0 views

Uploaded by Tho Tran

high strength concrete

- PD CEN-TR 15728 2008 Inserts for Lifting and Handling Precast Elements
- ASTM A-615
- ACCE Bulletin Apr-Jun 09
- 4.2.1 HVA Capsule Adhesive Anchoring(151-166)
- The Strength of Filler Joist Floors.
- Design of Tower
- AREMA-MSE.pdf
- Weld wire spec
- Testing of Sand
- Tian Wan
- TIVAR_CleanStat_PDS_GLOB_E_19092016.pdf
- Hognestad 1955.pdf
- 08605 Pure 50+.pdf
- Reinforcement
- Reinforcement Works
- Finite Element Artificial Intelligence About Civil
- Nilson
- foundation_for_sulphur_linE_ANCHOR_SUPPORT.xls
- IJMPE 2016.pdf
- SM108

You are on page 1of 15

Invited paper

Concrete (UFC) ― The Challenge of Applying 200 MPa UFC to Earth-

quake Resistant Building Structures

Shunsuke Sugano1, Hideki Kimura2 and Kazuyoshi Shirai3

Abstract

This paper describes the seismic behavior of new reinforced concrete (RC) building structures using ultra-high-strength

fiber-reinforced concrete (UFC) with 200 MPa strength. A series of tests of columns and frames in UFC buildings sub-

jected to seismic forces were conducted to obtain basic data of their behavior and to provide guides for design and con-

struction. The test results are summarized as follows. 1) UFC, which is basically a brittle material, could be well confined

with high-strength lateral reinforcements. 2) Stable behavior of columns could be obtained even under very high axial

compression when they were well confined with high-strength lateral reinforcements. 3) Steel-fibers in UFC significantly

enhanced the shear resistance of columns and frames. Analytical investigations indicated that the shear behavior of a

column and a frame can be well evaluated by considering the contribution of steel fibers to the tensile resistance of UFC.

cracks resulting from the restriction of the deformed

Practical use of concrete with the specified design bars.

strength of 100 N/mm2 for high-rise condominiums of Toward the development of new reinforced concrete

reinforced concrete in Japan began in 1995. However, structures that utilize UFC with the strength of 200

higher strength concrete is required to meet demand for N/mm2 (abbreviated to “200MPa-UFC”) and their prac-

taller buildings, wider living spaces and smaller size tical use for buildings, a series of tests have been con-

members. The announcement of the planned completion ducted at Hiroshima University since 2001 to investigate

of a 59-story condominium using concrete with the the seismic behavior of columns and frames in UFC

specified design strength of 150N/mm2 by August 2008 buildings. First, UFC cylinders were tested in 2001 to

(Takenaka Corporation 2007) is but one example of the obtain fundamental data on the compressive characteris-

current trend toward the use of concrete with higher tics of UFC (Obata 2002). Then, rectangular columns

design strength for building structures. were tested under uniaxial compression forces in 2002

Ultra-high-strength fiber-reinforced concrete (UFC), (Kitakaze 2003) and under cyclic lateral forces in 2003

which is said to be able to realize compressive strength (Joko 2004). Further, interior beam-column subassem-

of up to 800 N/mm2, may be one of the promising mate- blages (partial frame) using 200MPa-UFC for both col-

rials that can satisfy such demand; however, it has not yet umns and beams were tested in 2004 (Joko 2005). The

been applied to buildings due to a lack of fundamental bending test of UFC prisms was added in 2006 to inves-

data and guides for design and construction. According tigate the tensile resistance of UFC (Yamana 2007) since

to a survey of the Japan Concrete Institute (JCI), UFC it was found that the contribution of steel fibers to the

with a specified design strength of 150 N/mm2 or higher tensile resistance of UFC has a significant effect on the

has been used for several small-scale bridge structures ductility and the shear resistance of columns and

since 2002 to extend the span length and reduce the size beam-column subassemblages (Joko 2005).

of the web section of girders (JCI 2006). The Japan So- UFC consists of fine aggregates with a grain diameter

ciety of Civil Engineers (JSCE) has established guide- of 2.5 mm or less, premixed powder (cement, silica and

lines for the design and construction of structures using reactive micro-powder), water, superplasticizer and steel

UFC (JSCE 2004). It should be noted that the JSCE fibers (Fig. 1). It is essential that it be free of coarse

cautions against the use of UFC with deformed bars for aggregates. Steel fibers with a diameter of 0.10 to 0.20

mm and length of 10 to 20 mm are added to provide

ductility. UFC must be subjected to steam curing to re-

1

Professor Emeritus, Hiroshima University, Japan. alize the designed high strength. UFC with compressive

E-mail: sugano@hiroshima-u.ac.jp strength of 200 N/mm2 requires 48 hours of steam curing

2 at 90 degrees Celsius.

