5 cos t +
depending on the roots of the characteristic equation being real and unequal, real and equal, or
complex conjugates respectively.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 137
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
1.6 Exercises
1. For the circuit below it is known that v C 0 = 0 and i L 0 = 0 . Compute and sketch v C t
and i L t for t 0 .
10 0.2 H
iL t
+
+ 8 mF vC t
100u 0 t V
2. For the circuit below it is known that v C 0 = 0 and i L 0 = 0 . Compute and sketch v C t
and i L t for t 0 .
4 5H
iL t
+
+ vC t
21.83 mF
100u 0 t V
3. In the circuit below the switch S has been closed for a very long time and opens at t = 0 .
Compute v C t for t 0 .
100 20 H
+ +
S t = 0 vC t
100 V 1 120 F
400
4. In the circuit below, the switch S has been closed for a very long time and opens at t = 0 .
Compute v C t for t 0 .
138 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Exercises
100 20 H
vS
+ t = 0
+
S vC t
1 120 F
400
v S = 100 cos t u 0 t V
5. In the circuit below the switch S has been in position A for closed for a very long time and it is
placed in position B at t = 0 . Find the value of R that will cause the circuit to become criti
cally damped and then compute v C t and i L t for t 0
3 A S R 6
B t = 0 + iL t
+ v t
2 C
1 12 F 3H
12 V
6. In the circuit below the switch S has been closed for a very long time and opens at t = 0 . Com
pute v AB t for t 0 .
S
t = 0
2 4
+ A
B
12 V 2H 14 F
iR iL iC
vt 40 10 H 1 640 F
10u 0 t A
This is the same circuit as in Example 1.4, Page 121 where we found that R = 40 . The ini
tial conditions are the same as in Example 1.4, that is, i L 0 = 2 A and v C 0 = 5 V ,
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 139
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
140 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
1.
10 0.2 H
iL t
+
+ vC t
it
8 mF
100u 0 t V
di
Ri + L  + v C = 100 t0
dt
dv
and since i = i C = C C , the above becomes
dt
2
dv d vC
RC C + LC 
 + v C = 100
dt dt
2
2
d v C R dv C 1
 +   +  v C = 100
 
dt
2 L dt LC LC
2
d v C 10 dv C 1 100
 +   + 
  v = 
–3 C

dt
2 0.2 dt 0.2 8 10 0.2 8 10
–3
2
d vC dv C

 + 50  + 625 v C = 62500
dt
2 dt
With the first initial condition v C 0 = 0 the above expression becomes
0
0 = 100 + e k 1 + 0
k 1 = – 100
and by substitution into (1) we obtain
– 25 t
v C t = 100 + e k 2 t – 100 (2)
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
To evaluate k 2 we make use of the second initial condition i L 0 = 0 and since i L = i C , and
dv
i = i C = C C , we differentiate (2) using the following MATLAB script:
dt
syms t k2 % Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
v0=100+exp(25*t)*(k2*t100); v1=diff(v0)
v1 =
25*exp(25*t)*(k2*t100)+exp(25*t)*k2
Thus,
dv C – 25t – 25t
 = k 2 e – 25e k 2 t – 100
dt
and
dv
C = k 2 + 2500 (3)
dt t=0
dv i i
Also, C = C = L and at t = 0
dt C C
dv iL 0
C =  = 0 (4)
dt t=0
C
From (3) and (4) k 2 + 2500 = 0 or k 2 = – 2500 and by substitution into (2)
– 25 t
v C t = 100 – e 2500t + 100 (5)
142 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
– 25 t
v C t = 100 – e 2500t + 100
Voltage (V)
Time (sec)
– 25t – 25t
i L t = 0.2e 100 + 2500t – 20e
Current (A)
Time (sec)
2.
4 5H
iL t
+
+ vC t
21.83 mF
100u 0 t V
The general form of the differential equation that describes this circuit is same as in Exercise 1,
that is,
2
d v C R dv C 1
 +   +  v C = 100
  t0
dt
2 L dt LC LC
2
d vC dv

 + 0.8 C + 9.16v C = 916
dt
2 dt
From the characteristic equation s 2 + 0.8s + 9.16 = 0 and the MATLAB script below
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 143
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
and with the initial condition v C 0 = 0 we obtain
0 = 100 + k cos 0 +
or
k cos = – 100 (2)
dv C
 = – 0.4k cos – 3k sin
dt t=0
and with (2)
dv
C = 40 – 3k sin (3)
dt t=0
dv i i
Also, C = C = L and at t = 0
dt C C
144 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
dv C iL 0
 =  = 0 (4)
dt t=0
C
From (3) and (4)
3k sin = 40 (5)
and from (2) and (5)
3k sin 40
 = 
k cos – 100
3 tan = – 0.4
The value of k can be found from either (2) or (5). From (2)
k cos – 0.1236 = – 100
– 100
k =  = – 100.8
cos – 0.1236
and by substitution into (1)
– 0.4t
v C t = 100 – 100.8 e cos 3t – 7.6 (6)
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
– 0.4t
v C t = 100 – 100.8 e cos 3t – 7.6
Voltage (V)
Time (sec)
– 0.4t
i L t = 0.88e cos 3t – 7.6 +
– 0.4t
6.6e sin 3t – 7.6
Current (A)
Time (sec)
3.
At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below.
100 20 H
iL 0
+ +
v 0
C
100 V 1 120 F
400
At this time the inductor behaves as a short and the capacitor as an open. Then,
i L 0 = 100 100 + 400 = I 0 = 0.2 A
146 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
+
+ vC t
100 V 1 120 F
The general form of the differential equation that describes this circuit is same as in Exercise 1,
that is,
2
d v C R dv C 1
 +   +  v C = 100
  t0
dt
2 L dt LC LC
2
d vC dv
 + 5 C + 6v C = 600

dt
2 dt
0 0
v C 0 = V 0 = 80 V = 100 + k 1 e + k 2 e
or
k 1 + k 2 = – 20 (2)
dv i i
Also, C = C = L and at t = 0
dt C C
dv iL 0 0.2
C =  =  = 24 (4)
dt t=0
C 1 120
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
– 2k 1 – 3k 2 = 24 (5)
4.
100 20 H
vS t = 0 +
+ S vC t
1 120 F
400
v S = 100 cos t u 0 t V
This is the same circuit as in Exercise 3 where the DC voltage source has been replaced by an
AC source that is being applied at t = 0 + . No initial conditions were given so we will assume
that i L 0 = 0 and v C 0 = 0 . Also, the circuit constants are the same and thus the natu
ral response has the form v Cn = k 1 e –2t + k 2 e –3t .
We will find the forced (steadystate) response using phasor circuit analysis where = 1 ,
jL = j20 , – j C = – j120 , and 100 cos t 100 0 . The phasor circuit is shown below.
100 j20
VS
+ +
– j 120 VC
V S = 100 0 V
148 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
Using the initial condition v C 0 = 0 and (1) we obtain
v C 0 = 0 = 60 2 cos – 135 + k 1 + k 2
dv i i
Also, C = C = L and at t = 0
dt C C
dv C iL 0
 =  = 0 (4)
dt t=0
C
Equating (3) and (4) we obtain
2k 1 + 3k 2 = 60 (5)
Simultaneous solution of (2) and (5) yields k 1 = 120 and k 2 = – 60 . Then, by substitution into
(1) we obtain
– 2t – 3t
v C t = 60 2 cos t – 135 + 120e – 60 e
5.
3 S R 6
A
t = 0 + iL t
B
+ 1 12 F vC t
2
12 V 3H
We must first find the value of R before we can establish initial conditions for i L 0 = 0 and
vC 0 = 0 .
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
2 2
The condition for critical damping is P – 0 = 0 where P = G 2C = 1 2R'C and
2
1 1
0 = 1 LC . Then, P =  = 0 =  where R' = R + 2 . Therefore,
2 2 2
2R' 1 12 3 1 12
12 2
 6 2
 2
 = 4 , or  = 4 , or R + 2 = 36 4 = 9 , or R + 2 = 3 and thus R = 1 .
2R + 2 R + 2
At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below.
3 1 6
+ v 6
+
+ vC 0 iL 0
12 V
iC t + iL t
iR t
2 v t 3H
C
1 12 F
Since the circuit is critically damped, the solution has the form
–P t
vC t = e k1 + k2 t
1
where P =  = 2 and thus
2 1 + 2 1 12
–2 t
vC t = e k 1 + k 2 t (1)
With the initial condition v C 0 = 7.2 V relation (1) becomes 7.2 = e 0 k 1 + 0 or
k 1 = 7.2 V and (1) simplifies to
–2 t
vC t = e 7.2 + k 2 t (2)
150 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
dv i
Also, C = C and at t = 0
dt C
dv C iC 0 0
  =  = 0 (4)
= 
dt t=0
C C
1 – 2t – 2t 7.2 –2t – 2t
i L t = –  – 14.4e 2t + 1 + 14.4e –  e 2t + 1 = – 2.4e t + 1
12 3
6.
At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where i L 0 = 12 2 = 6 A , v C 0 = 12 V , and
thus the initial conditions have been established.
2 4
+ A B
+
12 V 2H vC 0
iL 0 14 F
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
iL t
R1 2 R2 4
A B
+
L 2H vC t
14 F
2
d v C R 1 + R 2 dv C 1
 +   +  v C = 0

dt
2 L dt LC
2
d vC dv
 + 3 C + 2v C = 0

dt
2 dt
The characteristic equation of the last expression above yields s 1 = – 1 and s 2 = – 2 and thus
–t – 2t
vC t = k1 e + k2 e (1)
With the initial condition v C 0 = 12 V and (1) we obtain
k 1 + k 2 = 12 (2)
Differentiating (1) we obtain
dv C –t – 2t
 = – k 1 e – 2k 2 e
dt
and
dv C
 = – k 1 – 2k 2 (3)
dt t=0
dv i i
Also, C = C = L and at t = 0
dt C C
dv C iL 0 6  = 24 (4)
 = 
 = 
dt t=0
C 14
From (3) and (4)
– k 1 – 2k 2 = 24 (5)
152 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
and from (2) and (5) k 1 = 48 and k 2 = – 36 . By substitution into (1) we obtain
–t – 2t
v C t = 48e – 36 e
Thus, 2
di d iC
v AB = v L t – v C t = L L – v C t = LC 
 – vC t
dt dt
2
2
d
= 0.5 2 48e – 36 e – 48e – 36 e
–t – 2t –t – 2t
dt
–t – 2t –t – 2t
= 0.5 48e – 144 e – 48e – 36 e
–t – 2t –t – 2t
= – 24 e – 108 e = – 24 e + 4.5e
–t – 2t
v AB = – 24 e + 4.5e
Voltage (V)
Time (sec)
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 153
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Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits
154 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Chapter 2
Resonance
T
his chapter defines series and parallel resonance. The quality factor Q is then defined in
terms of the series and parallel resonant frequencies. The halfpower frequencies and
bandwidth are also defined in terms of the resonant frequency.
VS R jL
I
1 jC
Figure 2.1. Series RLC phasor circuit
The impedance Z is
Phasor Voltage = V
Impedance = Z =  1  = R + j L – 
S = R + j L +  1 (2.1)
Phasor Current I jC C
or
2 2 –1
Z = R + L – 1 C tan L – 1 C R (2.2)
Therefore, the magnitude and phase angle of the impedance are:
2 2
Z = R + L – 1 C (2.3)
and –1
Z = tan L – 1 C R (2.4)
Magnitude of Impedance
L
R
1
– 
C
1
L – 
C
Radian Frequency
Figure 2.2. The components of Z in a series RLC circuit
or
2 1
0 = 
LC
1
0 =  (2.5)
LC
and
1
f 0 =  (2.6)
2 LC
We observe that at resonance Z 0 = R where Z 0 denotes the impedance value at resonance, and
Z = 0 . In our subsequent discussion the subscript zero will be used to indicate that the circuit
variables are at resonance.
Example 2.1
For the circuit shown in Figure 2.3, compute I 0 , 0 , C, V R0 , V L0 , and V C0 . Then, draw a
phasor diagram showing V R0 , V L0 , and V C0 .
1.2 jX L = j10
R L=0.2 mH
VS C
120 0 V I –j XC
Solution:
At resonance,
jX L = – jX C
and thus
Z 0 = R = 1.2
Then,
120 V
I 0 =  = 100 A
1.2
Since
X L0 = 0 L = 10
it follows that
10 10
0 =  =  = 50000 rad s
L 0.2 10
–3
Therefore,
1
X C0 = X L0 = 10 = 
0 C
or
1
C =  = 2 F
10 50000
Now,
V R0 = RI 0 = 1.2 100 = 120 V
–3
V L0 = 0 LI 0 = 50000 0.2 10 100 = 1000
and
1 1  100 = 1000 V
V C0 =  I 0 = 
0 C 50000 2 10
–6
VL0 = 1000 V
VR0 = 120 V
VC0 = 1000 V
Figure 2.4. Phasor diagram for Example 2.1
Figure 2.4 reveals that V L0 = V C0 = 1000 V and these voltages are much higher than the
applied voltage of 120 V . This illustrates the useful property of resonant circuits to develop high
voltages across capacitors and inductors.
The quality factor * is an important parameter in resonant circuits. Its definition is derived from
the following relations:
At resonance,
0 L = 
1
0C
and
VS
I 0 = 
R
Then
VS 0 L
V L0 = 0 LI 0 = 0 L  =  V S (2.7)
R R
and
1 1 VS 1
V C0 =  I 0 =   =  V S (2.8)
0 C 0 C R 0 RC
At series resonance the left sides of (2.7) and (2.8) are equal and therefore,
0L 1
 = 
R 0 RC
Then, by definition
0 L 1
Q 0S = 
 = 
R 0 RC (2.9)
Quality Factor at Series Resonance
In a practical circuit, the resistance R in the definition of Q 0S above, represents the resistance of
the inductor and thus the quality factor Q 0S is a measure of the energy storage property of the induc
tance L in relation to the energy dissipation property of the resistance R of that inductance.
In terms of Q 0S , the magnitude of the voltages across the inductor and capacitor are
V L0 = V C0 = Q 0S V S (2.10)
and therefore, we say that there is a “resonant” rise in the voltage across the reactive devices and
it is equal to the Q 0S times the applied voltage. Thus in Example 2.1,
V L0 V C0 1000 25
Q 0S = 
 =  =  = 
VS VS 120 3
* We denote the quality factor for series resonant circuits as Q0S , and the quality factor for parallel resonant cir
cuits as Q 0P .
The quality factor Q is also a measure of frequency selectivity. Thus, we say that a circuit with a
high Q has a high selectivity, whereas a low Q circuit has low selectivity. The high frequency
selectivity is more desirable in parallel circuits as we will see in the next section.
We will see later that
0 Resonant Frequency
Q = 
 =  (2.11)
2 – 1 Bandwidth
Figure 2.5 shows the relative response versus for Q = 25 50 , and 100 where we observe that
highest Q provides the best frequency selectivity, i.e., higher rejection of signal components out
side the bandwidth BW = 2 – 1 which is the difference in the 3 dB frequencies. The curves
were created with the MATLAB script below.
w=450:1:550; x1=1./(1+25.^2*(w./500500./w).^2); plot(w,x1);...
x2=1./(1+50.^2*(w./500500./w).^2); plot(w,x2);...
x3=1./(1+100.^2*(w./500500./w).^2); plot(w,x3);...
plot(w,x1,w,x2,w,x3); grid
We also observe from (2.9) that selectivity depends on R and this dependence is shown on the
plot of Figure 2.6.
Q 0 = 25
Q 0 = 50
Relative Response
Q 0 = 100
1 2
Radian Frequency
R = 0.5
Relative Response
R = 1.0
Radian Frequency
Figure 2.6. Selectivity curves with different values of R
If we keep one reactive device, say L , constant while varying C , the relative response “shifts” as
shown in Figure 2.7, but the general shape does not change.
–4
C = 0.5 10 F
–4
C = 10 F
Relative Response
Radian Frequency
Figure 2.7. Relative response with constant L and variable C
The curves in Figure 2.7 were created with the MATLAB script below.
w=0:10:6000; R=0.5; L=10^(3); C1=10^(4); C2=0.5*10^(4);...
Y1=1./sqrt(R.^2+(w.*L1./(w.*C1)).^2);...
Y2=1./sqrt(R.^2+(w.*L1./(w.*C2)).^2); plot(w,Y1,w,Y2)
+
IS IL IC
V G IG L C
Figure 2.8. Parallel GLC circuit for defining parallel resonance
or
2 2
Y = G + C – 1 L tan –1 C – 1 L G (2.12)
Therefore, the magnitude and phase angle of the admittance Y are:
2 2
Y = G + C – 1 L (2.13)
and – 1 C – 1 L
Y = tan  (2.14)
G
The frequency at which the inductive susceptance B L = 1 L and the capacitive susceptance
B C = C are equal is, again, called the resonant frequency and it is also denoted as 0 We can
find 0 in terms of L and C as before.
Since 1
0 C – 
0 L
then,
1
0 =  (2.15)
LC
Y
Magnitude of Admittance
C
G
1
– 
L
1
C – 
L
Radian Frequency
Figure 2.9. The components of Y in a parallel RLC circuit
Example 2.2
For the circuit of Figure 2.10, i S t = 10 cos 5000t mA . Compute i G t , i L t , and i C t .
+
iS t G iG t iL t iC t
v t L C
–1
0.01 10 mH 4 F
and since B L = B C , the given circuit operates at parallel resonance with 0 = 5000 rad s .
Then,
–1
Y 0 = G = 0.01
and
i G t = i S t = 10 cos 5000t mA
In phasor form,
v 0 t = cos 5000t V V 0 = 1 0
Now,
I L0 = – jB L V 0 = 1 – 90 0.02 1 0 = 0.02 – 90 A
or
i L0 t = 20 sin 5000t mA
Similarly,
I C0 = jB C V 0 = 1 90 0.02 1 0 = 0.02 90 A
and in the t domain,
I C0 = 0.02 90 A i C0 t = 0.02 cos 5000t + 90 A
or
i C0 t = – 20 sin 5000t mA
At parallel resonance the left sides of (2.18) and (2.19) are equal and therefore,
0 C 1
 = 

G 0 GL
Now, by definition
0C 1
Q 0P = 
 = 
G 0 GL (2.20)
Quality Factor at Parallel Resonance
The above expressions indicate that at parallel resonance, it is possible to develop high currents
through the capacitors and inductors. This was found to be true in Example 2.2.
Essentially, the resonant frequency is the frequency at which the inductor gives up energy just as
fast as the capacitor requires it during one quarter cycle, and absorbs energy just as fast as it is
released by the capacitor during the next quarter cycle. This can be seen from Figure 2.11 where
at the instant of maximum current the energy is all stored in the inductance, and at the instant of
zero current all the energy is stored in the capacitor.
wL wC
Energy (J)
vC iL
Radian Frequency
1 2 2 1 2
W T = W L + W C =  I p L cos t +  sin t (2.24)
2 C
2
and this expression is true for any series circuit, that is, the circuit need not be at resonance.
However, at resonance,
1
0 L = 
0C
or
1
L = 
20 C
By substitution into (2.24),
1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1
W T =  I p L cos 0 t + L sin 0 t =  I p L =  I p 
 (2.25)
2 2 2 2 C
0
and (2.25) shows that the total energy W T is dependent only on the circuit constants L , C and
resonant frequency, but it is independent of time.
Next, using the general definition of Q we obtain:
2
Maximum Energy Stored 1 2 I p L f0 L
Q 0S  = 2 
= 2  = 2  
Energy Dissipated per Cycle 2
1 2 I p R f 0 R
or
0L
Q 0S = 
 (2.26)
R
and we observe that (2.26) is the same as (2.9). Similarly,
2
Maximum Energy Stored 1 2 I p 1 20 C f0
Q 0S = 2  = 2  = 2 

