You are on page 1of 38

A project report

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the

Submitted by

Atul Solanki, Deependra Singh Rajpoot, Devendra Shakyawar, Dharmendra Dangi, Govind
Chaudhary, Hariom Thakur, Jeetendra Kewat, Jyoti Shukla, Raviprakash Solanki,
Vishwanath sen

Department of Refinery & Petrochemical Engineering


This is certificated that this project “MANUFACTURING OF
PAINT ” is submitted by “Atul Solanki, Deependra Singh Rajpoot,
Devendra Shakyawar, Dharmendra Dangi, Govind Chaudhary,
Hariom Thakur, Jeetendra Kewat, Jyoti Shukla, Raviprakash Solanki,
Vishwanath sen” who carried out this project work under my
supervision. I approve this project for submission of Diploma of
Engineering in the Department of Refinery & Petrochemical

Prof. Ankit Gohiya Dr. R.K. Soni



It gives me immense pleasure to express my deepest sense of gratitude and

sincere thanks to my respected and esteemed guide.

Prof. Ankit Gohiya, Refinery and Petrochemical SATI, for their valuable
guidance, encouragement and help for completing this project. Their useful
suggestions for the whole work and co-operative behavior and sincerely

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Dr. R.K. Soni, Principal of SATI
Polytechnic, Vidisha for giving me this opportunity to undertake this project.

I also wish to express my indebtedness to my parents as well as my family

member whose blessing and support always helped me to face the challenges

At the end I would like to express my sincere thank to all my friends and other
who helped me directly or indirectly during this project work.

Place : Vidisha Students Name

Atul Solanki, Deependra Singh Rajpoot,

Devendra Shakyawar, Dharmendra Dangi,

Govind Chaudhary, Hariom Thakur,

Jeetendra Kewat, Jyoti Shukla,

Raviprakash Solanki, Vishwanath sen

Chapter - 1
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………1
2. Classification of paint…………………………………………………………2
2.1 Oil paint
2.2 Plastic paint
2.3 Cement paint
2.4 Bituminous paint
2.5 Distemper paint
2.6 Water paint

Chapter – 2

3. List of Component……………………………………………………………4
3.1 Pigment
3.2 Fillers
3.3 Solvent
3.4 Additive
3.5 Dryers
3.6 Resin
3.7 Plastiszer

Chapter – 3

4. Modern paint industry………………………………………………………….. 8

5. Raw materials for paint………………………………………………………….14
6. Paint formulation………………………………………………………………..16
7. Preparation equipment…………………………………………………………..17
8. Manufacturing procedure………………………………………………………..24
9. Flow diagram……………………………………………………………………27

Chapter – 4

10. Properties of paint………………………………………………………………28

11. Application of paint ……………………………………………………………29
12. Advantage and Disadvantage of paint…………………………………………..30
13. Precaution……………………………………………………………………….31

Chapter – 5

14. Future scope of work…………………………………………………………..32

15. Bibliography ………………………………………………………………… 33
List of Figures

1. Glimpse of Paint……………………………………………………… 01
2. Glimpse of Pigments………………………………………………… 04
3. Schematic diagram of three roller mill……………………………… 19
4. Schematic Drawing of Working……………………………………… 19
5. Schematic diagram of Ball and Pebble mills……………………… 21
6. Schematic diagram of Ball and Pebble mills………………………… 22
7. Schematic diagram of sand mill……………………………………… 23

List of Table

1. Paint constituents and their Functions…………………………………… 15

2. Pigments volume concentration…………………………………………… 16


Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate
in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color, or
provide texture to objects. Paint can be made or purchased in many colorsand in many
different types, such as watercolor, synthetic, etc. Paint is typically stored, sold, and
applied as a liquid, but most types dry into a solid.

Fig.1 - Glimpse of Paint

Paint is an everyday part of our surroundings. We paint our walls, our furniture, our cars and
our bridges. We use paint because it makes our surroundings more attractive. Paint adds
colour to our lives, helps reflect light and we can choose it to add a gloss or a texture as well.

But paint also protects. It helps protect wood from rotting and metals
from corroding. Paint is also very versatile. It sticks to many surfaces and can be applied to
awkward shapes. Paint can also be used to communicate, for example when we put yellow
lines onto roads.

The technology of surface coating is complex and is continually

changing. Scientists who specialize in this area, bring together a range of skills to develop
new and innovative paints.

Many paints designed for use in the arts can be adapted for use in home decorating. You
may find that watercolors, oil paints, and acrylics can be used to apply decorative touches to
furniture, frames, flower pots, and for wall borders and/or murals. However, these paints are
not necessarily well-adapted for general wall painting or for any type of exterior use.


2.1 Oil paint –

Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a
drying oil, commonly linseed oil. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition
of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the
glossiness of the dried oil paint film. Oil paints have been used in Europe since the 12th
century for simple decoration, but were not widely adopted as an artistic medium until the
early 15th century. Common modern applications of oil paint are in finishing and protection
of wood in buildings and exposed metal structures such as ships and bridges. Its hard-
wearing properties and luminous colors make it desirable for both interior and exterior use
on wood and metal. Due to its slow-drying properties, it has recently been used in paint-on-
glass animation. Thickness of coat has considerable bearing on time required for drying: thin
coats of oil paint dry relatively quickly.

