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(Submitted in partial fulfillment for BBA, C.C.S University, Meerut)
Institute of Management Studies, Noida
Submitted To:MS. REENU BANSAL
Submitted BY: NEHA TYAGI Roll No. - 9192636
I, NEHA TYAGI declare that the project entitled “TRAINING AND TRAINING
DEVELOPMENT IN BST TEXTILE PVT. LTD” submitted for the BBA Degree is my original work and the project has not formed the basis for the award of any degree associateship, fellowship or any other similar titles.
Place: Noida Date: 28/08/10
Signature of the student
TITLE 6 7 8 19 24 PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT PREFACE COMPANY PROFILE INTRODUCTION THEORETICAL CONCEPT IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING A ROLE IN TRAINING 7. 15.Table of Contents CHAPTER NO. TRAINING & EVALUATION THE TRAINING ROLE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE TOPICS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING TRAINING IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIES CONCLUSION REFRENCES 9. 5. 14. 28 BEYOND TRAINING: TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 32 36 43 57 63 74 84 88 8. 3. 1. BIBLIOGRAPHY 90 5 . 4. 6. 10. 13. 2. 12. 11.
VIPIN TYAGI for their valuable tips prior to the start of the project. NEHA TYAGI (B. I would like to thank my guide MS. business or any projects comes through taking initiatives & continuing to progress on new concepts & ideas.A IVTHSEM) 6 . The original momentum is not enough to keep you moving forward. REENU BANSAL for her kind support. Your progress will grit to halt unless you refill your engine for inspiration with fuel of fresh ideas with enthusiasm & proper guidance.B.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Progress in life. I take this opportunity to acknowledge my utmost gratitude & been linked in some way or the other with the project I am thankful to MR.
They also change with public opinion. custom and practices. the information of training. the attitude ideas of the top management. area and regional traditions. the economic and social conditions prevailing in it at a particular time. Structure.PREFACE The subject matter of personnel policies is varied as the personnel department and any itemization would serve merely as and with its management. 7 .
COMPANY PROFILE 8 .
INTRODUCTION 9 .
A QUALITY PRODUCT DELIVERED IN TIME TO OUR CUSTOMER'S SATISFACTION. Pawan Tyagi. it is their all round experience in textiles which gives us an edge over our competitors. Pawan Tyagi. personal after sales support and quick technical assistance. Ltd is a 100% Cotton-Spinning Unit promoted by chief promoters Mr.BST TEXTILE MILLS PVT. The management ensures a work friendly environment in all areas to get each individual work as a team and offers excellent opportunities and a progressive career to young and dynamic professionals. 10 . both textile technocrats with specialization in spinning. The company is emerging fast on the global textile horizon and has significant growth plans for the future. Machine Maintenance and Sales/Marketing. The project also benefits from promoter's vast experience of domestic and international marketing. This places us in a very close proximity of our EU customers and gives them a COMPLETE PEACE OF MIND in all vital areas such as fast and effective communication. The promoter's TOTAL PROFESSIONAL APPROACH towards all the key areas such as day-to-day production process controls. Having worked at shop floor in various departments of spinning such as Production. maintenance. A PROFILE BST Textile Mills Pvt. The company also has an office in Europe located at Leicester (United Kingdom) which is managed by Mr. poly cotton. manpower. poly viscose and 100 per cent polyester ring spun yarns for over two decades. Mr. Mukesh Tyagi has been involved in domestic and international marketing of cotton. sales and marketing makes a big contribution towards achieving the most cost efficient quality product. LTD. Mukesh Tyagi and Mr. The company's workforce is an ideal mix of youth and experience where each individual is groomed to work as a professional with total commitment to achieve a common goal .
The Head Office is located at Mumbai (Bombay) which also manages sales and marketing operations. The unit has modern & most innovative of the spinning technology with machines sourced from India as well as abroad. The manufacturing site is located at SIDCUL. in a state-of-the-art industrial estate developed by the local Uttrakhand government with excellent road. 11 . about 230 kilometers northeast of Delhi.Profile and Location: The company has a total capacity of 30. There are 10 latest state of art TFOs also to produce folded yarns. SIDICUL is a fast emerging and rapidly growing industrial hub in the north east region of India with excellent infrastructure & benefits from most favorable business policies of the regional administration to help industrial growth. rail and air links to major cities and ports with in India.000 ring spindles with an annual capacity to produce 8400 MT of 100% Cotton yarn in Carded & Combed. Pantnagar (Uttarakhand).
34's for Hosiery and Weaving applications.. • 12 .34's for Hosiery and Weaving applications. carded and combed. • 100 % Cotton Ring Spun Raw White Yarns. • TFO Doubled and Multifold Yarns such 3 ply.PRODUCTS PRODUCTS INCLUDES: 100 % Cotton Ring Spun Raw White Yarns. 4 ply etc. in Count Range Ne 10's . in both Carded and Combed. carded and combed. in Count Range Ne 10's .
O R&D : : : : : POST-SPINNINGpp SCHLAFHORST 338 ppppppppppppp Machinery USTER QUANTUM -2 WITH FOREIGN FIBER DETECTOR.F.MACHINERY PRE-SPINNING Department Blow room Carding Breaker Drawing Lap Former Comber Drawing RING FRAME : : : : : : : Machinery LMW LATEST BLOW ROOM LINE WITH VETAL SCAN HAVING POLYSENSOR LMW LC 300V3 CARDS LMW LDO/6 LMW LH1O LMW COMBERS (MODEL LK54) LMW LRSB 851 LMW LR 6/S Pppppppppp Department Cone winding Yarn Clearers Cheese Winding T.VJ150M PREMIER EVOLVICS 13 .A VEEJAY LAKSHMI . PEASS SCHLAFHORST PPW.
We constantly listen & learn from our customers which helps us understand the ever changing needs of their business and inspire us to give them a cost-effective tailor-made quality product. The company has a dynamic & motivated team of sales personnel committed to carry out business with all HONESTY. EUROPE. This is why the company has managed to create a niche for itself in very short span of time & today has a long list of highly satisfied reputable clients at home and abroad.. we believe in " A HONEST & FAIR BUSINESS PRACTICE " which perhaps reflects the core values & image of the organization.Sales & Marketing At BST. FAR EAST & ASIA. The company promoters personally involve themselves in sales & marketing activities of the company to ensure a fast and efficient sales service to our customers. 14 . We are regularity exporting our products to highly quality conscious markets of USA. INTEGRITY & FAIRNESS. The company also has a strong presence in the domestic market and deals with some of the country's leading exporters of knitted & woven apparels.
colored polythene bag fragments using sonic sensors. We carefully select finest of cotton crops and spin it under strict process controls to deliver a consistent quality end product suitable for most critical of end applications. Our highly skilled production team constantly monitors key quality check points of the production process to ensure our yarns conform to international 5% USTER standards. color cloth bits. yellow fabric pieces by line scan cameras and high density impurities like white / transparent polypropylene. yellow cotton & plastic etc.Quality Assurance Our Yarns are second to none when it comes to Quality. Vetal Scan helps detection of all types of foreign particles such as colored cloth bits. The company is constantly investing in latest generation quality control technology in pursuit of product excellence and has installed latest quality control innovations such as VETAL SCAN WITH POLYSENSOR at the blow room stage & USTER QUANTUM-II yarn clearer on autoconers with FOREIGN FIBRE DETECTOR. and plays a vital role in producing a CONTAMINATION FREE YARN. feather. yellow cotton. plastic. polypropylene. discolored threads. cotton. 15 . VETAL SCAN Removes foreign particles like feather.
OBJECTIVES 1. Middle Management and Senior Management cadres. To analyze the recruitment policy of the organization. Officers.LTD for different categories of employees. To provide a systematic recruitment process.USTER QUANTUM-II WITH FOREIGH FIBRE DETECTOR Detects white and colored polypropylene defects using the capacitive sensor. To compare the Recruitment policy with general policy. Jr. sites and works appointments all over India. 3. 4. in addition to the detection of regular foreign fiber defects at the final stages of yarn production. SCOPE OF RECRUITMENT It extends to the whole Organization. It covers workers. Clerical Staff. 16 . Management. It covers corporate office. To structure the Recruitment policy of BST TEXTILE MILLS PVT. 2.
Dy. HRD. Steno-Typist. He is the owner of the Company. Sr. Supervisor up to the level of Officers. Manager./ personnel / HRD officer. Inspector. Sr. Sr. He is directly involved in production planning. Asst. He formulates various policies for betterment of the product. Store keeper. CATEGORY II CATEGORY III CATEGORY IV CATEGORY V ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF BST TEXTILE MILLS A brief introduction to Divisional / Departmental heads. VP & ABOVE. Systems. TQM and Critical Issues. Engineer. Engineer. DGM. Stores. Sr.M. Executive Secretary. He guides the functional heads to smoothen their activities.LTD CATEGORY I All workmen.A. Manager. Engineer. Programmer. He 17 .A. Works Superintendent. GM. All Assistants (Accounts. clerk. Stenographer. Designer. AGM. Admin. Manager. CHAIRMAN AND MANAGING DIRECTOR: CMD holds to most position in the organization. Computer Operator. It is the key position in the organization. DIRECTOR OPERATIONS: He is the overall in charge of P&A. Sr. EDP Programmer up to officer. Field). Jr. Accountant. Typist. Manager.CATEGORICALLY CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES OF BST TEXTILE MILLS PVT. SR. Secretary. Management Trainee. P. Engineer. G. Officer. Asst. GM-PRODUCTION: He is the overall in charge of works. P.