Senior Chief Researcher, Takenaka Research and

This paper describes the mechanical properties of UFC

Development Institute, Japan.

3 and the seismic behavior of columns and frames of UFC,

Associate Research Scientist, Research and

Development Center, Taiheiyo Cement Corporation, as detailed below, based on the results of the

Japan. above-mentioned tests.

134 S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007

signals from displacement transducers.

Fine aggregate

The test cylinders, listed in Table 1, were 100 mm in

Cement and silica diameter and 200 mm in height. The test variables were

Reactive micro powder 1) compressive strength (120, 160, 200 N/mm2) and 2)

type of contained fibers (non-fiber, 2.0 in volumetric

Water percentage (vol.%) of steel-fiber and 3.0 vol.% of or-

Superplasticizer ganic (PVA)-fiber). The steel fiber was 0.2 mm in di-

ameter and 15 mm long while the PVA fiber was 0.3 mm

in diameter and 15 mm long. The tensile strengths of the

Steel fiber steel fiber and PVA fiber were 3000 N/mm2 and 880

Diameter: 0.10-0.25 mm N/mm2, respectively. The PVA fiber was used in this test

Length: 10-20 mm for reference. All the test cylinders were subjected to

Ten. strength 3000 N/mm2 steam curing in which the period and the temperature

were determined in accordance with the design com-

48 hours at 90 degrees C for pressive strength (Table 1).

Steam curing

200 N/mm 2 strength

2.2 Test results and discussion

Fig. 1 Composition of UFC. Figure 2 shows the test cylinder failure pattern. All the

NF (non-fiber) cylinders showed explosive fracture as

(1) Compressive characteristics of UFC as a struc- shown in Fig. 2(c). The fiber-including cylinders showed

tural concrete mostly diagonal sliding failure (Fig. 2(b)) or vertical

(2) Tensile characteristics of UFC as a structural splitting failure (Fig. 2(a)). Obviously, the contained

concrete fibers prevented explosive fracture or delayed crushing

(3) Compressive characteristics of UFC columns or splitting of the concrete.

reinforced with steel bars and confined with Table 2 shows the test results. Each test result value

lateral reinforcements in this table is the average value of the specimens with

(4) Restoring force characteristics of UFC columns the same test variables. The stress-strain relationships of

subjected to seismic forces steel fiber-reinforced cylinders are shown in Fig. 3. It can

(5) Restoring force characteristics of UFC frames be seen that 1) the loading curves became closer to

subjected to seismic forces straight lines with increases in compressive strength, 2)

Further, methods to evaluate the mechanical properties the strength significantly dropped immediately after the

of UFC and restoring force characteristics of columns peak and 3) test cylinders still could carry axial stress

and frames of UFC are proposed as guides for the design

of UFC buildings.

2.1 Test outline

A uniaxial compression test of UFC cylinders was con-

ducted to investigate the stress-strain relationship of

UFC, which is basically a very brittle material like rock.

The test cylinders were subjected to monotonically in-

creasing axial forces up to failure. The post-peak loading (a) (b) (c)

was controlled to be very slow by a very small increment Fig. 2 Failure patterns of test cylinders.

Design Contained Curing Curing

No. of

Specimen Strength Fibers Temperature Time

Specimens 2

(N/mm ) (vol. %) (℃) (h)

200FM2 12 200 90 48

Steel Fiber

160FM2 3 160 60 24

(2.0 %)

120FM2 3 120 60 6

160FO3 4 160 PVA Fiber 90 48

120FO3 3 120 (3.0 %) 60 24

200NF 8 200 90 48

Non-fiber

160NF 3 200 60 24

S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007 135

Compressive Elastic Strain

Number of Poisson’s

Specimen Strength σB Modulus Ec at σB

Specimens 2 2 Ratio

(N/mm ) (kN/mm ) (µ)