Energy Dissipated per Cycle 2
1 2 I p R f 0 20 RC
or
0 1
Q 0S = 
 =  (2.27)
0 RC
2 0 RC
0.707V P
Bandwidth
1 0 2
Radian Frequency
Figure 2.12. Relative voltage vs.radian frequency in a parallel RLC circuit
By definition, the halfpower frequencies 1 and 2 in Figure 2.12 are the frequencies at which
the magnitude of the input admittance of a parallel resonant circuit, is greater than the magni
tude at resonance by a factor of 2 , or equivalently, the frequencies at which the magnitude of
the input impedance of a parallel resonant circuit, is less than the magnitude at resonance by a
factor of 2 as shown above. We observe also, that 1 and 2 are not exactly equidistant from
0 . However, it is convenient to assume that they are equidistant, and unless otherwise stated,
this assumption will be followed in the subsequent discussion.
We call 1 the lower halfpower point, and 2 the upper halfpower point. The difference 2 – 1
is the halfpower bandwidth BW , that is,
Bandwidth = BW = 2 – 1 (2.29)
The names halfpower frequencies and halfpower bandwidth arise from the fact that the power
2
at these frequencies drop to 0.5 since 2 2 = 0.5 .
The bandwidth BW can also be expressed in terms of the quality factor Q as follows:
Consider the admittance
1
Y = G + j C – 
L
0
Multiplying the j term by G  , we obtain
0 G
0 C 0
Y = G + jG 
 – 
G LG
0 0
Next, we want to find the bandwidth 2 – 1 in terms of the quality factor Q 0P . At the half
power points, the magnitude of the admittance is 2 2 Y p and, if we use the halfpower
points as reference, then to obtain the admittance value of
Y max = 2G
we must set
Q 0P 2 – 0 = 1
0 2
for = 2 .
Recalling that 1 j1 = 2 and solving the above expressions for 1 and 2 , we obtain
1 2 1
2 = 1 +  +  (2.31)
2Q 0P 2Q 0P
and
1 2 1
1 = 1 +  –  (2.32)
2Q 0P 2Q 0P
0
BW = 2 – 1 = 
 (2.33)
Q 0P
or
f0
BW = f 2 – f 1 = 
 (2.34)
Q 0P
As mentioned earlier, 1 and 2 are not equidistant from 0 In fact, the resonant frequency
0 = 1 2 (2.35)
This can be shown by multiplication of the two expressions in (2.31) and (2.32) and substitution
into (2.33).
Example 2.3
For the network of Figure 2.13, find:
a. 0
b. Q 0P
c. BW
d. 1
e. 2
Y G L C
–1 0.4F
0.001 1 mH
or
0 = 50000 r s f 0 8000 Hz
b. 4 –6
0C 5 10 0.4 10
Q 0P = 
 =  = 20
G 10
–3
c.
0 50000
 =  = 2500 = rad s
BW = 
Q 0P 20
d.
BW
1 = 0 –  = 50000 – 1250 = 48750 rad s
2
* The geometric mean of n positive numbers a 1 , a2 ,..., an is the nth root of the product. a1 a2 a n
e.
BW
2 = 0 +  = 50000 + 1250 = 51250 rad s
2
The SimPowerSystems model for the circuit in Figure 2.13 is shown in Figure 2.14.
To observe the impedance of the parallel RLC circuit in Figure 2.14 we doubleclick the power
gui block to open the Simulation and configuration options window shown in Figure 2.15, we
click the Impedance vs Frequency option, and the magnitude an phase of the impedance as a
function of frequency are shown in Figure 2.16.
3 5
In Figure 2.16, the frequency is in logarithmic scale for the frequency range 10 Hz to 10 Hz as
shown on the right pane. The resonant frequency is about 8 KHz and at that frequency the mag
nitude of the impedance is 1 K (purely resistive) and the phase is 0 degrees.
Figure 2.16. Plots for the magnitude and phase for the model in Figure 2.14
L
Y G C
R
+
IT
IL IC
L
V C
R
Figure 2.18. Simplified network for derivation of the resonant frequency
For the network of Figure 2.18,
V R –j L
I L =  = 
2 2
V
R + jL R + L
and
V
I C =  = j C V
1 jC
where
R
Re I L = 
2 2
V
R + L
and
– L
Im I L = 
2 2
V
R + L
Also,
Re I C = 0
and
Im I C = C V
Then,
I T = I L + I C = Re I L + Im I L V + Re I C + Im I C V
= Re I L + Re I C + Im I L + Im I C V (2.36)
= Re I T + Im I T V
0L
Im I T = Im I L + Im I C = 0 C – 
 V = 0
2 2
R + 0 L
1
We observe that for R = 0 , (2.37) reduces to 0 = 
 as before.
LC
The antenna picks up signals from several stations and these are fed into the Radio Frequency
( RF ) Amplifier which improves the SignaltoNoise ( S N ) ratio. The RF amplifier also serves as
a preselector. This preselection suppresses the imagefrequency interference as explained below.
When we tune to a station of, say 740 KHz , we are setting the RF circuit to 740 KHz and at
the same time the local oscillator is set at 740 KHz + 456 KHz = 1196 KHz . This is accom
plished by the capacitor in the RF amplifier which is also ganged to the local oscillator. These
two signals, one of 740 KHz and the other of 1196 KHz , are fed into the mixer whose output
into the Intermediate Frequency ( IF ) amplifier is 456 KHz ; this is the difference between these
two frequencies ( 1196 KHz – 740 KHz = 456 KHz ).
The IF amplifier is always set at 456 KHz and therefore if the antenna picks another signal from
another station, say 850 KHz , it would be mixed with the local oscillator to produce a frequency
of 1196 KHz – 850 KHz = 346 KHz but since the IF amplifier is set at 456 KHz , the unwanted
850 KHz signal will not be amplified. Of course, in order to hear the signal at 850 KHz the radio
receiver must be retuned to that frequency and the local oscillator frequency will be changed to
850 KHz + 456 KHz = 1306 KHz so that the difference of these frequencies will be again
456 KHz .
Now let us assume that we select a station at 600 KHz . Then, the local oscillator will be set to
600 KHz + 456 KHz = 1056 KHz so that the IF signal will again be 456 KHz . Now, let us sup
pose that a powerful nearby station broadcasts at 1512 KHz and this signal is picked up by the
mixer circuit. The difference between this signal and the local oscillator will also be 456 KHz
1512 KHz – 1056 KHz = 456 KHz . The IF amplifier will then amplify both signals and the result
will be a strong interference so that the radio speaker will produce unintelligent sounds. This
interference is called imagefrequency interference and it is reduced by the RF amplifier before
entering the mixer circuit and for this reason the RF amplifier is said to act as a preselector.
The function of the detector circuit is to convert the IF signal which contains both the carrier
and the desired signal to an audio signal and this signal is amplified by the Audio Frequency
( AF ) Amplifier whose output appears at the radio speaker.
Example 2.4
A radio receiver with a parallel GLC circuit whose inductance is L = 0.5 mH is tuned to a radio
station transmitting at 810 KHz frequency.
a. What is the value of the capacitor of this circuit at this resonant frequency?
b. What is the value of conductance G if Q 0P = 75 ?
c. If a nearby radio station transmits at 740 KHz and both signals picked up by the antenna have
the same current amplitude I ( A ), what is the ratio of the voltage at 810 KHz to the volt
age at 740 KHz ?
Solution:
a.
2
0 = 
1
LC
or
2 1
f 0 = 
2
4 LC
Then,
1
C =  = 77.2 pF
2 –3 3 2
4 0.5 10 810 10
b.
0 C
Q 0P = 

G
or
2 f0 C 5 – 12
G =  2 8.1 10 77.2 10
 =  = 5.4
–1
Q 0P 75
c.
I I I I
V 810 KHz =  =  =  =  (2.39)
Y 810 KHz Y0 G 5.24 10
–6
Also,
I
V 740 KHz = 
Y 740 KHz
where
1 2
G + C – 
2
Y 740 KHz =
L
or
–6 2 1 2
5.24 10 + 2 740 10 77.2 10 – 
3 – 12
Y 740 KHz =
3 – 3
2 740 10 0.5 10
or –1
Y 740 KHz = 71.2
and
I
V 740 KHz = 
–6
(2.40)
71.2 10
Then from (2.39) and (2.40),
V 810 KHz –6 –6
I 5.24 10 71.2 10
 =  =  = 13.6
 (2.41)
V 740 KHz I 71.2 10
–6
5.24 10
–6
that is, the voltage developed across the parallel circuit when it is tuned at f = 810 KHz is
13.6 times larger than the voltage developed at f = 740 KHz .
2.10 Summary
In a series RLC circuit, the frequency at which the capacitive reactance X C = 1 C and the
inductive reactance X L = L are equal, is called the resonant frequency.
1
0 = 
LC
and
1
f 0 = 
2 LC
0 L 1
Q 0S = 
 = 
R 0 RC
In a parallel GLC circuit, the frequency at which the inductive susceptance B L = 1 L and
the capacitive susceptance B C = C are equal is, again, called the resonant frequency and it
is also denoted as 0 As in a series RLC circuit, the resonant frequency is
1
0 = 
LC
In a parallel RLC circuit, the halfpower frequencies 1 and 2 are the frequencies at which
the magnitude of the input admittance of a parallel resonant circuit, is greater than the magni
tude at resonance by a factor of 2 , or equivalently, the frequencies at which the magnitude
of the input impedance of a parallel resonant circuit, is less than the magnitude at resonance
by a factor of 2 .
We call 1 the lower halfpower point, and 2 the upper halfpower point. The difference
2 – 1 is the halfpower bandwidth BW , that is,
Bandwidth = BW = 2 – 1
2.11 Exercises
1. A series RLC circuit is resonant at f 0 = 1 MHz with Z 0 = 100 and its halfpower band
width is BW = 20 KHz . Find R , L , and C for this circuit.
2. For the network below the impedance Z 1 is variable, Z 2 = 3 + j4 and Z 3 = 4 – j3 . To what
value should Z 1 be adjusted so that the network will operate at resonant frequency?
Z1
Z IN Z2 Z3
3. For the circuit below with the capacitance C adjusted to 1 F , the halfpower frequencies are
f 1 = 925 KHz and f 2 = 1075 KHz .
G L
C
4. The GLC circuit below is resonant at f 0 = 500 KHz with V 0 = 20 V and its halfpower
bandwidth is BW = 20 KHz .
a. Compute L , C , and I 0 for this circuit.
G L C
V
b. BW
c. 1 and 2
d. V C0
R1 L
1 1 mH
C 10 R2
vs 1 F
6. The seriesparallel circuit below will behave as a filter if the parallel part is made resonant to
the frequency we want to suppress, and the series part is made resonant to the frequency we
wish to pass. Accordingly, we can adjust capacitor C 2 to achieve parallel resonance which will
reject the unwanted frequency by limiting the current through the resistive load to its mini
mum value. Afterwards, we can adjust C 1 to make the entire circuit series resonant at the
desired frequency thus making the total impedance minimum so that maximum current will
flow into the load.
For this circuit, we want to set the values of capacitors so that v LOAD will be maximum at
f 1 = 10 KHz and minimum at f 2 = 43 KHz . Compute the values of C 1 and C 2 that will
achieve these values. It is suggested that you use MATLAB to plot v LOAD versus frequency
f in the interval 1 KHz f 100 KH to verify your answers.
C2
R1 L
C1 +
RL
+ 100 2 mH
v LOAD
v = 170 cos t 1
S
0 0 2 10
6
Q 0S = 
 = 
 =  = 50
2 – 1 BW 2 20 10
3
Then,
R Q 0S 100 50
L = 
 =  = 0.796 mH
0 2 10
6
2
and from 0 = 1 LC
1 1
C =  =  = 31.8 pF
2 6 2 –4
0 L 2 10 7.96 10
Z1
Z IN Z2 Z3
Z IN = Z 1 + Z 2 Z 3
where
Z 2 Z 3 = 
3 + j4 4 – j3  = 12 – j9 + j16 + 12 7 –j
 
3 + j4 + 4 – j3 7 + j 7 –j
168 + j49 – j24 + 7 175 + j25
=  =  = 3.5 + j0.5
2
7 +1
2 50
and while R 1 can be any real number, we must have jX 1 = – j0.5 and thus
Z 1 = R 1 – j0.5
3.
a.
BW = f 2 – f 1 = 1075 – 925 = 150 KHz
Then,
f 0 = f 1 + BW 2 = 925 + 150 2 = 1000 KHz
3
f0 = f1 f2 = 925 + 1075 10 = 997.18 KHz
c.
f0 0 C
Q 0P =  = 1000
 = 20 3 . Also, Q 0P = 
f2 – f1 150 G
Then
0 C 2f 0 C 2 10 10
6 –6
3 –1
G =   =  =  = 0.94
= 
Q 0P Q 0P 20 3 10
and
1 1 1
L =  =  =  = 0.025 H
0 C 2 2
4 f 0 C
2
4 10 10
12 –6
4.
a.
f0
 = 500
Q 0P =   = 25
BW 20
0 C
Also, Q 0P =  or
G
Q 0P G 25 10
–3
–9
 =  = 7.96 10 F = 7.96 nF
C = 
0 2 5 10
5
L =  1
1 =  1
= 
–6
 = 12.73 10 H = 12.73 H
0 C 2
4 f 0 C
2 2
4 25 10 7.96 10
10 – 9
–3
I 0 = V 0 Y 0 = V 0 G = 20 10 A = 20 mA
Y 1 
= G + j 1 C – 
f = f1 L 1
= 10
–3
+ j 2 490 10 7.96 10
3 –9 1 
– 
3 –6
2 490 10 12.73 10
Likewise,
1
Y = G + j 1 C – 
f = f2 L 1
1
+ j 2 510 10 7.96 10 – 
–3 3 –9
= 10
3 –6
2 510 10 12.73 10
5.
R1 L 1 mH
1 jL
C
Z IN 10 R2
1 1 F

jC
a. It is important to remember that the relation 0 = 1 LC applies only to series RLC and
parallel GLC circuits. For any other circuit we must find the input impedance Z IN , set the
imaginary part of Z IN equal to zero, and solve for 0 . Thus, for the given circuit
1
Z IN = R 1 +  R 2 + jL = 1 + 1 jC 10 + jL 