Design. He is 18 . Estimation and Projects Management. Development. Retention and Welfare of the group. VP-MHD: He is the profit center head of the Material Handling Division. Training. Selections. Administration and Industrial Relations of the group and also oversees the HRD activities. AGM.GENERAL MANAGER He is responsible for marketing.PERSONNEL & ADMINISTRATION: He is the overall in charge of personnel.MANAGER-CORPORATE HRD: HRD Department is responsible for better utilization of manpower through Recruitment’s. salaries and other financial benefits. VP-FINANCE: He is directly involved in finance matters and finance policy. He is also involved with personnel department for wages compensation. responsible for Design and Projects Execution. VP-BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT: He is the main source of Business Procurement to MHD.issues guidelines to Production Department and Quality Control Department for implementation of the policies. It is involved in policy formation and its implementation. SR. SR.
INTRODUCTION 19 .
as the U. only a few large companies such as Westinghouse. More than three hundred training organizations specialize in communications training (Training and Development Organizations Directory. such as leadership. This study. In the 1910s. Now people would rarely question the necessity of training in conversational skills. draws attention to the enormous expansion in the content of training with an emphasis on the rise of personal development training (or popularly known as the "soft skills" training. Such skills clearly were not part of the exact knowledge and methods that the employee will use on his particular job or the job just ahead of him. 1994). However. organizations deem communications skills as the most important on their priority lists of training. and International Harvester had factory schools that focused on training technical skills for entry-level workers. Previous studies on training have largely focused on the incidence of formal training and the total amount of training offered.S. training programs in organizations have received even more attention. seventy years later. back to the 1920s.INTRODUCTION Since the beginning of the twentieth century and especially after World War II. training programs have become widespread among organizations in the United States. forty percent of the Fortune 500 firms have had a corporate university or learning center. Personal development training can be defined as training programs that aim at improving one's 20 . eleven percent of U. General Electric.S. however. In recent decades. teamwork. creativity. and many more regard it as highly important. companies are confronted with technological changes. Nevertheless. By the 1990s. domestic social problems and global economic competition. conversational skills and time management training). The enormous expansion in the content of training programs over time has now largely been taken for granted. involving more and more employees and also expanding in content. touted as almost a panacea for organizational problem. the idea that organizations should devote resources to training employees in such skills would have been regarded as absurd.
Courses are also offered on health and personal well-being.cognitive and behavioral skills in dealing with one self and others. Meyer and Scott (1994) describe the spread of personal development training programs based on their survey of and interviews with more than one hundred organizations in Northern California. entrepreneur. they incorporated. individual contributor programs. career management. and self-management courses. a widening array of developmental. in addition to technical training for workers and human relations training for supervisors and managers. personal growth. holiday health. and structured problem solving. exercise. injury prevention. including safe diets. and applying intelligence in the workplace. "Training programs became more elaborate. transacting with people. Monahan. Courses of this nature include office professionalism. stress and nutrition. time management. It is intended to develop one's personal potential and is not immediately related to the technical aspects of one's job tasks. mental health." 21 .
And while that might be true. so why should a day of training be any different? Time is another often-heard excuse when training and development is mentioned. The seminar notes or the conference leader might not give you the key nugget you take back and implement in the workplace. some employees are still reluctant to be trained. The cost to you is a day out of your normal routine. Some people are just comfortable in what they are doing. When you attend a seminar or event with others who have jobs that are much like yours. Some fail to see the value of training because they really believe that they already know it all. Another common excuse is that there is not enough money budgeted to pay for training. so the only drawback may be working a little harder on an assignment to catch up from a day out of the office. Who said that training always carries a heavy enrollment fee? Training can be free. Training and development offers more than just increased knowledge. Have you considered that training and development might actually give you more time? Often the procedures.Training Excuses Training is one element many corporations consider when looking to advance people and offer promotions. and timesaving hints learned in training and development sessions equal more time in the long 22 . ideas. It is not uncommon to hear excuses regarding why someone has not received training. you have the added benefit of sharing from life experience. the knowledge value of training and development is not the only perk. Follow someone for a day to see how he organizes or manages his work and time. short cuts. Your best piece of advice for the day might come from the peer sitting beside you. Although many employees recognize the high value those in management place on training and development. It offers the added advantage of networking and drawing from others’ experiences. You can set up meetings with peers who are in similar positions and ask how they are doing their jobs. You usually don’t think twice about taking a day of vacation.
run. in a sense. Have you heard the old saying that you have to spend money to make money? Well. 23 . the same is true for training and development. You have to devote some time to training and development to make you more productive in the long run.
THEORETICAL CONCEPT 24 .
integrity. So focus on facilitating learning. and compassion are more important than skills and processes. i. and offer opportunities for people to develop as people in as many ways you can..e. If you are in any doubt. Focus on the person.they will never be skills and processes. Enable and encourage the development of the person . Talk about learning. waiting to be fulfilled. facilitating learning. beyond skills.in any way that you can.we all learn in different ways. Give people choice . Emotional maturity. analyze the root causes of your organization's successes and your failures . not imposing training. 25 . not training. when actually we should be developing people from the inside out.What is Training in terms of organization? “Transferring information and knowledge to employers and equipping employers to translate that information and knowledge into practice with a view to enhancing organization effectiveness and productivity. from the inside out. not the outside in. Difference between Training and Learning There is a big difference: 'Training' implies putting skills into people.” It also means that in organizational development. the related field of training and development (T & D) deals with the design and delivery of workplace learning to improve performance. and we all have our own strengths and potential. and the quality of the management of people.
According to this approach. the expanded training in the contemporary period is driven by the rapidly changing technologies and work reorganization. There have been two main theoretical approaches towards employee training. 26 . namely. The human capital approach regards training as investment in human capital. What they have in common is that they assume an instrumental logic and technical rationality behind training decisions. personal development training becomes a puzzle if viewed from these approaches. because it does not seem to follow from an instrumental logic or technical rationality. first raised by human capital theorists. The technology-based approach regards training as a skill formation process. the human capital approach and the technology-based approach. Moreover. Training is provided only when the benefit from productivity gains is greater than the cost of training. that why firms train their employees. These two approaches are popular in academic and policy discussions. Training is provided because it satisfies the functional needs of an organization. Many attempts have been made to address this question. but the question of why firms provide general-skill training has not been fully understood. as if all kinds of training programs equally contribute to human capital accumulation or skill formation. Studies with these approaches have largely overlooked the content of employee training.A Brief Critique of Previous Approaches to Employee Training It is a classic question in the training field.
despite suggestions to do so in many training handbooks. Second. First. is often about how one feels about the training or what one has learned. when there is one. The evaluation questionnaire is often called a "smile sheet. 27 . it is not innately or immediately related to the technical aspects of specific job tasks." as trainees often respond happily to the questions. prior need analysis is rarely conducted for such training. It is distinct from previous approaches to training in two ways. but is also shaped by the shared understanding about individuals and organizations. Core Argument So. training decisions are not only affected by the internal conditions of an organization. First. Third. This argument is based on an institutional perspective towards organizations. why have organizations increasingly engaged in personal development training? It is because that the rise of the participatory citizenship model of organization over time has driven the expansion of personal development training in organizations. it recognizes that training is not only provided to satisfy functional needs of firms.The Puzzle about Personal Development Training The puzzle about personal development training comes in the following four ways. which is called "organizational model" in this study and is independent of the functional needs. organizations and trainers seldom conduct evaluations of behavior or outcome changes brought out by such training. But the impact of the training remains uncertain. Fourth. Evaluation. Second. the rapid expansion of personal development training has taken place in the absence of scientific evidence of any link between such training and improvement in organizational bottom lines. but are also affected by the dominant ideologies and practices in the organizational field.
it compels its own staff to improve their knowledge without which they cannot offer training to enterprises through their own staff. it enables the organization to contribute to the development of a country's human capital. it provides an important service to members.policy lobbying. Third. the knowledge required for training increases the quality of other services provided by the organization . It also enables it to influence employers in regard to the need for them to invest more in training and employee development . Second. This is completely understandable when you realize that in many companies. The primary reason training is considered optional by so many business owners is because it's viewed more as an expense than an investment.. advisory and representation services.a viewpoint that can be costly to both short-term profits and long-term progress.. As a result. which can lead to increased membership and influence. Fourth. Fifth. business owners frequently send their people to training courses that seem right and sound good 28 . Sixth. training and development aren't focused on producing a targeted result for the business. especially in industrial relations in respect of which sources of training for employers in developing countries are few. it is an important source of income provided the organization can deliver relevant quality training.Importance of Developing a Role in Training Developing a national role in training is important for an employers' organization for several reasons. First. it improves the overall image of the organization and invests it with a degree of professionalism. to better serve business needs. it contributes to better human relations at the enterprise level and therefore to better enterprise performance.which employers should recognize as one key to their competitiveness in the future. Finally. by matching corporate goals and people management policies. through its influence on education policies and systems and training by public training institutions. Many entrepreneurs seem to view employee training and development as more optional than essential.
begin by clearly communicating your expectation that employees should take the steps necessary to hone their skills to stay on top of their professions or fields of work. Common areas for improvement in many companies is helping supervisors better manage for performance. Many people are promoted into managerial positions because they're technically good at their jobs. year in.without knowing what to expect in return. With the rapid pace and international reach of the 21st century marketplace. Determining your training and development needs based on targeted results is only the beginning. when corrected. deliver and manage your products or services every day. year out. if your business isn't learning. Now contrast that approach to one where training's viewed as a capital investment with thoughtful consideration as to how you're going to obtain an acceptable rate of return on your investment. As you go through this analysis. then you're going to fall behind. To create a learning culture in your business. communicate to your employees the specific 29 . "What's going to change in my business or in the behavior or performance of my employees as a result of this training that's going to help my company?" Be forewarned: This exercise requires you to take time to think it through and focus more on your processes than your products. consider the strengths and weaknesses in your company and try to identify the deficiencies that. but they aren't trained as managers to help their subordinates achieve peak performance. Make sure you support their efforts in this area by supplying the resources they need to accomplish this goal. In today's economy. Your employees are the ones that produce. And a good place to start your "thoughtful consideration" is with a needs analysis. protect. continual learning is critical to your business's continued success. Second. represent a potential for upside gain in your business. needs analysis is really an outcome analysis--what do you want out of this training? Ask yourself. refine. The next step is to establish a learning dynamic for your company. And a business learns as its people learn. But without measurable results. As it relates to training and development. it's almost impossible to view training as anything more than an expense.