200FM2 12 190 50.5 0.203 4010

160FM2 3 168 48.9 0.193 4220

120FM2 3 139 46.6 0.187 3850

160FO3 4 159 43.3 0.182 3900

120FO3 3 141 43.6 0.200 3930

200NF 8 184 50.7 0.203 4100

160NF 3 171 47.3 0.194 4160

modulus is shown in Fig. 4, where it is compared with FM series

200

the existing design equations. The observed elastic 180 200-06

160-03 Legend

160-03 160FM2-03

moduli of steel fiber-reinforced cylinders are larger than 160 160-02 160-01

120-01 120FM2-01

those of non-fiber and organic fiber-reinforced cylinders. Stress σ (N/mm2) 140

160-01

The average observed elastic modulus is very close to the 120

values calculated by the AIJ equation (AIJ 1999). 100 160-02

160-03

The relationship between the compressive strength of 80

cylinder σΒ and strain εm at σB is shown in Fig. 5. Al- 60 200-06 120-03

120-02

though the scatter is not small, the strain obviously in- 40 120-01

creases with increases in σB. The equations by Fafitis and 20

Shah and by Popovics, shown below, express the upper 0

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

and lower boundaries, respectively, of the test results. Strain ε (µ)

Fafitis and Shah’s equation Fig. 3 Stress-strain curves (observed).

80

200FM2 160F03

Popovics’ equation 160FM2 120FO3

70

120FM2 200NF

Elastic modulus Ec (kN/mm2)

ACI-363

ε m = 7634 σ B (2) 60 160NF

50

2.3 Evaluation of stress-strain relationship 40

A comparison of observed stress-strain relationships with

existing equations (Obata 2002) indicated that 1) 30 AIJ 1999

Muguruma’s equation, shown below as Equation 3, best E=33.5k1k2(γ/2.4)2(σB/60)1/3

20 (k1=k2=1, γ=2.4)

fit the observed loading curves regardless of whether AIJ 1971

fiber was included and 2) no equations could evaluate the 10 Ec=21（γ/2.3）1.5 （σB/20）1/2

observed two-step post-peak curves, and therefore, it was 0

considered necessary to propose equations to match the 0 40 80 120 160 200 240

observed post-peak curves. Compressive strength σB (N/mm2)

The following equations are proposed to match the

observed stress-strain curves (Obata 2002). Fig. 4 Elastic modulus.

Loading zone

Post-peak zone (1): First curve where f c ' = 0.65 σ B and ε m ' = strain at the stress f c ' .

Figure 6 shows the calculated and observed

σ = σ B − 0.155(ε − ε m ) (5) stress-strain relationships. Equation 3 was found to well

predict the stress-strain relation in the loading zone.

ε m = 4270 (µ) (6) Equations 5 to 7 also well predicted post-peak behavior.

136 S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007

6000

P/2 P/2

5000 Front ε1

Fafitis･Shah式 70

εm(µ)

4000 ε2

3000 P/2 P/2

Strain at σB

2000 Popovics式

Rear

200FM2

1000 160F03

200NF 160FM2

160NF 120FO3 120FM2

0

0 80 160 240 δA δB δC

2

Compressive strength sB (N/mm ) 2 100 100 100

Compressive strength σB (N/mm )

Fig. 5 Strain at compressive strength.

Fig. 7 Bending test and measurement of UFC prism.

240

for σB=180 N/mm2

for σB=160 N/mm2

200 200-06 test (160FM2, 200FM2) Table 3 Test specimens (Bending test of UFC prisms).

σB: 174 2

160-03 Contained Design Specified Strength (N/mm )

σB: 171

160 σB: 180 160-01 Steel 120 160 200

Stress σ (N/mm2)

σB: 170

Fibers *1 *2

160-02 Vertical Vertical Vertical Horizontal

120 σB: 160

(vol.%)

σB: 160 0 － － 6 －

80 σB: 160 1.0 － － 6 6

2.0 6 6 6 6

200-06

40 σB: 174 3.0 － － 6 6

σB: 180

160-02 160FM2-02 *1 Direction of casting UFC: Vertical

σB: 160 σB =160 N/mm2 *2 Direction of casting UFC: Horizontal

0

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Strain ε (µ) Table 4 Compressive strength of UFC.

