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• Introduction • Light and sight

• Terms and definition • Light source and colour
• Behaviour of light • Colour temperature
 Reflection
• Natural lighting
 Absorption
 Transmission • Day lighting
 Refraction
 Interference • Artificial lighting
 Polarization  Incandescent
 Black body radiation  Fluorescent
 Collimation  Led
 Strobe
• Basic measurement of light
• Difference between natural and
• Day light factors and calculation artificial lighting
• Lighting quality
• Method of lighting
• Types of lighting
• Types of lighting system
• Illuminance
• Types of lamp
(already covered four types: incandescent, fluorescent, led, strobe)
Basic Principles
Three main functions of lighting: three main functions of lighting:
• Ensure the safety of people
• Facilitate the performance of visual tasks
• Aid the creation of an appropriate visual aid the creation of an appropriate
visual environment(appearance & character)
Method of lighting
• Downlighting is most common, with fixtures on or
recessed in the ceiling casting light downward.

• Used in both offices and homes.

• Although it is easy to design it has dramatic problems

with glare and excess energy consumption due to
large number of fittings.

• The introduction of LED lighting has greatly improved

this by approx. 90% when compared to a halogen
downlight or spotlight. LED lamps or bulbs are now
available to retro fit in place of high energy
consumption lamps.
• Uplighting is less common, often used to bounce
indirect light off the ceiling and back down.

• It is commonly used in lighting applications that

require minimal glare and uniform general illuminance

• Uplighting (indirect) uses a diffuse surface to reflect

light in a space and can minimize disabling glare on
computer displays and other dark glossy surfaces.

• It gives a more uniform presentation of the light

output in operation.

• However indirect lighting is completely reliant upon

the reflectance value of the surface. While indirect
lighting can create a diffused and shadow free light
effect it can be regarded as an uneconomical lighting
• A front light is a means of illuminating a display
device, usually a liquid crystal display (LCD),
which would otherwise be viewed in ambient light.
This improves its performance in poor lighting

• Front lighting is also quite common, but tends to

make the subject look flat as its casts almost no
visible shadows.

• Lighting from the side is the less common, as it

tends to produce glare near eye level.

• Backlighting either around or through an object is

mainly for accent.
Types of lighting

Lighting is classified by intended use as general, accent, or

task lighting, depending largely on the distribution of the
light produced by the fixture.

• General lighting
• Task lighting
• Accent lighting
General lighting
• Ambient lighting provides an area with overall illumination.
Also known as general lighting, it radiates a comfortable level
of brightness without glare and allows you to see and walk
about safely.
• In some spaces such as laundry rooms, the ambient lighting
also serves as the primary source of task lighting.
• It can be accomplished with chandeliers, ceiling or wall-
mounted fixtures, recessed or track lights and with lanterns
mounted on the outside of the home.
• Having a central source of ambient light in all rooms is
fundamental to a good lighting plan
• General lighting is used in a general halls, offices, classrooms,
meeting rooms and any similar places which requires uniform
lighting or a blanket of light on the horizontal work plane
throughout the space
Task lighting
• Task lighting is mainly functional and is usually the most
concentrated, for purposes such as reading or inspection of

• It can be provided by recessed and track lighting, pendant

lighting and under cabinet lighting, as well as by portable
floor and desk lamps.

• Task lighting should be free of distracting glare and shadows

and should be bright enough to prevent eye strain.

• For example, reading poor-quality reproductions may require

task lighting levels up to 1500 lux (150 foot-candles), and
some inspection tasks or surgical procedures require even
higher levels
Accent lighting
• It adds drama to a room by creating visual interest. As part
of an interior design scheme, it is used to draw the eye to
houseplants, paintings, sculptures and other prized

• It can also be used to highlight the texture of a brick or stone

wall, window treatments or outdoor landscaping.

• To be effective, accent lighting requires as least three

times as much light on the focal point as the general
lighting surrounding it.

• Accent lighting is usually provided by recessed and track

lighting or wall-mounted picture lights.

• Used mainly for decorative, intended to highlight

pictures, plants, or other elements of interior design or
Types of lighting system

Lighting systems are classified in to six types

1.Direct Lighting
2.Indirect Lighting
3.Semi Direct Lighting
4.Semi-Indirect Lighting
5.Direct-Indirect Lighting or General diffused lighting
Direct Lighting :
In direct lighting systems distribution of luminance is as follows :
Over 90% of light is downward
10% of light is upward

• When distribution of luminance is from 0-90˚ it is called spread lighting

• In this type of lighting, the upper part of the walls and ceiling are
illuminated by the light reflected from the floor, the lower part of the walls,
and the furniture

• If the higher part of the wall require higher intensity of illumination, wall
washer reflectors or track lighting may be used