If your training is targeted to specific business results. including your learning culture. and provide them with proper training in the successful procedures your company's developed and learned over time. At its core. provide a sound introduction and orientation to your company's culture. In good times. then money is more likely to be spent on courses that have no positive impact on the company. not other budget-related factors. but in most cases. to any new employees you hire.training needs and targeted results you've established as a result of your needs analysis. the training expense should be determined by the targeted business results you want. the pendulum swings to the other extreme and training is eliminated altogether. learning and leadership). In any economic environment. training budgets are solely a function of whether the company is enjoying an economic upswing or enduring a downturn. this component must provide for the systematic identification and development of your managers in terms of the leadership style that drives your business and makes it unique and profitable. 30 . But if the training budget isn't related to specific outcomes. the true budgetary impact depends on how well you manage the first three components (needs analysis. then you're more likely to be happy with what you spend on training. companies tend to spend money on training that's not significant to the organization. In many organizations. Every successful training and development program also includes a component that addresses your current and future leadership needs. This orientation should introduce employees to your company. Have you spent time thoughtfully examining the style of leadership that's most successful in your environment and that you want to promote? What steps are you taking to develop those important leadership traits in your people? Financial considerations related to training can be perplexing. Third. and in bad times.
sit down and assess your training and development needs once or twice a year to identify your needs and brainstorm how to achieve your desired results effectively and efficiently.To help counter this tendency. 31 . Invest in them thoughtfully and strategically. and you'll reap rewards that pay off now and for years to come. Your employees are your principle business asset.
we must broaden our vision to include people development as part of our strategic planning. Classifying people into lots and categories b. needs and aspirations? In order to achieve long-term results through training. Although training covers a broad range of subjects under the three main categories (skills. attitude. When we limit our thinking. feelings and reactions which must be given equal attention than to the skill itself. and identify our criteria for success. using the term training only as applicable to "skills training"? What about the human element? What about those very same people we want to "train"? What about their individual beliefs. using the term "training" without linking it to "development" narrows our concept of the training function and leads us to failure.Beyond Training: Training and Development Training is generally defined as "change in behavior" . Thinking of "trainees" as robots expected to perform a job function c. We are dealing with human thoughts.yet. backgrounds. To clarify our training and development objectives. Focusing only on "what needs to be done" without adequately preparing the trainees involved to accept and internalize what is being taught. These two simultaneous objectives will give us the right balance and guide our actions to reach our goal. how many trainers and managers forget that. knowledge). ideas. We thus create a double-focus: people development and skills training. Dismissing the individual characteristics of people and the roles they play d. we fall into the trap of: a. we must ask ourselves a few questions: 32 .
we could achieve the desired results if we address the personal development needs of the employees involved. faultless job performance? Does attitude count? Does goodwill count? Do loyalty and dedication count? Does goal-sharing count? Does motivation count? Do general knowledge and know-how count? Do people-skills count? Does an inquisitive mind count? Does initiative count? Does a learning attitude count? Does a sense of responsibility count? Do team efforts count? Do good work relations count? Does creative input count? Do we want employees to feel proud of their role and contribution? How can we expect such qualities and behavior if we consider and treat our personnel as "skills performers"? However. 33 . When we plan for both "training" and "development". to a continuing trend of company growth.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Do we expect an automatic. we achieve a proper balance between the needs of the company and those of the trainees. The synergy created takes us to new levels.
Our consideration of the people involved results in work motivation, goalsharing, and a sense of partnership. Not only do the employee-trainees perform at the desired levels, but they offer to the company and its customers their hidden individual gifts and talents, and this reflects itself in the quality of service. Customers feel and recognize efficient performance, motivation and team-work. They become loyal customers. We can learn from the case of a small restaurant operator who had become desperate at the negligent attitude of his servers, resulting in customer complaints. He decided to seek professional expertise to help him replace his employees with "motivated, trained" people fresh out of a waiter's training school. Following some probing questions it came to light that, besides hourly pay, he did not offer much to attract and retain loyal and dedicated employees. Through professional consultation, he came to realize that even if he paid higher wages to new "trained" employees, the problem would persist because employees want more than wages from their work place. They want:
• • • • • •
Organization and professional management Information regarding the business and its customers Recognition for their role in the company's success Acknowledgement of their individual capacities and contributions Positive discipline / fairness A say in the way the business is run.
The restaurant operator realized that until then he had treated his employees as "plate carriers" and this is exactly how they had behaved and performed. He was ready to change his mode of operation: he diverted his focus to the needs of his employees, re-structured his organisation, planned new operational strategies, a human resources strategy, training and development guidelines, disciplinary rules and regulations.
He communicated and shared these in a meeting with his employees and handed out the employee handbook prepared for that purpose. He also reminded them of their responsibilities towards the business, the customers, and themselves (taking charge of their own training, development, and work performance). They were more than pleased when he asked them to express their opinions, make comments and suggestions. He was surprised at the immediate transformation that took place. He began receiving excellent reviews from his customers, the employees worked as a team, their motivation sky-rocketed and he never had to replace them! All this was accomplished by extending the previous concept of training to that of training and people development. Training and Development represents a complete whole that triggers the mind, emotions and employees' best work performance. It is not only business managers and owners who must do this shift in thinking, but Human Resources Directors and Training Managers (whose title should be "Training and Development" Managers). By their actions, they should offer a personal example, coaching and guiding all the people in an organisation to think "beyond training" and invest efforts in people:
Professional development Personal development.
Contrary to what some manager’s think, people do not quit a place of work as soon as they have grown personally and professionally through training and development programs - at least they do not do so for a long while. They become loyal to their employer and help him/her grows business-wise, which offers them more opportunities. They chart their own course for career advancement within the broader framework of organizational growth. Do we not call employees our "human resources asset"? Whatever their positions, each expect to be treated as such; when they are, they give more than their physical presence at work.
TRAINING & EVALUATION
TRAINING & EVALUATION
Training Improving business performance is a journey, not a destination. Business performance rises and falls with the ebb and flow of human performances. HR professionals lead the search for ways to enhance the effectiveness of employees in their jobs today and prepare them for tomorrow. Over the years, training programmes have grown into corporate with these goals in mind. Training programmes should enhance performance and enrich the contributions of the workforce. The ultimate goal of training is to develop appropriate talent in the workforce internally. In India, training as an activity has been going on as a distinct field with its own roles, structures and budgets, but it is still young. This field is however; expanding fast but controversy seems to envelop any attempts to find benefits commensurate with the escalating costs of training. Training has made significant contributions to development of all kinds. Training is essential; doubts arise over its contribution in practice. Complaints are growing over its ineffectiveness and waste. The training apparatus and costs have multiplied but not its benefits. Dissatisfaction persists and is growing at the working level where the benefits of training should show up most clearly. This disillusionment shows in many ways – reluctance to send the most promising people for training, inadequate use of personnel after training etc. With disillusionment mounting in the midst of expansion, training has entered a dangerous phase in its development. Training is neither a panacea for all ills nor is it a waste of time. What is required is an insight into what training can or cannot do and skill in designing and carrying out training effectively and economically.
The searchlight of inquiry may make the task and challenges stand out too starkly, too simply. Using experience with training in India and other rapidly developing countries has this advantage at similar risk. The contribution that training can make to development is needed acutely and obviously. At the same time, the limited resources available in these countries make this contribution hard to come by. These lines are sharply drawn; on the one hand, no promise can be ignored; on the other, no waste is permissible. Much of the training provided today proceeds as if knowledge and action were directly related. This assumption is itself a striking illustration of the wide gulf that separates the two. On a continuum with personal maturation and growth at one end and improvement in performance of predetermined tasks at the other, education lies near the former, and training near the later. Focusing training on skill in action makes the task wide and complex. Training embraces an understanding of the complex processes by which various factors that make up a situation interact. For every training strategy, no matter which, the proper focus right from the very outset is on one or more people – on-the-job-in-the-organization – this whole amalgam. Wherever the focus moves during the training programme, the starting point becomes the focus again at the end. The difference lies in what people have learned that they now apply. That difference, in terms of more effective behavior is the measure of the efficacy of training. The training process is made up of three phases: Phase 1: Pre-training. This may also be called the preparation phase. The process starts with an understanding of the situation requiring more effective behavior. An organization’s concerns before training lie mainly in four areas: Clarifying the precise objectives of training and the use the organization expects to make of the participants after training; selection of suitable participants; building favorable expectations and motivation in the participants prior to the training; and planning for any changes that improved task performance will require in addition to training.