Fig. 6 Evaluation of σ-ε relationship. Design

Specified

120 160 200

Strength

2

(N/mm )

Contained

3. Tensile characteristics of UFC Steel Fibers 2.0 2.0 0 1.0 2.0 3.0

(vol. %)

3.1 Test outline Compressive

A bending test of UFC prisms was conducted to inves- Strength 108 149 197 204 192 197

2

tigate the flexural tensile characteristics of UFC. The test σB (N/mm )

prism was subjected to uniform bending moment at its

mid-span (Fig. 7). The tensile strength and the ultimate

3.2 Test results and discussion

tensile strain of UFC were examined based on the ob-

The failure pattern of the test specimens and the observed

served moment-curvature relationships. The influences

moment vs. curvature relationships are shown in Fig. 8.

of the amount of steel fiber, the compressive strength of

The non-fiber specimens and 1.0 % steel fiber specimens

UFC and the direction of casting fiber containing con-

failed immediately after crack initiation, while the

crete on the tensile strength and the ultimate strain were

specimens with 2.0% and 3.0 % steel fiber increased in

examined.

strength even after crack initiation and gradually lost

The test specimens listed in Table 3 measured 100 mm

strength in the post-peak zone. Thus steel fiber was found

by 100 mm in cross-section and 400 mm in length. The

to have a remarkable boosting effect on strength and

test variables were 1) specified design strength of UFC

ductility in the test specimens. The test results are listed

(120, 160, 200 N/mm2), 2) amount of steel fibers

in Table 5 in terms of tensile strength and ultimate tensile

(non-fiber, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 vol.%) and 3) the direction of

strain, which were evaluated referring to Shimizu’s

casting concrete (vertical casting and horizontal casting).

method (Shimizu 2006). The tensile strength and ulti-

The total number of test specimens was fifty four. The

mate strain values listed in this table were the character-

compressive strengths of the test cylinders are listed in

istic values in the idealized rigid-plastic relation of ten-

Table 4.

sile stress and tensile strain obtained from the observed

S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007 137

moment-curvature relationship. Each test result value in 3.3 Evaluation of tensile characteristics of UFC

the table is the average value of six specimens. As indi- The tensile characteristic of UFC was evaluated using the

cated in the table, the tensile strength increased with compressive strength of standard cylinder σB. It is as-

increases in the amount of steel fibers and the compres- sumed that the 2.0% inclusion of steel fiber is the stan-

sive strength. Horizontally cast specimens showed 5% dard in practice. The relationship between the tensile

higher tensile strength compared to vertically cast strength of UFC and the amount of steel fiber is shown in

specimens. Fig. 9. In this figure, the tensile strength is normalized by

the strength for 2% inclusion. The tensile strength is

proportional to the amount of steel fiber (Fig. 9(a)) and

the relation is expressed with Equation 8. The increase in

tensile strength with increases in the compressive

strength of standard cylinder is shown in Fig. 9(b), and

120FM2-V 200FM3-V the relation is expressed with Equation 9. The tensile

ultimate strain is proportional to the amount of steel fiber

(Fig. 10(a)), a relation that is expressed with Equation 10.

However, the strain is virtually constant against the

(a) Failure patterns. compressive strength, σB, as shown in Fig. 10(b).

5 5

4 4 σ T = ασ B 0.44 f (V f ) (9)

Moment (kN･m)

Moment (kN･m)

3 3

2 2 ε u = 0.15V f + 0.185 (10)

1 1

200FM2-H

0

200FM2-V

where f (V f ) is the steel fiber effect coefficient, V f is

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 the amount of steel fiber (vol. %), σT is the tensile

Curvature （μ/mm） Curvature （μ/mm）

strength, εu is the ultimate strain and α is the coefficient

(b) Moment-curvature relationships. relating to the direction of casting UFC (1.00 for vertical

casting and 1.05 for horizontal casting).

Fig. 8 Failure patterns and moment-curvature relation-

ships.