2.2 Plastic paint

Plastic emulsion paint is water based wall paint. It is based on acrylic and provide a smooth
matt finish to the walls. These paints are also washable and easy to maintain just as premium
emulsions. It is extremely durable but is not suitable for application on external surfaces,
wood and iron surfaces.

2.3 Cement paint

Cement Paint protects as well as beautifies exterior walls from harsh weather conditions. It
is durable, economical and comes in a variety of shades. Birla White enhances the cement
paint's lustre and brings out the pigment's true colours. What's more, its low alkaline content
prevents fading. For a perfect composition, add one part of water to two parts of cement
paint and stir well to get a consistent paste. Add one more portion of water of the same
quantity. Stir and apply on the prepared surface. Cure the surface with water for 2-3 days to
get a perfect finish.

2.4 Bituminous paint

A bituminous coating is a type of coating used to build a vapor-proof and flexible protective
coat in accordance with its formulation and polymerization grade. Its flexibility and
protection against vapor and water can be influenced by the polymer grade as well as
reinforcement of fiber.
The most common applications of bituminous coatings include areas
that are beneath screed wet. It is an excellent protective coating and waterproofing agent,
especially on surfaces such as concrete foundations.

2.5 Distemper paint

Distemper is a term with a variety of meanings for paints used in decorating and as a
historical medium for painting pictures, and contrasted with tempera. The binder may be
glues of vegetable or animal origin.

2.6 Water paint

The majority of wall paint sold today is water-based, but oil-based paint remains popular
for glossy woodwork, doors, and furniture, as well as demanding surfaces such as floors
Be cautious when switching to a water-based paint if
the surface has previously been coated with an oil-based product, as the new paint may not
stick. In this situation, Sherwin - Williams recommends washing the surface and then
roughening it all over with a medium to smooth grit sandpaper-making it clean, dry, and dull
in order to prevent peeling of the new coat.




The pigment is one of the main and important constituent of the paint. These are granular
solids integrated into the paint to contribute color, toughness, texture or simply to reduce the
cost of the paint. Alternatively, some paints contain dyes instead of or in combination with
pigments. In general, pigments should be opaque to ensure good covering power and
chemically inert to secure stability, hence long life. Pigments should be nontoxic, or at least
of very low toxicity, to both the painter and the inhabitants. Finally, pigments must be wet
by the film-forming constituents and be of low cost.
Hiding pigments protect the substrate from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light.
Hidingpigments include titanium dioxide, phthalo blue, red iron oxide, and many others.
Pigments can be classified as either natural or synthetic types. Natural pigmentsinclude
various clays, calcium carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. Syntheticsinclude
Engineeredmolecules , calcined clays, blanc fixe, precipitated calcium carbonate, and
synthetic pyrogenic silicas.

Fig 2 - Glimpse of Pigments

 Titanium Dioxide

(TiO2) is a white synthetic inorganic pigment existing in two crystalline forms: rutile
and anatase. Titanium dioxide has high refractive index (anatase 2.52, rutile 2.76).
Anatase is photochemically active but provides clear white color therefore its main
application is interior paints. Photochemically inert rutile is used for protection of
paints from degradation by light. Titanium oxide is the most widely used pigment

 Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a white synthetic inorganic pigment having refractive.

 Zinc Yellow (Yellow 36 is Zinc Chromate (ZnCrO4).

 Yellow Dyes are stable yellow non-toxic organic pigments with good opacity.
 Benzidine Yellows are yellow-to-red organic pigments for interior applications.
They are resistant in chemicals and stable at elevated temperatures (up to 300°F /
 Chrome Oxide Green is olive-green inorganic pigment with a high level of opacity.
Chrome Oxide Green is the most stable green pigment.
 Phthalocyanine Green imparts green-blue color. It is used as the pigment for
decorative applications. The pigment is resistant to heat, solvents and alkalis.
 Phthalocyanine Blues are widely spread pigments. They provides a wide spectrum
of color: from reddish-blue to yellowish-green. The pigments are non-toxic and
resistant to solvents, chemicals and elevated temperatures.
 Ultramarine Blue is natural pigment made of the semiprecious mineral lapislazuri.
The pigment is resistant to fading. It is stable at elevated temperatures.
 Vermilion is a natural orangish red pigment consisting of toxic mercuric sulfide
 Pigment Brown 6 is red inorganic pigment based on Ironoxide (Fe2O3).
 Red 170 is a synthetic organic pigment widely used in automotive industry.
 Dioxazine Violet is organic synthetic pigment.It is non-toxic and has high tinting
 Carbon Black is the pigment obtained from organic materials (wood, bones) by
charring (thermal decomposition in a limited amount of Oxygen). large quantities of
Carbon Black are used for coloring and reinforcing automobile tires.
 Iron (II) Oxide (FeO) is inorganic black pigment.

 CaCO3) is used in emulsion paints as a filler extending expensive pigments.


These are special type of pigments that thicken the film of the paint, support its structure
and simply increase the volume of the paint. Fillers are usually made of cheap and inert
materials, such as diatomaceous earth, talc, lime, barytes, clay, etc. Some paints contain
very large proportions of pigment/filler and binder.
The binder, commonly referred to as the vehicle, is the actual film forming component of
paint. It is the only component that must be present; other components listed below are
included optionally, depending on the desired properties of the cured film.