If they find the new behavior useful. There is no guarantee that the participants will in fact learn what they have chosen. Participants may find their organizations offering encouragement to use the training and also support for continuing contact with the training institution. they discard it. When the participants return back to work from the training.Phase 2: Training. It is important that work organizations meanwhile prepare the conditions for improved performance by their participants upon their return. giving and receiving 39 . try some variant. More effective behavior of people on the job in the organization is the primary objective of the training process as a whole. and participants and organizations independent variables. participants focus their attention on the new impressions that seem useful. the situation changes. But the main purpose remains: participants explore in a training situation what interests them. Having explored. try it repeatedly and improve it. It is not a substitute for development on the job. The intricate process of selection and testing is continuous and more or less conscious. and a training institution’s basic task is to provide the necessary opportunities. This may be called the "follow up" phase. they try it again. they may step into a quagmire of negativity. improvement is a dependent variable. On the other hand. The training process has the following major objectives: 1) Improvement in Performance Training will be an important aid to managers for developing themselves as well as their subordinates. When training per se concludes. participants try out some new behavior. If they do not find it useful. Phase 3: Post-training. During the course of the training. a process of adjustment begins for everyone involved. check it for effectiveness and satisfaction. stimulating and engaging. In the simplest training process. they incorporate this new facet into their habitual behavior in the training situation. which comes from doing. observing. or discontinue learning in this direction. The newly learned skills undergo modification to fit the work situation. experiencing. Finally.
It can be used for strengthening values. improving inter-group relations and quality of work life. building teams. Benefits of Training Evaluation Evaluation has three main purposes: Feedback to help trainers understand the extent to which objectives are being met and the effectiveness of particular learning activities – as an aid to continuous improvement Control to make sure training policy and practice are aligned with organizational goals and delivering cost-effective solutions to organizational issues 40 .feedback and coaching. This would have the effect of improving the morale of the existing employees. Training can bring about an improvement in a person’s: Knowledge Skills Attitude Thereby raising his potential to perform better on the job. 3) Organizational Effectiveness In company training provides a means for bringing about organizational development. 2) Growth Training is also directed towards developing people for higher levels of responsibility thereby reducing the need for recruiting people from outside. training can contribute the vital 20% that makes the difference. Research has shown that 80% of a person’s development takes place on the job. The ultimate objective of training in the long run is to improve the company’s performance through people performing better. However.
new pre-course work Rethink the timing of the training – earlier or later in people’s career. new content. Training which has been planned and delivered is reflected on. new methods. Views on how to do it better are formulated and tested . new trainer Redesign the preparation/pre-work – new briefing material. earlier or later in the company calendar Leave well alone The following are the clear benefits of evaluation: Improved quality of training activities Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to output Better discrimination of training activities between those that are worthy of support and those that should be dropped Better integration of training offered and on the job development Better co-operation between trainers and line-managers in the development of staff Evidence of the contribution that training and development activities are making to the organization Closer integration of training aims and organizational objectives 41 . earlier or later in the training programme.Intervention to raise awareness of key issues such as pre-course and postcourse briefing and the selection of delegates Evaluation is itself a learning process.The outcome may be to: Abandon the training Redesign the training – new sequence.
In the coming future. The rend towards a more "empowering" style of management and an increasing emphasis on selfdevelopment have combined to bring about a move away from didactic instruction towards coaching and facilitation and away from "trainer" towards "performance improvement consultant". the internet and multi-media training Emphasis on cross-cultural development Remote learning to reflect changing patterns of work 42 . working to harness the brainpower. reflects the fundamental importance of training and learning for those organizations that hope to prosper in the new millennium. the following trends are likely to be seen: Increased use of virtual reality. knowledge and experience of their people.The Way Ahead The development of learning organizations.
e. all of which fall within the following: • Influencing the legal and policy environment needed for business growth and development • Direct services to members This requires that the staff be trained in the areas of the organization's services and core competencies which may include areas such as: • • • • Industrial relations Human resource management Occupational safety and health Information analysis and research for: Influencing the policy environment Transferring knowledge to members Undertaking wage and other surveys 43 .The Training Role Internal Training The role of an employers' organization in training has to be viewed from different perspectives. the training and development of its own staff. This is essential to the effectiveness of the organization's training services as well as to the other services it provides members. First and foremost it must be viewed from an "internal" point of view i.
to make its other services more effective) involves mostly the acquisition of knowledge needed for staff to perform their functions. but also training skills i.Training Services This objective of training (i. induction Performance appraisal Leadership and motivation Employee retention Wage and salary determination The main objectives of this second training role (to provide training to members) are: 44 .e. which is to provide training to members (and sometimes to nonmembers) in areas in which they expect services. But unlike in the case of the first objective of training earlier referred to.e. this second role or objective requires not only knowledge in the areas of training. This is an important pre-requisite to staff undertaking the second role of an employers' organization in training. Examples include negotiation. If staff do not develop training skills • • They will be able to transfer knowledge But not the skills to apply the knowledge to particular situations which arise in enterprises (productivity is increasingly the application of knowledge). selection. workplace mechanisms to improve workplace relations and human resource management policies and practices such as: • • • • • Recruitment. in training techniques or methodologies.
Unique pilot programmes were commenced in 1992 on "Teacher Placement in Industry" and "Management Course for Secondary School Principals". Employers' organizations could form executive training committees within the organization such as the Education Committee in the Japan Federation of Employers' Associations. They are trainers of those engaged in managing people and. • Influencing government. Influencing National Policies and Programmes The third role is one to be discharged at the national level. 45 . education and training authorities to correct inappropriate policies and to commence preparing for the future education and training needs if HRD policies are to have impact. and involves influencing national educational and skills training policies and schemes. It follows that the staff of employers' organizations are not themselves practitioners in people management. the Industrial Education and Training Committee in the Korean Employers' Federation and the Committee on Manpower and Development in the Singapore National Employers' Federation. At the initiative of the New Zealand Employers' Federation the SchoolIndustry Links Development Board was established in 1990 to strengthen the relationship between secondary schools and business. to train their personnel. This could be affected in a variety of ways: • Through representation on the policy boards of national training institutions. occasionally of other trainers.related problems and issues • To instill in enterprise managers the skills needed to improve their management of people • Where enterprises have a training department.• To provide members with the means to address labour . • Identifying employers' education and skills needs and providing feed back from employers.
Numerous examples in countries abound which can provide useful ideas to employers' organizations.• Initiating or promoting teacher education programmes to impart to them knowledge about the role of business in society. through the tax system or training levies. • Influencing course content e. an employers' organization should be able to influence the provision of training incentives to be offered to employers. the environment needed for business development etc. This role could also be undertaken through training support given to professional bodies like an institute of personnel management. A sixth role for an employers' organization is the provision of advisory services to member companies by • Assisting trainers in enterprises to develop or improve their in-house training programmes. especially in the areas of the employers' organization's expertise • • Upgrading the knowledge of company trainers Maintaining a directory of relevant training programmes/courses Seventh. • Promoting closer links between employers and educational and training institutions. management course contents to include more human relations management subjects. and even basic management in occupational safety and health and environmental management. Other Roles A fourth role is for an employers' organization to raise awareness among employers of the need for increased investment in the development of human capital as an essential condition for achieving competiveness. A fifth role is in the training of personnel or human resource managers. 46 . given the fact that their role still tends to be downgraded relative to other management functions such as finance.g. marketing and production.
We must acknowledge them as human beings with individual needs. drives. people's basic needs are the same. Understanding Employee Drives and Motivations . analyzing and planning an adequate response to employees' motivations deserves first place in the order of business. let us shift our approach from grouping people under the generic category of "employee" to individual human beings and term them as "hired workers" or "working partners". personalities. drives. Before going any further. and aim at responding to and satisfying those. This holds true not only for the people we hire on a regular basis. it is employees at all levels that can make or break it.Eight. It is as important to research and study the needs. and acknowledge their contribution to the business success. This is what they are. an employers' organization could develop training material to be used by enterprises for in-house training. as it is with regard to customers. Though each person has specific needs. In actual fact. drives. as illustrated by Abraham Maslow in the following model: 47 . and expectations of people we hire or employ. and capabilities.The First Step towards Motivation at Work However large or small a company or business is. at varying degrees of intensity. considering the role each "employee" plays in a company's success. characteristics. aspirations. but also for temporary and contracted workers.