Maximum Curvature Tensile Ultimate

Specimen Moment at Mmax Strength Tensile Strain

2

Mmax (kNm) (µ/mm) σT (N/mm ) εu (%)

120FM2-V 3.43 54.3 8.13 4.20

160FM2-V 3.90 67.7 9.15 5.40

200FM0-V 3.41 － － －

200FM1-H 3.96 85.2 9.12 7.38

200FM2-H 4.53 74.4 10.87 5.63

200FM3-H 5.29 87.1 13.47 5.50

200FM1-V 3.43 45.2 8.25 3.57

200FM2-V 4.22 61.4 10.06 4.65

200FM3-V 5.69 86.7 13.34 6.60

2 12 0.8 0.8

Ultim ate tens . strain (%)

N orm alized strength f(V f)

10

1.5 0.6 0.6

8

1 6 0.4 0.4

4

0.5 0.2 0.2

f(Vf) = 0.25Vf + 0.54 2 σT / f(Vf) = 0.99σB0.44 εu = 0.15Vf + 0.185

0

0 1 2 3 4 0 50 100 150 200 0 1 2 3 4 100 150 200

Contained fiber (Vol.%) Com. strength σB(N/mm2) Contained fiber (Vol.%) Com. strength (N/mm2)

Fig. 9 Tensile strength. Fig. 10 Ultimate tensile strain.

138 S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007

4. Behavior of UFC columns under uniaxial variables were 1) compressive strength of UFC (120, 160,

compression 200 N/mm2), 2) amount of steel fibers (0, 2.0 vol.%), 3)

diameter of lateral reinforcement (6.0, 7.1 mm) and 4)

4.1 Test outline spacing of lateral reinforcement (35, 45, 55 mm). The

A uniaxial compression test of UFC columns was con- specified yield strengths of high- and ultra-high- strength

ducted to find adequate methods to confine lateral reinforcements were 700 and 1400 N/mm2, re-

200MPa-UFC, which is basically a very brittle material spectively. The amount of lateral reinforcement in terms

like rock. The columns were subjected to monotonically of the ratio of pwwσy to the compressive strength σΒ of

increasing axial forces up to failure. Nine rectangular UFC ranged from 0.0055 to 0.023 (Table 6) (pw is the

section columns were constructed for the test (Fig. 11 lateral reinforcement ratio and wσy is the yield strength of

and Table 6). The section of the columns was 200 mm by lateral reinforcement).

200 mm and longitudinal reinforcements were 12-D10

with the specified yield strength of 685 N/mm2. The test 4.2 Test results and discussion

The stress-strain relationships of core concrete of the test

columns are shown in Fig. 12, which also shows the

stress-strain relationships of standard cylinders. As in-

dicated in this figure, the compressive strength of core

135

inder strength except in the case of columns without steel

fibers (NF columns). In the NF columns, the enhanced

strength was very small. The compressive strength of

Test section

590

320

ratio of the enhanced strength fcc to the standard cylinder

strength σB was expressed with the following empirical

equation.

135

f cc σ B = 0.92( p w w σ y σ B )

0.5

+ 1. 0

(11)

200 in mm The compression ductility, which is expressed in terms

of the ratio of the strain of column at the maximum

strength εcm to the strain of the standard cylinder at its

compressive strength εm, was enhanced with increases in

the amount of lateral reinforcement, as shown in Fig. 14.

The compression ductility εcm/εm is expressed with the

180

200

90

200

columns).

Steel fiber 2% Steel fiber 2%

300

Table 6 Test specimen. × : Crushing of test cylinder × : Crushing of test cylinder

250

(Uniaxial compression test of UFC columns) 200

Lateral reinforcement 160FM2-35

150

Stress σ (N/mm2)

Contained 120FM2-45

σB

Specimen fibers Space wσy pwwσy 100

(N/mm2) pw σB 160FM2(TP)

(vol. %) (mm) (N/mm

2

) 50 120FM2(TP)

120FM2-35 160FM2-45

200FM2-35 35 2.3 0.145 0

200FM2-45 222 Steel 45 1.8 1400 0.113 300 Non-fiber Steel fiber 2%

200FM2-55 55 1.5 0.092 200FM2-45

fiber 250

160FM2-35 35 1.8 0.071 200NF-45

181 (2.0 200

160FM2-45 45 1.4 0.055

700

120FM2-35 vol. %) 35 1.8 0.081 150 200FM2-55

159 200NF-35 200FM2(TP)

120FM2-45 45 1.4 0.063 100

200NF-35 Non- 35 2.3 0.152 200NF(TP)

213 1400 50

200NF-45 fiber 45 1.8 0.118 200FM2-35

0

2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

σB : Compressive strength of UFC (N/mm )

2 Strain ε(%)

wσy : Yield strength of lateral reinforcement (N/mm )

pw : Lateral reinforcement ratio (%) Fig. 12 Stress-strain relationship of core concrete.