jC 10 + j L – 1 C
10 + j L – 1 C + 10 jC + L C 10 – j L – 1 C
=  
10 + j L – 1 C 10 – j L – 1 C
100 + j10 L – 1 C + 100 jC + 10L C – j10 L – 1 C
= 
2
100 + L – 1 C
2
L – 1 C – 10 C L – 1 C – jL C L – 1 C 
+ 
2
100 + L – 1 C
2
100 + 10L C + L – 1 C – 10 C L – 1 C
= 
2
100 + L – 1 C
100 jC – jL C L – 1 C
+ 
2
100 + L – 1 C
100 – jL
 1 = 0
 L – 
j 0 C C 0 0 C
j
–  100 1
 + L 0 L –  = 0
C 0 0 C
100 2 L
 + 0 L –  = 0
0 0 C
2 2
L C 0 + 100C – L = 0
2 1 100 1 100 9 8 8
0 =  –  =  –  = 10 – 10 = 9 10
LC L 2 –3
10 10
–6
10
–6
and thus
8
0 = 9 10 = 30 000 r s
b.
BW = 0 Q = 30 000 50 = 600 r s
c.
1 = 0 – BW 2 = 30 000 – 300 = 29 700 r s
d. At resonance
4 –3 –4 6
j 0 L = j3 10 10 = j30 and 1 j 0 C = – j10 10 3 = – j100 3
1 j30
VS
10
– j100 3
170 0 V
V C0 – V S V C0 V C0
 +  +  = 0
z1 z2 z3
1 1 1
 V
 +  +  V C0 = S
z z2 z3 z1
1
3 4 4 4 2 –6
10 10 4 2 10 + 2 4.3 10 4 10
 =  + 2 4.3 10 = 
2C 2 4 10
–6
4 10
–6
–6
4 10
 = 6.62 10 –9 F = 6.62 nF
C 2 = 500 
4 4 2 –6
10 + 2 4.3 10 4 10
Next, we must find the value of C 1 that will make the entire circuit series resonant (minimum
impedance, maximum current) at f = 10 KHz . In the circuit below we let z 1 = – jX C1 ,
z 2 = – jX C2 , z 3 = R 1 + jX L , and z LD = 1 .
C1
C2 – jX C2
R1 jX L
– jX C1 +
RLD
+ 100 L 2 mH
Z IN v LD
V S = 170 0 V 1
Then,
Z IN = z 1 + z 2 z 3 + z LOAD
and
Z IN f = 10 KHz = z 1 + z 2 z 3 + z LOAD = z 1 + z 2 z 3 + (1)
f = 10 KHz f = 10 KHz
The expression of (2) will be minimum if we let z 1 = – j127.72 at f = 10 KHz . Then, the
capacitor C 1 value must be such that 1 C = 127.72 or
1 –7
C 1 =  = 1.25 10 F = 0.125 F
4
2 10 127.72
Shown below is the plot of V LD versus frequency and the MATLAB script that produces this
plot.
f=1000: 100: 60000; w=2*pi*f; Vs=170; C1=1.25*10^(7); C2=6.62*10^(9); L=2.*10.^(3);...
R1=100; Rld=1; z1=j./(w.*C1); z2=j./(w.*C2); z3=R1+j.*w.*L; Zld=Rld;...
Zin=z1+z2.*z3./(z2+z3); Vld=Zld.*Vs./(Zin+Zld); magVld=abs(Vld);...
plot(f,magVld); axis([1000 60000 0 2]);...
xlabel('Frequency f'); ylabel('Vld'); grid
This circuit is considered to be a special type of filter that allows a specific frequency (not a
band of frequencies) to pass, and attenuates another specific frequency.
T
his chapter begins with a discussion of elementary signals that may be applied to electric
networks. The unit step, unit ramp, and delta functions are then introduced. The sampling
and sifting properties of the delta function are defined and derived. Several examples for
expressing a variety of waveforms in terms of these elementary signals are provided.
+
+ v out open terminals
vS
We wish to describe v out in a math form for the time interval – t + . To do this, it is conve
nient to divide the time interval into two parts, – t 0 , and 0 t .
For the time interval – t 0 the switch is open and therefore, the output voltage v out is zero.
In other words,
v out = 0 for – t 0 (3.1)
For the time interval 0 t the switch is closed. Then, the input voltage v S appears at the
output, i.e.,
v out = v S for 0 t (3.2)
0 – t 0
v out = (3.3)
vS 0 t
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 31
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
v out
vS
0
t
Figure 3.2. Waveform for v out as defined in relation (3.3)
A well known discontinuous function is the unit step function u 0 t * which is defined as
0 t0
u0 t = (3.4)
1 t0
In the waveform in Figure 3.3, the unit step function u 0 t changes abruptly from 0 to 1 at
t = 0 . But if it changes at t = t 0 instead, it is denoted as u 0 t – t 0 . In this case, its waveform and
definition are as shown in Figure 3.4 and relation (3.5) respectively.
1
u0 t – t0
t
0 t0
Figure 3.4. Waveform for u 0 t – t 0
0 t t0
u0 t – t0 = (3.5)
1 t t0
* In some books, the unit step function is denoted as u t , that is, without the subscript 0. In this text, however, we
will reserve the u t designation for any input when we will discuss state variables in Chapter 7.
32 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
The Unit Step Function
1 u0 t + t0
t0 0 t
Figure 3.5. Waveform for u 0 t + t 0
0 t –t0
u0 t + t0 = (3.6)
1 t –t0
Example 3.1
Consider the network of Figure 3.6, where the switch is closed at time t = T .
R t = T
+
+ v out open terminals
vS
Express the output voltage v out as a function of the unit step function, and sketch the appropriate
waveform.
Solution:
For this example, the output voltage v out = 0 for t T , and v out = v S for t T . Therefore,
v out = v S u 0 t – T (3.7)
t
0 T
Figure 3.7. Waveform for Example 3.1
Other forms of the unit step function are shown in Figure 3.8.
Unit step functions can be used to represent other timevarying functions such as the rectangular
pulse shown in Figure 3.9.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 33
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
t t t
0 0 0
(a) (b) (c)
A A A
–A u0 t –A u0 t – T –A u0 t + T
Au 0 – t Au 0 – t + T Au 0 – t – T
A A A
t t 0
t
0 0 (e) (f)
(d)
t t 0 t
0 (g) 0 (h) (i)
A A A
–A u0 –t –A u0 – t + T –A u0 – t – T
u0 t
1
1
t t t
0 1 0 0
c
a b
–u0 t – 1
Figure 3.9. A rectangular pulse expressed as the sum of two unit step functions
Thus, the pulse of Figure 3.9(a) is the sum of the unit step functions of Figures 3.9(b) and 3.9(c)
and it is represented as u 0 t – u 0 t – 1 .
The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a volt
age or current source. For example, a constant voltage source of 24 V applied at t = 0 , can be
denoted as 24u 0 t V . Likewise, a sinusoidal voltage source v t = V m cos t V that is applied to
a circuit at t = t 0 , can be described as v t = V m cos t u 0 t – t 0 V . Also, if the excitation in a
circuit is a rectangular, or triangular, or sawtooth, or any other recurring pulse, it can be repre
sented as a sum (difference) of unit step functions.
Example 3.2
Express the square waveform of Figure 3.10 as a sum of unit step functions. The vertical dotted
lines indicate the discontinuities at T 2T 3T , and so on.
34 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
The Unit Step Function
vt
A
T 2T 3T
t
0
–A
Figure 3.10. Square waveform for Example 3.2
Solution:
Line segment has height A , starts at t = 0 , and terminates at t = T . Then, as in Example 3.1, this
segment is expressed as
v1 t = A u0 t – u0 t – T (3.8)
Line segment has height A , starts at t = 2T and terminates at t = 3T . This segment is expressed
as
v 3 t = A u 0 t – 2T – u 0 t – 3T (3.10)
Thus, the square waveform of Figure 3.10 can be expressed as the summation of (3.8) through
(3.11), that is,
v t = v1 t + v2 t + v3 t + v4 t
= A u 0 t – u 0 t – T – A u 0 t – T – u 0 t – 2T (3.12)
+A u 0 t – 2T – u 0 t – 3T – A u 0 t – 3T – u 0 t – 4T
Example 3.3
Express the symmetric rectangular pulse of Figure 3.11 as a sum of unit step functions.
Solution:
This pulse has height A , starts at t = – T 2 , and terminates at t = T 2 . Therefore, with refer
ence to Figures 3.5 and 3.8 (b), we obtain
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 35
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
it
A
t
–T 2 0 T2
Figure 3.11. Symmetric rectangular pulse for Example 3.3
i t = Au 0 t + T
 – Au 0 t – T
 = A u 0 t + T
 – u 0 t – T
 (3.14)
2 2 2 2
Example 3.4
Express the symmetric triangular waveform of Figure 3.12 as a sum of unit step functions.
vt
1
t
–T 2 0 T2
Figure 3.12. Symmetric triangular waveform for Example 3.4
Solution:
We first derive the equations for the linear segments and shown in Figure 3.13.
2 v t 2
 t + 1 1 –  t + 1
T T
t
–T 2 0 T2
Figure 3.13. Equations for the linear segments in Figure 3.12
v 2 t = – 2 t + 1 u 0 t – u 0 t – T
 (3.16)
T 2
2
v t = v 1 t + v 2 t =  t + 1 u 0 t + T
 – u 0 t + – 2 t + 1 u 0 t – u 0 t – T
 (3.17)
T 2 T 2
36 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
The Unit Step Function
Example 3.5
Express the waveform of Figure 3.14 as a sum of unit step functions.
v t
3
t
0 1 2 3
Figure 3.14. Waveform for Example 3.5
Solution:
As in the previous example, we first find the equations of the linear segments linear segments
and shown in Figure 3.15.
vt
3
2
2t + 1
1 –t+3
t
0 1 2 3
Figure 3.15. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 3.14
Following the same procedure as in the previous examples, we obtain
v t = 2t + 1 u 0 t – u 0 t – 1 + 3 u 0 t – 1 – u 0 t – 2
+ – t + 3 u0 t – 2 – u0 t – 3
v t = 2t + 1 u 0 t + – 2t + 1 + 3 u 0 t – 1
+ – 3 + – t + 3 u 0 t – 2 – – t + 3 u 0 t – 3
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 37
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Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
Two other functions of interest are the unit ramp function, and the unit impulse or delta function.
We will introduce them with the examples that follow.
Example 3.6
In the network of Figure 3.16 i S is a constant current source and the switch is closed at time
t = 0 . Express the capacitor voltage v C t as a function of the unit step.
R t = 0
+
vC t
iS C
iS 0
1 t 
– u0 d iS t
v C t = 
C – i S u 0 d = C + 
C 0 u 0 d (3.21)
0
or
iS
v C t =  tu 0 t (3.22)
C
Therefore, we see that when a capacitor is charged with a constant current, the voltage across it is
a linear function and forms a ramp with slope i S C as shown in Figure 3.17.
* Since the initial condition for the capacitor voltage was not specified, we express this integral with – at the lower limit of
integration so that any nonzero value prior to t 0 would be included in the integration.
38 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
The Unit Ramp Function
vC t
slope = i S C
t
0
Figure 3.17. Voltage across a capacitor when charged with a constant current source
t
u1 t = – u0 d (3.23)
Area = 1 = = t
1
t
Figure 3.18. Area under the unit step function from – to t
Therefore, we define u 1 t as
0 t0
u1 t = (3.24)
t t0
d
 u 1 t = u 0 t (3.25)
dt
Higher order functions of t can be generated by repeated integration of the unit step function. For
example, integrating u 0 t twice and multiplying by 2 , we define u 2 t as
0 t0 t
u2 t = 2
t t0
or u2 t = 2 – u1 d (3.26)
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 39
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Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
Similarly,
0 t0 t
u3 t = 3
t t0
or u3 t = 3 – u2 d (3.27)
and in general,
0 t0 t
un t = n
t t0
or un t = n – un – 1 d (3.28)
Also,
1d
u n – 1 t =   u n t (3.29)
n dt
Example 3.7
In the network of Figure 3.19, the switch is closed at time t = 0 and i L t = 0 for t 0 . Express
the inductor voltage v L t in terms of the unit step function.
R t = 0
+
iL t vL t
iS L
d
v L t = Li S  u 0 t (3.32)
dt
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The Delta Function
– d = u0 t (3.33)
and
t = 0 for all t 0 (3.34)
To better understand the delta function t , let us represent the unit step u 0 t as shown in Fig
ure 3.20 (a).
Figure (a)
0
t
1
Area =1 2 Figure (b)
0
t
The function of Figure 3.20 (a) becomes the unit step as 0 . Figure 3.20 (b) is the derivative of
Figure 3.20 (a), where we see that as 0 , 1 2 becomes unbounded, but the area of the rect
angle remains 1 . Therefore, in the limit, we can think of t as approaching a very large spike or
impulse at the origin, with unbounded amplitude, zero width, and area equal to 1 .
Two useful properties of the delta function are the sampling property and the sifting property.
f t t – a = f a t (3.35)
or, when a = 0 ,
f t t = f 0 t (3.36)
that is, multiplication of any function f t by the delta function t results in sampling the func
tion at the time instants where the delta function is not zero. The study of discretetime systems is
based on this property.
Proof:
Since t = 0 for t 0 and t 0 then,
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 311
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Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
– f d = – f 0 d + – f – f 0 d (3.39)
The first integral on the right side of (3.39) contains the constant term f 0 ; this can be written
outside the integral, that is,
t t
The second integral of the right side of (3.39) is always zero because
t = 0 for t 0 and t 0
and
f – f0 =0
= f0 – f0 = 0
Therefore, (3.39) reduces to
t t
f t t = f 0 t
(3.42)
Sampling Property of t
that is, if we multiply any function f t by t – and integrate from – to + , we will obtain
the value of f t evaluated at t = .
Proof:
Let us consider the integral
b
a f t t – dt where a b (3.44)
312 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Higher Order Delta Functions
We will use integration by parts to evaluate this integral. We recall from the derivative of prod
ucts that
d xy = xdy + ydx or xdy = d xy – ydx (3.45)
and integrating both sides we obtain
x dy = xy – y dx (3.46)
a a u0 t – f t dt
b
f t t – dt = f t u 0 t – – (3.47)
a
We have assumed that a b ; therefore, u 0 t – = 0 for a , and thus the first term of the
right side of (3.47) reduces to f b . Also, the integral on the right side is zero for a , and there
fore, we can replace the lower limit of integration a by . We can now rewrite (3.47) as
b b
a f t t – dt = f b – f t d t = f b – f b + f
– f t t – dt = f (3.48)
Sifting Property of t
Also, the derivation of the sifting property of the delta function can be extended to show that
n
nd
n
f t t – dt = – 1 n f t (3.51)
– dt t=
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 313
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Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
Example 3.8
Evaluate the following expressions:
– t t – 2 dt
4 2
a. 3t t – 1 b. c. t ' t – 3
Solution:
4
a. The sampling property states that f t t – a = f a t For this example, f t = 3t and
a = 1 . Then,
4 4
3t t – 1 = 3t t=1
t – 1 = 3 t
b. The sifting property states that – f t t – dt = f . For this example, f t = t and
= 2 . Then,
– t t – 2 dt = f 2 = t t = 2 = 2
c. The given expression contains the doublet; therefore, we use the relation
f t ' t – a = f a ' t – a – f ' a t – a
Then, for this example,
2 2 d 2
t ' t – 3 = t t=3
' t – 3 –  t t=3
t – 3 = 9' t – 3 – 6 t – 3
dt
Example 3.9
a. Express the voltage waveform v t shown in Figure 3.21 as a sum of unit step functions for the
time interval – 1 t 7 s .
b. Using the result of part (a), compute the derivative of v t and sketch its waveform.
Solution:
a. We begin with the derivation of the equations for the linear segments of the given waveform
as shown in Figure 3.22.
Next, we express v t in terms of the unit step function u 0 t , and we obtain
v t = 2t u 0 t + 1 – u 0 t – 1 + 2 u 0 t – 1 – u 0 t – 2
+ – t + 5 u0 t – 2 – u0 t – 4 + u0 t – 4 – u0 t – 5 (3.52)
+ – t + 6 u0 t – 5 – u0 t – 7
314 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Higher Order Delta Functions
vt V
1
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0
t s
1
2
Figure 3.21. Waveform for Example 3.9
–t+5
3
2 –t+6
1
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0
t s
1
2t
2
Figure 3.22. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 3.21
Multiplying and collecting like terms in (3.52), we obtain
v t = 2tu 0 t + 1 – 2tu 0 t – 1 – 2u 0 t – 1 – 2u 0 t – 2 – tu 0 t – 2
+ 5u 0 t – 2 + tu 0 t – 4 – 5u 0 t – 4 + u 0 t – 4 – u 0 t – 5
– tu 0 t – 5 + 6u 0 t – 5 + tu 0 t – 7 – 6u 0 t – 7
or
v t = 2tu 0 t + 1 + – 2t + 2 u 0 t – 1 + – t + 3 u 0 t – 2
+ t – 4 u 0 t – 4 + – t + 5 u 0 t – 5 + t – 6 u 0 t – 7
b. The derivative of v t is
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 315
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Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
dv
 = 2u 0 t + 1 + 2t t + 1 – 2u 0 t – 1 + – 2t + 2 t – 1
dt
– u 0 t – 2 + – t + 3 t – 2 + u 0 t – 4 + t – 4 t – 4 (3.53)
– u 0 t – 5 + – t + 5 t – 5 + u 0 t – 7 + t – 6 t – 7
From the given waveform, we observe that discontinuities occur only at t = – 1 , t = 2 , and
t = 7 . Therefore, t – 1 = 0 , t – 4 = 0 , and t – 5 = 0 , and the terms that contain
these delta functions vanish. Also, by application of the sampling property,
2t t + 1 = 2t t = –1
t + 1 = – 2 t + 1
– t + 3 t – 2 = – t + 3 t=2
t – 2 = t – 2
t – 6 t – 7 = t – 6 t=7
t – 7 = t – 7
t – 2 t – 7
1
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
t s
1
– 2 t + 1
Figure 3.23. Plot of the derivative of the waveform of Figure 3.21
We observe that a negative spike of magnitude 2 occurs at t = – 1 , and two positive spikes of
magnitude 1 occur at t = 2 , and t = 7 . These spikes occur because of the discontinuities at
these points.
316 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Higher Order Delta Functions
It would be interesting to observe the given signal and its derivative on the Scope block of the
Simulink* model of Figure 3.24. They are shown in Figure 3.25.
Figure 3.25. Piecewise linear waveform for the Signal Builder block in Figure 3.24
The waveform in Figure 3.25 is created with the following procedure:
1. We open a new model by clicking the new model icon shown as a blank page on the left corner
of the top menu bar. Initially, the name Untitled appears on the top of this new model. We
save it with the name Figure_3.25 and Simulink appends the .mdl extension to it.
2. From the Sources library, we drag the Signal Builder block into this new model. We also drag
the Derivative block from the Continuous library, the Bus Creator block from the Com
monly Used Blocks library, and the Scope block into this model, and we interconnect these
blocks as shown in Figure 3.24.
* A brief introduction to Simulink is presented in Appendix B. For a detailed procedure for generating piecewise
linear functions with Simulink’s Signal Builder block, please refer to Introduction to Simulink with Engineering
Applications, ISBN 9781934404096
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 317
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
3. We doubleclick the Signal Builder block in Figure 3.24, and on the plot which appears as a
square pulse, we click the yaxis and we enter Minimum: 2.5, and Maximum: 3.5. Likewise
we rightclick anywhere on the plot and we specify the Change Time Range at Min time: 2,
and Max time: 8.
4. To select a particular point, we position the mouse cursor over that point and we leftclick. A
circle is drawn around that point to indicate that it is selected.
5. To select a line segment, we leftclick on that segment. That line segment is now shown as a
thick line indicating that it is selected. To deselect it, we press the Esc key.
6. To drag a line segment to a new position, we place the mouse cursor over that line segment and
the cursor shape shows the position in which we can drag the segment.
7. To drag a point along the yaxis, we move the mouse cursor over that point, and the cursor
changes to a circle indicating that we can drag that point. Then, we can move that point in a
direction parallel to the xaxis.
8. To drag a point along the xaxis, we select that point, and we hold down the Shift key while
dragging that point.
9. When we select a line segment on the time axis (xaxis) we observe that at the lower end of
the waveform display window the Left Point and Right Point fields become visible. We can
then reshape the given waveform by specifying the Time (T) and Amplitude (Y) points.
The two positive spikes that occur at t = 2 , and t = 7 , are clearly shown in Figure 3.26.
MATLAB* has builtin functions for the unit step, and the delta functions. These are denoted by
the names of the mathematicians who used them in their work. The unit step function u 0 t is
referred to as Heaviside(t), and the delta function t is referred to as Dirac(t).
318 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Summary
3.6 Summary
The unit step function u 0 t is defined as
0 t0
u0 t =
1 t0
The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a
voltage or current source.
The unit ramp function, denoted as u 1 t , is defined as
t
u1 t = – u0 d
The unit impulse or delta function, denoted as t , is the derivative of the unit step u 0 t . It is
also defined as
t
– d = u0 t
and
t = 0 for all t 0
The sampling property of the delta function states that
f t t – a = f a t
or, when a = 0 ,
f t t = f 0 t
The sifting property of the delta function states that
– f t t – dt = f
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 319
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Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
3.7 Exercises
1. Evaluate the following functions:
a. sin t t –
 b. cos 2t t –
 c. cos t t –

2
6 4 2
d. tan 2t t – f. sin t 1 t –
2 –t
 
2
8
e. – t e t – 2 dt
2
2.
a. Express the voltage waveform v t shown below as a sum of unit step functions for the time
interval 0 t 7 s .
20
– 2t
e
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ts
10
20
b. Using the result of part (a), compute the derivative of v t , and sketch its waveform. This
waveform cannot be used with Sinulink’s Function Builder block because it contains the
decaying exponential segment which is a nonlinear function.
320 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
a. sin t t –
 = sin t t = sin  t = 0.5 t
6 t = 6 6
b. cos 2t t –
 = cos 2t
t = 4
t = cos  t = 0
4 2
c. cos t t –
1 1 1
 =  1 + cos 2t
2
t =  1 + cos t =  1 – 1 t = 0
2 2 t = 2
2 2
d. tan 2t t –
 = tan 2t
t = 8
t = tan  t = t
8 4
We recall that the sampling property states that – f t t – dt = f . Thus,
2 –t 2 –t –2
e. – t e t – 2 dt = t e t=2
= 4e = 0.54
f. We recall that the sampling property for the doublet states that
f t ' t – a = f a ' t – a – f ' a t – a
Thus,
d
sin t ' t –  = sin t ' t –  –  sin t t – 
2 2 2
2 t = 2 2 dt t = 2 2
1
=  1 – cos 2t ' t –  – sin 2t t – 
2 t = 2 2 t =2 2
=  1 + 1 ' t –
1
 – sin t –  = ' t – 
2 2 2 2
2.
– 2t
v t = e u 0 t – u 0 t – 2 + 10t – 30 u 0 t – 2 – u 0 t – 3
a.
+ – 10 t + 50 u 0 t – 3 – u 0 t – 5 + 10t – 70 u 0 t – 5 – u 0 t – 7
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling 321
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Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
– 2t – 2t
v t = e u0 t – e u 0 t – 2 + 10tu 0 t – 2 – 30u 0 t – 2 – 10tu 0 t – 3 + 30u 0 t – 3
– 10tu 0 t – 3 + 50u 0 t – 3 + 10tu 0 t – 5 – 50u 0 t – 5 + 10tu 0 t – 5
– 70u 0 t – 5 – 10tu 0 t – 7 + 70u 0 t – 7
– 2t – 2t
vt = e u0 t + –e + 10t – 30 u 0 t – 2 + – 20t + 80 u 0 t – 3 + 20t – 120 u 0 t – 5
+ – 10t + 70 u 0 t – 7
b.
dv – 2t – 2t – 2t – 2t
 = – 2e u 0 t + e t + 2e + 10 u 0 t – 2 + – e + 10t – 30 t – 2
dt
– 20u 0 t – 3 + – 20t + 80 t – 3 + 20u 0 t – 5 + 20t – 120 t – 5 (1)
– 10u 0 t – 7 + – 10t + 70 t – 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t s
– 10
– 10 t – 2
– 20
– 2t – 20 t – 5
– 2e
322 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink/ SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Chapter 4
The Laplace Transformation
T
his chapter begins with an introduction to the Laplace transformation, definitions, and
properties of the Laplace transformation. The initial value and final value theorems are also
discussed and proved. It continues with the derivation of the Laplace transform of common
functions of time, and concludes with the derivation of the Laplace transforms of common wave
forms.
+ j
–1 1
– j
st
L F s = f t =  F s e ds (4.2)
2j
–1
where L f t denotes the Laplace transform of the time function f t , L F s denotes the
Inverse Laplace transform, and s is a complex variable whose real part is , and imaginary part
, that is, s = + j .
In most problems, we are concerned with values of time t greater than some reference time, say
t = t 0 = 0 , and since the initial conditions are generally known, the twosided Laplace trans
form pair of (4.1) and (4.2) simplifies to the unilateral or onesided Laplace transform defined as
– st – st
L ft= Fs = t 0
fte dt = 0 f t e dt (4.3)
–1 1 + j
st
L F s = f t =  F s e ds (4.4)
2j – j
The Laplace Transform of (4.3) has meaning only if the integral converges (reaches a limit), that
is, if
– st
0 f t e dt (4.5)
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 41
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
To determine the conditions that will ensure us that the integral of (4.3) converges, we rewrite
(4.5) as
– t – jt
0 f t e e dt (4.6)
– jt – jt
The term e in the integral of (4.6) has magnitude of unity, i.e., e = 1 , and thus the con
dition for convergence becomes
– t
0 f t e dt (4.7)
Fortunately, in most engineering applications the functions f t are of exponential order*. Then,
we can express (4.7) as,
0 t – t
– t
0 f t e dt 0 ke e dt (4.8)
and we see that the integral on the right side of the inequality sign in (4.8), converges if 0 .
Therefore, we conclude that if f t is of exponential order, L f t exists if
Re s = 0 (4.9)
0 t
* A function f t is said to be of exponential order if f t ke for all t 0 .
42 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Properties and Theorems of the Laplace Transform
c1 f1 t + c2 f2 t + + cn fn t c 1 F1 s + c2 F2 s + + cn Fn s (4.11)
Proof:
L c1 f1 t + c2 f2 t + + cn fn t = t 0
c 1 f 1 t + c 2 f 2 t + + c n f n t dt
– st – st – st
= c1 t 0
f1 t e dt + c 2 t 0
f2 t e dt + + c n t 0
fn t e dt
= c1 F1 s + c2 F2 s + + cn Fn s
Note 1:
It is desirable to multiply f t by the unit step function u 0 t to eliminate any unwanted non
zero values of f t for t 0 .
– as
f t – a u 0 t – a e Fs (4.12)
Proof:
a
– st – st
L f t – a u 0 t – a = 0 0e dt + a f t – a e dt (4.13)
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 43
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
Note 2:
A change of scale is represented by multiplication of the time variable t by a positive scaling fac
tor a . Thus, the function f t after scaling the time axis, becomes f at .
1 s
f at  F  (4.15)
a a
Proof:
– st
L f at = 0 f at e dt
44 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Properties and Theorems of the Laplace Transform
v du = uv – u dv (4.17)
– st – st
we let du = f ' t and v = e . Then, u = f t , dv = – se , and thus
– st – st – st a
L f ' t = f t e
0
+s 0
fte dt = lim
a
f t e
0
+ sF s
– sa
= lim e f a – f 0 + sF s = 0 – f 0 + sF s
a
d2
 f t s 2 F s – sf 0 – f ' 0 (4.18)
2
dt
d3
 f t s 3 F s – s 2 f 0 – sf ' 0 – f '' 0 (4.19)
3
dt
and in general
n
d
 f t s n F s – s n – 1 f 0 – s n – 2 f ' 0 – – f n–1
0
(4.20)
n
dt
We must remember that the terms f 0 f ' 0 f '' 0 , and so on, represent the initial condi
tions. Therefore, when all initial conditions are zero, and we differentiate a time function f t n
times, this corresponds to F s multiplied by s to the nth power.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 45
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
d
tf t –  F s (4.21)
ds
Proof:
– st
L f t = F s = 0 f t e dt
Differentiating with respect to s and applying Leibnitz’s rule* for differentiation under the integral,
we obtain
d d – st e –st f t dt = – st – st