Self-Actualization Ego Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Maslow explains the Hierarchy of Needs as applied to workers roughly as follows: Physiological Needs Basic physical needs: the ability to acquire food. rewards Self-Actualization: realizing one's dreams and potential. job security. emotionally. and even physically ready to satisfy the needs of the employer and the customers. safe equipment and installations Social Needs: contact and friendship with fellow-workers. It is only when these needs are met that workers are morally. social activities and opportunities Ego: recognition. shelter. reaching the heights of one's gifts and talents. 48 . clothing and other basics to survive Safety Needs: a safe and non-threatening work environment. acknowledgment.
but to exceed them taking into consideration additional extraordinary needs individual workers have. or other activity (such as travel or recreation). A person's inner drives push and propel him/her towards an employer. same as in his/her dealings with customers. Acquire friends at work 5. Win recognition 6. and know-how 10. Save for and enjoy old age security benefits 3. Be able to advance in life and career-wise 8. a particular job. Be acknowledged and rewarded for special efforts and contributions 7. career. The outer (external) motivators are the mirror image the employer or outside world offers in response to the inner drives.Worker motivation must also be viewed from two perspectives: 1. Have medical and other insurance coverage 4. Have opportunities for self-development 9. Most workers need to: 1. Improve their skills. It is these drives that Maslow delineates in his hierarchy of needs. and which we must understand and internalize. or travel 2. Outer (external) motivators. Inner drives 2. In order to attract the "cream of the crop" of available workers. line of study. Demonstrate and use special gifts and abilities 49 . knowledge. use as guidelines in our efforts to help employees feel motivated. the employer not only tries to satisfy these basic needs. Earn wages that will enable them to pay for basic necessities and additional luxuries such as the purchase of a home.
A safe work environment 9. The employer responds to those needs by offering and providing: 1.11. Job security (to the degree possible) 5. Assistance to workers for their special needs (such as child care arrangements. Sharing of company goals and objectives a 50 . Social activities 12. Systematic feedback 16. Company/ business information 19. A stable. Training and development programs 17. Incentive programs 14. Medical coverage and other benefits 10. flexible work schedules) 4. transportation. Information on customer feedback 20. Clear company policies 6. Employment 2. Opportunities for promotion 18. Clear and organized work procedures 7. Open lines of communication (formal and informal) 15. Adequate pay 3. Realize their ideals. An atmosphere of teamwork and cooperation 11. Reward and recognition programs 13. just and fair work environment 8.
or weekends • Heavy financial responsibilities which he/she can meet only by working at two jobs. In addition to needs and drives. Guidance and mentoring.21. leading to exhaustion. overtime. Future expectations 23. for which company policies should be planned accordingly: • If the company is in a remote location. Plans for the future 24. An employee may have: • Family responsibilities and be unable to work shifts. "sick leave". adult workers have expectations from their employer . Some other needs the employer can expect. expert employer 51 . It is important that the employer discover other extraordinary needs applicants have before hiring them and know beforehand whether he/she can satisfy those needs or not. experienced.they expect: • A knowledgeable. all employees will have a need for more social activities • • Many single people look for dates and spouses at work Some women may not be ready to work late shifts unless the employer provides transportation back home • Some workers may have a problem with drug or alcohol abuse. and deficient work performance • A desperate financial need for additional overtime and weekend remuneration • Premature expectations of swift promotions. Information on the market situation and industry 22.
Business owners and managers are under constant scrutiny by the people they hire. Once they feel confident that the employer and their place of work is what they wished for and expected. cooperation. teamwork. procedures. Most of these needs. expectations and aspirations are unexpressed . employee relations. Adult workers care beyond the salary . they are ready to contribute above and beyond "the call of duty". and motivation that will benefit all the parties involved. They consider their work as a major factor that shapes their lives and the lives of those dear to them.they care to know to whom they entrust their fate. and employment practices Business integrity Clear job descriptions Two-way communications Effective management and supervision Positive discipline Good company repute Good customer relations Company survival Opportunities for personal growth Company growth A share in the company's success.• • • • • • • • • • • • Clear and fair policies. reputation. training and development that will lead to an environment of openness. 52 .it is up to the employer to develop a good system of company communications. and security.
the absence of turnover quickly results in demotivation since the possibility of motion and forward-motion is taken away from employees. upward and downward. It should be incorporated in a hotel's master yearly training plan. It should begin with supervisory level and filter down to entry-level positions. They learn soon enough that such perks are taken for granted and that money is not the key to employee motivation. adding unrewarded responsibilities on the shoulders of their supervisors and employees. is the basis on which to build Following a reading or lecture on the subject. when implemented horizontally. performing the same duties day in. employees can have one day training in the role of department head ("King for the Day"). assistants and employees can cross-train in different departments or within the department itself. It is against human nature to remain static. Public Relations. Cross-training should be carefully planned and presented as a learning opportunity. mistakenly believe that employee motivation can be won through monetary rewards or other perks. Security. covering all positions and departments. Marketing & Sales in Front 53 . managers sometimes implement "job enrichment" in a misguided manner. day out. While high employee turnover reflects on low morale and lack of motivation. employee motivation. Banquets. which is a form of cross-training. Food & Beverage. department heads can take roles replacing him. Department heads. without expectations of change in routine or opportunities for advancement. When a General Manager is away. Housekeeping should cross-train in Front Office and vice-versa. A professional and unified management. An effective training technique which results in motivation is cross-training. Sales.Cross-Training as a motivational and problem-solving Technique Many managers. This results in a feeling of exploitation and has the reverse of the intended effect. including human resources directors. With background support. in a good work environment. Front Office in Marketing. when seen from another angle.
54 . Food & Beverage Service in the Culinary department and vice versa. Food & Beverage. They return to their job with a better attitude. know-how. Employees must "buy" into the idea. be encouraged to give feedback and make suggestions for improvement. This has to be an effective planned process. enmity and unhealthy competition Increases knowledge. they hear "warning bells". Upon being moved to a different position or department. Departmental communications meetings can be used to share lessons learned.Office. They become "partners". When employees think "the grass is greener on the other side of the lawn" they soon realize their mistake after exposure to other departments. skills and work performance Improves overall motivation Leads to the sharing of organizational goals and objectives. albeit temporarily. This technique achieves the following objectives: • • • • Prevents stagnation Offers a learning and professional development opportunity Rejuvenates all departments Improves understanding of the different departments and the hotel as a whole • • • • • Leads to better coordination and teamwork Erases differences. shape up and usually return to their positions as exemplary performers. Sending people to work in another department at a moment's notice is not what cross-training is about. Human Resources in different departments and vice versa. Purchasing. Cross-training can also be used to "shake up" supervisors or employees who have lapsed into poor performance.
meetings. Details must be coordinated with the "receiving" department head. effort and payroll. Unionized properties face some difficulty in implementing such techniques due to the rigidity of Union policies and labor agreements. but is responsible over certain job functions. skills. are enjoyed by the three main stakeholders: employees. The benefits. however. The trainee is incorporated within the department's activities for the duration of the cross-training (briefings.Depending on the budget at hand and the objectives to be achieved. can easily replace each other when needed and who gain new confidence regarding their professional expertise. With job rotation. It is up to management to win over Unions on this concept and convince them of the benefits to employees' careers. 55 . Both cross-training and job rotation create a team of workers who are more knowledgeable. Union representatives can be made to understand that company-wide cross-training involves substantial investment in time. A more sophisticated form of cross-training is job rotation. career opportunities and future security due to business success. the time for cross-training can vary from one day to a week or more. the employee's role is of a different nature. for which he has to prove himself. These two techniques lead to great motivation throughout the company. He is not considered as trainee. Employees enjoy the rewards of added know-how. which usually involves extended periods (from one month to six months). or obligations). management and guests.
and to provide staff with study tours to other employers' organizations. • The economic viability of having full time training staff.Problems for Employers' Organizations Developing Training Role Several reasons account for the problems faced by employers' organizations in training their own staff. and in providing training to members. persons who have been trained as trainers.e. an employers' organization would generally have to keep full time training staff to a minimum. Therefore organizations often rely on the ILO to conduct training programmes designed to serve the needs of employers' organizations. • • Inadequate training material Inadequate information/knowledge relating to labor-related subjects needed to attract enterprises to the organization's training programmes. Due to financial constraints. there are no courses and training institutions which are geared to the needs of employers' organizations. 56 . • Most organizations do not have skilled trainers i. They include the following: • Unlike enterprises which can have their staff trained in management and other training institutions. This places a heavy responsibility on senior staff to train new recruits and on staff to develop themselves. Therefore staff with special skills providing advisory and representation services should be trained as trainers to enable them to undertake some training in their areas of expertise.
so that the organization can at the end of the year pay outrageously high rewards to greedy directors. given all their other priorities. they're bound to. the type of development or change that the organization deems appropriate for them. is to tell them. bosses and business owners would do better to think first about exploring ways to align the aims of the business with the needs . or persuade them.total life needs . and • It assumes that people want. And when they think about it. Or more precisely. Bosses and organizations still tend to think that people whom are managed and employed and paid to do a job should do what they're told to do. and 'motivation'.of their people. and later. Can they not see it? Actually probably not. People today have a different perspective. The workers 57 . knowledge. and can assimilate into their lives. But just because the boss says so. Instead. and expectations are imposed on or 'put into' people by teachers. Most people who go to work are under no illusion that their main purpose is to do what their manager says. and to motivate people towards changing what they do. which typically encompasses training and development. people look at things in a different way. managers. Why? Are the people stupid? Can they not see the need for change? Do they not realise that if the organization cannot make these changes then we will become uncompetitive. mostly fails. We will lose market share. There will be job cuts. organizations. doesn't make it so. From the experiences at school the people are conditioned to believe that skills. by managers and bosses in the workplace. We will eventually go out of business. or that there is no need for such alignment. We are conditioned from an early age to believe that the way to teach and train. and a big fat dividend to the shareholders.Organizational Change Conventional organizational change. Imposing new skills and change on people doesn't work because: • It assumes that people's personal aims and wishes and needs are completely aligned with those of the organization.
