ADVERTISING

The word µAdvertising¶ has its origin from a Latin word µAdventure¶ which means to turn to. The dictionary meaning of the word is µto announce publicity or to give public concerned to a specific thing which has been announced by the advertiser publicity in order to inform and influence them with the ideas which the advertisement carries. In business world the terms in mainly used with reference to selling the product of the concern. The advertising, as Jones defines it is "a sort of machine made mass production method of selling which supplements the voice and personality of the individual salesman, such as manufacturing the machine supplements the hands of the craftsman." It is thus a process of buying/sponsor/identified media space or time in order to promote a product or an idea. Advertising is a paid form and hence commercial in nature. This any sponsored communication designed to influence buyer behavior advertising. Advertising is non-personal. Unlike personal selling, advertising is done in a non-personal manner through intermediaries or media whatever the form of advertisement (Spoken, written or visual). It is directed at a mass audience and not directed at the individual as in personal selling.Advertising promotes idea, goods and services. Although most advertising is designed to help sell goods, it is being used increasingly to further public interest goals. Advertising is identifiable with its sponsoring authority and advertiser. It discloses or identifies the source of opinions and ideas. Advertising thus is: 1. Impersonal 2. A communication of ideas. 3. Aimed at mass audience 4. By a paying sponsor.

The two forms of mass communication that are something confused with advertising are publicity and propaganda. If we eliminate the elements of the "paying sponsor" (The paid requirement) we would have the element of publicity left:. For publicity is technically speaking, advertisement without payment. In a similar manner. If we eliminate the requirement of an "identified sponsor", the resulting communication is propagandistic. It is important for us to

except at the community centre¶s where electricity is available. This has not been so. repetition. Advertising may persuade with information.The radio serves principally local rather than national or large regional markets.V. When T. TV programmers¶ in our country do not offer much selectivity. in rural India where 76.31% of our population lives. (ii) Print Media . the fact that product or service is promoted on TV may build a prestigious image of the product and its sponsor. The radio is a prominent vehicle of advertising in our country and accounts for a large sum of the total advertising budget. Finally. Moreover. (A) Radio : Advertisers using the medium of radio may also be classified as National or Local advertisers. for radio operators have responded to the challenge by offering programmes that features music etc. This is particularly advantageous for advertisers whose product require demonstration. The pleasure derived from watching TV is at least potentially transferable to the advertising message delivered through the medium. The TV is a unique combination timing of sight and sound and achieves a deeper impact than the other media do. a growing class of advertising media has been the TV.V. therefore it does not reach everyone.emphasize that advertising may involve the communication of ideas or goods of service. Many small advertisers use the radio. So do some large organizations. Moreover. As a result is combines the two to produce high-impact commercials. any centers do not have TV towers. radio or T. flexibility and prestigious. There are hardly any TV sets. In our country not everyone has a TV set. which appeal to local audience consumers have responded very favourably to this approach. (1) Electronic Media Advertisers use two types of media to reach target consumers over the airwaves. commercial advertising on TV is severely limited because broadcast timings are only in the evenings. We are all aware that advertising attempts to sell goods and services. Moreover TV does not have much coverage in our country. it endeavors to persuade with some mixture of both. In our country. some industry observers felt that radio advertising might become insignificant or even disappear. it may persuade with emotion: more frequently. TV advertising offers advantage of impact.TV appeals to both the senses of sound and of sight . But we may overlook the more important fact that it often sells ideas. mass coverage. became a factor in the advertising scene. The translation is limited. (B) Television : Late in India.

magazines offer advertiser the opportunity to reach highly selective audience. Sportsweek. The marketers may purchase billboards on the basis of showings. Some marketers divide their market on the basis of such variable as age.The print media carry their massages entirely through the visual mode. marketers can easily use them to reach particular markets. Since newspapers are local. Advertisers can reach a very broad audience through newspapers which offer great flexibility. Famina. A showing . The diversity of magazines is tremendous. Because newspapers supply news. educational level and interest magazines. Some are in the twelve-hour range. both original and matinal and of general and specific interest. India Today. From the viewpoint of the advertiser. sports etc. Some offer news or together "General Interest" content to huge audience. Magazines are divided into those parts that serve business. (iii) OUTDOOR AND TRANSIT MEDIA (A) Outdoor Advertising : Outdoor advertising involves the use of sign and bill-boards. Some magazines have prestige value. Consumers sometime keep individual copies for long period of time. (B) Magazines : Magazines are also mean of reaching different market. In general. Others are highly specialised. The primary advantage of magazine advertising are selectivity of market targets. they are local in content and appeal and provide opportunity for direct communication between a product and its local dealers or distributors. posters or displays (such as those that appear on a building¶s wall) and electric spectacular (large. they offer an atmosphere of factual information and of currency that may be favourable for some advertising situations. The marketer can cover national or large regional markets at a low cost per contract (per individual reached). industrial consumers. technical or even exotic. newspaper offers several advantage. the prestige associated with some magazines. The advertisers may choose the specific area to be covered and the advertisement can be placed in newspapers at very short notice as compared with other media. quantity reproduction long life. illuminated. Newspapers in our country virtually reach most of the homes in the cities. (A) Newspaper : A sizable share of the total advertising budget is spent on advertising in newspapers. ladies. sometime animated sign and display). magazines and direct mail. and the extra service offered by many publications. Business World and Filmfare. An organisation may approach national markets through such publication as Business India. These media consist of newspapers. reread them or pass them on to other. Magazines generally offer high-quality printing of advertisement. The quality of magazines reproduction is usually high. This selectivity is easily rigorous.

