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 Adsorption: The accumulation of molecular species at the surface rather than

in the bulk of a solid or liquid is termed as adsorption.

 Adsorbate: The substance which is being adsorbed on the surface of another

substance is called adsorbate.

 Adsorbent: The substance present in bulk, on the surface of which adsorption

is taking place is called adsorbent

 Desorption: The process of removing an adsorbed substance from a surface

on which it is adsorbed is called desorption

 Absorption: It is the phenomenon in which a substance is uniformly

distributed all over the surface.

 Sorption: When adsorption and absorption take place simultaneously, it is

called sorption. Eg:dyes are absorbed and adsorbed in cotton fibre

Example :

(i) O2, H2, C12, gases are adsorbed on the surface of charcoal.
(ii) Silica gels adsorb water molecules from air.
Charcoal, silica gel, metals such as Ni, Cu, Ag, Pt and colloids are some adsorbents

 If the concentration of adsorbate is more on the surface with respect to bulk, it is

called positive adsorption. If it is less on the surface with respect to bulk, it is
called negative adsorption

factor affecting adsorption of gases by solids :

 Physical adsorption or physisorption: If the adsorbate is held on a surface of
adsorbent by weak van der Waals’ forces, the adsorption is called physical
adsorption or physisorption

Chemical adsorption or chemisorption: If the forces holding the adsorbate are as

strong as in chemical bonds, the adsorption process is known as chemical
adsorption of chemisorption
 Adsorption isotherm: The variation in the amount of gas adsorbed by the
adsorbent with pressure at constant temperature can be expressed by means
of a curve is termed as adsorption isotherm.

Freundlich Adsorption isotherm: The relationship between and pressure of the gas
at constant temperature is called adsorption isotherm and is given by
Application of adsorption :
 Catalyst: Substances which alter the rate of a chemical reaction and
themselves remain chemically and quantitatively unchanged after the
reaction are known as catalysts and the phenomenon is known as catalysis.

Promoters: Those substances which increase the activity of catalyst are called
promoters. Example: Mo is promoter whereas Fe is catalyst in Haber’s Process.
Catalytic poisons (Inhibitors): The substances which decrease the activity of
catalyst are called catalytic poisons or inhibitors e.g., arsenic acts as catalytic
poison in the manufacture of sulphuric acid by ‘contact process.’

Types of catalysis:

a. Homogeneous catalysis: When the catalyst and the reactants are in the same
phase, this kind of catalytic process is known as homogeneous catalysis.

b. Heterogeneous catalysis: When the catalyst and the reactants are in different
phases, the catalytic process is said to be heterogeneous catalysis.

Adsorption Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis

The mechanism involves five steps:
(i) Diffusion of reactants to the surface of the catalyst
(ii) Adsorption of reactant molecules on the surface of the catalyst.
(ill) Occurrence of chemical reaction on the catalyst’s surface through formation of an
(iv) Desorption of reaction products from t he catalyst surface.
(v) Diffusion of reaction products away from the catalyst’s surface

Features of solid catalysts :

Activity of catalyst: The ability of a catalyst to increase the rate of a chemical reaction is called activity of
a catalyst. The activity of a catalyst depends upon the strength of chemisorption to a
large extent. The adsorption should be reasonably strong but not so strong that they
become immobile and no space is available for other reactants to get adsorbed

Selectivity The selectivity of a catalyst is its ability to direct a reaction to yield a

particular product

Enzyme Catalysis
Enzymes are complex nitrogenous organic compounds which are Produced by living
plants and animals. They are actually protein molecules of high molecular mass and
form colloidal solutions in water.
They are also known as biochemical catalysis
Mechanism of enzyme catalysis

 Colloids :
Colloids: A colloid is a heterogeneous system in which one substance is dispersed
as very fine particles in another substance called dispersed medium.
Colloidal solutions are intermediate between true solutions and suspensions.
Their size ranges in the order 1 nm to 1000 nm.

Dispersed phase: The substance which is dispersed as very fine particles is called
dispersed phase.

Dispersion medium: The substance present in larger quantity is called dispersion

Classification of colloidal particle :
1.based on physical state of dispersed phase & dispersed medium
Eg: gum, gelatin ,starch Eg:metals ,their sulphide

Based on type of particle of dispersed phase :

Eg: sulphur sol (consist of thousand or more S8 molecule)

eg: micelle formation
Based on dispersion medium :
Dispersion medium name of sol
Water hydrosol
Alcohol alcosol
Benzene benzosol
Gases aerosol
Eg: adding FeCl3 in freshly prepared ppt Fe(OH)3

Purification of colloids:is the process used for reducing impurities to a required

minimum level

Since size of impure particle is less than colloidal particle ,it will diffuse through the
membrane into outer water & pure colloidal solution is left behind

Colloidal particle move towards oppositely charged electrode

The minimum number of millimoles of the electrolyte required for complete coagulation
of one litre of a colloidal sol is called its coagulation or flocculation
value. Smaller the value of coagulation value of an electrolyte,greator is its
coagulating power
It can be done by:

Emulsion :is a colloidal dispersion in which both dispersed phase and dispersed
medium are liquids
Type of emulsion:

a. Water dispersed in oil: When water is the dispersed phase and oil is the
dispersion medium. E.g. butter ,cold cream
b. Oil dispersed in water: When oil is the dispersed phase and water is the
dispersion medium. E.g. milk ,vanishing cream

Emulsification: The process of stabilizing an emulsion by means of an emulsifier

Emulsifying agent: The substances which are added to stabilize the emulsions are
called emulsifying agents or emulsifiers. E.g. soaps, gum

Demulsification: The process of breaking an emulsion into its constituent liquids is

called demulsification by freezing, boiling, centrifugation or some chemical methods

Examples of colloids:

industrial use :