Even if they want to change and learn new skills. they have a whole range of issues that keep them fully occupied for most of their waking 58 . Executive greed. Fact two: People can't just drop everything and 'change'. false promises are transparent for all decent folk to see: "Oh you want me to do this training. Then they might begin to be interested in helping with new skills and change. up the creek without a paddle." And that's if bosses are lucky. etc.work so that other more gifted or fortunate or aggressive people can profit because of our efforts. If they still wore caps they'd doff them.with their workers. and leaving the employees. just because boss says so.. on whose backs these scandalous gains have been made. The bosses should re-assess and re-align their organization's aims. And god help those if they are running a management buyout company. so I can make more money for you and the parasites who feed off this corporation? I've got my own life to lead thanks very much. and integrity . exploitation. making the MBO equity-holders millionaires. beliefs. environmental damage. betrayal.. Most staff will simply nod and smile demurely as if in servile acceptance.all of it . or learn new skills. at the mercy of the new owners. before they all disappear up their own backsides. and adjust to your changes. inequality. intent on floating or selling out in the next two-to-five years. How the bloody hell do you expect decent hardworking people to align with those aims? It's time for a radical re-think. Fact one: People will never align with bad aims.
And aside from this. The need for consulting with people is rather a good idea is that it saves boss from his own wrong assumptions. Consulting with people does not mean that organization is in the workers hand they wouldn't want the corporation if they are paid well.hours. Ignoring these facts again will only deepen the crisis. because the organization is on the edge of a crisis. The company should start by looking at their organization's aims and values and purposes. Fact three: Organizations commonly say they don't have time to re-assess and re-align their aims and values. or don't have time to consult with people properly. Crisis is no excuse for compromising integrity.not change the people. Crisis is the best reason to realign aims and consult with workers. consulting with people. What does organization actually seek to do? Whom does their organization benefit? And whom does it exploit? Who are the winners..it'll be the organizational purpose and aims that stink. When an organization is in crisis. and who are the losers? Does the organization have real integrity? Are they proud of the consequences and implications of what their organization does? Will the organization be remembered for the good that it did? And what do workers say to themselves about the way their boss is managing change? Some of the areas in which an employers' organization can undertake training are: 59 . Crisis is wake-up and change the organization and its purpose . So if the company is thinking in this then it is wrong because consulting with people gives boss and them a chance to understand the implications and feasibility of what boss think needs doing. the people are almost always okay . Well whose fault is that? Organizations get into crisis because they ignore facts one and two. and helping them to see things from both sides generally throws up some very good ideas for doing things better than boss could have dreamt of by himself. etc. It helps boss to see from both sides too.
distinguishes an employers' organization from other employer bodies. HRM training should be made available to all enterprise managers. Cross-cultural management training. Safety and health. such as interpreting relevant laws and training safety committees in enterprises. Supervisory training. g. f. This often neglected area of training is an important means of improving workplace labour relations and productivity. training in this field may require linking up with institutions which are qualified in this regard. c. Here a limited role is possible. Negotiation and negotiation skills. An employers' organization could develop a limited role. Productivity. Productivity bargaining and performance and skills based pay systems are a part of an employers' organization's mandate directly linked to productivity. This is important not only for the conduct of collective bargaining but also for enterprise managers in their frequent interactions with their employees and other enterprises. Personnel and Human Resource Management. Since one of the main objectives of HRM is to integrate it with the functions of line managers. In the context of increasing investment in countries from both within and outside the region and the apparent proliferation of disputes flowing from cross-cultural "mismanagement". Industrial Relations and Labour Law.a. However. b. there is scope for the development of training 60 . as it is difficult to build a comparative advantage without external assistance. e. d. largely through training to achieve sound industrial relations and in HRM practices which promote productivity improvement. This should be a priority as it is the labour relations role which. Training in this area helps to strengthen personal departments and human resource management functions. The ILO has developed a supervisory training module which has been found useful by enterprises. more than any other.
for personnel from several different enterprises. However. Considerable impact can be achieved through the design and conduct of training programmes for particular enterprises at plant level as it facilitates addressing a particular enterprise's needs. Among other things. this involves the followings: • Analyzing the organization's strengths and weaknesses in training in the light of the needs assessment surveys and identification of the areas of training. Training should not take the form of only collective training programmes i. this has been a much neglected area of training. practices and culture.programmes for foreign personnel designed to acquaint them with local practices and cultural factors relevant to managing local employees. or at least a person to plan and coordinate the training 61 . Strangely. Equipping the Organization for Training The organization should equip itself to perform a training role.e. The latter type of programme also has a reasonable chance of attracting senior managers who are in a position to influence the company's policies. local employees also need to adjust to the management requirements and styles of foreign companies. it requires quite a mastery of local systems. • • Training the staff in training skills Where relevant. studying the management of the training function of employers' organizations which have developed an excellence in training • • • Improving the organization's information/research/knowledge base Developing training courses and materials Where necessary entering into arrangements with outside individuals or institutions to design and/or conduct training programmes • Appointing a training manager. Increasingly.
training involves an expert working with learners to transfer to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs. often to perform some job or new role in the future. As a brief review of terms. ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance. 62 . Development is a broad.• Acquisition of the training equipment needed.
retirement. Such training encompasses oral. It also shows why and how to discourage gossip. redundancy etc. consideration. rush jobs etc. courtesy. Right from the way the receptionist handles a call to how the CEO deals with a customer gives a glimpse of the image of an organization. concrete and colorful. and includes techniques to value diversity 63 . personal décor and good rapport. personal work at office. Such training imparts the values of life skills that employees need under different and difficult circumstances.Topics of Employee Training 1) Corporate ethics: This covers the value of good manners. 5) Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. controversies. 4) Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. 6) Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views. career. 3) Career and life planning: A primarily employee-oriented training objective u undertaken to help employees plan for their lives. 2) Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs. concise. written and presentation skills. It stresses the importance of communication being clear.
but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults. relevant and time-bound goals. etc. etc. repetitive activities. They also show how to set measurable. 11) Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management. guidelines and standards for quality. etc. role ambiguity. it may occur due to role conflict. role overload or role under load. Manifested physiologically and physically. 8) Stress management: Stress is an individual’s response to threats and challenges in the environment. showing empathy and self-awareness. role incompatibility. 64 . 9) Time management: Time management skills covered here showcase the importance of being specific. 12) Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment . 10) Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict.. Quality Circles. etc. It also includes interpersonal relationship skills Communication is a two-way exercise and this objective covers the importance of listening. concentrating. benchmarking..7) Staff management and team building: Such training shows the importance and benefits of good management and how everyone can achieve more through teamwork. attainable. require basic training about quality concepts. delegation and prioritization. hazardous chemicals. Stress management techniques are covered under this objective. Training can people to get along in the workplace.
retention and recall through audio and visual learning techniques. quality assessments etc. organizations also impart special job-related skills. An organization may choose to impart training in any or many of the objectives mentioned above. 14) Memory skills: This objective highlights techniques for better reception. technical training. especially about what are inappropriate behaviors. associating and following systematic review plans. 65 . 15) Special skills: Besides the above. Also organizational training needs to be undertaken keeping the mission and the vision statement of the organization in view. report writing. It helps to improve skills by employing all senses. These may include technology training. But before one invests it is important to choose a trainer who is good and capable of making a positive difference with his or her training methodologies.13) Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment.
Staying competitive is the key to sustainability. Ongoing training almost always shows a positive return on investment. Training your staff. Staff retention Training increases staff retention which is a significant cost saving. High labor productivity increases business output and can open a greater share of the market or expand it by improving products. keeping them motivated and up-to-date with industry trends and new technologies is essential to achieving that goal. Staff benefit too. In some companies. services and reputations. training programs have reduced staff turnover by 70 per cent and led to a return on investment of 7. A staff who receives formal training can be 230 per cent more productive than untrained colleagues who are working in the same role.Benefits from Employee Training and Development Regardless of the size or type of an industry or business. particularly during induction. Most businesses provide on-the-job training. training can have a measurable impact on performance and the bottom line. as the loss of one competent person can be the equivalent of one year's pay and benefits. Research shows that productivity increases while training takes place.000 per cent. learning new skills and becoming a valued asset in any organization. Training brings direct benefits to business and can be calculated as a return on investment. 66 . Successful training is focused on supporting your business objectives. Improved quality and productivity Training that meets both staff and employer needs can increase the quality and flexibility of a business’s services by fostering: • • • Accuracy and efficiency Good work safety practices Better customer service.
Increased efficiencies in processes. Increased innovation in strategies and products 67 . These reasons include: 1. Increased employee motivation 3. Training staff to manage the implementation of new technology. training will boost the bottom line and reduce costs by decreasing: • • • • • • Wasted time and materials Maintenance costs of machinery and equipment Workplace accidents. training can improve: • • • • Staff morale and satisfaction 'Soft skills' such as inter-staff communication and leadership Time management Customer satisfaction There are numerous sources of on-line information about training and development. resulting in financial gain 4. Several of these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. The flow-on effect The benefits of training in one area can flow through to all levels of an organisation. Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees 2. work practices and business strategies can also act as a benchmark for future recruitment and quality assurance practices. Over time. Staying competitive Businesses must continually change their work practices and infrastructure to stay competitive in a global market. Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods 5. As well as impacting on business profit margins. leading to lower insurance premiums Recruitment costs through the internal promotion of skilled staff Absenteeism.
e.6. diversity training Companies that have a healthy training culture report the following benefits: • • • • • • • • • Improved quality Increased productivity Greater flexibility and responsiveness to change Reduced insurance premiums Less wastage Reduced maintenance and repair costs Greater commitment from staff Higher staff retention rate Improved morale. e.. Risk management.g. Perhaps the most important benefit of a healthy training culture is that the skills of your staff are formally recognised and that your employees feel that their contribution to the company is valued. conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!) 8. training about sexual harassment.g. Enhanced company image. 68 .. Reduced employee turnover 7.
