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# Finite Element Analysis of Pulsed

## Laser Spot Welding

Rohit Rai
Rituraj Nandan
Chandan Kumar
Introduction: Laser spot welding

z Highlights
– Highly localized heating
– High temperatures
– High precision and control
z Applications
– Electronic packaging in various industries, viz.
automobile, medical equipments, semiconductors.
Problem Description

Boundary Conditions z

## • Uniform input energy flux of 75 x 106 W/m2 Laser

spot
l
• Convective loss at surfaces, h=15 W/m 2 y r

h x
• Clamping on ends z
b

Initial Condition
• Temperature = 298 K

Æ
•Temperature distribution, and
•Stress field
Assumptions

## 1. Uniform laser beam energy distribution over

circular spot.
2. Constant absorptivity.
3. Negligible heat loss by radiation.
4. z-direction d.o.f is zero for the clamped faces.
5. Free surface deformation due to melting, the
accompanying expansion, and vaporization is
neglected.
Solution Procedure

## z Transient thermal analysis:

– 0.1 s of heating
– 0.05 s of cooling
z Temperatures are written in a file.
z Structural Analysis
– Static analysis done for the particular time step.
– Elements above melting point are ‘killed’.
– Temperatures assigned to ‘live’ nodes.
– Constraints applied.
– Structural calculations for live elements.
Finite Element Issues

z Element Type
– Solid 90 for thermal analysis
z Shape/Characteristic: Brick, 20 nodes
z d.o.f.: Temperature at each node

## – Solid 95 for structural analysis

z Allows element ‘death’ and ‘birth’
z d.o.f.: Diplacement at each node
Material Properties

## Elastic Modulus in Pascal

Material Properties Contd. …

## Specific Heat in J/kg-K

Material Properties Contd. …

## Thermal conductivity in W/m-K

Results and Discussion

1. Temperature
R n D contd. …

z Thermal Strain

t=0.075 s
Simplified Analytical Solution

1200

1000
Temperature, K

Approximate analytical
800 solution

600
FEM

400

Depth, m
R n D contd. …

z Deformation
R n D contd. …

0.025 s 0.05 s
R n D contd. …

## z von Mises stress

0.075 s 0.1 s
R n D contd. …

z Plastic strain

t=0.075 s
Non FE verification of stress

z Calculated from
⎡1 t / 2 12
t/2

σ = E ⎢ ∫ αT ( z )dz + 3 ∫ αT ( z ) zdz − αT ( z ) ⎥ Cheng et al.
⎣ t −t / 2 t −t / 2 ⎦

## -6.07e8 Pa: near the surface of the workpiece

Calculated by FE model:~1.51e8 Pa
Summary and Conclusions

## z Thermal modeling of heating and cooling

z Structural modeling of heating phase
z No stress calculation in liquid metal pool
z Maximum stresses in HAZ
– More prone to cracking
z Model can be used to find ‘safe’ welding
parameters
Future work

## z Stress analysis for cooling part

z Consider phase transformation
– Affects stresses and mechanical properties
z If one has time, and resources
– Use of a finer mesh, esp. for stress analysis
– CFD analysis for the molten metal pool
References
1. Li Yajiang, Wang Juan, Chen Maoai and Shen Xiaoqin, “Finite element
analysis of residual stress in the welded zone of a high strength steel”, Bull.
Mater. Sci., Vol. 27, No. 2, April 2004, pp. 127–132.

## 2. Justin D. Francis, Welding Simulations of Aluminum Alloy Joints by Finite

Element Analysis, MS Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, Blacksburg, Virginia, April 2002.

## 3. Product Manual, ANSYS, v.10.

4. http://www.mece.ualberta.ca/tutorials/ansys/

## 5. P. J. Cheng and S. C. Lin, “An analytical model to estimate angle formed by

laser”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 108, Issue 3, 17
January 2001, pp. 314-319.