The binder imparts adhesion, binds the pigments together, and strongly influences such
properties as gloss potential, exterior durability, flexibility, and toughness. Binders include
synthetic or natural resins such as alkyds, acrylics, vinyl-acrylics, vinyl acetate/ethylene
(VAE), polyurethanes, polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy, or oils. Binders can be
categorized according to drying, or curing the mechanism. The four most common are:
1. simple solvent evaporation,
2. oxidative cross-linking,

3. catalyzed/cross linked polymerization,
4. Coalescence.

 Quartz sand (SiO2). Finely ground quartz is a filler increasing the abrasion
resistance of the paints.
 Talc having the lamellar structure serves as a reinforcing phase in the coating. Talc
also protects the substrate from the penetrating water.
 Baryte (BaSO4) is a colorless or white inorganic mineral having high hardness and
chemical resistance. It is used as a reinforcing additive.
 Kaoline Clay is a natural colloid containing finely dispersed particles of hydrated
aluminum silicate. Kaoline Clay is used in emulsion paints as a gloss reducing
 Limestone (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) is used in emulsion paints as a filler
extending expensive pigments.


The main purpose of the solvent is to adjust the curing property and viscosity of the paint. It
is volatile and does not become part of the paint film. Its main function is as the carrier for
the non volatile components. It also controls flow and application properties, and affects the
stability of the paint while in liquid state. In order to spread heavier oils as in oil-based
interior house-paint, a thinner oil is required.
These volatile substances impart their properties temporarily—once the solvent has
evaporated or disintegrated, the remaining paint is fixed to the surface. This component is
optional: some paints have no diluents. Water is the main diluent for water-borne paints,
even the co-solvent types.


Besides above three ingredients, paint can have a long range of various additives, which
are usually added in very small amounts and give a very significant effect on the product.
Some examples include additives to modify surface tension, improve flow properties,
improve the finished appearance, increase wet edge, improve pigment stability, impart
antifreeze properties, control foaming, control skinning, etc. Other types of additives
include catalysts, thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, texturizers, adhesion promoters, UV
stabilizers, flatteners (de-glossing agents), biocides to fight bacterial growth, and the like.
Additives normally do not significantly alter the percentages of individual
components in a formulation.

 Driers accelerate the paints drying (hardening) by catalyzing the oxidation of the

 Plasticisers increase the paints flexibility.
 Fungicides, Biocides and Insecticides prevent growth and attack of fungi, bacteria
and insects.
 Flow control agents improve flow properties.
 Defoamers prevent formation of air bubbles entrapped in the coatings.
 Emulsifiers are wetting agents increasing the colloidal stability of the paints in
liquid state.
 UV stabilizers provide stability of the paints under ultra-violet light.
 Anti-skinning agents prevent formation of a skin in the can.
 Adhesion promoters improve the adhesion of the coating to the substrate.
 Corrosion inhibitors reduce the corrosion rate of the substrate.
 Texturizers impart textures to the coatings.

3.5 Dryer

 Added to quicken the drying of vehicle

 Organic salts of Iron, zinc, lead, manganese, Ca
 To accelerate the oxidation and hardening of vehicle



The paints industry is a branch of the chemical industries sector. Paints have been divided
into five categories:
Solvent – based paints
Water – based paints
Varnishes – clear coatings
Printing inks.
Resins (for paints and varnishes manufacture).

Therefore, there are different production lines, plants can have as few as one or two
production lines or all of them. Production method and plant structure is given in detail
We have jot down a list of top 15 paint companies in India. Moreover, if you are a
chemical engineer and fascinated by paints then here is an opportunity to seek a career in
one of the following mentioned companies.

the list of top 15 paints companies in India.

1. Asian paint
2. Berger Paints India Limited
3. Dulux Paints
4. Jenson & Nicholosn Ltd
5. Shalimar Paints
6. British Paint
7. Kansai Nerolac Paints Ltd
8. Nippon Paints
9. Asgar Paints
10. Snowcem Paints
11. Sheenlac
12. Jotun Paints
13. Nitco Paints
14. Acro Paints
15. Advance Paints

4.1 Asian Paints

Asian paints preferred by every household in the country. It is perhaps the most popular
paint right in markets. The company was founded by Choski brothers and Suryakant Dani in
year 1942. According to Forbes they are one of the best small companies in India.

 Revenue: a$$1.6 billion to $2 billion and Profit over $150 million

 Products and Services: Decorative paints, Industrial Coatings and Ancillaries like
wall primer, acrylic wall putty exterior, interior and exterior wall paints etc.
 Head office: Mumbai, India
 Employees: 4000 to 5000
 Website:

4.2 Berger Paints India Limited

Second most popular paint lover by Indian customers is Berger paints India. The company
was founded in 1923 by Louis Steigenberger. Currently Abhijit Roy is the managing director
of the company.

 Revenue: $460 million to $500 million and the profit is $27 million
 Products and Services: Paints and chemicals. Products for Industrial users and
professional users both like Interior & Exterior wall coatings, metal and wood paints,
living green, undercoats etc.
 Head office: Kolkata, India
 Employees: 2300 to 2500
 Website:

4.3 Dulux Paints

The third paint company in our list is Dulux Paints. Dulux paints is basically a painting
company owned by AkzonNobel India. The company was founded in the year 1932 and
offers a wide variety of products for home and industry use.