ds
F s = 
ds 0 f te dt = 0 s 0 –t e f t dt = – 0 tf t e dt = – L tf t
In general,
n
n nd
t f t – 1 n F s (4.22)
ds
The proof for n 2 follows by taking the second and higherorder derivatives of F s with
respect to s .
Proof:
We begin by expressing the integral on the left side of (4.23) as two integrals, that is,
t 0 t
The first integral on the right side of (4.24), represents a constant value since neither the upper,
nor the lower limits of integration are functions of time, and this constant is an initial condition
denoted as f 0 . We will find the Laplace transform of this constant, the transform of the sec
b
* This rule states that if a function of a parameter is defined by the equation F = a f x dx where f is some known
function of integration x and the parameter , a and b are constants independent of x and , and the partial derivative
b
dF = x
f exists and it is continuous, then 
d a 
 dx .
46 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Properties and Theorems of the Laplace Transform
ond integral on the right side of (4.24), and will prove (4.23) by the linearity property. Thus,
– st
– st – st e
0 f 0 e 0 e
L f 0 = dt = f 0 dt = f 0 
–s 0 (4.25)
f 0  = f
= f 0 0 – – 
0 
s s
This is the value of the first integral in (4.24). Next, we will show that
t
Fs
0 f d 
s
We let
t
gt = 0 f d
then,
g' t = f
and
0
g 0 = 0 f d = 0
Now,
L g' t = G s = sL g t – g 0 = G s – 0
sL g t = G s
Gs
L g t = 
s
t Fs
L
0
f d = 
s
(4.26)
Proof:
– st
Fs = 0 f t e dt
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 47
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
and performing the inner integration on the right side integral with respect to s , we obtain
f t
1 –st ft – st
s F s ds = 0 –  e
t s
f t dt = 0 
t
e dt = L 
t
In the first integral of the right side, we let t = , in the second t = + T , in the third
t = + 2T , and so on. The areas under each period of f t are equal, and thus the upper and
lower limits of integration are the same for each integral. Then,
T T T
– s –s + T – s + 2T
L ft = 0 f e d + 0 f + Te d + 0 f + 2T e d + (4.29)
48 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Properties and Theorems of the Laplace Transform
T
– sT – 2sT – s
L f = 1 + e +e + 0 f e d (4.30)
Proof:
From the time domain differentiation property,
d
 f t sF s – f 0
dt
or
d
d
 f t e –st dt
0
L  f t = sF s – f 0 =
dt dt
T
d – st
 f t e
lim sF s – f 0 = lim lim dt
s s T dt
0
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 49
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
Proof:
From the time domain differentiation property,
d
 f t sF s – f 0
dt
or
d
d
 f t e –st dt
0
L  f t = sF s – f 0 =
dt dt
T
d – st
 f t e
lim sF s – f 0 = lim lim dt
s0 s0 T dt
0
Therefore,
lim sF s = f
s0
410 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Properties and Theorems of the Laplace Transform
= F 1 s F 2 s
* Convolution is the process of overlapping two time functions f 1 t and f 2 t . The convolution integral indicates
the amount of overlap of one function as it is shifted over another function The convolution of two time functions
f1 t and f2 t is denoted as f 1 t *f 2 t , and by definition, f 1 t *f 2 t = – f1 f2 t – d where is a dummy
variable. Convolution is discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling,
ISBN 9781934404119.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 411
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
For easy reference, the Laplace transform pairs and theorems are summarized in Table 4.1.
or
st
–e 1 1
= 0 – –  = 
– st
L u0 t = 0 1 e dt = 
s 0
s s
1
u 0 t  (4.38)
s
for Re s = 0 .*
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Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time
2 Time Shifting f t – a u 0 t – a – as
e Fs
3 Frequency Shifting – as F s + a
e ft
4 Time Scaling f at 1
 F s
a a
5 Time Differentiation d sF s – f 0
13 Frequency Convolution f 1 t f 2 t 1
 F s *F 2 s
2j 1
or
– st
L u1 t = L t = 0 t e dt
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 413
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
u dv = uv – v du (4.39)
We let – st
u = t and dv = e
then,
– st
du = 1 and v = – e 

s
By substitution into (4.39),
– st – st – st – st
–t e – – t e  – e
e  dt = 
L t =  –
s 0 0 
s s s
2
(4.40)
0
Since the upper limit of integration in (4.40) produces an indeterminate form, we apply L’ Hôpi
tal’s rule*, that is,
d
t
– st t dt 1
lim te = lim  = lim  = lim  = 0
t t e st t d st t se st
e
dt
n
4.3.3 Laplace Transform of t u0 t
Before deriving the Laplace transform of this function, we digress to review the gamma or general
f x
* Often, the ratio of two functions, such as  , for some value of x, say a, results in an indeterminate form. To work
gx
f x 
around this problem, we consider the limit lim  , and we wish to find this limit, if it exists. To find this limit, we use
xa g x
d d
L’Hôpital’s rule which states that if f a = g a = 0 , and if the limit  f x  g x as x approaches a exists, then,
dx dx
f x  = lim 
d d
lim  f x  g x
xa g x x a dx dx
414 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time
ized factorial function n which is an improper integral* but converges (approaches a limit) for
all n 0 . It is defined as
n – 1 –x
n = 0 x e dx (4.42)
We will now derive the basic properties of the gamma function, and its relation to the well
known factorial function
n! = n n – 1 n – 2 3 2 1
The integral of (4.42) can be evaluated by performing integration by parts. Thus, in (4.42) we let
–x n–1
u = e and dv = x
Then, n
du = – e dx and v = x
–x
n
and (4.42) is written as
n –x
x e  1 n –x
n = 
n x=0
+ 
n 0 x e dx (4.43)
With the condition that n 0 , the first term on the right side of (4.43) vanishes at the lower
limit x = 0 . It also vanishes at the upper limit as x . This can be proved with L’ Hôpital’s
rule by differentiating both numerator and denominator m times, where m n . Then,
m m–1
d n d n–1
n –x n m
x m–1
nx
x e x dx dx
lim  = lim  = lim  = lim  =
x n x ne x x d m x x d
m–1 x
m
ne m–1
ne
dx dx
n–m
n n – 1 n – 2 n – m + 1 x n – 1 n – 2 n – m + 1
= lim  = lim  = 0
x x x m–n x
ne x e
Therefore, (4.43) reduces to
1 n –x
n = 
n 0 x e dx
b
b. a f x dx where f(x) becomes infinite at a value x between the lower and upper limits of integration inclusive.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 415
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
n – 1 –x 1 n –x
n = 0 x e dx = 
n 0 x e dx (4.44)
n + 1
n =  (4.45)
n
or
n n = n + 1 (4.46)
It is convenient to use (4.45) for n 0 , and (4.46) for n 0 . From (4.45), we see that n
becomes infinite as n 0 .
For n = 1 , (4.42) yields
–x –x
1 = 0 e dx = – e 0
= 1 (4.47)
for n = 1 2 3
The formula of (4.50) is a noteworthy relation; it establishes the relationship between the n
function and the factorial n!
n
We now return to the problem of finding the Laplace transform pair for t u 0 t , that is,
n – st
0 t
n
L t u0 t = e dt (4.51)
To make this integral resemble the integral of the gamma function, we let st = y , or t = y s ,
and thus dt = dy s . Now, we rewrite (4.51) as
n
y y 1
 e –y d  =  n –y n + 1 n!
0 0 y e
n
L t u0 t = dy =  = 
s s n+1 n+1 n+1
s s s
416 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time
n n!
t u 0 t 
n+1
 (4.52)
s
t 1 (4.53)
for all .
and again, using the sifting property of the delta function, we obtain
– st – as
L t – a = 0 t – a e dt = e
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 417
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
– at
4.3.6 Laplace Transform of e u 0 t
We apply the definition
1 1
dt = –  e
– at – at – st – s + a t – s + a t
L e u0 t = 0 e e dt = 0 e s+a
= 
s+a
0
n – at
4.3.7 Laplace Transform of t e u 0 t
For this derivation, we will use the transform pair of (4.52), i.e.,
n n! 
t u 0 t 
n+1
(4.56)
s
and the frequency shifting property of (4.14), that is,
– at
e ft Fs + a (4.57)
Then, replacing s with s + a in (4.56), we obtain the transform pair
n – at n!
t e u 0 t 
n+1
 (4.58)
s + a
where n is a positive integer, and – a Thus, for n = 1 , we obtain the transform pair
– at 1
te u 0 t 2 (4.59)
s + a
for – a .
For n = 2 , we obtain the transform
2 – at 2!
t e u 0 t 3 (4.60)
s + a
and in general,
n – at n!
t e u 0 t 
n+1
 (4.61)
s + a
for – a
418 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time
– as
e – s sin a – cos a
= lim  +  = 
a 2 2 2 2 2 2
s + s + s +
sin t u 0 t 
2

2
(4.62)
s +
for 0
1 jt – jt – at 1
* This can also be derived from sin t =  e – e , and the use of (4.55) where e u 0 t  . By the linear
j2 s+a
ity property, the sum of these terms corresponds to the sum of their Laplace transforms. Therefore,
1 1
 1
L sin tu 0 t = 
s – j – 
= 
j2 s + j s + 2
2
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 419
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
– st a
e – s cos t + sin t
L cos t u 0 t = lim 
a 2 2
s + 0
– as
e – s cos a + sin a s s
= lim  +  = 
a 2 2 2 2 2 2
s + s + s +
– at
4.3.10 Laplace Transform of e sin t u 0 t
From (4.62),
sin tu 0 t 
2

2
s +
Using the frequency shifting property of (4.14), that is,
– at
e ft Fs + a (4.64)
we replace s with s + a , and we obtain
– at
e sin t u 0 t 
2

2
(4.65)
s + a +
for 0 and a 0 .
1 jt – jt
† We can use the relation cos t =  e + e and the linearity property, as in the derivation of the transform of
2
d
sin t on the footnote of the previous page. We can also use the transform pair  f t sF s – f 0 ; this is the time
dt
differentiation property of (4.16). Applying this transform pair for this derivation, we obtain
1d 1 d 1 s
L cos tu 0 t = L   sin tu 0 t =  L  sin tu 0 t =  s  = 
dt dt s2 + 2 s + 2
2
420 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Laplace Transform of Common Waveforms
and using the frequency shifting property of (4.14), we replace s with s + a , and we obtain
– at s+a 
e cos t u 0 t 
2 2
(4.66)
s + a +
for 0 and a 0 .
For easy reference, we have summarized the above derivations in Table 4.2.
f t Fs
1 u0 t 1s
2 t u0 t 1s
2
3 n
t u0 t n!

n+1
s
4 t 1
5 t – a e
– as
6 – at 1
e u0 t 
s+a
7 n – at n! 
t e u0 t 
n+1
s + a
8 sin t u 0 t 

2 2
s +
9 cos t u 0 t s 

2 2
s +
10 e
– at
sin t u 0 t


2 2
s + a +
11 e
– at
cos t u0 t s+a

2 2
s + a +
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 421
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
fP t
A
0 a t
Figure 4.1. Waveform for a pulse
We first express the given waveform as a sum of unit step functions as we’ve learned in Chapter 3.
Then,
fP t = A u0 t – u0 t – a (4.67)
From Table 4.1, Page 413, – as
f t – a u 0 t – a e Fs
and from Table 4.2, Page 422
u0 t 1 s
Thus,
Au 0 t A s
and
– as A
Au 0 t – a e 
s
Then, in accordance with the linearity property, the Laplace transform of the pulse of Figure 4.1
is
A –as A A – as
A u 0 t – u 0 t – a  – e  =  1 – e
s s s
fL t
1
t
0 1 2
Figure 4.2. Waveform for a linear segment
We must first derive the equation of the linear segment. This is shown in Figure 4.3.
422 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Laplace Transform of Common Waveforms
fL t t–1
1
t
0 1 2
Figure 4.3. Waveform for a linear segment with the equation that describes it
Next, we express the given waveform in terms of the unit step function as follows:
f L t = t – 1 u 0 t – 1
From Table 4.1, Page 413, – as
f t – a u 0 t – a e Fs
and from Table 4.2, Page 422,
1
tu 0 t 2
s
Therefore, the Laplace transform of the linear segment of Figure 4.2 is
–s 1
t – 1 u 0 t – 1 e 2 (4.68)
s
fT t
1
1 t
0 2
Figure 4.4. Triangular waveform
The equations of the linear segments are shown in Figure 4.5.
fT t
1 t –t+2
1 2 t
0
Figure 4.5. Triangular waveform with the equations of the linear segments
Next, we express the given waveform in terms of the unit step function.
fT t = t u0 t – u0 t – 1 + – t + 2 u0 t – 1 – u0 t – 2
= tu 0 t – tu 0 t – 1 – tu 0 t – 1 + 2u 0 t – 1 + tu 0 t – 2 – 2u 0 t – 2
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 423
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
1 –s 2
f T t 2 1 – e (4.69)
s
t
0 a 2a 3a
A
Figure 4.6. Rectangular periodic waveform
For this waveform,
424 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Laplace Transform of Common Waveforms
2a a 2a
1 – st 1 – st – st
L f R t = 
1–e
– 2as

0 fR t e dt = 
1–e
– 2as

0 Ae dt + a –A e dt
a 2a
A  – e –st e 
– st
= 
– 2as

 + 
1–e s 0 s a
A as
f R t  tanh  (4.70)
s 2
f HW t
2 3 4 5
Figure 4.7. Halfrectified sine waveform*
For this waveform,
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 425
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
2
1  – st 1  – st
L f HW t = 
1–e
– 2s 0 f te dt = 
1–e
– 2s 0 sin t e dt
– st – s
1 e s sin t – cos t 1 1 + e
= 
– 2s
 
2
= 
2

– 2s
1–e s +1 s + 1 1 – e
0
– s
1 + e
1 
L f HW t = 
2 – s – s
s + 1 1 + e 1 – e
1
f HW t 
2 – s
(4.71)
s + 1 1 – e
4.5 Using MATLAB for Finding the Laplace Transforms of Time Functions
We can use the MATLAB function laplace to find the Laplace transform of a time function. For
examples, please type
help laplace
in MATLAB’s Command prompt.
We will be using this function extensively in the subsequent chapters of this book.
426 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Summary
4.6 Summary
The twosided or bilateral Laplace Transform pair is defined as
– st
L ft= Fs = – f t e dt
+ j
–1 1
– j
st
L F s = f t =  F s e ds
2j
–1
where L f t denotes the Laplace transform of the time function f t , L F s denotes
the Inverse Laplace transform, and s is a complex variable whose real part is , and imagi
nary part , that is, s = + j .
The unilateral or onesided Laplace transform defined as
– st – st
L ft= Fs = t 0
fte dt = 0 f t e dt
We denote transformation from the time domain to the complex frequency domain, and vice
versa, as
ft Fs
The linearity property states that
c1 f1 t + c2 f2 t + + cn fn t c1 F1 s + c2 F2 s + + cn Fn s
d
f ' t =  f t sF s – f 0
dt
Also,
d2
 f t s 2 F s – sf 0 – f ' 0
2
dt
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
d3
 f t s 3 F s – s 2 f 0 – sf ' 0 – f '' 0
3
dt
and in general
n
d
 f t s n F s – s n – 1 f 0 – s n – 2 f ' 0 – – f n–1
0
n
dt
where the terms f 0 f ' 0 f '' 0 , and so on, represent the initial conditions.
The differentiation in complex frequency domain property states that
d
tf t –  F s
ds
and in general, n
n nd
t f t – 1 n F s
ds
The integration in time domain property states that
t
Fs f 0
–
f d  + 
s s
lim f t = lim sF s = f
t s0
428 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Summary
The Laplace transforms of some common functions of time are shown in Table 4.1, Page 413
The Laplace transforms of some common waveforms are shown in Table 4.2, Page 422
We can use the MATLAB function laplace to find the Laplace transform of a time function
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
4.7 Exercises
1. Derive the Laplace transform of the following time domain functions:
5
a. 12 b. 6u 0 t c. 24u 0 t – 12 d. 5tu 0 t e. 4t u 0 t
c. 3 sin 5t u 0 t d. 5 cos 3t u 0 t
e. 2 tan 4t u 0 t Be careful with this! Comment and you may skip derivation.
– 3t
d. 8e cos 4t e. cos t t – 4
5. Derive the Laplace transform of the following time domain functions:
2 – 2t
a. 5tu 0 t – 3 b. 2t – 5t + 4 u 0 t – 3 c. t – 3 e u0 t – 2
2t – 2 – 3t
d. 2t – 4 e u0 t – 3 e. 4te cos 2t u 0 t
430 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Exercises
f ST t
A
a 3a
t
2a
f FR t
2 3 4
Write a simple MATLAB script that will produce the waveform above.
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
– 3s
b. 3 2t – 3 t – 3 = 3 2t – 3 t=3
t – 3 = 9 t – 3 and 9 t – 3 9e
2 2
5 s sin 4t 4 s + 2
 d. 5  e. 2 tan 4t = 2  2  = 8
c. 3  
2
s +5
2 2
s +3
2 cos 4t 2 2
s s + 2 s
This answer for part (e) looks suspicious because 8 s 8u 0 t and the Laplace transform is
unilateral, that is, there is onetoone correspondence between the time domain and the com
plex frequency domain. The fallacy with this procedure is that we assumed that if
f1 t F1 s
f 1 t F 1 s and f 2 t F 2 s , we cannot conclude that   . For this exercise
f2 t F2 s
1
f 1 t f 2 t = sin 4t  , and as we’ve learned, multiplication in the time domain corre
cos 4t
sponds to convolution in the complex frequency domain. Accordingly, we must use the
– st
Laplace transform definition 0 2 tan 4t e dt and this requires integration by parts. We skip
this analytical derivation. The interested reader may try to find the answer with the MATLAB
script
syms s t; 2*laplace(sin(4*t)/cos(4*t))
4. From (4.22), Page 46, n
n nd
t f t – 1 n F s
ds
a.
1 d 5  – 5 2s 30s 
3 – 1   = – 3 2 = 
ds s + 5 2 2 2 2 2
s + 25 s + 25
432 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
b.
d 
– s + 9
2 2 2 2
2 d s  s + 3 – s 2s 
d 
2 – 1 2  = 2  = 2 
2 2 ds 2 ds 2 2
s + 9
2
ds s + 3 s + 9
2 2 2 2
s + 9 – 2s – 2 s + 9 2s – s + 9
= 2 
4

2
s + 9
2 2 3 3
s + 9 – 2s – 4s – s + 9  – 2s – 18s + 4s – 36s
= 2 
3
= 2 
3
2 2
s + 9 s + 9
3 2
2s – 54s 2s s – 27  4s s 2 – 27
= 2 3 = 2 
3
= 
2 2 2 3
s + 9 s + 9 s + 9
c.
25 10
 = 
2 2 2
s + 5 + 5 s + 5 + 25
d.
8 s + 3  = 
 8s + 3 
2 2 2
s + 3 + 4 s + 3 + 16
e. – 4 s
cos t 4
t – 4 = 2 2 t – 4 and 2 2 t – 4 2 2 e
5.
a.
– 3s 5 15 5 –3s 1
5tu 0 t – 3 = 5 t – 3 + 15 u 0 t – 3 e  +  =  e  + 3
2 s s s
s
b. 2 2
2t – 5t + 4 u 0 t – 3 = 2 t – 3 + 12t – 18 – 5t + 4 u 0 t – 3
2
= 2 t – 3 + 7t – 14 u 0 t – 3
2
= 2 t – 3 + 7 t – 3 + 21 – 14 u 0 t – 3
– 3s 2 2! 7 7
 +  + 
2
= 2 t – 3 + 7 t – 3 + 7 u 0 t – 3 e
3 2 s
s s
c. – 2t –2 t – 2 –4
t – 3 e u 0 t – 2 = t – 2 – 1 e e u0 t – 2
–4 – 2s 1 1 –4 – 2s – s + 1
e e  –  = e e 
2 s + 2 2
s + 2 s + 2
d. 2t – 2 –2 t – 3 –2
2t – 4 e u 0 t – 3 = 2 t – 3 + 6 – 4 e e u0 t – 3
–2 – 3s 2 s+4
2  = 2e –2 e –3s 
e e  + 
s + 3
2 s + 3 s + 3
2
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
e.
– 3t 1 d s+3  d s+3
4te cos 2t u 0 t 4 – 1   = – 4  

ds s + 3 2 + 2 2 ds s 2 + 6s + 9 + 4
2
d s+3  s + 6s + 13 – s + 3 2s + 6 
– 4   = – 4 
ds s 2 + 6s + 13 2 2
s + 6s + 13
2 2 2
s + 6s + 13 – 2s – 6s – 6s – 18
– 4  = 4 s + 6s + 5 