Here the number of billboards is would attract approximately 50% of the local population about 20 times during a month. (B) Transport Advertising : Transport advertising appears on the inside or outside of taxis. while they are on shopping trips or area disposed towards shopping. Transport advertising is useful in reaching consumers at an advantageous point which they are embarking on a shopping trip. railways and other modes of passenger transportation.indicates the percentage of the total population of a particular geographic area that will be exposed to it during one month period. Advertisers may utilize this medium to economically reach a large mass of people or small local markets. . buses. This medium is a low cost medium. This form of advertising has the advantage of communication quick and simply ideas of repetition and of the ability to promote products that are available for sales. Marketers may use transit advertisement to attain high exposure to particular groups consumers on theory way to and from work and tourists. Repeat exposure is possible for a majority of the people in our country use public transport basis. Outdoor advertising is particularly effective in metropolitan and other can use this medium to bring the products to the attention of consumers or to remaining them of the product. The highest showing is 100. Sings are usually smaller than billboards and are erected and maintained by the marketer rather than by the advertising media.

effective advertising is critical. Return on Investment (ROI) evaluates cost against return.Measuring Advertising Effectiveness A customer who doesn't know much about your business ± or doesn't even know it exists ± won't purchase your products or services. Your overall goal is to receive a real. A secondary ± but just as important ± goal is to analyze the effectiveness of different types of advertising. but for most businesses. measurable return on your investment. But effective advertising means more than simply spending large amounts of money on a variety of advertising media. process redesign« virtually any situation where money will be spent and a return on that spending is expected. that way you can ensure that each advertising dollar is spent wisely. Here is the formula : . it can also be used to evaluate any type of investment. (While ROI can be used to evaluate advertising expenditures. improvement project. Public relations campaigns can help get you in the public eye. The process of measuring advertising effectiveness starts with a simple formula: Return on Investment.

the total cost of printing and mailing is $2. or 375%. For example.500 / $2. and calculate ROI.500 . Say you run a lawn care business and product a direct mail flyer advertising a 10% discount for customers who sign up for a seasonal lawn care program. more total sales« and hopefully some of your new customers purchased other items as well. $7. But that is okay. add up all the costs of advertising. You can do the same with newspaper or television ads. Measuring the effectiveness of the flyer is relatively simple: Just keep track of the number of customers who call in response and evaluate the revenue generated against the cost of the flyer. You provide an overview of your store. Then calculate ROI. other financial factors do come into play. and CI = Cost of Investment The result is a ratio.ROI = (R ± CI ) / CI X 100 R = Return. or staying flat.500. and run one direct mail campaign. That's why evaluating advertising effectiveness can become somewhat subjective. the result of the newspaper ad you placed. evaluated over time you will be able to see trends: Whether your return is increasing. three newspaper ads. especially since you generated increased revenue. Your ROI on the direct mail campaign was 375%. Newspaper ads are typically used to spread the word about specific sales or product offerings. the difference is. In that case. Your television ads may be a general awareness ads designed to increase market awareness.75. Another variable that makes evaluating advertising effectiveness difficult is utilizing different types of advertising media. the higher the ratio. You print 4.000 postcards and mail them to potential customers. How can you determine the return generated by each type of advertising? Possibly you don't care. include information about a specific item. decreasing. As a result of the campaign you generate $9. Keep in mind other factors may have come into play. compare your total sales for that period against sales on non-promotional weekends.A better way is to tie specific items or activities to specific forms of advertising. If your postcards advertised customers a discount on a specific item. but you also mention that you are running a "10% Off Everything in the Store" promotion this weekend. say you decide to run a new direct mail campaign.000 = 3. the better the return. Direct mail pieces should target a specific item or service and call for a direct response. service. say this month you run a television ad.000 = $7. You may simply decide to measure the program's effectiveness as a whole. Simply do the math: $9. determine your total sales. At the end of the weekend.$2. For example. .Or imagine you run a retail store and decide to place a large ad in the newspaper. in large part. On a one-month basis you won't learn much. discount or sale« and then measure the increase in activity against the expense.500 in sales.000. the discount will have affected your total profit level on the sales of those items.