 Revenue: $25 billion to $30 billion of AkzonNobel

 Products and Services: Industrial chemicals, decorative paints, refinishing products,
coating, exterior and interior paints, wood and metal paints etc
 Head office: Gurgaon, Haryana
 Employees: 3000 to 5000
 Website:

4.4 Jenson & Nicholosn Ltd

Jenson & Nicholson (I) Ltd is India’s second oldest company founded in the year 1922. John
Jenson and Wilfred Nicholson founded these companies. The company was first to launch
plastic emulsion paint under brand Robbialac.

 Revenue: $500 million to $750 million

 Products and Services: Some of the product names are fantasy pearl metallica,
special effects natura, safeguard optima, pearl luster finish etc.
 Head office: Gurgaon, Haryana
 Employees: 3000 to 5000 approx
 Website:

4.5 Shalimar Paints

The fifth company in our countdown list is Shalimar paints. Shalimar paints is the India’s
oldest paint company founded in year 1902 by AN Turner and AC Wright. It has over 54
branches and depots across the country.

 Revenue: $56 million to $80 million

 Products and Services: a Industrial chemicals, decorative paints, refinishing
products, coating, exterior and interior paints, wood and metal paints, visualize,
distemper, enamel etc
 Head office: Mumbai, India
 Employees: 2500 to 3000
 Website:

4.6 British Paints

British paints was founded in the year 1919 and came to India in 1947. Actually british
paints reentered India in year 2009 with the name Berger paints. In India it has a network of
45 branches and over 12000 channels.

 Revenue: $300 million to $500 million

 Products and Services: Some of the brands are Glo, Shingar, British, Expa Cool,
Acri-Silk etc
 Head office: New Delhi, India
 Employees: 4000 to 5000
 Website:

4.7 Kansai Nerolac Paints Ltd

The seventh paint company in our countdown list is Kansai Nerolac Paints Ltd. This paint
company was founded in year 1920 in Mumbai. It has around 5 manufacturing plants in

 Revenue: $360 million to $400 million

 Products and Services: Products for Interior and exterior, wood and metals,
automotive coatings etc
 Head office: Mumbai, India
 Employees: 2000 to 2500
 Website:

4.8 Nippon Paints

Nippon paints is originally a Japanese companies but very popular in India. In India, it is
here for more than 5 years. Although it is Asia’s number one paint company but in India still
it is not number one.

 Revenue: $300 million to $500 million in Indian markets

 Products and Services: Industrial chemicals, decorative paints, refinishing products,
coating, exterior and interior paints, wood and metal paints
 Head office: Osaka, Japan
 Employees: 3000 to 5000
 Website:

4.9 Asgar Paints

The ninth paint company in our list in Asgar Paints. It is south India’s largest and leading
paint companies placed among top 50 decorative coatings. THe company was founded in
year 1974 as Asgar Paints Pvt Ltd. It has over 14 branches.

 Revenue: $100 million to $200 million

 Products and Services: Jantha Distemper, Ranger, Diana Wallputty, Asgarcem,
Aluminium Paint, MicroMatt, Ragiemon Etc
 Head office: Tuticorin, TamilNadu
 Employees: 2000 to 3000
 Website:

4.10 Snowcem Paints

Snowcem Paints was founded in the year 1959 in Mumbai and one of the India’s leading
manufacturer of exterior cement based masonry paint.

 Revenue: $50 million to $75 million

 Products and Services: Paints for cements, liquid paints, Primers like Cemprover,
Snowsol, etc
 Head office: Mumbai, India
 Employees: 1500 to 2000
 Website:

4.11 Sheenlac
The eleventh paint company in our list is Sheenlac. The company was established in year
1962 by John Peter under the brand name Sheenlac.

 Revenue: $50 million to $80 million

 Products and Services: They manufacture paints for auto finishing, wood finishing
and other decorative paints.
 Head office: Chennai, Tamil Nadu
 Employees: 1500 to 2500
 Website:

4.12 Jotun Paints

Jotun paints is also a fastest growing paint company in world and it has little present in India
also. It is a chemical company of Norway founded in 1926.

 Revenue: $15 to $16 billion

 Products and Services: Industrial chemicals, decorative paints, refinishing products,
coating, exterior and interior paints, wood and metal paints
 Head office: Sanderfjord, Norway
 Employees: 8000 to 9000
 Website:

4.13 Nitco Paints

Nitco Paints is the subsidiary of Nitco Tiles. THe company was founded in 1953 by Pran
Nath Talwar.

 Revenue: Rs 100 crore to Rs 150 Crore.

 Products and Services: Industrial chemicals, decorative paints, refinishing products,
coating, exterior and interior paints, wood and metal paints
 Head office: Mumbai, Maharashtra
 Employees: 500 to 1000
 Website:

14. Acro Paints

Acro Paint is a little known Indian companies with a small presence in the country. It would
founded 30 years back and is an ISO 9001: 2008 certified company.

 Revenue: Rs 20 Crore to 50 Crore approximately.