2 2 2 2
s + 6s + 13 s + 6s + 13
6.
a.
3 d
sin 3t 
  f t sF s – f 0
f 0 = sin 3t t=0
= 0
2
s +3
2 dt
3
d sin 3t s  3s 
 – 0 = 
dt 2 2 2
s +3 s +9
b.
3 d
3e
– 4t
  f t sF s – f 0
f 0 = 3e
– 4t
= 3
s+4 dt t=0
d – 4t 3 3s 3 s + 4 – 12
3e s  – 3 =  –  = 
dt s+4 s+4 s+4 s+4
c. 2
s  2 2 d s 
cos 2t 
2 2
t cos 2t – 1 2 
2
s +2 ds s + 4
2 2 2 2 2 2
s + 4 – s 2s 
d 
 – s + 4
d 
 
s + 4 – 2s – – s + 4 s + 4 2 2s 
= =
ds 2 2 ds 2 2 2 4
s + 4 s + 4 s + 4
2 2 3 3 2
s + 4 – 2s – – s + 4 4s – 2s – 8s + 4s – 16s 2s s – 12
=  =  = 
2 3 2 3 2 3
s + 4 s + 4 s + 4
Thus, 2
2 2s s – 12 
t cos 2t 
3
2
s + 4
and 2 2 2
d 2 2s s – 12 s – 12
t cos 2t sF s – f 0  – 0 = 2s
s  

dt 2 3 2 3
s + 4 s + 4
d.
2 2 d
sin 2 t 
 e
– 2t
sin 2t 
  f t sF s – f 0
2
s +2
2
s + 2 + 4
2 dt
d –2t 2 2s
e sin 2t s 
2
 – 0 = 

dt s + 2 + 4 s + 2 + 4
2
434 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
e.
2 2! 2 – 2t 2! d
t 3 t e 3  f t sF s – f 0
s s + 2 dt
d 2 –2t 2! 2s
t e s 3 – 0 = 
dt s + 2 s + 2
3
7.
a.
1  sin t sin t exists. Since
sin t  but to find L  we must first show that the limit lim 
2
s +1 t t0 t
sin x sin t 1
lim  = 1 , this condition is satisfied and thus 
x0 x t s  ds . From tables of inte
2
s +1
1 1 –1 1 –1
grals,  dx =  tan x a + C . Then, 
1 s + C and the constant of  ds = tan
x +a
2 2 a 2
s +1
integration C is evaluated from the final value theorem. Thus,
–1 sin t –1
lim f t = lim sF s = lim s tan 1 s + C = 0 and  tan 1 s
t s0 s0 t
b.
t
sin t –1 Fs f 0
From (a) above,  tan 1 s and since
t
–
f d  +  , it follows that
s s
t
sin 1 –1
0 
 d  tan
s
1 s
c.
sin t 1 s
From (a) above  tan 1 s and since f at  F  , it follows that
–1
t a a
sin at 1 –1 1 s sin at
  tan  or  tan a s
–1
at a a t
d.
cos t
s   s
cos t 
2
s +1
,
t
s s
2
+1
 ds , and from tables of integrals,
x 1 s 1
 s
2 2 2
dx =  ln x + a + C . Then,  ds =  ln s + 1 + C and the constant of inte
2
x +a
2 2 2
+1 2
gration C is evaluated from the final value theorem. Thus,
t
1 Fs f 0
2
lim f t = lim sF s = lim s  ln s + 1 + C = 0 and using f d  +  we
t s0 s0 2 – s s
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
obtain
cos 1
t  d  ln s 2 + 1
2s
e.
–t
–t 1 e 1 1 1
e  , 
s+1 t s 
s+1
 ds , and from tables of integrals 
ax + b
 dx =  ln ax + b . Then,
2
1

s+1
 ds = ln s + 1 + C and the constant of integration C is evaluated from the final value
theorem. Thus,
lim f t = lim sF s = lim s ln s + 1 + C = 0
t s0 s0
t
f d F f 0  , we obtain
s + 
and using –

s s
–
e 1
t
d  ln s + 1
s
8.
f ST t A
 t
a
A
a 3a
t
2a
– as – as
1 ae e 1 – as
=  –  –  = 2 1 – 1 + as e
s
2 s s
2
s
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
a 1 – as 1 – as
L t 0
= 2 1 + as – 1 + as e – as = 2 1 + as 1 – e – as
s s
By substitution into (1) we obtain
A 1 A
  1 + as 1 – e –as – as =  1 + as 1 – e –as – as
F s = 
– as 2 2 – as
a1 – e s as 1 – e
A 1 + as Aa A 1 + as a
=  –  =   – 
as
2
as 1 – e
– as as s 1 – e
– as
9.
This is a periodic waveform with period T = a = and its Laplace transform is
T
1 – st 1 – st
F s = 
1–e
– sT 0 f t e dt = 
1 – e
– s

0 sin te dt
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
The fullrectified waveform can also be produced with the Simulink model below. The Sine
Wave, Abs, and Reshape blocks are in the Math Operations library, the MATLAB Func
tion block is in the UserDefined Functions library, and the Scope and Display blocks are
found in the Sinks library.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 437
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Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation
Before simulation execution, the following script must be entered at the MATLAB command
prompt:
x=[0 pi/6 pi/3 pi/2 2*pi/3 5*pi/6 pi]; string1='abs(sin(x))';
The Scope block displays the waveform shown below.
We can use MATLAB polyfit(x,y,n) and polyval(p,x) functions to find a suitable polynomial*
that approximates the fullrectifier waveform.
* For an example with a stepbystep procedure, please refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and
Excel, ISBN 9781934404034, Chapter 8, Example 8.8.
438 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Chapter 5
The Inverse Laplace Transformation
T
his chapter is a continuation to the Laplace transformation topic of the previous chapter
and presents several methods of finding the Inverse Laplace Transformation. The partial
fraction expansion method is explained thoroughly and it is illustrated with several exam
ples.
This integral is difficult to evaluate because it requires contour integration using complex vari
ables theory. Fortunately, for most engineering problems we can refer to Tables of Properties, and
Common Laplace transform pairs to lookup the Inverse Laplace transform.
The coefficients a k and b k are real numbers for k = 1 2 n , and if the highest power m of
N s is less than the highest power n of D s , i.e., m n , F s is said to be expressed as a proper
rational function. If m n , F s is an improper rational function.
In a proper rational function, the roots of N s in (5.3) are found by setting N s = 0 ; these are
called the zeros of F s . The roots of D s , found by setting D s = 0 , are called the poles of F s .
We assume that F s in (5.3) is a proper rational function. Then, it is customary and very conve
n
nient to make the coefficient of s unity; thus, we rewrite F s as
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
1
 b m s m + b m – 1 s m – 1 + b m – 2 s m – 2 + + b 1 s + b 0
Ns an
F s =  = 
 (5.4)
Ds n an – 1 n – 1 an – 2 n – 2 a1 a0
s +  s +  s + +  s + 
an an an an
The zeros and poles of (5.4) can be real and distinct, repeated, complex conjugates, or combina
tions of real and complex conjugates. However, we are mostly interested in the nature of the
poles, so we will consider each case separately, as indicated in Subsections 5.2.1 through 5.2.3
below.
where p k is distinct from all other poles. Next, using the partial fraction expansion method,*we can
express (5.5) as
r1 r2 r3 rn
F s = 
 +   + + 
 +   (5.6)
s – p1 s – p2 s – p 3 s – pn
To evaluate the residue r k , we multiply both sides of (5.6) by s – p k ; then, we let s p k , that is,
r k = lim s – p k F s = s – p k F s (5.7)
s pk s = pk
Example 5.1
Use the partial fraction expansion method to simplify F 1 s of (5.8) below, and find the time
domain function f 1 t corresponding to F 1 s .
3s + 2
F 1 s =  (5.8)
2
s + 3s + 2
* The partial fraction expansion method applies only to proper rational functions. It is used extensively in integration, and in
finding the inverses of the Laplace transform, the Fourier transform, and the ztransform. This method allows us to decom
pose a rational polynomial into smaller rational polynomials with simpler denominators from which we can easily recognize
their integrals and inverse transformations. This method is also being taught in intermediate algebra and introductory cal
culus courses.
52 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Partial Fraction Expansion
Solution:
Using (5.6), we obtain
3s + 2 3s + 2 r1 r2
F 1 s =  =  = 
 + 
 (5.9)
2
s + 3s + 2 s + 1 s + 2 s + 1 s + 2
The residues are
3s + 2
r 1 = lim s + 1 F s =  = –1 (5.10)
s –1 s + 2 s = –1
and
3s + 2
r 2 = lim s + 2 F s =  = 4 (5.11)
s –2 s + 1 s = –2
The residues and poles of a rational function of polynomials such as (5.8), can be found easily
using the MATLAB residue(a,b) function. For this example, we use the script
Ns = [3, 2]; Ds = [1, 3, 2]; [r, p, k] = residue(Ns, Ds)
and MATLAB returns the values
r =
4
1
p =
2
1
k =
[]
For the MATLAB script above, we defined Ns and Ds as two vectors that contain the numerator
and denominator coefficients of F s . When this script is executed, MATLAB displays the r and
p vectors that represent the residues and poles respectively. The first value of the vector r is asso
ciated with the first value of the vector p, the second value of r is associated with the second
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 53
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
Example 5.2
Use the partial fraction expansion method to simplify F 2 s of (5.15) below, and find the time
domain function f 2 t corresponding to F 2 s .
2
3s + 2s + 5
F 2 s =  (5.15)
3 2
s + 12s + 44s + 48
Solution:
First, we use the MATLAB factor(s) symbolic function to express the denominator polynomial of
F 2 s in factored form. For this example,
syms s; factor(s^3 + 12*s^2 + 44*s + 48) % Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
ans =
(s+2)*(s+4)*(s+6)
Then,
2 2
3s + 2s + 5 3s + 2s + 5 r1 r2 r3
F 2 s =  =  = 
 + 
 + 
 (5.16)
3 2 s + 2 s + 4 s + 6 s + 2 s + 4 s + 6
s + 12s + 44s + 48
The residues are 2
3s + 2s + 5
r 1 =  = 9
 (5.17)
s + 4s + 6 s = –2
8
2
3s + 2s + 5 37
r 2 =  = –  (5.18)
s + 2s + 6 s = –4
4
54 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Partial Fraction Expansion
2
3s + 2s + 5 89
r 3 =  =  (5.19)
s + 2s + 4 s = –6
8
Example 5.3
Use the partial fraction expansion method to simplify F 3 s of (5.23) below, and find the time
domain function f 3 t corresponding to F 3 s .
s+3
F 3 s = 
 (5.23)
3 2
s + 5s + 12s + 8
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
Solution:
Let us first express the denominator in factored form to identify the poles of F 3 s using the
MATLAB factor(s) symbolic function. Then,
syms s; factor(s^3 + 5*s^2 + 12*s + 8)
ans =
(s+1)*(s^2+4*s+8)
The factor(s) function did not factor the quadratic term. We will use the roots(p) function.
p=[1 4 8]; roots_p=roots(p)
roots_p =
2.0000 + 2.0000i
2.0000  2.0000i
Then,
s+3 s+3
F 3 s =  = 
3 2 s + 1 s + 2 + j2 s + 2 – j2
s + 5s + 12s + 8
or
s+3 r1 r2 r 2
F 3 s = 
 = 
 +  + 
 (5.24)
3 2 s + 1 s + 2 + j2 s + 2 – j 2
s + 5s + 12s + 8
The residues are
s+3 
r 1 =  = 2
 (5.25)
2
s + 4s + 8 5
s = –1
s+3 1 – j2 1 – j2
r 2 =  =  = 
s + 1 s + 2 –j 2 s = – 2 – j2
– 1 – j2 – j4 – 8 + j4
(5.26)
1 – j2 – 8 – j4
=   = –
16 + j12 = 1 +  j3
–  
– 8 + j4 – 8 – j4 80 5 20
1 j3 1 j3
r 2 = –  +  = –  –  (5.27)
5 20 5 20
By substitution into (5.24),
25 – 1 5 + j3 20 – 1 5 – j3 20
F 3 s =  +  +  (5.28)
s + 1 s + 2 + j2 s + 2 –j 2
The last two terms on the right side of (5.28), do not resemble any Laplace transform pair that we
derived in Chapter 2. Therefore, we will express them in a different form. We combine them into
a single term*, and now (5.28) is written as
56 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Partial Fraction Expansion
25 1 2s + 1
F 3 s =  –  
 (5.29)
s + 1 5 s 2 + 4s + 8
For convenience, we denote the first term on the right side of (5.29) as F 31 s , and the second as
F 32 s . Then,
25 2
F 31 s =   e –t = f 31 t (5.30)
s + 1 5
Next, for F 32 s
1 2s + 1
F 32 s = –  
2
 (5.31)
5 s + 4s + 8
Accordingly, we express F 32 s as
1 3 3
s +  +  – 
2 2 2 2
F 32 s = –   = –2
  –3 2 
s + 2  + 
5 s + 2 + 2 2 2 5 s + 2 + 2 s + 2 2 + 22
2 2
2 s+2 6 10 2 (5.33)
= –  
 +  
5 s + 2 2 + 22 2 s + 2 2 + 22
2 s+2 3 2
= –  
 +  
5 s + 2 + 2 2 2 10 2 2
s + 2 + 2
Addition of (5.30) with (5.33) yields
25 2 s + 2   3 2
F 3 s = F 31 s + F 32 s =  –   +  

s + 1 5 s + 2 + 2 2 2 10 s + 2 2 + 2 2
2 –t 2 –2t 3 –2t
 e –  e cos 2t +  e sin 2t = f 3 t
5 5 10
Check with MATLAB:
syms a s t w; % Define several symbolic variables. Must have Symbolic Math Tootbox installed
Fs=(s + 3)/(s^3 + 5*s^2 + 12*s + 8); ft=ilaplace(Fs)
* Here, we used MATLAB function simple((1/5 +3j/20)/(s+2+2j)+(1/5 3j/20)/(s+22j)). The simple function,
after several simplification tools that were displayed on the screen, returned (2*s1)/(5*s^2+20*s+40).
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 57
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
ft =
2/5*exp(t)2/5*exp(2*t)*cos(2*t)+3/10*exp(2*t)*sin(2*t)
Denoting the m residues corresponding to multiple pole p 1 as r 11 r 12 r 13 r 1m , the partial frac
tion expansion of (5.34) is expressed as
r 11 r 12 r 13 r 1m
F s =  +   + + 
 +  
s – p1
m
s – p1
m–1
s – p1
m–2 s – p1
(5.35)
r2 r3 rn
+   + + 
 +  
s – p2 s – p3 s – pn
For the simple poles p 1 p 2 p n , we proceed as before, that is, we find the residues from
r k = lim s – p k F s = s – p k F s (5.36)
s pk s = pk
The residues r 11 r 12 r 13 r 1m corresponding to the repeated poles, are found by multiplication
m
of both sides of (5.35) by s – p . Then,
m 2 m–1
s – p 1 F s = r 11 + s – p 1 r 12 + s – p 1 r 13 + + s – p 1 r 1m
r2 r3 rn (5.37)
+ s – p 1 
m
 + + 
 +  
s – p2 s – p3 s – p n
r2 r3 rn
s – p 1 
m
+ lim  + + 
 +  
s p1 s – p2 s – p3 s – p n
or m
r 11 = lim s – p 1 F s (5.38)
s p1
and thus (5.38) yields the residue of the first repeated pole.
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Partial Fraction Expansion
The residue r 12 for the second repeated pole p 1 , is found by differentiating (5.37) with respect to
s and again, we let s p 1 , that is,
or k–1
1 d  m
r 1k = lim   s – p1 F s (5.42)
s p 1 k – 1 ! ds k – 1
Example 5.4
Use the partial fraction expansion method to simplify F 4 s of (5.43) below, and find the time
domain function f 4 t corresponding to F 4 s .
s+3
F 4 s =  (5.43)
2
s + 2s + 1
Solution:
We observe that there is a pole of multiplicity 2 at s = – 1 , and thus in partial fraction expansion
form, F 4 s is written as
s+3 r1 r 21 r 22
F 4 s =  = 
 +  + 
 (5.44)
s + 2s + 1
2 s + 2 s + 1 2 s + 1
The residues are
s+3
r 1 =  = 1
2
s + 1 s = –2
s+3
r 21 =  = 2
s+2 s = –1
d s+3 s + 2 – s + 3
r 22 =   =  = –1
ds s + 2 s + 2
2
s = –1 s = –1
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
The value of the residue r 22 can also be found without differentiation as follows:
Substitution of the already known values of r 1 and r 21 into (5.44), and letting s = 0 *, we obtain
s+3 1  2 r 22
 =  +  + 

s + 1 s + 2
2 s + 2 s = 0 s + 1
2 s + 1 s=0
s=0 s=0
or
3 1
 =  + 2 + r 22
2 2
s+3 1 2 –1 – 2t –t –t
F 4 s =  =  +  +  e + 2te – e = f 4 t (5.45)
s + 2s + 1
2 s + 2 s + 1
2 s + 1
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Partial Fraction Expansion
p =
2.0000
1.0000
1.0000
k =
[]
Example 5.5
Use the partial fraction expansion method to simplify F 5 s of (5.46) below, and find the time
domain function f 5 t corresponding to the given F 5 s .
2
s + 3s + 1 
F 5 s =  (5.46)
3 2
s + 1 s + 2
Solution:
We observe that there is a pole of multiplicity 3 at s = – 1 , and a pole of multiplicity 2 at s = – 2 .
Then, in partial fraction expansion form, F 5 s is written as
r 11 r 12 r 13 r 21 r 22
F 5 s =  +  + 
 +  + 
 (5.47)
s + 1
3
s + 1
2 s + 1 s + 2
2 s + 2
d s + 3 s + 1
2
r 12 =  
ds s + 2 2
s = –1
2 2
s + 2 2s + 3 – 2 s + 2 s + 3 s + 1 s+4
=  =  =3
4 3
s + 2 s = –1
s + 2 s = –1
1 d s + 3 s + 1 1 d d s + 3 s + 1
2 2 2
1d s+4
r 13 =  2  =     =   3
2! ds s + 2 2 2 ds ds s + 2 2 2 ds s + 2
s = –1 s = –1 s = –1
3 2
1 s + 2 – 3s + 2 s + 4 1 s + 2 – 3s – 12 –s–5
=  
 =  
 =  = –4
2 s + 2
6 2 s + 2
4
s + 2
4
s = –1 s = –1 s = –1
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
2
+ 3 s + 1
r 21 = s = 1
3
s + 1 s = –2
and
d s + 3 s + 1
2 3 2 2
r 22 =   = 
s + 1 2s + 3 – 3 s + 1 s + 3 s + 1 
ds s + 1 3 s + 1
6
s = –2 s = –2
2 2
s + 1 2s + 3 – 3 s + 3 s + 1 
=  =– s – 4s
 =4
4 4
s + 1 s = –2
s + 1 s = –2
We will check the values of these residues with the MATLAB script below.
syms s; % The function collect(s) below multiplies (s+1)^3 by (s+2)^2
% and we use it to express the denominator D(s) as a polynomial so that we can
% use the coefficients of the resulting polynomial with the residue function
Ds=collect(((s+1)^3)*((s+2)^2))
Ds =
s^5+7*s^4+19*s^3+25*s^2+16*s+4
Ns=[1 3 1]; Ds=[1 7 19 25 16 4]; [r,p,k]=residue(Ns,Ds)
r =
4.0000
1.0000
4.0000
3.0000
1.0000
p =
2.0000
2.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
k =
[]
From Table 4.2, Chapter 4,
– at 1 – at 1 n – 1 – at n – 1 !
e  te 2 t e n
s+a s + a s + a
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Case where F(s) is Improper Rational Function
1 2 –t –t –t – 2t – 2t
f 5 t = –  t e + 3te – 4e + te + 4e (5.49)
2
We can verify (5.49) with MATLAB as follows:
syms s t; Fs=1/((s+1)^3) + 3/((s+1)^2)  4/(s+1) + 1/((s+2)^2) + 4/(s+2); ft=ilaplace(Fs)
ft = 1/2*t^2*exp(t)+3*t*exp(t)4*exp(t)
+t*exp(2*t)+4*exp(2*t)
Example 5.6
Derive the Inverse Laplace transform f 6 t of
2
s + 2s + 2
F 6 s =  (5.51)
s+1
Solution:
For this example, F 6 s is an improper rational function. Therefore, we must express it in the form
of (5.50) before we use the partial fraction expansion method.
By long division, we obtain
2
s + 2s + 2 1
F 6 s =  =  + 1 + s
s+1 s+1
Now, we recognize that
1
 e –t
s+1
and
1 t
but
s?
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
where ' t is the doublet of the delta function. Also, by the time differentiation property
2 2 2 1
u 0'' t = ' t s F s – sf 0 – f ' 0 = s F s = s  = s
s
Therefore, we have the new transform pair
s ' t (5.52)
and thus, 2
s + 2s + 2 = 
F 6 s =  1  + 1 + s e –t + t + ' t = f t (5.53)
6
s+1 s+1
In general, n
d  n