000 in sales was due to the ad you ran in the newspaper. print. and other referring pages.500.500 in sales. how many are coming directly by typing in your domain name. To calculate ROI: $5. If you wish to evaluate television. Asking People How They Found Out About You: If you get a cold call and don¶t know where the person came from. or if others have found you through offline promotion either. your store does $6. This weekend you did $11. you certainly need to have one. If you are concerned about whether your marketing return on investment is worthwhile or if you¶re spending a lot on marketing without seeing results. Was it the sign in the yard? The ad you placed in the . you received $2. radio.33. Below are some ways for measuring your advertising and marketing effectiveness: 1. Your ROI for the campaign was 233%. If you run three types of advertisements.500 = 2. knowing how to track and measure the performance of your activities will not only make you more efficient but also stretch your advertising dollars as far as possible.) The key to evaluating advertising effectiveness is to work hard to determine where sales and revenue originated.500 / $1. especially if you ensure that most of your advertising messages include a direct call to action. all featuring the same products or discounts. try to tie unique items to each type of advertising so you can determine the impact of each method. (In essence. $3. etc. Otherwise why spend the money on advertising in the first place? Measuring advertising effectiveness is one of the key components to having a successful marketing campaign. It's not as hard as you think.000 . More detailed info such as bounce rates. visitor paths. or 233%. which is a great return on investment. you could easily assume that the additional $5. landing and exit pages will all give you additional information to assess what marketing value your website is providing. at least in terms of the advertising you place. simply add the total of your advertising spending together.. While other factors may have come into play. there¶s no harm in asking how they found out about the property they are calling on or why they called you. Website Stats: If you don¶t have a website stat counter yet. advertising separately.500 in sales. Not knowing how many visitors you get each day or where they come from will not help you see which online tactics are working.Say you spent $1.500 = $3.$1. On a "normal" weekend. 2.33 in return for every advertising dollar you spent. At the very least you should be aware of what keywords are bringing traffic to your site.500 to place the advertisement.

6. you likely won¶t get calls the first month or two. If you get calls to a number that¶s only listed in one advertisement. Taking the time to analyze . if you are consistently sending out postcards to a targeted neighborhood. events.paper? Craigslist? Most people won¶t reckon it¶s weird if you question them how they found out about the property or your services. try a few weeks of going without the advertising. doing just a few of these will help you choose if what you are doing is working and should be continued. 3. you may choose it¶s best to keep that one going. You can also do this with CPC campaigns ± if you stop running it and notice you get less emails from your website contact form. if you should try something else. This works well with an offer to do a free home consultation or to provide the customer with more information about recent news. Make sure before judging that a campaign has been a failure that you¶ve allotted enough time to assess it¶s effectiveness and give it time to perform. Use Direct Response Postcards: Postcards that can offer a simple pre-paid ³drop in the mail for more info´ type of response can help you gauge the effectiveness of a direct mail campaign. Always test this way one ad at a time ± you don¶t want to reckon it¶s the newspaper advertising that was working when it was really the CPC advertising. there¶s a excellent chance you won¶t miss it and can cut it out unless your seller demands it for their listings. or if there are other ways to improve your marketing campaigns. Stop Running Ads: If you¶ve been regularly advertising in the newspaper every week for years for example. or special promotion. Use Different Phone Numbers: You can often track an ad¶s performance by using different contact phone numbers. 4. Comparing Time With Promotion: Some promotions will bring immediate results. after 6 months you might start seeing calls. While there is no exact science to understanding how your marketing efforts are paying off and what response and return on investment they are bringing. 5. then you can be pretty certain that ad was successful. But. others might take months before you see results. If you don¶t see any difference in calls or business. For example.

and commercial testing Pretesting of finished ads Market testing of ads Concept testing o Conducted early in campaign development o To explore the targeted consumers response to a potential ad or campaign  i. Focus groups and mall intercepts Rough Art. Copy.e. and Commercial Testing . Methods of Measuring Advertising Effectiveness ‡ ‡ ‡ y Concept generation and testing Rough art. copy.the effectiveness of a campaign will not only help you spend less time preparing ads that don¶t work ± but also save you money as well.

Comprehension and reaction tests ‡ ‡ ‡ Conveying meaning intended by assessing responses Consumer juries Uses consumers to evaluate the probable success of an ad ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Self-appointed expert Limited evaluation of the number of ads Halo effect Specific ad preferences overshadowing objectivity Why do we need to measure effectiveness ? ‡ Avoiding costly mistakes ‡ ‡ ‡ Evaluating alternate strategies Increasing the efficiency of advertising Determining if objectives are being achieved. .