 Products and Services: Paints and Chemicals.
 Head office: New Delhi, India
 Employees: 1000 to 2000
 Website:

15. Advance Paints

The last paint company in our list is Advance paints. Company was established in 1945.

 Revenue: Rs 30 crore to Rs 50 Crore

 Products and Services: Paints and Coatings
 Head office: Mumbai, India
 Employees: 1000 to 1500
 Website:


5.1 Main Raw Materials

Liquid paint is a composite of a finely divided pigment dispersed in a liquid composed of a
resin or binder and a volatile solvent. Therefore, paints are manufactured from three main
constituents; pigments, binders, and solvents. In addition to give the paints specific
properties for specific purposes or applications some additives are also used.

The liquid portion of the paints is known as the vehicle. Vehicles are composed of
nonvolatile and volatile parts:
- Solvent-based paints: oils and/ or resins plus driers and additives.
- Lacquers: celluloses, resins, plasticizers, and additives.
Water-based paints: styrene-butadiene, polyvinyl acetate, acrylic, other polymers and
copolymers plus additives.
Ketones , esters, alcohol, aromatics, and aliphatics.

Table below shows the different paints constituents.

Paint constituents and their Functions

Consitutent Function
Pigments are usaually: An organic substance, The function of pigments are filler is to provide
such as titanium dioxide chrome pigment, simply a coloured surface, pleasing for its
earths, let pigments, zinc pigments. A pure, aesthetic appeal. The solid particles in paint
insoluble dye. Known as a torner. reflect light rays, and thus help to prolong the
life to the paints , and protect metals from
An organic dye precipated on an corrosion.
organic career such as aluminium hrdrooxide,
barium sulphate or clay.

Binders or vehicles those are resin or oils. Its function and binding the pigment to the

Thiner and solvents such as petroluem ether, It is the volatile parts of the vehicles. Its
toluene, xylene. function is dissolve in binders, adjust the paints
viscocity, and give homongenous, regular, and
uniform thickness on the coated surface.

Fillers such as clay, talc, gypsum and calcium Pigments extender, fillers, reduce the paints cost
carbonate. and control the rheological properties
(viscosity) of paints.

Driers, as cobalt, lead, zinc, zirconium, To accelerate the drying of the paints.
manganese, calcium, barium.

Anti-skinning agents. It is added to the paints (unsaturated), to prevent

the solidification of the paints surface during

Anti-settling agents. To improve the dispersion efficiency of the

pigments of the vehicles, to prevent the settling
of pigments during storage.

Plasticizers: These materials are special types of To improve the elasticity of paint films, and to
oils, pathalate ester or chlorinated paraffins. minimize the paints films tendency for cracking.

Dispersants, wetting agents, fire retarding, anti- To give the paint specific property for specific
floating, anti-foaming etc. purlose or application.

Table 1 - Paint constituents and their Functions

Proper paint formulations depend upon raw materials selection and accurate calculation of
the amounts of its constituents. Generally, paint is a blend, in which pigments and fillers are
suspended in a liquid. The paint formulations are related to their applications. Generally
paints are used to hide the original surface, providing a certain color, resisting the
weathering conditions, washability, gloss, and protecting surface from corrosion. The
selection of pigments, fillers, and carrying liquids is necessary for a proper paint. In general,
pigments should be opaque to ensure good covering power, and chemically inert to secure
stability, and non toxicity. To predict some properties of paints such as ease of painting,
gloss, washability for a certain formulation, the pigment volume concentration (PVC) in
paint is used as indicator.
Volume of pigment in paint
Pigment volume concentration (PVC) = (volume of pigment in paint + volume of Non
volatile vehicle constituents in paint )

Indicator values for pigment volume concentration in paints, is shown below.

Pigments Volume Concentration (PVC)

Paints Types Indicator Values
Matt paints 50-75%
Semigloss paints 35-45%
Gloss paints 25-35%
Exterior household paints 27-36%
Metal primers 25-40%
Wood primers 35-40%

Table 2 – Pigment volume concentration


7.1 Mixers

Mixers are used to achieve homogeneity between different components, specially in the
production of varnishes or water-based paints. Mixers are used in the following operations:

Mixing oils or resins.

Mixing pigments and fillers with coating materials.
Decreasing the viscosity of resins, and varnishes.
Mixing additives with paints or varnishes.
Adding solvents or diluting agents (thinner) to paints, to adjust the viscosity.
Preparing emulsion (water-based) paints.
There are many types of mixers used in paint industry, they differ in their suitability for
different applications. Choice of mixer type depends on the following:

Viscosity: mixers types used in preparing pastes differ from those used in the production of
lowviscosity paints.
Density difference between components: achieving the desired homogeneity depends on
thetype of impeller, blades design, mixing speed, and inclination of impeller axis with respect to
mixing tank axis.
Solid particle size: Some components, such as pigments agglomerates, have relatively
largeparticle size compared to other components. Also volatility of solvents affects the design of
mixers and the need for cooling.
The following are different types of mixers:

Manual mixers,
Automatic mixer
Colloid mills
Rotary chums.
Mixing by air streams.