n
t s (5.54)
dt
We verify (5.53) with MATLAB as follows:
Ns = [1 2 2]; Ds = [1 1]; [r, p, k] = residue(Ns, Ds)
r =
1
p =
1
k =
1 1
The direct terms k= [1 1] above are the coefficients of t and ' t respectively.
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Alternate Method of Partial Fraction Expansion
Ns r1 r2 rm
F s =  =   + 
 +   (5.55)
Ds s – a s – a 2
s – a
m
2 2 n
Let s + s + be a quadratic factor of D s , and suppose that s + s + is the highest power
of this factor that divides D s . Now, we perform the following steps:
1. To this factor, we assign the sum of n partial fractions, that is,
r1 s + k1 r2 s + k2 rn s + kn
  + + 
 +  
2 2 n
s + s + s 2 + s + 2
s + s +
2. We repeat step 1 for each of the distinct linear and quadratic factors of D s
3. We set the given F s equal to the sum of these partial fractions
4. We clear the resulting expression of fractions and arrange the terms in decreasing powers of s
5. We equate the coefficients of corresponding powers of s
6. We solve the resulting equations for the residues
Example 5.7
Express F 7 s of (5.56) below as a sum of partial fractions using the method of clearing the frac
tions.
– 2s + 4
F 7 s =  (5.56)
2 2
s + 1s – 1
Solution:
Using Steps 1 through 3 above, we obtain
– 2s + 4 r1 s + A r 21 r 22
F 7 s =  =  + 
 + 
 (5.57)
2
s + 1s – 1
2 2
s + 1 s – 1
2 s – 1
With Step 4,
2 2 2
– 2s + 4 = r 1 s + A s – 1 + r 21 s + 1 + r 22 s – 1 s + 1 (5.58)
and with Step 5,
3 2
– 2s + 4 = r 1 + r 22 s + – 2r 1 + A – r 22 + r 21 s
(5.59)
+ r 1 – 2A + r 22 s + A – r 22 + r 21
Relation (5.59) will be an identity is s if each power of s is the same on both sides of this relation.
Therefore, we equate like powers of s and we obtain
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
0 = r 1 + r 22
0 = – 2r 1 + A – r 22 + r 21
(5.60)
– 2 = r 1 – 2A + r 22
4 = A – r 22 + r 21
Next, substitution of (5.61) and (5.62) into the third equation of (5.60) yields
– 2 = 2 – 2A – 2
or
A = 1 (5.63)
Finally by substitution of (5.61), (5.62), and (5.63) into the fourth equation of (5.60), we obtain
4 = 1 + 2 + r 21
or
r 21 = 1 (5.64)
Example 5.8
Use partial fraction expansion to simplify F 8 s of (5.66) below, and find the time domain func
tion f 8 t corresponding to F 8 s .
s+3
F 8 s = 
 (5.66)
3 2
s + 5s + 12s + 8
Solution:
This is the same transform as in Example 5.3, Page 56, where we found that the denominator
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Alternate Method of Partial Fraction Expansion
D s can be expressed in factored form of a linear term and a quadratic. Thus, we write F 8 s as
s+3
F 8 s =  (5.67)
2
s + 1 s + 4s + 8
and using the method of clearing the fractions, we express (5.67) as
s+3 r1 r2 s + r3
F 8 s =  = 
 + 
 (5.68)
2
s + 1 s + 4s + 8 s + 1 2
s + 4s + 8
As in Example 5.3,
s+3 2
r 1 =  =  (5.69)
2
s + 4s + 8 5
s = –1
Next, to compute r 2 and r 3 , we follow the procedure of this section and we obtain
2
s + 3 = r 1 s + 4s + 8 + r 2 s + r 3 s + 1 (5.70)
Since r 1 is already known, we only need two equations in r 2 and r 3 . Equating the coefficient of s 2
on the left side, which is zero, with the coefficients of s 2 on the right side of (5.70), we obtain
0 = r1 + r2 (5.71)
To obtain the third residue r 3 , we equate the constant terms of (5.70). Then, 3 = 8r 1 + r 3 or
3 = 8 2 5 + r 3 , or r 3 = – 1 5 . Then, by substitution into (5.68), we obtain
25 1 2s + 1
F 8 s =  –  
 (5.72)
s + 1 5 s + 4s + 8 2
as before.
The remaining steps are the same as in Example 5.3, and thus f 8 t is the same as f 3 t , that is,
2 –t 2 –2t 3 –2t
f 8 t = f 3 t =  e –  e cos 2t +  e sin 2t u 0 t
5 5 10
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
5.5 Summary
The Inverse Laplace Transform Integral defined as
+ j
–1 1
– j
st
L F s = f t =  F s e ds
2j
is difficult to evaluate because it requires contour integration using complex variables theory.
For most engineering problems we can refer to Tables of Properties, and Common Laplace
transform pairs to lookup the Inverse Laplace transform. The partial fraction expansion
method offers a convenient means of expressing Laplace transforms in a recognizable form
from which we can obtain the equivalent timedomain functions. The partial fraction expan
sion method can be applied whether the poles of F s are distinct, complex conjugates,
repeated, or a combination of these. The method of clearing the fractions is an alternate
method of partial fraction expansion.
If the highest power m of the numerator N s is less than the highest power n of the denomi
nator D s , i.e., m n , F s is said to be expressed as a proper rational function. If m n , F s
is an improper rational function. The Laplace transform F s must be expressed as a proper
rational function before applying the partial fraction expansion. If F s is an improper rational
function, that is, if m n , we must first divide the numerator N s by the denominator D s to
obtain an expression of the form
2
F s = k0 + k1 s + k2 s + + km – n s
m–n
+N s

Ds
In a proper rational function, the roots of numerator N s are called the zeros of F s and the
roots of the denominator D s are called the poles of F s .
When F s is expressed as
r1 r2 r3 rn
F s = 
 +   + + 
 +  
s – p1 s – p2 s – p3 s – pn
The residues and poles of a rational function of polynomials can be found easily using the
MATLAB residue(a,b) function. The direct term is always empty (has no value) whenever
F s is a proper rational function. We can use the MATLAB factor(s) symbolic function to
convert the denominator polynomial form of F 2 s into a factored form. We can also use the
MATLAB collect(s) and expand(s) symbolic functions to convert the denominator factored
form of F 2 s into a polynomial form. In this chapter we introduced the new transform pair
n
d n
s ' t and in general, n t s
dt
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Exercises
5.6 Exercises
1. Find the Inverse Laplace transform of the following:
2
4 4 4 3s + 4 s + 6s + 3
a.  b. 2 c. 4 d. 5 e. 
s+3 s + 3 s + 3 s + 3 s + 3
5
3 2
2s + 3 s + 8s + 24s + 32 – 2s 3
c. 
2
 d. 
2
 e. e 
3
s + 4.25s + 1 s + 6s + 8 2s + 3
4. Use the Initial Value Theorem to find f 0 given that the Laplace transform of f t is
2s + 3

2
s + 4.25s + 1
Compare your answer with that of Exercise 3(c).
5. It is known that the Laplace transform F s has two distinct poles, one at s = 0 , the other at
s = – 1 . It also has a single zero at s = 1 , and we know that lim f t = 10 . Find F s and
t
ft .
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
3s + 4 3s + 4 3 + 5 3 – 5 3 s + 3 – 5 3 1 1
 =  = 3 
5
 = 3  – 5 
4 5
5 5
s + 3 s + 3 s + 3 s + 3 s + 3
d.
3 3 –3t 5 4 –3t 1 3 –3t 5 4 –3t
 t e –  t e =  t e –  t e
3! 4! 2 12
2 2 2
s + 6s + 9 – 6 = 
+ 6s + 3 = s s + 3 – 
6 1
= 
1
– 6 5
5 5 5 5 3
s + 3 s + 3 s + 3 s + 3 s + 3 s + 3
e.
1 2 –3t 6 4 –3t 1 2 –3t 1 4 –3t
 t e –  t e =  t e –  t e
2! 4! 2 2
2.
a.
s + 4 3 + 2 3 – 2 3  = 3 
3s + 4  = 3

s + 2 – 2 3 s + 2 1 29
 = 3  –  
2 2 2 2 2 2 9 2 2
s + 4s + 85 s + 2 + 81 s + 2 + 9 s + 2 + 9 s + 2 + 9
s + 2  2 9 – 2t 2 –2t
= 3  –  
2 9
3e cos 9t –  e sin 9t
s + 2 + 9
2
s + 2 + 9
2 2 9
b.
4s + 5  = 
4s + 5 4s + 5 s+54
  =  = 4 
2 2
2 2 2 2
s + 5s + 18.5 s + 5s + 6.25 + 12.25 s + 2.5 + 3.5 s + 2.5 + 3.5
s + 10 4 – 10 4 + 5 4 s + 2.5 5 3.5
1  
= 4 
2 2
= 4 
2
 – 
2 3.5
2 2
s + 2.5 + 3.5 s + 2.5 + 3.5 s + 2.5 + 3.5
s + 2.5 10 3.5 – 2.5t 10 –2.5t
= 4  –   4e cos 3.5t –  e sin 3.5t
s + 2.5 + 3.5
2 2 7 s + 2.5 + 3.5 2 2 7
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
2
s + 3s + 2 s + 1s + 2 s + 1 s+1
 =  =  = 
3 2 2 2 2
s + 5s + 10.5s + 9 s + 2 s + 3s + 4.5 s + 3s + 4.5 s + 3s + 2.25 – 2.25 + 4.5
s + 1.5 – 1.5 + 1 s + 1.5 1 0.5 1.5
=  =  –  

2 2 2 2 1.5 2 2
s + 1.5 + 1.5 s + 1.5 + 1.5 s + 1.5 + 1.5
s + 1.5 1 1.5 – 1.5t 1 –1.5t
 –  
=  e cos 1.5t –  e sin 1.5t
2 2 3 2 2 3
s + 1.5 + 1.5 s + 2.5 + 3.5
d.
2
s – 16 s + 4 s – 4  = 
 = 
 s – 4  = 
s + 2 – 2 – 4
3 2 2 2 2 2 2
s + 8s + 24s + 32 s + 4 s + 4s + 8 s + 2 + 2 s + 2 + 2
s+2 1 62
=  –  
2 2 2 2 2
s + 2 + 2 s + 2 + 2
s+2 2
 e –2t cos 2t – 3e –2t sin 2t
=  – 3 
2 2 2 2
s + 2 + 2 s + 2 + 2
e.
s+1 s + 1 1
 =  = 
3
s + 6s + 11s + 6
2 s + 1 s + 2 s + 3 s + 2 s + 3
1 r1 r2 1 1
 + 
=  =  r 1 =  =1 r 2 =  = –1
s + 2s + 3 s + 2 s +3 s+3 s = –2
s+2 s = –3
1 1 1 – 2t – 3t
=  =  –  e – e
s + 2s + 3 s+2 s+3
3.
3s  + 1
3s + 2 =  2 5 s  2 5  2
a.    = 3  +   3 cos 5t +  sin 5t
2
s + 25
2 2
s +5
2 2 5 s +5 2 2 2
s +5
2 5 s +5 5
2 2
5s + 3 5s 3 1 1
 =  +  5  sin 2t + 2t cos 2t + 3  sin 2t – 2t cos 2t
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 28
b. s + 4 s + 2 s + 2
2s + 3  = 
2s + 3 r1 r2
  = 
 + 

2
s + 4.25s + 1 s + 4s + 1 4 s+4 s+14
c.
2s + 3 –5 4 2s + 3 52 2
r 1 =  =  =  r 2 =  =  = 
s+14 s = –4
– 15 4 3 s+4 s = –1 4
15 4 3
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Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
43 23 2 – 4t –t 4
 +   2e + e
s+4 s+14 3
3 2 2 2
s + 8s + 24s + 32 s + 4 s + 4s + 8 s + 4s + 8
 =  =  and by long division
2
s + 6s + 8 s + 2s + 4 s + 2
d.
2
+ 4s + 8 = s + 2 + 
s 4  ' t + 2 t + 4e –2t
s+2 s+2
e.
– 2s 3 – 2s
e 
3
e F s f t – 2 u 0 t – 2
2s + 3
3
32
3  =  38 38 3 1 2 – 3 2 t 
3 2 – 3 2 t
F s =   = 3   t e
 =  = t e
3 3 3 3 8 2! 16
2s + 3 2s + 3 2 2s + 3 2 s + 3 2
– 2s – 2s 3 3 2 – 3 2 t – 2
e F s = e 3  t – 2 e u0 t – 2
2s + 3 16
2
2s + 3 2s + 3s 
f 0 = lim s 
 = lim 
s s 2 + 4.25s + 1 s s 2 + 4.25s + 1
2 2 2
2s s + 3s s
= lim  2+3s
 = lim 
=2
2 2
s s s + 4.25s s + 1 s 2 2 s 1 + 4.25 s + 1 s 2
The value f 0 = 2 is the same as in the time domain expression found in Exercise 3(c).
s – 1
5. We are given that F s = A
 and lim f t = lim sF s = 10 . Then,
ss + 1 t s0
As – 1 s – 1 = – A = 10
lim s  = A lim 

s 0 ss + 1 s 0 s + 1
Therefore,
– 10 s – 1 r r2 10 20 –t
F s =  = 1 + 
 =  –  10 – 20e u 0 t
ss + 1 s s+1 s s+1
that is, –t
f t = 10 – 20e u 0 t
and we observe that
lim f t = 10
t
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Chapter 6
Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
T
his chapter presents applications of the Laplace transform. Several examples are presented
to illustrate how the Laplace transformation is applied to circuit analysis. Complex imped
ance, complex admittance, and transfer functions are also defined.
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
Example 6.1
Use the Laplace transform method and apply Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) to find the voltage
v C t across the capacitor for the circuit of Figure 6.4, given that v C 0 = 6 V .
vS
+ +
C v t
C
1F
12u 0 t V
Figure 6.4. Circuit for Example 6.1
Solution:
We apply KCL at node A as shown in Figure 6.5.
R iR
A
vS iC
+ +
C v t
C
1F
12u 0 t V
Figure 6.5. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 6.1
Then,
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Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency
iR + iC = 0
or
v C t – 12u 0 t dv C
 + 1  = 0
1 dt
dv C
 + v C t = 12u 0 t (6.1)
dt
The Laplace transform of (6.1) is
12
sV C s – v C 0 + V C s = 
s
12
s + 1 V C s =  + 6
s
6s + 12
V C s = 
ss + 1
By partial fraction expansion,
6s + 12 r r2
V C s =  = 1 + 

ss + 1 s s + 1
6s + 12
r 1 =  = 12
s + 1 s=0
6s + 12
r 2 =  = –6
s s = –1
Therefore,
V C s = 12 6  12 – 6e –t = 12 – 6e –t u t = v t
 –  0 C
s s+1
Example 6.2
Use the Laplace transform method and apply Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) to find the voltage
v C t across the capacitor for the circuit of Figure 6.6, given that v C 0 = 6 V .
R
vS
+ +
C v t
C
1F
12u 0 t V
Figure 6.6. Circuit for Example 6.2
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
Solution:
This is the same circuit as in Example 6.1. We apply KVL for the loop shown in Figure 6.7.
R
vS
+
C +
vC t
iC t
1F
12u 0 t V
Figure 6.7. Application of KVL for the circuit of Example 6.2
t
1
Ri C t + 
C – iC t dt = 12u 0 t
1 + 1 12 6 6
 I C s =  –  = 
s s s s
s+1
 I s = 6
 
s C s
or
6  i t = 6e –t u t
I C s =  C 0
s+1
Check: From Example 6.1, –t
v C t = 12 – 6e u 0 t
Then,
dv C dv d –t –t
i C t = C  = C = 12 – 6e u 0 t = 6e u 0 t + 6 t (6.3)
dt dt dt
The presence of the delta function in (6.3) is a result of the unit step that is applied at t = 0 .
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Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency
Example 6.3
In the circuit of Figure 6.8, switch S 1 closes at t = 0 , while at the same time, switch S 2 opens.
Use the Laplace transform method to find v out t for t 0 .
iS t
t = 0
2A
S2
t = 0 2 0.5 H
L1
+
C R1 i L1 t L2
+ S1
v out t
R2 1
1F vC 0 = 3 V 0.5 H
Figure 6.8. Circuit for Example 6.3
Solution:
Since the circuit contains a capacitor and an inductor, we must consider two initial conditions
One is given as v C 0 = 3 V . The other initial condition is obtained by observing that there is
an initial current of 2 A in inductor L 1 ; this is provided by the 2 A current source just before
switch S 2 opens. Therefore, our second initial condition is i L1 0 = 2 A .
For t 0 , we transform the circuit of Figure 6.8 into its sdomain* equivalent shown in Figure 6.9.
+
2 0.5s +
1V
1/s
1 0.5s V out s
+
3/s
* Henceforth, for convenience, we will refer the time domain as tdomain and the complex frequency domain as sdomain.
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
The polarity of this voltage source is as shown in Figure 6.9 so that it is consistent with the direc
tion of the current i L1 t in the circuit of Figure 6.8 just before switch S 2 opens. The initial
capacitor voltage is replaced by a voltage source equal to 3 s .
We will use MATLAB to factor the denominator D s of (6.6) into a linear and a quadratic fac
tor.
p=[1 8 10 4]; r=roots(p) % Find the roots of D(s)
r =
6.5708
0.7146 + 0.3132i
0.7146  0.3132i
y=expand((s + 0.7146 0.3132j)*(s + 0.7146 + 0.3132j)) % Find quadratic form
y =
s^2+3573/2500*s+3043737/5000000
3573/2500 % Simplify coefficient of s
ans =
1.4292
3043737/5000000 % Simplify constant term
ans =
0.6087
Therefore,
V out s =  2s s + 3
2s s + 3  = 
 (6.7)
3 2 2
s + 8s + 10s + 4 s + 6.57 s + 1.43s + 0.61
Next, we perform partial fraction expansion.
2s s + 3 r1 r2 s + r3
V out s = 
 = 
 + 
 (6.8)
s + 6.57 s + 1.43s + 0.61 s + 6.57 s + 1.43s + 0.61
2 2
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Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency
2s s + 3
r 1 = 
2
= 1.36 (6.9)
s + 1.43s + 0.61 s = – 6.57
r 3 = – 0.12
Similarly, equating coefficients of s 2 , we obtain
2 = r1 + r2
r 2 = 0.64 (6.11)
By substitution into (6.8),
1.36 0.64s – 0.12 1.36 0.64s + 0.46 – 0.58
V out s =  +  =  +  *
s + 6.57 s 2 + 1.43s + 0.61 s + 6.57 s 2 + 1.43s + 0.51 + 0.1
or
1.36 s + 0.715 – 0.91
V out s =  + 0.64 
2

2
s + 6.57 s + 0.715 + 0.316
1.36 0.64 s + 0.715 0.58
=  +  –  (6.12)
s + 6.57 s + 0.715 + 0.316 s + 0.715 2 + 0.316 2
2 2
1.36  + 
=  1.84 0.316
0.64 s + 0.715  – 

s + 6.57 s + 0.715 2 + 0.316 2 s + 0.715 2 + 0.316 2
0.64s – 0.12 
* We perform these steps to express the term 
2
in a form that resembles the transform pairs
s + 1.43s + 0.61
– at s+a – at
e cos tu 0 t 
2 2
and e sin tu0 t 
2 2
. The remaining steps are carried out in (6.12).
s + a + s + a +
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
From (6.13), we observe that as t , v out t 0 . This is to be expected because v out t is the
voltage across the inductor as we can see from the circuit of Figure 6.9. The MATLAB script
below will plot the relation (6.13) above.
t=0:0.01:10;...
Vout=1.36.*exp(6.57.*t)+0.64.*exp(0.715.*t).*cos(0.316.*t)1.84.*exp(0.715.*t).*sin(0.316.*t);...
plot(t,Vout); grid
1.5
0.5
0.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 6.11 shows the Simulink/SimPower Systems model for the circuit in Figure 6.8.
Figure 6.11. The Simulink/SimPowerSystems model for the circuit in Figure 6.8
68 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency
In the model in Figure 6.11, the Switch 1 and Switch 2 blocks are modeled as current sources
and unless a snubber* circuit is present, cannot be connected in series with a current source or in
series with an inductor. The Current Source block and the series RL block in Figure 6.11 do not
include snubbers and in this case, the Resistor blocks R3 and R4 , both set as 1 M , are con
nected in parallel with the Current Source block and the series RL block to act as snubbers.
The Block Parameters for the Simulink/SimPowerSystems blocks in Figure 6.11 are set as follows:
On the model in Figure 6.11 window click Simulation>Configuration Parameters, and select:
Type: Variable Step, Solver: ode23. Leave unlisted parameters in their default states.
Timer 1 and Timer 2 blocks Time(s): [0 3/60]
Amplitude Timer 1: [1 0] (Closed, then Open after 3/60 s)
Timer 2: [0 1] (Open, then Closed after 3/60 s)
Switch 1 block as shown in Figure 6.12
* A snubber is a device used to suppress transients such as voltage in electrical systems, force in mechanical sys
tems, and pressure in fluid mechanics.
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
Current Source block Peak Amplitude: 2, Phase: 90, Frequency: 0, Measurement: Current
With these settings the Current Source block behaves as a 2 Amp DC current source.
R1 L1 block  As shown in Figure 6.13.
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Complex Impedance Z(s)
R sL
+
+ V out s
Is 1
VS s 
sC
Figure 6.15. Series RLC circuit in sdomain
1
For this circuit, the sum R + sL + 
 represents the total opposition to current flow. Then,
sC
VS s
I s =  (6.14)
R + sL + 1 sC
VS s 1
Z s  = R + sL +  (6.15)
Is sC
and thus, the s – domain current I s can be found from the relation (6.16) below.
VS s
I s = 
 (6.16)
Zs
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
where
1
Z s = R + sL +  (6.17)
sC
Example 6.4
For the network of Figure 6.16, all values are in (ohms). Find Z s using:
a. nodal analysis
b. successive combinations of series and parallel impedances
1 1s
+
VS s s s
Figure 6.16. Circuit for Example 6.4
Solution:
a.
We will first find I s , and we will compute Z s using (6.15). We assign the voltage V A s at
node A as shown in Figure 6.17.
1 VA s 1s
+ A
Is
VS s s s
1 + 1 1
 +  V A s = V S s
s s+1s
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Complex Admittance Y(s)
3
s +1
V A s = 
3 2
 VS s
s + 2s + s + 1
VS s – VA s 3
s +1 2s + 1
2
I s = 
 = 1 –  V S s = 
3 2
 VS s
1 3
s + 2s + s + 1
2
s + 2s + s + 1
and thus,
VS s 3 2
+ 2s + s + 1
 = s
Z s =  (6.18)
Is 2s + 1
2
b.
The impedance Z s can also be found by successive combinations of series and parallel
impedances, as it is done with series and parallel resistances. For convenience, we denote the
network devices as Z 1 Z 2 Z 3 and Z 4 shown in Figure 6.16.
1 1s
a
Z1 Z3
Zs s Z2 s Z4
b
Figure 6.18. Computation of the impedance of Example 6.4 by series parallel combinations
To find the equivalent impedance Z s , looking to the right of terminals a and b , we begin on
the right side of the network and we proceed to the left combining impedances as we would
combine resistances where the symbol  denotes parallel combination. Then,
Z s = Z 3 + Z 4  Z 2 + Z 1
2 3 3 2
s s + 1 s  + 1 = 
Z s =  s + 1  + 1 = 
s + s + 1 = 
s + 2s + s + 1 (6.19)
s+s+1s 2
2s + 1 s
2
2s + 1 2s + 1
2
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
+
G 1
 sC
Vs
sL
IS s
Figure 6.19. Parallel GLC circuit in sdomain
For the circuit of Figure 6.19,
1
GV s +  V s + sCV s = I s
sL
1
G + 
 + sC V s = I s
sL
Is 1 1
Y s  = G +  + sC =  (6.20)
Vs sL Zs
IS s
V s = 
 (6.21)
Ys
where
1 + sC
Y s = G +  (6.22)
sL
We recall that s = + j . Therefore, Y s is a complex quantity, and it is referred to as the com
plex input admittance of an s – domain GLC parallel circuit. In other words, Y s is the ratio of
the current excitation I S s to the voltage response V s under zero state (zero initial condi
tions).
Example 6.5
Compute Z s and Y s for the circuit of Figure 6.20. All values are in (ohms). Verify your
answers with MATLAB.
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Complex Admittance Y(s)
13s 8s
10 20
Zs
Ys
5s 16 s
Z1
Z s , Y s Z2 Z3
Z 2 = 10 + 5s
Z 3 = 20 + 16 5s + 4 
 = 4
s s
Then,
4 5s + 4 4 5s + 4
10 + 5s  10 + 5s 
Z2 Z3 13s + 8
2 s 13s + 8
2 s
Z s = Z1 +  =  +  =  + 
Z2 + Z3 s 4 5s + 4 s 2
5s + 10s + 4 5s + 4
10 + 5s +  
s s
2 2 4 3 2
13s + 8 20 5s + 14s + 8 65s + 490s + 528s + 400s + 128
=  +  = 
s 2
5s + 30s + 16
2
s 5s + 30s + 16
Check with MATLAB:
syms s; % Define symbolic variable s. Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
z1 = 13*s + 8/s; z2 = 5*s + 10; z3 = 20 + 16/s; z = z1 + z2 * z3 / (z2+z3)
z =
13*s+8/s+(5*s+10)*(20+16/s)/(5*s+30+16/s)
z10 = simplify(z)
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
z10 =
(65*s^4+490*s^3+528*s^2+400*s+128)/s/(5*s^2+30*s+16)
pretty(z10)
4 3 2
65 s + 490 s + 528 s + 400 s + 128