” Corporate preference is generally towards organizations that have good experience in training corporate personnel. Trainers have to be highly experienced with a track record of successful delivery. “Training programmes that involve volume and are done on a consistent basis (like the voice-and-accent training imparted at BPOs) is generally done inhouse. NIS of Sparta says that. relationship building and increasing production. Due to ever-changing market scenarios and stiff competition. human capital has replaced physical capital as a source of competitive advantage for all organisations. “Training has become a critical business enabler and is being linked to business outcome. Sanjeev Duggal. but this effort is incomplete without proficient employees who are in touch with forthcoming innovations in their companies. big and small. The arena of training has moved on from employee retention programmes to issues like sales training. leadership. outsource The kind of training requirement an organization has determines whether the training is conducted in-house or is outsourced to a third party. But an organization usually involves a third party when there is need for a specialized training programme like a management development programme. programme. CEO and MD.” In-house vs. faster and smarter workforce that will impact business results.Renewed focus on Corporate Training Upcoming technologies are aimed at making organizational processes more efficient. methodology and delivery. The training industry in India has evolved as a business effectiveness tool. Today. role-based skill development programme or outbound 69 . every organisation wants to make optimum use of the most critical resource-people-efficiently and effectively to impact business results. hence there is a renewed focus on corporate training to create a better. Duggal notes. Training students and training professionals are different in terms of approach.
But some organizations outsource their entire training programmes to qualified and reputed training organizations after due diligence on their credentials.” According to Katyal. client references and experience in the business.Nair explains. they receive a greater share of the material gains due to their increased productivity. Multiple gains Training makes an organization well-equipped to keep pace with the changing dynamics of business. “Training programmes are usually in-house where the client utilizes his own environment and facilities. Katyal points out that the challenges which companies face while undertaking training programmes includes finding locations for training in remote areas and an experienced faculty. IT and BPO companies undertake a lot of in-house training. and depending on the kind of specialized training required. thereby giving him traveling and economic benefits. Government sector companies mostly choose to outsource. Outsourcing offers the advantage of sourcing scarce talent and the ability to ramp up quickly. Generally. “Training as a culture also helps corporate HR retain their people. Matching schedules and providing customized courseware for customized content is another operational challenge in this segment. Employees frequently develop a greater sense of selfworth. On the technology side. thereby cutting down time requirements and getting the best RoI on the company’s technology deployments. Constant updating on 70 . they outsource. whereas in-house training offers greater control. Nair points out that IT-based training programme enable participants to use software to its fullest potential. the choice between outsourcing and in-house training depends on the nature and need of the organization. faculties. These factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and company goals. participants aspire for knowledge initiatives. dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society.
It’s an effective B2B model for mature IT training companies. “From a training company perspective. and in the process adds value to their clients and their own business. Even for their technical staff.” 71 .” He adds. it’s a relationship-based marketing model and leads to a constant revenue model.technologies is at most times a good reason for people to stay longer in an organization. it’s a new scale that they always aspire to reach as a technocrat.
employers are demanding better accounting to ensure that their development dollars go toward furthering strategic goals and bolstering the bottom line. California. better-trained workers increase chances for success. the two driving forces of economic change in today’s business world. vice president of global alliances for Sum Total Systems of Mountain View. says that every training effort--from the most sophisticated leadership course to the most basic regulatory compliance training module--is being rigorously vetted for more than just content. "They want to know." says Pat Galagan.The State of Training and Development: More Spending. overall spending on training and development continues to raise. vice president of content for the American Society for Training & Development. They are hiring chief learning officers to deal with the increasingly complex field. More Scrutiny As investment in training continues to rise. ‘What is the financial impact?’ “Kramer says. "We are seeing spending continue to rise. more 72 . Jack Kramer. with resources migrating away from in-house programs. And they are demanding better accounting of results. Companies seeking to gain advantage through better-trained and better-developed workers are employing everything from elearning delivery systems to multicultural and polyglot training solutions. a reflection of the fact that companies are ratcheting up the amount of training they require of their workers in the ceaseless drive for a competitive edge.” ‘Have you cut costs? Have you solved compliance issues? Have you assimilated learning into company operations?’ " Yet despite the focus on efficiency and cost control. haven’t bypassed the once-staid world of training and development. Companies clearly subscribe to the belief that smarter. Technology and global competition. "The thing we are noticing is that companies are working to get more efficiency.
In-house spending declined from 66.5 percent in 2005. thanks in part to the ever-changing and rising need to meet mandates for training in subjects like worker safety or financial reporting. from 11 percent in 2000 to 13. the amount of training that can be outsourced has yet to peak.2 percent of total spending in 2000 to a projected 29. At the same time. the other major use of training and development money. According to the ASTD report. rose modestly. in-house training and development is still by far the place where the most dollars are spent." Still.1 percent in 2005.) 73 .4 percent for 2005. Vendors predict that their businesses will enjoy years of continued growth. It means they are doing an enterprise accounting of learning expenditures. (Tuition reimbursement.8 percent of total spending in 2000 to a projected 57. outsourcing rose from 22.effectiveness and better alignment out of training. But it commands a shrinking share.
Economists predict an acute shortage of “knowledge workers. is taking a new look. as well as the experience of many news leaders. In today’s multimedia world. Industry attrition also is climbing.” Starting salaries for journalists. But a growing body of research. and an increasingly professional journalism workforce wants – and is starting to get – more training and mid-career education. have begun to creep upward. 74 . traditionally untroubled about staff development. stagnant for decades. Higher employee retention both saves money and strengthens readership. 2. News organizations with strong training and education programs enjoy a greater chance of success in creating newsroom diversity and reaching wider audiences. Benefits include: 1.Training In Various Industries 1)Training in News Center The news industry. shows that improving staff development and training can help news organizations improve the quality of their journalism to keep and even expand audiences. Journalists with learning and development opportunities stay with organizations longer. The same information revolution that draws away journalistic talent also siphons off the attention of audiences. industry leaders feel heightened competition for the best and brightest employees.
1. increasing performance. climbed in the 1990s as Internet and other opportunities lured many journalists away from traditional media. two themes recur: ‘We’ve got candidates for jobs. “We are about to face a demographically driven shortfall in labor that will make the late 1990s seem like a minor irritation. historically low compared to other non-manufacturing industries.0 magazine in September 2003. topic and value training all help journalists provide greater editorial quality. about the same average found across industry nationally. 4. former chairman of the National Commission for Employment Policy.3. The worker group that follows is smaller and less likely to be loyal to any organization that does not provide challenges and development opportunities. By 2000.” Anthony Carnevale. “In countless conversations with newspaper executives. The middle-aged baby boomers who make up the largest portion of the news industry will retire in the first quarter of the 21st century. but we don’t seem to be getting the cream of the crop any more.’” Recruiting and retention challenges are likely to increase. Average turnover across America’s newsrooms. 75 . told Business 2.” the Media Management Center’s Readership Institute reported in 2000. Journalists with learning and development opportunities stay with organizations longer. newsroom turnover in the newspaper industry averaged 15 percent. Skill. Higher employee retention both saves money and strengthens readership. A learning newsroom is more likely to have a constructive culture. “Newspapers feel they are dealing with a mounting crisis in getting and keeping good people.’ and ‘we keep losing the people we can’t afford to lose.
” the Readership Institute said after its Impact Study of 100 newspapers. an even greater number – a full third of those surveyed – expressed dissatisfaction with training opportunities.This will worsen what the Readership Institute calls the”hidden” business cost of turnover.” The Readership Institute identifies development and learning activities as critical to retaining staff and building a dynamic workforce.07 percent of payroll annually on training and staff development. In those that do. The lack of training outranked even compensation and lack of opportunities for promotion among the journalists surveyed. readership and how people perceive the newspaper’s brand. estimated that the news industry spends . however. New research shows these issues are linked – that high turnover can depress reader satisfaction. “Difficulties in recruiting and keeping talented workers come at a time when levels of readership and share of advertising continue to slowly but steadily erode. 76 . when industries generally spend three times that amount and some highperforming corporations spend 10 to 20 times that amount. The 2002 study “Newsroom Training: Where’s the Investment?” underscored that improved opportunities for training and development will be critical to the retention of journalists in all media as the economy opens up. The survey. the relationship between high-turnover staffs and highturnover readership. “That alone is a compelling opportunity for newspapers to focus on getting and keeping the best. Though three in 10 journalists told researchers they received regular training. there appear clear relationships between staff development and turnover. co-sponsored by the Council of National Journalism Organizations and the Knight Foundation. Newsrooms do not typically track or report their turnover rates or link them to staff development activities.