The mixers usually consist of a mixing tank, usually vertical, and one or more impellers driven
by an electrical motor. The impeller consists of a shaft assembled with one or more mixing
blades propellers. Propellers can be divided into two main types, axial and radial flow propellers
axial flow propellers, the type shown in figure 1 is considered the most common type in paints
industry. The impeller in figure 3 is fixed in the wall of mixing tank with suitable inclination, it
can be also fixed vertically at the axis of mixing tank using vertical baffles.

7.2 Mills

Paints industry uses different types of mills such as roller mills or ball mills, figure below shows
three-roller mills in which each roller rotates in the opposite direction of the others and with
different speeds with ratio 1:3:9. The clearance between each two rollers must be controlled
accurately to maintain the desired finesse of dyes. This type of mills leads to the desired
homogeneity as the dye is dispersed into its particles. This type of mills is open and therefore
cannot be used in grinding of paints which contain high volatility solvents as solvent emissions
to the atmosphere could occur.

The roller mill and ball mill are used in small factories.
Presently, the most common used mills, in large modern factories, are sand mills (vertical or
horizontal) and dyno mills.

7.2.1 Roller mills

Roller mills may have from one to five rolls which grind pigments into vehicles. Most paint and
ink facilities that use roller mills operate with conventional three-roll mills. The premixed
pigmented paste is charged to the space between the feed and center rolls called the feed bank.
End plates prevent the material in the feed bank from spilling out the sides. The mill base is
carried into the feed nip region by the inward rotation of the feed and center rolls which are
turning at different speeds. Some of the material remains in the feed bank while another portion
transfers through the feed nip to the underside of the roils. Here the material splits. Part transfers
to the center roll while the remaining portion stays on the feed roll to return to the feed bank. The
material that was transferred to the center roll passes through the apron nip, after which a second
split takes place. One amount remains with the center roll, returning to the feed nip, while the
other transfers to the apron roll where it is removed from the roller mill by the takeoff apron. As
the material moves through both the feed and apron nips, it is subjected to very high shear. This
shearing action serves to disperse the pigment throughout the vehicle, while the nip space
determines the degre e of this dispersion. Roller mills are labor intensive, requiring highly skilled
operators. Their lack of speed and high operating cost make them unsuitable for large-volume
production. The use of roller mills is confined to the manufacture of very high-quality paints and
inks and viscous pigmented products which require fine dispersion and clean color.

Fig 3 – Schematic diagram of three roller mill

Fig. 4 – Schematic Drawing of Working

7.2.2 Ball and Pebble mills
Ball and pebble mills Ball and pebble mills, probably the oldest pigment dispersion equipment,
are cylindrical containers mounted horizontally and partially filled with either pebbles or
ceramic, glass, or metallic bails which serve as the grinding media. Paint and ink components,
either in raw material or in premix form, are charged to the mill through a top chute. The ball
mill and its contents then rotate about the horizontal axis at a rate sufficient to lift the grinding
media to one side and then cause them to cascade to the lower side. The tumbling action results
in pigment dispersion.

Ball and pebble mills are distinguished only by their interior lining and grinding media. The
paint and ink industries conventionally define pebble mills as those mills containing a
nonmetallic grinding media such as ceramic, porcelain, silica balls and flint pebbles, and having
an inside surface lined with a nonmetallic liner such as burrstone, porcelain block, or rubber. Ball
mills, on the other hand, contain steel, alumina, iron, or nickel balls and have an interior surface
of alloy steel or another metallic liner. Because of these minor differences, the terms "ball mill"
and "pebble mill" are used rather loosely and the former is often used to describe both types of
mills. The size mad type of the grinding media will determine the type of paint or ink
manufactured. Small, dense grinding media tend to be more efficient at dispersing pigment than
larger, more porous media. Steel-lined mills charged with steel balls can be used only for dark
colors, as erosion results in the discoloration of whites and pale shades. Normally, lighter colors
are made in pebble mills using ceramic media.

Ball mills offer paint and ink manufacturers the following advantages:

Normally no product premixing is required. The vehicle is often charged directly to the mill
followed by the pigment charge. This offers an economic advantage as many grinding processes
require premixing.

The milling process does not require skilled attention or supervision, yielding minimal labor
costs. Ball mills can operate on a timer, thus completing the dispersion process outside of normal
working hours

Ball mills are adaptable to the grinding of most paint dispersions and of all pigments. Only
highly viscous products are not amenable to ball mill grinding. Ball mills offer product
standardization and consistency.

Ball mills have the capability of providing substantial physical size reduction of oversized
particles, thereby upgrading pigment opacity and/or color development.

Fig. 5 - Schematic diagram of Ball and Pebble mills

7.2.3 Sand mills

Sand mills, vertical cylinders filled with grinding media, operate on the principle that the
dispersion efficiency increases with the decreasing diameter of grinding media. These mills •ttain
dispersion by rapidly stirring small spheres in the presence of the pigment slurry. Paint and ink
manufacturers have used sand mills for the dispersion of pigmented mill bases since the early
1950s. Originally, manufacturers used fine-grained Ottawa sand as the grinding media. Now,
however, many facilities use small beads or balls ranging from 1/32 to 1/8 of an inch. Because
the size of sand mill media approaches that of bead, shot and ball mill media, the terms "sand
mill," "ball mill," "shot mill," and "bead mill" are often used interchangeably. Sand, bead, and
shot mills are frequently called media mills. In vertical sand mills, the premixed slurry is pumped
in at the bottom of the cylinder and rises through the sand, which is kept fluid by the quickly
rotating shaft impeller. Dispersion takes place as a result of pigment shearing as it rises through
the chamber.