S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007 139

lateral loading

Strength ratio fcc / σB

A cyclic lateral loading test of columns of 200MPa-UFC

1.25

was conducted to obtain basic data on their seismic be-

haviors because such data has not yet been reported. The

columns were subjected to cyclic increasing lateral

forces up to failure. Six rectangular section columns

were constructed for the test. The cross section of the

fcc/ σB = 0.92（pwwσy/ σB ）1/2 +1

columns was identical to that of the columns for the

1.00

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

uniaxial compression test described above (Table 7 and

pwwσy /σB Fig. 15). The section of the test columns was 200 mm by

200 mm and the shear span ratio was 2.5 (Fig. 15).

Fig. 13 Enhanced strength of core concrete.

(Cyclic lateral loading test of UFC columns)

4

Strain ratio εcm / εm

Lateral reinforcement

Axial

3 stress UFC cσB Failure

Specimem

ratio (N/mm2) Space pw pwwσy/Fc mode

η0=σ0/cσB (mm) (%)

2

06FM23 218 35 2.29 0.160 F-C-Bu

1 06FM16 0.6 230 50 1.60 0.112 F-C-Bu

εcm/εm= 99.6（pwwσy/ σB ）2 +1 06FM05 214 75 0.53 0.037 F-C-Bu

0 03NF16 199 50 1.60 0.112 F-C-Bu

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

pwwσy /σB 03FM16 0.3 207 50 1.60 0.112 F-C-Bu

03FM05 202 75 0.53 0.037 F-C-S-W

Fig. 14 Enhanced ultimate strain of core concrete.

σ0: axial stress , cσB: compressive strength

pw: reinforcement ratio, F : main bar yielding, C : crush of concrete

Bu: main bar buckling, S : shear failure, W : rupture of hoop

400

1000

1800

35

50

75

180

180

180

90 90

Section Section Section

400

pwwσｙ/σB ＝ 0.150 pwwσｙ/σB ＝ 0.105 pwwσｙ/σB ＝ 0.035

140 S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007

Longitudinal reinforcements were 12-D10 with the types of failure mode. One is the type in which longitu-

specified yield strength of 685 N/mm2. The test variables dinal reinforcements yielded in compression, concrete

were 1) axial stress ratio (0.3 and 0.6), 2) amount of steel crushed and longitudinal reinforcements buckled

fibers (0 and 2.0 vol.%) and 3) amount of lateral rein- (F-C-Bu: all the columns except 03FM05). The other

forcement (pwwσy/σB = 0.037-0.160). The test specimens was the type in which the shear failure followed by the

are listed in Table 7. rupture of lateral reinforcement took place after the

crushing of concrete (F-C-S-W: 03FM05).

5.2 Test results and discussion The moment vs. axial force relationship is shown in

The lateral force vs. displacement relationship of each Fig. 18. The observed maximum strengths of all the

column is shown in Fig. 16 and the failure patterns of all columns except 03NF16 were much larger than the cal-

the specimens are shown in Fig. 17. There were two culated flexural strength. The enhancement of the

500

400 03FM05

03FM05 03FM16

03FM16 03NF16

03NF16

(kN)

300

P(kN）

200

force

100

0

水平力

Lateral

-100

P－⊿Effect P－⊿Effect P－⊿Effect

-200

-300

-400

Pmax =366kN Pmax=387kN Pmax=306kN

-500

500

06FM05

400 06FM05 06FM16

06FM16 06FM23

06FM23

300

force P(kN）

(kN)

200

100

0

Lateral水平力

-100

-200

P－⊿Effect P－⊿Effect

-300 P－⊿Effect

-400

Pmax=269kN Pmax=384kN Pmax=431kN

-500

-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6

Displacement R(%) -2rad)

変形角 R(10 変形角R(10

Displacement R(%) -2rad) 変形角R(10

Displacement R(%) -2rad)

pw = 0.53% pw = 1.60 % pw = 2.29 % pw = 0.53% pw = 1.60 % pw = 2.29 %

without sub-tie without sub-tie non-fiber

(b) Axial force ratio η0 = 0.3

(a) Axial force ratio η0 = 0.6 (b) Axial force ratio η0 = 0.3

Fig. 17 Failure pattern.