• This type of lighting is probably used in general lighting design or

Concentrated local lighting.
Indirect Lighting
In indirect lighting systems distribution of luminance is as follows :
Over 90% of light is upwards
10% of light is downwards

• When distribution of illumination is from 90-180˚,

• It is used to illuminate the ceiling. The ceiling height for this type of lighting is
minimum 9feet 6inches. The angle of light may be narrowed in order to create
concentrated illumination for special architectural effects

• The horizontal work plane of the room is illuminated by the reflection of light from the
ceiling and walls
a. White & glossy ceilings cause the highest reflectance about80%
b. Black & matte ceiling produce no reflectance
c. The colours between black and white produce reflectance according to the brightness and
finishes. This type of lighting normally produces uniform illumination with little or no glare
Semi Direct Lighting
In semi direct lighting systems the distribution of luminance is
as follows:
60-90%of light is downward
10-40% of light is upward

• This type of lighting produce a bright ceiling and walls and

creates a pleasant atmosphere within the room.

• It can create a great architectural effect, especially in the

interior spaces without windows

Semi Indirect Lighting

In semi-Indirect lighting system, distribution of luminance is
exactly reverse of semi direct lighting
60-90% of light is upward
10-40%of light is downward
• It works on the same principle as semi direct lighting, except
that the ceiling and upper walls of the room receive more
Direct-Indirect Lighting And General diffused lighting
In direct-indirect lighting systems the distribution of luminance is as follows :
50% of light is upward
50%of light is downward

• This type of lighting reduce the contrast within a room and provides general and
local illumination

• In general diffused lighting system identical to direct indirect lighting system except
the contrast and shadows created at the centre for direct – indirect lighting are
minimized to the outside

• They provide illumination in all direction and furnish uniform lighting for all
Types of lamps:

Mercury lamp:
light is produced by passage of electric current
through a vapour of mercury. Takes time to light up,
requires a choke and power factor connection
condenser . More efficient than incandescent filament


same construction as MV lamp. Instead of choke,
there is an incandescent filament in the bulb which
also emits light. Less efficient than MV lamp. Needs
no choke.
Sodium vapour lamp:
works on the same principle of mercury vapour lamp.
Instead of mercury metal sodium is used. More
efficient than MV lamp. Requires choke and
condenser. Take time to light up.

Sodium vapor lights combine neon and sodium

gas with electricity to create light. When the
electricity is applied, the energy mixes with the
gas to vaporize the sodium, which produces
light. The light created by sodium vapor is
usually yellowish in tint, so these lights are best
for use in certain situations.
Metal halide lamp:
these are mercury vapour lamps, with zinc and cadmium
metals added to the mercury vapour, which produce more
visible light. These are suitable for sports and flood

Metal-halide lamps are used both for general

lighting purposes both indoors and outdoors,
automotive and specialty applications. Because of
their wide spectrum, they are used for indoor
growing applications, in athletic facilities and are
quite popular with reef aquarists, who need a high
intensity light source for their corals.
Compact fluorescent lamp:
these lamps are of recent innovation. They are just like
4’ to 2’. Fluorescent lamps in principle of operation but
small in size and of low in wattage consumption. The
popular wattages are 7 wats and 11 watts.

CFLs emit light from a mix of phosphors inside the

bulb, each emitting one band of color.
Modern phosphor designs balance the emitted light
color, energy efficiency, and cost.
Neon sign lights:
what we see at night, advertisement letters glowing are called
neon light. Glass tubes are bent into shape of letters, and
filled with neon gas. When a high voltage of order of 5000v
to 10,000v are applied to the ends of the tube, a discharge
takes place and make the tube glow, tube filled with neon gas
glows red, hydrogen pink, and argon green/blue.

Light-emitting tubes form colored lines with which a text can be

written or a picture drawn, including various decorations, especially
in advertising and commercial signage. By programming sequences
of switching parts on and off, there are many possibilities for
dynamic light patterns that form animated images.
In some applications, neon tubes are increasingly being replaced
with LEDS, given the steady advance in LED luminosity and
decreasing cost of high-intensity LEDs.
location lux

Minimum for work spaces 150

Rough work 250-500

Normal work 500-1000

Fine work and very fine work 1000-2000 and over 2000
Illumination means the action of illuminating or state of being illuminated. It also means
the luminous flux per unit area on an intercepting surface at any given point.

When objects reflect light they are said to be illuminated. The moon is a perfect
example of an object that is illuminated.
The moon does not emit visible light. It reflects light from the sun. This is why it is hard
to see the moon during the day.

The brightness of an illuminated object depends on two things.

1. The brightness of the luminous source shining light on the illuminated object
2. The distance between the illuminated object and the luminous source