2
s (5 s + 30 s + 16)
The complex input admittance Y s is found by taking the reciprocal of Z s , that is,
2
Y s =  s 5s + 30s + 16
1  = 
 (6.23)
Zs 4 3
65s + 490s + 528s + 400s + 128
2
V out s
G v s  (6.24)
V in s
Similarly, the ratio of the output current I out s to the input current I in s under zero state condi
tions, is called the current transfer function denoted as G i s , that is,
I out s
G i s  (6.25)
I in s
The current transfer function of (6.25) is rarely used; therefore, from now on, the transfer func
tion will have the meaning of the voltage transfer function, i.e.,
* To appreciate the usefulness of the transfer function, let us express relation (6.24) as V out s = G v s V in s .
This relation indicates that if we know the transfer function of a network, we can compute its output by multi
plication of the transfer function by its input. We should also remember that the transfer function concept exists
only in the complex frequency domain. In the time domain this concept is known as the impulse response, and
it is discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling, ISBN 9781
934404119.
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Transfer Functions
V out s
G s  (6.26)
V in s
Example 6.6
Derive an expression for the transfer function G s for the circuit of Figure 6.22, where R g rep
resents the internal resistance of the applied (source) voltage V S , and R L represents the resis
tance of the load that consists of R L , L , and C .
+
RL
Rg
L v out
+
C
vg
Figure 6.22. Circuit for Example 6.6
Solution:
No initial conditions are given, and even if they were, we would disregard them since the transfer
function was defined as the ratio of the output voltage V out s to the input voltage
V in s = V g s under zero initial conditions. The s – domain circuit is shown in Figure 6.23.
+
RL
Rg
sL V out s
+
1
V in s 
sC
Figure 6.23. The sdomain circuit for Example 6.6
The transfer function G s is readily found by application of the voltage division expression of
the s – domain circuit of Figure 6.23. Thus,
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
R L + sL + 1 sC
V out s =  V in s
R g + R L + sL + 1 sC
Therefore,
V out s R L + Ls + 1 sC
G s = 
 = 
 (6.27)
V in s R g + R L + Ls + 1 sC
Example 6.7
Compute the transfer function G s for the circuit of Figure 6.24 in terms of the circuit constants
R 1 R 2 R 3 C 1 and C 2 Then, replace the complex variable s with j , and the circuit constants
with their numerical values and plot the magnitude G s = V out s V in s versus radian fre
quency .
R2 40 K C2 10 nF
R1 R3
200 K 50K
vin C1 25 nF vout
R2 1/sC2
R1 1 R3
2
V1 s V2 s
Vin (s) 1/sC1 Vout (s)
V 1 s – V in s V1 V 1 s – V out s V 1 s – V 2 s
 + 
 +  +  = 0 (6.28)
R1 1 sC 1 R2 R3
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Transfer Functions
At node 2,
V2 s – V1 s V out s
 = 
 (6.29)
R3 1 sC 2
V 1 s = – sR 3 C 2 V out s (6.30)
and by substitution of (6.30) into (6.28), rearranging, and collecting like terms, we obtain:

1 1 1 – sR C – 
1 1
+  +  + sC V s =  V s
R1 R2 R3 1
3 2
R2 out R 1 in
or
V out s –1
G s = 
 = 
 (6.31)
V in s R 1 1 R 1 + 1 R 2 + 1 R 3 + sC 1 sR 3 C 2 + 1 R 2
To simplify the denominator of (6.31), we use the MATLAB script below with the given values
of the resistors and the capacitors.
syms s; % Define symbolic variable s
R1=2*10^5; R2=4*10^4; R3=5*10^4; C1=25*10^(9); C2=10*10^(9);...
DEN=R1*((1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+s*C1)*(s*R3*C2)+1/R2); simplify(DEN)
ans =
1/200*s+188894659314785825/75557863725914323419136*s^2+5
188894659314785825/75557863725914323419136 % Simplify coefficient of s^2
ans =
2.5000e006
1/200 % Simplify coefficient of s^2
ans =
0.0050
Therefore,
V out s –1
G s = 
 = 
V in s –6 2
2.5 10 s + 5 10 s + 5
–3
We use MATLAB to plot the magnitude of (6.32) on a semilog scale with the following script:
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
w=1:10:10000; Gs=1./(2.5.*10.^(6).*w.^25.*j.*10.^(3).*w+5);...
semilogx(w,abs(Gs)); xlabel('Radian Frequency w'); ylabel('Vout/Vin');...
title('Magnitude Vout/Vin vs. Radian Frequency'); grid
The plot is shown in Figure 6.22. We observe that the given op amp circuit is a second order low
pass filter whose cutoff frequency ( – 3 dB ) occurs at about 700 r s .
Magnitude Vout/Vin vs. Radian Frequency
0.2
0.15
Vout/Vin
0.1
0.05
0
0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10
Radian Frequency w
The Simulink Transfer Fcn block implements a transfer function where the input V IN s and
the output V OUT s can be expressed in transfer function form as
V OUT s
G s = 
 (6.33)
V IN s
Example 6.8
Let us reconsider the active lowpass filter op amp circuit of Figure 6.24, Page 618 where we
found that the transfer function is
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Using the Simulink Transfer Fcn Block
V out s –1
G s = 
 = 
 (6.34)
V in s R 1 1 R 1 + 1 R 2 + 1 R 3 + sC 1 sR 3 C 2 + 1 R 2
Next, we let the input be the unit step function u 0 t , and as we know from Chapter 4,
u 0 t 1 s . Therefore,
1 –1 –1
V out s = G s V in s =   =  (6.36)
s s 2 + 3s + 1 3
s + 3s + s
2
To find v out t , we perform partial fraction expansion, and for convenience, we use the MAT
LAB residue function as follows:
num=1; den=[1 3 1 0];[r p k]=residue(num,den)
r =
0.1708
1.1708
1.0000
p =
2.6180
0.3820
0
k =
[]
Therefore,
1 –1 1.171 0.171
=–1
 +  –  – 1 + 1.171e
– 0.382t – 2.618t
= v out t (6.37)
s s 2 + 3s + 1
  – 0.171e
s s + 0.382 s + 2.618
The plot for v out t is obtained with the following MATLAB script, and it is shown in Figure
6.27.
t=0:0.01:10; ft=1+1.171.*exp(0.382.*t)0.171.*exp(2.618.*t); plot(t,ft); grid
The same plot can be obtained using the Simulink model of Figure 6.29, where in the Function
Block Parameters dialog box for the Transfer Fcn block we enter – 1 for the numerator, and
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
1 3 1 for the denominator. After the simulation command is executed, the Scope block dis
plays the waveform of Figure 6.29.
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0 2 4 6 8 10
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Summary
6.6 Summary
The Laplace transformation provides a convenient method of analyzing electric circuits since
integrodifferential equations in the t – domain are transformed to algebraic equations in the
s – domain .
In the s – domain the terms sL and 1 sC are called complex inductive impedance, and com
plex capacitive impedance respectively. Likewise, the terms and sC and 1 sL are called com
plex capacitive admittance and complex inductive admittance respectively.
The expression
1
Z s = R + sL + 
sC
VS s
I s = 

Zs
The expression
1 + sC
Y s = G + 
sL
IS s
V s = 

Ys
In an s – domain circuit, the ratio of the output voltage V out s to the input voltage V in s
under zero state conditions is referred to as the voltage transfer function and it is denoted as
G s , that is,
V out s
G s 
V in s
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
6.7 Exercises
1. In the circuit below, switch S has been closed for a long time, and opens at t = 0 . Use the
Laplace transform method to compute i L t for t 0 .
t = 0 R1
10
S
R2 iL t 1 mH +
20 L
32 V
2. In the circuit below, switch S has been closed for a long time, and opens at t = 0 . Use the
Laplace transform method to compute v c t for t 0 .
R1 t = 0 R3 R4
6 K 30 K 20 K
+ S R2 60 K
C +v t
C 10 K
40 R5
72 V  F
9
3. Use mesh analysis and the Laplace transform method, to compute i 1 t and i 2 t for the cir
cuit below, given that i L (0 = 0 and v C (0 = 0 .
L1 R2
2H 3
R1 1 L2 1H
+
C +
v1 t = u0 t i1 t i t +
1F 2
v 2 t = 2u 0 t
b. compute the t – domain value of i 1 t when v 1 t = u 0 t , and all initial conditions are
zero.
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Exercises
I 1 s R1 VC s R3
+
1 1s 3
+ R2
+
1
V1 s R4 2 V 2 s = 2V C s
5. Derive the transfer functions for the networks (a) and (b) below.
+ R C + + L +
V in s V in s R V out s
V out s
(a) (b)
6. Derive the transfer functions for the networks (a) and (b) below.
+ C + + R
+
V in s R V out s V in s L V out s
(a) (b)
7. Derive the transfer functions for the networks (a) and (b) below.
+ R +
+ + L
L C
V in s R V in s V out s
V out s
C
(a)
(b)
8. Derive the transfer function for the networks (a) and (b) below.
C R2
R1 R2 C R1
V in s V in s
V out s V out s
(a) (b)
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
9. Derive the transfer function for the network below. Using MATLAB, plot G s versus fre
quency in Hertz, on a semilog scale.
R1 = 11.3 k
R2 = 22.6 k
R3=R4 = 68.1 k
R4
R3 C1=C2 = 0.01 F
R1
V out s
V in s R2
C1
C2
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
S 10
20 +
1 mH
iL t 32 V
Then,
32
iL t =  = 3.2 A
t=0
 10
and thus the initial condition has been established as i L 0 = 3.2 A
For all t 0 the t – domain and s – domain circuits are as shown below.
–3
10 s IL s
1 mH
20 i L 0 = 3.2 A 20
+ –3
Li L 0 = 3.2 10 V
2. At t = 0 , the switch is closed and the t – domain circuit is as shown below.
6 K 30 K 20 K
S +
iT t
+ 60 K v C t 10 K i2 t
72 V
Then,
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
72 V 72 V 72 V
i T 0 =  =  =  = 2 mA
6 K + 60 K 60 K 6 K + 30 K 36 K
and
1
i 2 0 =  i T 0 = 1 mA
2
Therefore, the initial condition is
v C 0 = 20 K + 10 K i 2 0 = 30 K 1 mA = 30 V
1 6

–6  9 10
 +
60 K 40 9 10 s 40s VR 22.5 K
+ 10 K VC s +
30 s 30 s
60 K + 30 K 20 K + 10 K = 22.5 K
3 3
22.5 10  30 30 22.5 10
V C s = V R =   = 

6
9 10 40s + 22.5 10
3 s 6
9 10 40 + 22.5 10 s
3
3 3
30 22.5 10 22.5 10  = 
=  30 30 
 = 
6
9 10 40 22.5 10 + s
3 6 4
9 10 90 10 + s 10 +s
Then,
30  30e –10t u t V = v t
V C s =  0 C
s + 10
z1
z3
2s 3
1 s
+
+ z2
+
1s I1 s 1s I2 s
2s
Then,
628 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
z 1 + z 2 I 1 s – z 2 I 2 s = 1 s
– z 2 I 1 s + z 2 + z 3 I 2 s = – 2 s
and in matrix form
z1 + z2 –z2 I1 s 1s
=
–z2 z2 + z3 I2 s –2 s
We use the MATLAB script below we obtain the values of the currents.
syms s; z1=2*s; z2=1+1/s; z3=s+3; % Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
Z=[z1+z2 z2; z2 z2+z3]; Vs=[1/s 2/s]'; Is=Z\Vs; fprintf(' \n');...
disp('Is1 = '); pretty(Is(1)); disp('Is2 = '); pretty(Is(2))
Is1 =
2
2 s  1 + s

2 3
(6 s + 3 + 9 s + 2 s )
Is2 =
2
4 s + s + 1
 
2 3
(6 s + 3 + 9 s + 2 s ) conj(s)
Therefore, 2
s + 2s – 1  (1)
I 1 s = 
3 2
2s + 9s + 6s + 3
2
4s + s + 1
I 2 s = –  (2)
3 2
2s + 9s + 6s + 3
We use MATLAB to express the denominators of (1) and (2) as a product of a linear and a
quadratic term.
p=[2 9 6 3]; r=roots(p); fprintf(' \n'); disp('root1 ='); disp(r(1));...
disp('root2 ='); disp(r(2)); disp('root3 ='); disp(r(3)); disp('root2 + root3 ='); disp(r(2)+r(3));...
disp('root2 * root3 ='); disp(r(2)*r(3))
root1 =
3.8170
root2 =
0.3415 + 0.5257i
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
root3 =
0.3415  0.5257i
root2 + root3 =
0.6830
root2 * root3 =
0.3930
and with these values (1) is written as
2 r1 r2 s + r3
s + 2s – 1
I 1 s = 
 =   (3)
 + 
2
s + 3.817 s + 0.683s + 0.393 s + 3.817 s + 0.683s + 0.393
2
By inspection, the Inverse Laplace of first term on the right side of (4) is
0.48  – 3.82t
 0.48e (5)
s + 3.82
The second term on the right side of (4) requires some manipulation. Therefore, we will use
the MATLAB ilaplace(s) function to find the Inverse Laplace as shown below.
syms s t % Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
IL=ilaplace((0.52*s0.31)/(s^2+0.68*s+0.39));
pretty(IL)
630 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
2
Equating s , s , and constant terms, we obtain
r1 + r2 = –4
0.683r 1 + 3.817r 2 + r 3 = – 1
0.393r 1 + 3.817r 3 = – 1
By inspection, the Inverse Laplace of first term on the right side of (7) is
0.48
 – 4.47 e –3.82t (8)
s + 3.82
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 631
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
The second term on the right side of (7) requires some manipulation. Therefore, we will use
the MATLAB ilaplace(s) function to find the Inverse Laplace as shown below.
syms s t % Must have Symbolic Math Toolbox installed
IL=ilaplace((0.49*s+0.20)/(s^2+0.68*s+0.39)); pretty(IL)
167 17 1/2 1/2
 exp(  t) 14 sin(7/50 14 t)
9800 50
49 17 1/2
+  exp(  t) cos(7/50 14 t)
100 50
Thus,
– 3.82t – 0.34t – 0.34t
i 2 t = – 4.47 e + 0.06e sin 0.53t + 0.49e cos 0.53t
4.
VC s
+
1 1s 3
+ +
1
I1 s I2 s
V1 s 2 V 2 s = 2V C s
a. Mesh 1:
2 + 1 s I1 s – I2 s = V1 s
or
6 2 + 1 s I 1 s – 6I 2 s = 6V 1 s (1)
Mesh 2:
– I 1 s + 6I 2 s = – V 2 s = – 2 s I 1 s (2)
b. With V 1 s = 1 s we obtain
6s 1 6 11  
6  = 
I 1 s = Y s V 1 s =   = 
6 – 8 11 t
e = i1 t
11s + 8 s 11s + 8 s + 8 11 11
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
5.
+ R + + Ls +
V in s V out s V in s R V out s
1 Cs
a b
Network (a):
1 Cs
V out s =  V in s
R + 1 Cs
and thus
V out s 1 Cs 1 Cs 1 1 RC
G s = 
 =  =  =  = 
V in s R + 1 Cs RCs + 1 Cs RCs + 1 s + 1 RC
Network (b):
R
V out s =  V in s
Ls + R
and thus
V out s R RL
G s = 
 =  = 
V in s Ls + R s+RL
+ + + R +
1 Cs
V in s R V out s V in s Ls V out s
a b
Network (a):
R
V out s =  V in s
1 Cs + R
and
V out s R RCs s
G s = 
 =  =  = 
V in s 1 Cs + R RCs + 1 s + 1 RC
Network (b):
Ls
V out s =  V in s
R + Ls
and
V out s Ls  = 
s 
G s = 
 = 
V in s R + Ls s+RL
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
7.
+ +
R
+ L s 1 Cs
+ Ls
V in s V out s V in s V out s
R 1 Cs
a
b
Network (a):
R
V out s =  V in s
Ls + 1 Cs + R
and thus
V out s R RCs R L s
G s = 
 =  =  = 

V in s Ls + 1 Cs + R 2
LCs + 1 + RCs
2
s + R L s + 1 LC
This network is a secondorder bandpass filter.
Network (b):
Ls + 1 Cs
V out s =  V in s
R + Ls + 1 Cs
and
V out s Ls + 1 Cs LCs + 1
2 2
s + 1 LC
G s = 
 =  =  = 
V in s R + Ls + 1 Cs 2
LCs + RCs + 1
2
s + R L s + 1 LC
This network is a secondorder bandelimination (bandreject) filter.
634 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
8.
1 Cs R2
R1 R2 1 Cs R1
V in s V in s V out s
V out s
a b
Network (a):
R 1 Cs V s z
Let z 1 = R 1 and z 2 = R 2 1 Cs = 
2 out
 = – 2 , and
 . For inverting op amps 
R 2 + 1 Cs V in s z1
thus
V out s – R 2 1 Cs R 2 + 1 Cs – R 2 1 Cs –R1 C
G s = 
 = 
 = 
 = 

V in s R1 R 1 R 2 + 1 Cs s + 1 R2 C
out V s z
 = – 2 , and thus
Let z 1 = R 1 + 1 Cs and z 2 = R 2 . For inverting opamps 
V in s z1
V out s –R2 – R 2 R 1 s
G s = 
 = 
 = 

V in s R 1 + 1 Cs s + 1 R1 C
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 635
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
9.
R1 = 11.3 K
R2 = 22.6 K
R4 R3=R4 = 68.1 K
R3 C1=C2 = 0.01 F
V1
R1 V3
V out s
V in s V2 R2
1 C1 s
1 C2 s
At Node V 1 :
V 1 s V 1 s – V out s
 +  = 0
R3 R4
1
 1 1
 +  V 1 s =  V out s (1)
R R4 R4
3
At Node V 3 :
V3 s – V2 s V3 s
 +  = 0
R2 1 C1 s
V1 s – V2 s
 + C 1 sV 1 s = 0
R2
1
1 + C s V s = 
 V s (2)
R 1 1
R2 2
2
At Node V 2 :
V 2 s – V in s V 2 s – V 1 s V 2 s – V out s
 +  +  = 0
R1 R2 1 C2 s
1
 1 V in s V 1 s
 +  + C 2 s V 2 s =  +  + C 2 sV out s (3)
R R2 R1 R2
1
636 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
From (1)
1 R4 R3
V 1 s =  V out s =  V out s (4)
R3 + R4 R3 R4 R3 + R4
From (2)
1
V 2 s = R 2  + C 1 s V 1 s = 1 + R 2 C 1 s V 1 s
R
2
1 1 R3 1 + R2 C1 s V in s 1 R3