Most pigments are sufficiently dispersed when they reach the top of the chamber. The dispersed
product is then allowed to filter from the mill through a mesh which retains the sand. Older sand
mills operate with an exposed filtering screen which often becomes encrusted with dry mill base.
Many newer mills, however, have a submerged screen that eliminates plugging problems. With
an ample supply of premixed material, the sand milling process can be continuous schematic of a
vertical sand mill.

Fig. 6 – Schematic diagram of sand mill


Fig. 7 - Schematic diagram of sand mill

The manufacture procedures illustrated in figure below are for a mass-production of paints. The
weighing, assembling, and mixing of the pigments & vehicles take place on the top floor. The
mixer may be similar to a large dough kneader with sigma blades. The batch masses are
conveyed to the next operation, where grinding and further mixing take place. A variety of
grinding mills may be used. One of the oldest methods is grinding, or dispersion, between two
burrstones; however, ball-and-pebble mills and steel roller mills were the principal grinding
mills used until recently. Sand mills, high-speed agitators, and high-speed stone mills are being
used increasingly to grind paints and enamels.
The types of pigments and vehicles are dominant
factors in the choice of the equipment used. The mixing and grinding of pigments in oil
require skill and experience to secure a smooth product.
After mixing, the paint is transferred to the next operation, where it is thinned and tinted in
agitated tanks, which may hold batches of several thousand liters. The liquid paint is strained
into a transfer tank or directly into the hopper of the filling machine. Centrifuges, screens, or
pressure filters are used to remove non-dispersed pigments. The paint is poured into cans or
drums, labeled, packed, and moved to storage, each step being completely automatic.

Production of solvent-based (household/ industrial) Paints

The solvent-based paints differ according to their applications and therefore the raw materials
and additives (adhesives, driers, heat resisting agents) used in their production. They include
industrial and household paints. The industrial paints are used for industrial purposes such as
motor vehicle, washing machine, and pipelines painting operations. The household paints are
used to cover buildings and furniture.
Figures below present the main operations in the solvent-based household/ industrial paints
production lines, the input to the units and the pollution sources.

Mixing Alkyd resins or vegetable oils (boiled linseed oil), fatty acids,
pigments (titanium dioxide), fillers (talc, and calcium carbonate),
and plasticizers are weighed, and fed automatically to the
mechanical mixers.

Grinding After mixing, the mixture is transferred to the mills for further
mixing, grinding, and homogenizing. The type of used mill is related
to the type of pigments, vehicles, and fillers.
Intermediate storage In some plants, after grinding, the batch is transferred to an
intermediate storage tank, because the batch may need further
grinding to obtain the required degree of homogeneity.

Thinning/ dilution The batch is then transferred from the intermediate storage tank to
a mixer for thinning and dilution, where solvents, and other
additives are added.

Filtration and finishing After thinning, the batch is filtered in a filter, to remove non-
dispersed pigments and any entrained solids. Metal salts are
added to enhance drying (cobalt, lead, and zirconium).

Packaging and storage The paint is poured into cans or drums, labeled, packed, and
moved to storage, each step being completely automatic.


Final product specifications are achieved in the product finishing step which consists of three
intermediate stages: thinning, tinting and blending.

8.1.1 Thinning (letdown) –

Material letdown, or thinning, is the process by which a completed mill base dispersion is let
down or reduced with solvent and/or binder to give a coating which is designed to provide a
durable, serviceable film that is easily applied to the substrate. The volume of the paint or ink
may increase significantly at this point depending on the final product specifications.

8.1.2 Tinting -

Tinting is the process of adjusting the color of completed mill base dispersions. Normally, an
operator will collect a sample of the paint or ink once it exits the milling equipment. This sample
will be taken to the laboratory and compared to the desired color standard. Various combinations
of pigments, solvents, resins, and pastes are added to the material to meet the color requirements

8.1.3 Blending –

Blending operations occur once the necessary additions have been made to the completed mill
base dispersion. Blending is the process of incorporating the additions into the material in order
to meet the desired product specifications. In the case of batch operations, blending may simply
consist of additional milling in a ball mill or added mixing and dispersing in a portable mix
tank/high-speed disperser set-up. In other cases, the mill base dispersion is transferred to fixed
agitated blend tanks or additional mix tank/disperser operations. In each case, material
adjustments for thinning and tinting are added through top openings, agitated, and gravity fed or
pumped out bottom or side spigots for filling operations.





10.1 Wearability:

Paint must be resistant to the wear and tear of the atmosphere and should maintain its color,
smoothness and finish for a long time.

10.2 Covering ability:

Paints should cover the body uniformly and homogeneously on which it is applied and the finish
should be smooth and uniform.

10.3 Ease of cleaning:

When it is required to clean the paint, it should be easy to remove i.e A good paint should not
react chemically with the materials but should only cover its surface.

10.4 Environmentally Friendly:

Paint should be water based and must not have any plasticizers or biocides as solvents.

10.5 Aesthetic:

It should provide a comfortable room climate and must not allow moulds and algae to grow on it.