Improved training and professional development has been an important factor at the relatively few dailies that have achieved racial parity with their communities. Readership Institute research has stressed that the “defensive” cultures of most newsrooms are a primary obstacle to growing audience. The Southern Newspaper Publishers Association recently faced both of these factors – a constructive need to add training and defensive budget cuts during the recent recession – and fashioned a creative solution to increase staff 77 .2. News organizations with strong training and education programs enjoy a greater chance of success in creating newsroom diversity and reaching wider audiences. News industry efforts to reach younger news consumers as well as female consumers also can be hampered by a lack of training and staff development. increasing performance. A learning newsroom is more likely to have a constructive culture. Past surveys show journalists of color joined by both women and young journalists as being statistically more likely to want to leave a job if it does not offer a chance to learn and grow. Journalists of color who leave the profession generally cite a lack of professional challenge and a lack of opportunities for advancement. knowledge and behavior – strengthens companies by doing more than reducing turnover. In the news industry. yet it struggles to keep and expand the number of women and journalists of color in its newsrooms. 3. Staff development – investments that enhance an individual’s skills. Organizations with constructive. The news industry hopes to keep and expand its audience in an increasingly diverse nation. learning workplace cultures tend to do better in the marketplace.
knowledge and ethics of the staff. SNPA developed a “traveling campus” program to offer weekend training at 20 sites per year. In 2002. nearly as many people in one year as the SNPA foundation had trained in the previous 32 years.” which provides newsroom training for regional clusters of Cox newspapers. That’s where increased and improved training and development comes in. Newsrooms with a high commitment to training already know and practice this. credible content. photography.600 newspaper employees attended the traveling seminars. reachable by car by any member. news organizations struggle to provide content that is relevant across a wider audience that includes young people and people of color. Skill. and law – is essential to this process. By the end of 2003. These key elements of editorial quality – and of any quality news brand – rely increasingly on the skill. the organization’s members had pledged $8 million of a $10 million endowment needed to permanently fund the training. Recommending improved technique is one thing. putting it into place is another. Similarly. News industry leaders say they can compete only with relevant. Recent events have shown that credibility is a vital yet fragile force in any news organization. science. 4. more than 7. graphics and page design as keys to increasing reader satisfaction. many of which are the small newsrooms most in need of training. health. The Readership Institute points to newspaper craft skills such as writing. Updating knowledge and expertise – whether it is community knowledge or specialized knowledge in business. Inspired by the “Cox Academy. The challenge is to find practical ways to increase the capacity of newsrooms of all sizes to know and practice it. topic and value training all help journalists provide greater editorial quality.development opportunities for its member newspapers. Ongoing training and staff development around values 78 .
79 . journalists consistently say they need more training to do their jobs. In newsrooms.and ethics is needed as market forces increase pressure on standards. Indeed. knowledge and ethics. when journalists say they want training. The national training survey found surprising harmony -.eight in 10 journalists believe they need more training to keep up with changing demands. they refer to all three types – skills. and nine in 10 news executives agreed.
Therefore. Also.2 Training in Call Centers Top Four blunders in Training This is big questions that will the Outsourcing Trend continue to survive with falling training standards? What's the bottom line? Call Center Employers will regret slashing their training budgets to save a few dollars. Therefore. Blunder #1: They distribute training policies and that's all they need to do. 80 . companies must verify that each and every worker received training. In order to use training as a defense tool. All companies experience turnover and absenteeism problems.the people in the trenches and making their daily employment decisions . For a small investment. employers can protect themselves and save hundreds of thousands of dollars in costs." recognize a situation involving a issue and seek help from HR. Blunder #2: They fine since they had training six months ago. Distributing a company/induction/training policy is not sufficient to show workforce that a company has met its legal obligation to train its workforce and create an educated work-environment. which undermine training effectiveness. Below are the top four training blunders that many employers make and later regret. line managers . companies should receive written or electronic training verifications and audit those verifications ANNUALLY to ensure legally defensible training. it is very important to train the management staff so they can "spot the issue.are the best hope of creating a energetic & learning workplace.
companies should have a qualified expert conduct the training . staff costs or lost productivity/opportunity costs. In contrast.a person who can also provide training testimony in the event the training is ever legally challenged. A blended learning solution (combining in-person and Web-based) is the most comprehensive and effective training solution. The call center employers need to devote energy and resources to their employees more than ever before in order to maintain a productively workplace amidst this recession and the poor morale pervading the marketplace. they know the employee likely attended the training . Also.but they cannot prove it for lack of documentation. without any hidden costs. That does not account for ancillary expenses such as travel costs. The company shouldn’t make such mistake. Otherwise. However. in-person training costs about 4000 to 5000 per person just for the training. Blunder #3: the company has an HR assistant conduct training workshops. Web-based training can cost as little as 3000 per person. The trainer must be a senior executive or an outside professional to gain the respect and attention of the training participants. For example. many employers experience the all too common scenario where they know they provided training. A company needs to rely on the quality and effectiveness of its training. why do it? Using an in-house trainer can be difficult if the person lacks expertise or credibility within the organization. Also. some Web-based programs can also be an effective stand-alone solution. 81 .Compliance training loses significant value if the company is not able to present tracking information and documentation showing that each of their workers received annual training. Blunder #4: the company always want in-person training rather than Web-based and they can't afford it this year.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN BST TEXTILE 82 .
Profitability of the Organization depends on its utilization. Skills experiences qualifications of an employee to do the particular job is highly essential. 83 . duties and responsibilities of job doer. working conditions. So right man should be procured at right place in right time. duties. BST TEXTILE . BST TEXTILE procure manpower in a very scientific manner . If a good dancer appointed as a Chief Executive Officer of a Company. If their utilization is done properly Organization will make profit otherwise it will make loss. responsibilities. These information are obtained through Job Analysis. gets the help of Job analysis. Before recruit a person all information regarding job. To procure right man at right place in right time. education and experience of the employee. Job Descriptions and Job Specifications. Job Descriptions. working conditions. skill efficiency. To obtain the pertinent information regarding job. Without these recruitment may be unsuccessful.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN BST TEXTILE Human resource is a most valuable asset in the Organization. It gets information by use of these important documents like Job Analysis. job description and job specifications. otherwise their proper utilization may not be done. Job Specifications. some information regarding job and job doer is highly essential. he may not run the business.
CONCLUSION 84 .
material. 85 . The business of BST TEXTILE is carried on in a very scientific manner. program like recruitment selection. It strongly believes in manpower position of the organization because it knows in the absence of ‘M’ for man all ‘Ms’ like money. It has a separate personnel department which is entrusted with the task of carrying out the various policies. It always try to modernize the department.Conclusion Studying the Training and Development at BST TEXTILE MILLS PVT. money. analyzing the respondents answers. training etc. LTD. opinion survey and date analysis the researcher came to a conclusion that BST TEXTILE is a growing Company. So it always recruits manpower in a scientific manner. Management understands the business game very well. LTD. In the absence of right man. material. effectively and efficiently. machines. Now the personnel department of BST TEXTILE is in infancy stage. At the time of difficulty it takes necessary action to solve the problem. It always tries to develop the human resources. In the saturation point of business it need not waste the time to diversify into the another business. machines all things will not be properly utilized. methods and motivation are failure.
not simply a series of workshops. technology . The employers redefine it as new technology options become available.should be seen as a tool. effective learning to maximize learning and retention levels. People who believe technology will totally replace great teachers in front of classrooms of highly motivated learners are as misguided as those who believe the Internet is a passing fad. however. The effects of Internet technology on employee training are indeed profound.any technology . And. they constantly test it against the 86 . not a strategy or final goal. Just because they have good word processing software doesn't mean you write well. anywhere.The employers should keep in mind these four rules of thumb when designing the company’s strategy and solution: Rule #1: Internet technology is the key to a profound revolution in learning. employees forget what they have learned within two months of the workshop. i. Employers change as their business changes. The blended learning solution. cultural process . Likewise. Employees retain about 50% to 60% of what they learn in a formal training workshop. Rule #4: Strategy development and implementation are never really finished.e. Therefore. access and opportunities to learn should be available to anyone. the Internet cannot. Organizational learning is as much about what happens outside formal learning programs as it is about the programs themselves. a mixture of classroom and Web-based training is the most effective and comprehensive learning strategy. in and of itself. They adjust it as their people become more skilled and knowledgeable. improve the quality of the learning and the content they put on it. and at any time within an organization. Rule #2: There is an enduring and important role for traditional classroom instruction.. Often. The employers need to use Internet technology combined with high quality. Rule #3: Learning is a continuous.
mission and vision of their business. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Even dissatisfaction. Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. complaints. absenteeism. making sure they are always in alignment. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. At the same time. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. Organizational take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Due to training there is greater stability. They are absorbed after course completion. Ultimately. 87 . the objectives of the HR department and also of the organization are also furthered. Accidents. the employee’s personal goals are furthered. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future.
REFERENCES 88 .
Steve Kneeland. recruit outstanding performers 5.Hill. (1997) Human Resource and Personnel Management. Chris Dukes.E Effective Personnel Selection Procedures. Harold C and Kendell. (1999) Hiring People. W. Tata McGraw. avoid hiring the wrong person. Ivancevich. K Ashwathappa. (2001) Recruiting the Right Staff 3. 1956 89 . Human Resource Management. John M. Tata McGraw. 2004 4.REFERENCES 1. Stone.Hill 131-176 2. discover an effective interviewing system.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 90 .
google.com www.soople.infosys.com 91 .learningmate.com www.BIBLIOGRAPHY NEWS PAPERS: TIMES OF INDIA THE ECONOMIC TIMES MAGAZINES : BUSINESS WORLD BUSINESS TODAY INDIA TODAY WEB: www.com www.