 +  + C 2 s  V out s =  +   V out s + C 2 sV out s
R R2 R3 + R4 R1 R2 R3 + R4
1
1 +  R3 1 + R2 C1 s 1
1 + C s  R3 1
 –   – C 2 s V out s =  V in s
R R 2 R3 + R4 R 2 R 3 + R 4 R 1
1 2
and thus
V out s 1
G s = 
 = 
V in s R3 1 + R2 C 1 s 1 R3
1 1
R 1  +  + C 2 s  –   – C 2 s
R R2 R3 + R4 R2 R3 + R4
1
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 637
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Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
1.2
Vout/Vin 1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0 1 2 3 4
10 10 10 10 10
Radian Frequency w
The plot above indicates that this circuit is a secondorder lowpass filter.
638 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling
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Chapter 7
State Variables and State Equations
T
his chapter is an introduction to state variables and state equations as they apply in circuit
analysis. The state transition matrix is defined, and the statespace to transfer function
equivalence is presented. Several examples are presented to illustrate their application.
Example 7.1
A series RLC circuit with excitation
jt
vS t = e (7.2)
* These are discussed in Numerical Analysis using MATLAB and Excel, ISBN 9781934404034.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 71
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
x1 = i (7.6)
and
dx
x 2 = di
 = 1 = x· 1 (7.7)
dt dt
Then, 2 2
x· 2 = d i dt (7.8)
where x· k denotes the derivative of the state variable x k . From (7.5) through (7.8), we obtain the
state equations
x· 1 = x 2
R 1 1 jt (7.9)
x· 2 = –  x 2 –  x 1 +  je
L LC L
It is convenient and customary to express the state equations in matrix* form. Thus, we write the
state equations of (7.9) as
x· 1 0 1 x 0
= 1
1
+ u (7.10)
x· 2 – 
 –R
 x 2 1 j e jt
LC L L
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Expressing Differential Equations in State Equation Form
x· 0 1 x1 0
x· = 1 A = 1 x = b= 1 and u = any input (7.12)
x· 2 – 
 –R
 x2  j e jt
LC L L
In general, the state representation of a network can be described by the pair of the of the state
space equations
x· = Ax + bu
y = Cx + du (7.14)
The state space equations of (7.14) can be realized with the block diagram of Figure 7.1.
+ x· x +
u b
+
dt C
+
y
Figure 7.1. Block diagram for the realization of the state equations of (7.14)
We will learn how to solve the matrix equations of (7.14) in the subsequent sections.
Example 7.2
A fourthrder network is described by the differential equation
4 3 2
d y d y d y dy
 + a 3 3 + a 2 2 + a 1  + a 0 y t = u t (7.15)
dt
4
dt dt dt
where y t is the output representing the voltage or current of the network, and u t is any
input. Express (7.15) as a set of state equations.
Solution:
The differential equation of (7.15) is of fourthorder; therefore, we must define four state vari
ables which will be used with the resulting four firstorder state equations.
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 73
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
We denote the state variables as x 1 x 2 x 3 , and x 4 , and we relate them to the terms of the given
differential equation as
2 3
x1 = y t x 2 = dy
 x3 = d
y x4 = d
y (7.16)
dt 2 3
dt dt
We observe that
x· 1 = x 2
x· 2 = x 3
x· 3 = x 4 (7.17)
4
d y
 = x· 4 = – a 0 x 1 – a 1 x 2 – a 2 x 3 – a 3 x 4 + u t
4
dt
and in matrix form
x· 1 0 1 0 0 x1 0
x· 2 0 0 1 0 x2
= + 0 ut \ (7.18)
x· 3 0 0 0 1 x3 0
x· 4 –a0 –a1 –a2 –a3 x4 1
We can also obtain the state equations directly from given circuits. We choose the state variables
to represent inductor currents and capacitor voltages. In other words, we assign state variables to
energy storing devices. The examples below illustrate the procedure.
Example 7.3
Write state equation(s) for the circuit of Figure 7.2, given that v C 0 = 0 , and u 0 t is the unit
step function.
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Expressing Differential Equations in State Equation Form
+ +
v C t = v out t
C
vS u0 t
Example 7.4
Write state equation(s) for the circuit of Figure 7.4 assuming i L 0 = 0 , and the output y is
defined as y = i t .
R
+ i t L
vS u0 t
Figure 7.4. Circuit for Example 7.4
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 75
Copyright © Orchard Publications
Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
Solution:
This circuit contains only one energystoring device, the inductor; therefore, we need only one
state variable. We choose the state variable to denote the current through the inductor as shown
in Figure 7.5.
R
+ it = x L
vS u0 t
Figure 7.5. Circuit for Example 7.4 with assigned state variable x
By KVL,
vR + vL = vS u0 t
or
di
Ri + L  = v S u 0 t
dt
or
Rx + Lx· = v S u 0 t
Therefore, the state equations are
R 1
x· = –  x +  v S u 0 t
L L (7.21)
y = x
where , , k 1 , and k 2 are scalar constants, and the initial condition, if nonzero, is denoted as
x0 = x t0 (7.23)
We will now prove that the solution of the first state equation in (7.22) is
t – t0 t
t –
xt = e x0 + e t e
0
u d (7.24)
Proof:
First, we must show that (7.24) satisfies the initial condition of (7.23). This is done by substitu
tion of t = t 0 in (7.24). Then,
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Solution of Single State Equations
t0
t0 – t0 t –
x t0 = e x0 + e t 0
e u d (7.25)
d t – t0 d t t
–
x· t =  e
dt
x 0 +  e
dt t e 0
u d
or
t – t0 t
t – t –
x· t = e x0 + e t 0
e u d + e e u = t
t – t0 t
t – t – t
= e x0 + e t 0
e u d + e e ut
or
t – t0 t
t –
x· t = e x0 + t e
0
u d + u t (7.27)
We observe that the bracketed terms of (7.27) are the same as the right side of the assumed solu
tion of (7.24). Therefore,
x· = x + u
and this is the same as the first equation of (7.22).
In summary, if and are scalar constants, the solution of
x· = x + u (7.28)
with initial condition
x0 = x t0 (7.29)
is obtained from the relation
t – t0 t
t –
xt = e x0 + e t e
0
u d (7.30)
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Computing and Simulink / SimPowerSystems Modeling 77
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
Example 7.5
Use (7.28) through (7.30) to find the capacitor voltage v C t of the circuit of Figure 7.6 for t 0 ,
given that the initial condition is v C 0 = 1 V
2 C +
+ vC t
2u 0 t 0.5 F
or –t
v C t = x t = 2 – e u 0 t (7.31)
Assuming that the output y is the capacitor voltage, the output state equation is
–t
y t = x t = 2 – e u 0 t (7.32)
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The State Transition Matrix
where for two or more simultaneous differential equations, A and C are 2 2 or higher order
matrices, and b and d are column vectors with two or more rows. In this section we will intro
duce the state transition matrix e , and we will prove that the solution of the matrix differential
At
equation
x· = Ax + bu (7.34)
with initial conditions
x t0 = x0 (7.35)
is obtained from the relation
A t – t0 t
–A
t e
At
x t = e x0 + e bu d (7.36)
0
Proof:
Let A be any n n matrix whose elements are constants. Then, another n n matrix denoted as
t , is said to be the state transition matrix of (7.34), if it is related to the matrix A as the
matrix power series
At 1 22 1 33 1 nn
t e = I + At +  A t +  A t + +  A t (7.37)
2! 3! n!
where we have used (7.38) for the initial condition. The integral is zero since the upper and
lower limits of integration are the same.
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
or
A t – t0 t
–A At – A t
t e
At
x· t = A e x0 + e bu d + e e bu t (7.42)
0
We recognize the bracketed terms in (7.42) as x t , and the last term as bu t . Thus, the expres
sion (7.42) reduces to
x· t = Ax + bu
Therefore, the solution of second or higher order circuits using the state variable method, entails
the computation of the state transition matrix e , and integration of (7.45).
At
At
7.4 Computation of the State Transition Matrix e
Let A be an n n matrix, and I be the n n identity matrix. By definition, the eigenvalues i ,
i = 1 2 n of A are the roots of the nth order polynomial
det A – I = 0 (7.46)
We recall that expansion of a determinant produces a polynomial. The roots of the polynomial of
(7.46) can be real (unequal or equal), or complex numbers.
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Computation of the State Transition Matrix
Evaluation of the state transition matrix e is based on the CayleyHamilton theorem. This theo
At
rem states that a matrix can be expressed as an n – 1 th degree polynomial in terms of the
matrix A as
At 2 n–1
e = a0 I + a1 A + a2 A + + an – 1 A (7.47)
We accept (7.47) without proving it. The proof can be found in Linear Algebra and Matrix The
ory textbooks.
Since the coefficients a i are functions of the eigenvalues , we must consider the two cases dis
cussed in Subsections 7.4.1 and 7.4.2 below.
If 1 2 3 n , that is, if all eigenvalues of a given matrix A are distinct, the coeffi
cients a i are found from the simultaneous solution of the following system of equations:
2 n–1 1 t
a0 + a1 1 + a2 1 + + an – 1 1 = e
2 n–1 2 t
a0 + a1 2 + a2 2 + + an – 1 2 = e
(7.48)
2 n–1 n t
a0 + a1 n + a2 n + + an – 1 n = e
Example 7.6
A = –2 1
0 –1
Solution:
We must first find the eigenvalues of the given matrix A . These are found from the expansion
of
det A – I = 0
For this example,
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
det A – I = det – 2 1 – 1 0 = det – 2 – 1 = 0
0 –1 0 1 0 –1–
= – 2 – – 1 – = 0
or
+ 1 + 2 = 0
Therefore,
1 = – 1 and 2 = – 2 (7.49)
Next, we must find the coefficients a i of (7.47). Since A is a 2 2 matrix, we only need to con
sider the first two terms of that relation, that is,
At
e = a0 I + a1 A (7.50)
The coefficients a 0 and a 1 are found from (7.48). For this example,
1 t
a0 + a1 1 = e
2 t
a0 + a1 2 = e
or
–t
a0 + a1 –1 = e
(7.51)
– 2t
a0 + a1 –2 = e
–2 1
At –t – 2t 1 0 –t – 2t
e = 2e – e + e – e
0 1 0 –1
or
– 2t –t – 2t
e
At
= e e –e (7.53)
–t
0 e
In summary, we compute the state transition matrix e for a given matrix A using the following
At
procedure:
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Computation of the State Transition Matrix
2 n–1 1 t
a0 + a1 1 + a2 1 + + an – 1 1 = e
2 n–1 2 t
a0 + a1 2 + a2 2 + + an – 1 2 = e
2 n–1 n t
a0 + a1 n + a2 n + + an – 1 n = e
We use as many equations as the number of the eigenvalues, and we solve for the coefficients
ai .
4. We substitute the a i coefficients into the state transition matrix of (7.54), and we simplify.
Example 7.7
5 7 –5
A = 0 4 –1 (7.55)
2 8 –3
Solution:
1. We first compute the eigenvalues from det A – I = 0 . We obtain A – I at once, by sub
tracting from each of the main diagonal elements of A . Then,
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
5– 7 –5
det A – I = det 0 4– –1 = 0 (7.56)
2 8 –3–
2 1 t
a0 + a1 1 + a2 1 = e
2 2 t
a0 + a1 2 + a2 2 = e
2 3 t
a0 + a1 3 + a2 3 = e
or t
a0 + a1 + a2 = e
a 0 + 2a 1 + 4a 2 = e
2t
(7.60)
3t
a 0 + 3a 1 + 9a 2 = e
We will use the following MATLAB script for the solution of (7.60).
B=sym('[1 1 1; 1 2 4; 1 3 9]'); b=sym('[exp(t); exp(2*t); exp(3*t)]'); a=B\b; fprintf(' \n');...
disp('a0 = '); disp(a(1)); disp('a1 = '); disp(a(2)); disp('a2 = '); disp(a(3))
a0 =
3*exp(t)3*exp(2*t)+exp(3*t)
a1 =
5/2*exp(t)+4*exp(2*t)3/2*exp(3*t)
a2 =
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Computation of the State Transition Matrix
1/2*exp(t)exp(2*t)+1/2*exp(3*t)
Thus, t 2t 3t
a 0 = 3e – 3e + e
5 t 2t 3 3t
a 1 = –  e + 4e –  e (7.61)
2 2
1 t 2t 1 3t
a 2 =  e – e +  e
2 2
4. We also use MATLAB to perform the substitution into the state transition matrix, and to per
form the matrix multiplications. The script is shown below.
syms t; a0 = 3*exp(t)+exp(3*t)3*exp(2*t); a1 = 5/2*exp(t)3/2*exp(3*t)+4*exp(2*t);...
a2 = 1/2*exp(t)+1/2*exp(3*t)exp(2*t);...
A = [5 7 5; 0 4 1; 2 8 3]; eAt=a0*eye(3)+a1*A+a2*A^2
eAt =
[2*exp(t)+2*exp(2*t)+exp(3*t), 6*exp(t)+5*exp(2*t)+exp(3*t),
4*exp(t)3*exp(2*t)exp(3*t)]
[exp(t)+2*exp(2*t)exp(3*t), 3*exp(t)+5*exp(2*t)exp(3*t),
2*exp(t)3*exp(2*t)+exp(3*t)]
[3*exp(t)+4*exp(2*t)exp(3*t), 9*exp(t)+10*exp(2*t)exp(3*t),
6*exp(t)6*exp(2*t)+exp(3*t)]
Thus,
t 2t 3t t 2t 3t t 2t 3t
– 2e + 2e + e – 6 e + 5e + e 4e – 3e – e
At
e = t
– e + 2e – e
2t 3t t 2t
– 3e + 5e – e
3t t 2t
2e – 3e + e
3t
t 2t 3t t 2t 3t t 2t 3t
– 3e + 4e – e – 9e + 10e – e 6e – 6e + e
are found from the simultaneous solution of the system of equations of (7.65) below.
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
n–1 1 t
a0 + a1 1 + a2 1 + + an – 1 1
2
= e
d d t
 a 0 + a 1 1 + a 2 21 + + a n – 1 n1 – 1 =  e 1
d 1 d 1
2 2
d  n–1 d 1 t
a 0 + a 1 1 + a 2 1 + + a n – 1 1 = 2 e
2

2
d 1 d 1
(7.65)
m–1 m–1
d d 1 t
m–1
 a 0 + a 1 1 + a 2 21 + + a n – 1 n1 – 1 = 
 m–1
e
d 1 d 1
n–1 m + 1t
a0 + a1 m + 1 + a2 m + 1 + + an – 1 m + 1 = e
2
n–1 n t
a 0 + a 1 n + a 2 n + + a n – 1 n
2
= e
Example 7.8
A = –1 0
2 –1
Solution:
1. We first find the eigenvalues of the matrix A and these are found from the polynomial of
det A – I = 0 . For this example,
det A – I = det – 1 – 0 = 0 2
– 1 – – 1 – = 0 + 1 = 0
2 –1–
and thus,
1 = 2 = –1
2. Since A is a 2 2 matrix, we only need the first two terms of the state transition matrix, that
is,
At
e = a0 I + a1 A (7.66)
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Computation of the State Transition Matrix
1 t
a0 + a1 1 = e
d d t
 a 0 + a 1 1 =  e 1
d 1 d 1
or
1 t
a0 + a1 1 = e
1 t
a 1 = te
e
At –t –t
= e + te 1 0 + te –t – 1 0
0 1 2 –1
or
–t
e
At
= e 0 (7.68)
–t –t
2te e
We can use the MATLAB eig(x) function to find the eigenvalues of an n n matrix. To find out
how it is used, we invoke the help eig command.
We will first use MATLAB to verify the values of the eigenvalues found in Examples 7.6 through
7.8, and we will briefly discuss eigenvectors in the next section.
Example 7.6:
A= [2 1; 0 1]; lambda=eig(A)
lambda =
2
1
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
Example 7.7:
B = [5 7 5; 0 4 1; 2 8 3]; lambda=eig(B)
lambda =
1.0000
3.0000
2.0000
Example 7.8:
C = [1 0; 2 1]; lambda=eig(C)
lambda =
1
1
7.5 Eigenvectors
Consider the relation
AX = X (7.69)
where A is an n n matrix, X is a column vector, and is a scalar number. We can express this
relation in matrix form as
a 11 a 12 a 1n x 1 x1
a 21 a 22 a 2n x 2 x2
= (7.70)
a n1 a n2 a nn x n xn
We express (7.70) as
A – I X = 0 (7.71)
Then, (7.71) can be written as
a 11 – x 1 a 12 x 2 a1n xn
a 21 x 1 a 22 – x 2 a2n xn
= 0 (7.72)
an1 x1 an 2 x2 a nn – x n
The equations of (7.72) will have nontrivial solutions if and only if its determinant is zero*, that
is, if
* This is because we want the vector X in (7.71) to be a nonzero vector and the product A – I X to be zero.
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Eigenvectors
a 11 – a 12 a1n
a 21 a 22 – a2n
det = 0 (7.73)
an 1 an 2 a nn –
In many engineering applications the unit eigenvectors are chosen such that X X = I where
T
Two vectors X and Y are said to be orthogonal if their inner (dot) product is zero. A set of eigen
vectors constitutes an orthonormal basis if the set is normalized (expressed as unit eigenvectors)
and these vector are mutually orthogonal. An orthonormal basis can be formed with the Gram
Schmidt Orthogonalization Procedure; it is beyond the scope of this chapter to discuss this proce
dure, and therefore it will not be discussed in this text. It can be found in Linear Algebra and
Matrix Theory textbooks.
The example below illustrates the relationships between a matrix A , its eigenvalues, and eigen
vectors.
Example 7.9
Given the matrix
5 7 –5
A = 0 4 –1
2 8 –3
a. Find the eigenvalues of A
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
or
5x 1 7x 2 – 5x 3 x 1
0 4x 2 –x3 = x 2 (7.76)
2x 1 8x 2 – 3x 3 x 3
5 – x 1 7x 2 – 5x 3 0
0 4 – x 2 –x3 = 0 (7.77)
2x 1 8x 2 – 3 – x 3 0
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Eigenvectors
Since the unknowns x 1 x 2 and x 3 are scalars, we can assume that one of these, say x 2 , is
known, and solve x 1 and x 3 in terms of x 2 . Then, we obtain x 1 = 2x 2 , and x 3 = 3x 2 . There
fore, an eigenvector for = 1 is
x1 2x 2 2 2
X = 1 = x2 = x2 = x2 1 = 1 (7.80)
x3 3x 2 3 3
x1 x2 1 1
X = 2 = x2 = x2 = x2 1 = 1 (7.81)
x3 2x 2 2 2
x1 –x2 –1 –1
X = 3 = x2 = x2 = x2 1 = 1 (7.82)
x3 x2 1 1
c. We find the unit eigenvectors by dividing the components of each vector by the square root of
the sum of the squares of the components. These are:
2 2 2
2 +1 +3 = 14
2 2 2
1 +1 +2 = 6
2 2 2
–1 + 1 + 1 = 3
The unit eigenvectors are
2 1 –1
  
14 6 3
1
Unit X = 1 =  1
Unit X = 2 =  1
Unit X = 3 =  (7.83)
14 6 3
3 2 1
  
14 6 3
We observe that for the first unit eigenvector the sum of the squares is unity, that is,
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations

2 2 1 2 3 2
 +  +  = 
 
9
4 + 1 + 
 = 1 (7.84)
14 14 14 14 14 14
and the same is true for the other two unit eigenvectors in (7.83).
Example 7.10
For the circuit of Figure 7.7, the initial conditions are i L 0 = 0 , and v C 0 = 0.5 V . Use the
state variable method to compute i L t and v C t .
R L
1 14 H
C +
+ vC t
it
vS t = u0 t 43 F
di
x· 1 = L (7.86)
dt
and
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Circuit Analysis with State Variables
dv
x· 2 = C
dt
Also,
dv
i L = C C
dt
and thus,
dv 4
x 1 = i L = C C = Cx· 2 =  x· 2
dt 3
or
3
x· 2 =  x 1 (7.87)
4
Therefore, from (7.85), (7.86), and (7.87), we obtain the state equations
x· 1 = – 4x 1 – 4x 2 + 4
3
x· 2 =  x 1
4
and in matrix form,
x· 1
= –4 –4 1 + 4 u0 t
x
(7.88)
·x 2 3 4 0 x2 0
where
–4 –4 iL 0 0
A = x0 = = b = 4 (7.90)
34 0 vC 0 12 0
First, we compute the state transition matrix e . We find the eigenvalues from
At
det A – I = 0
Then,
det A – I = det – 4 – – 4 = 0
2
– – 4 – + 3 = 0 + 4 + 3 = 0
3 4 –
Therefore,
1 = – 1 and 2 = – 3
The next step is to find the coefficients a i . Since A is a 2 2 matrix, we only need the first two
terms of the state transition matrix, that is,
At
e = a0 I + a1 A (7.91)
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Chapter 7 State Variables and State Equations
e
At –t
= 1.5e – 0.5e
– 3t
1 0 + 0.5e –t – 0.5e –2t – 4 – 4
0 1 34 0
–t – 3t –t – 3t
–t – 3t – 2 e + 2e – 2 e + 2e
= 1.5e – 0.5e 0 +
–t – 3t 3 –t 3 –3t
0 1.5e – 0.5e  e –  e 0
8 8
or
–t – 3t –t – 3t
At – 0.5 e + 1.5e – 2 e + 2e
e =
3 –t 3 –3t –t – 3t
 e –  e 1.5e – 0.5e
8 8
The initial conditions vector is the second vector in (7.90); then, the first term of (7.89) becomes
–t – 3t –t – 3t
At– 0.5 e + 1.5e – 2 e + 2e 0
e x0 =
3 –t 3 –3t –t – 3t
12
 e –  e 1.5e – 0.5e
8 8
or
–t – 3t
At