10.6 Practical and cost effective:

The other qualities of a good paint are that they must be cheap, ready to use, long lasting and
should color fast. In most cases Price is the decisive factor in selection of paints

A good paint should have the following properties :

 The paint should be cheap.

 It should be easy and harmless to the user.
 It should retain its original colour for a long time.
 It should be able to cover maximum area of the surface with minimum quantities.
 The painted surface should dry neither too slowly nor too rapidly.
 When applied, the paint should form a thin uniform film on painted surface.
 The paint should form a hard and durable coat on the painted surface.
 The paint should not peel off from painted surface.
 It should be good fire and moisture resistant.

 The painted surface should not show any cracks.

 The painted surface should possess attractive and decorative pleasing appearance.

Functions of Paint

Paint performs following functions

 It protects wood from decaying.

 It prevents corrosion of metals.
 It renders surface hygienically safe and clean.
 It gives decorative and attractive appearance to the surface.
 It also protects the surface from harmful effects of atmospheric agencies.


11.1 Protection

Paint is used to protect objects from adverse effects of weather e.g.

• A coat of paint protects buildings and structures from the effects of water and the sun by
preventing water seepage and the effects of U.V. radiation which would otherwise make the
building and the structures rot and degrade.
• Metal structures are painted to prevent them from rusting.

11.2 Decoration

Paint is used to decorate all sorts of objects. Paint decoration is an important industry. Painted
objects are more attractive and valuable.

11.3 Art

Paintings are pictures done in paint. Paintings are usually done on board, canvas or paper. Old
beautiful and famous paintings are very valuable.

11.4 Information

Paint is used to give information by means of painted signs. This include road lane marking,
street signs, warning signs, advertising signs to mention but a few.


Advantages of paint

 Creates luminous, hardwearing colors

 Blends well with surrounding paints
 Slower drying than watercolors- provided artists more time to work with creations and
make changes
 Can be left open for long periods of time
 Can also be exposed to air for several weeks without drying
 Figures below shows the types of impellers or mixers used in paints industry.

Disadvantages of paint

 Slow drying can be a disadvantage

 Hard to move on to next stage in painting because of slow drying
 It's also possible to accidentally blend colors that weren't meant to be combined

Safe laboratory practice is based on understanding and respect, not fear. The regulations below
are intended to help you work safely with chemical reagents. These guidelines cover ordinary
hazards and apply to any laboratory experiments you will encounter. Your instructors will
discuss specific safety precautions relevant to each experiment during laboratory lecture. Your
laboratory textbook or manual will point out specific hazards and precautions. Before beginning
an experiment, be sure you have this information at hand and that you understand it.

When you have read the following information carefully and feel you understand it, please read
and sign the Chemistry Laboratory safety Regulations Agreement, at the beginning of the lab
manual. At the start of your first lab session you will turn the signed Safety Agreement in to the
faculty instructor. Only then will you be permitted to begin laboratory work.

1. Working alone in the laboratory is strictly forbidden. Students may work in instructional
laboratories only during regularly scheduled times and then only when supervised by an
authorized Teaching of a member of the faculty.

2. Approved safety goggles must be worn at all times when in a laboratory. You are responsible
for bringing your own pair of approved goggles to lab each week.

3. Students may only perform authorized experiments and then only at the assigned time.

4. All laboratory workers must know the location and proper use of all laboratory safety
equipment, including eyewash, safety shower, fire extinguisher, and telephone. You will be
expected to locate all safety equipment during the first week’s lab.

5. You should know how to exit the lab via two different exits, in the event of an emergency.

6. All accidents, including contact with chemicals, cuts, burns, or inhalation of fumes must be
reported to an instructor immediately. Any treatment beyond emergency first aid will be referred
to the student infirmary. Severe emergencies will be referred to the Hospital emergency room.

7. It is your responsibility to read and abide by the "Laboratory Safety" section of the lab manual
and to keep it with you in the laboratory. Any other safety handouts or special precautions
mentioned during lab lecture must be scrupulously observed.

8. Laboratory equipment and work area must be cleaned after finishing work each week.

9. Failure to observe laboratory safety rules and procedures may result in injury to you or to
fellow students. For a first violation, you may be asked to leave the laboratory for the day, while
for repeated violations, you may be dropped from the course with a grade of E, at the discretion
of the instructor.


Paint Technology is the discipline in which one studies about the various ingredients – resin,
polymers, pigments etc. that are used in making a paint. Paint technology involves understanding
the chemistry of the functions of each ingredient going into the paint and the effect on the final
property of the paint. In Paint Technology, we study about the different kinds of paints, their
manufacturing, the use of various kinds of paints and the techniques used for the application of
paints. Those who have graduated in this subject field are known as paint technologists. They are
responsible for developing new products as well as enhancing and upgrading the qualities of
products which have already been developed. Paint Technologist identifies and evaluates the
suitability of various paints for various applications. Paint Technologist explain to the customers
about the right usage of paints and identify new markets for the products. Their work also
involves developing new colours and textures of paints, new techniques for the application of
paints etc.

Paint Technologist in collaboration with the paint supplier determines the appropriate paint
systems for various surfaces and substrates. Its scope covers all kinds of architectural or house,
automotive and aircraft paints as well as industrial high-performance, anti-corrosive and marine