S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007 141

strength is considered to be caused by confinement with ultimate strength of the column without steel fibers could

lateral reinforcements. The ratio of the observed strength be evaluated based on the flexural strength of the core

to the calculated flexural strength of the columns with the section.

axial stress ratio of 0.6 became closer to 1.0 as shown in The effects of the amount of both lateral reinforcement

Fig. 19 when the effect of confinement with lateral re- and steel fibers on the ductility of columns are shown in

inforcement was evaluated based on Equation 11. The Figs. 20 and 21, respectively. The ultimate displacement,

defined as the displacement at 80% the maximum

strength after experiencing the maximum strength, sig-

nificantly increased with increases in the amount of lat-

eral reinforcement pwwσy / σB for the case where η0 = 0.6,

as shown in Fig. 20. In the case of low axial force level

(η0 = 0.3), both the strength and the ductility were en-

Axial force N (kN)

21.

columns

Core section

The relationship between lateral force and story drift of

each UFC column was investigated using fiber-model

analysis of the column section (Murakami 2007). In the

Non-fiber

analysis, the previously discussed tensile characteristic

of UFC and the confinement to UFC by lateral rein-

Moment M (kNm) forcements were considered. The analytical model of

Fig. 18 Moment – axial force diagram. confined UFC is shown in Fig. 22 and the constitutive

equations are shown below.

Strength ratio (test / calculated)

Confinement

neglected fc − fc '

σ= UFC

(ε − ε c ) + f c '

UFC ε c − ε c '

Confinement fc

σ= UFC

(ε − 6) (UFC ε c ≤ ε ≤ 6) (15)

considered 6−UFC ε c

pwwσy /σB

Fig. 19 Enhanced flexural strength.

450

pwwσy /σB = 0.112 03FM16

400 Pmax = 387kN

1.2

η0 = 0.6 06FM05 (pw = 0.53%)

350

Ru = 4.38%

06FM16 (pw = 1.60%)

1.0 06FM05

Lateral force P (kN)

300 Steel fiber

2.0 vol.%

Lateral force P/Pmax

0.8 250

06FM16

0.6

200

06FM23 03NF16

Ru = 2.57 150 Pmax = 306kN Non-fiber

0.4 Ru = 3.00%

100

Ru = 0.68 Ru = 3.69

0.2 50

0

0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Displacement R (%) Displacement R (%)

Fig. 20 Effect of amount of lateral reinforcement. Fig. 21 Effect of steel fiber.

142 S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007

Tension Side

f (V f ) = 0.25V f + 0.54 (22)

σ = EUFC ε (0 ≤ ε ≤ ε t ) (18)

where UFC σ B is the compressive strength of UFC stan-

σ = σ T =UFC σ B 0.44 f (V f ) (ε t ≤ ε ≤ t ε u ) (19) dard cylinder and V f is the amount of steel fiber (vol.%).

The calculated lateral force vs. story drift relationships

σ =0 (t ε u ≤ ε ) (20) are shown in Fig. 24 for the cases with a low axial force

column (03FM16) and a high axial force column

(06FM16). The curvature distribution along the column

height was assumed as shown in Fig. 23. Shear stiffness

was assumed to be elastic. As shown in Fig. 24, generally

σ the calculation result agreed well with the test result in

UFCfC the case of the low axial force column, though the flex-

ural strength was slightly underestimated. Consideration

of the tensile resistance of UFC slightly pushed up the

fC’ flexural strength. In the case of the high axial force

column, the flexural strength was more underestimated

while the tensile resistance of UFC did not contribute to

the flexural strength. The shape factor, the ratio of the

EUFC

tεu

strength of concrete in the column to the standard cyl-

inder strength, of 0.85 for the compressive strength of

εc 6% ε

σT UFC UFC might have resulted in further underestimation of

flexural strength.

subassemblages under cyclic lateral

Φ Φ loading

1D A

6.1 Test outline

In order to obtain fundamental data on the seismic be-

内法スパンLheight L

using 200MPa-UFC, a cyclic lateral loading test of inte-

Clear

interior beam-column subassemblages half the real scale

Hinge

ヒンジ領域

length

were constructed for the test. The dimensions and ar-

（1Dと仮定） 1D

1D rangement of the reinforcing bars of the specimens are

Φ Φ shown in Fig. 25 and Tables 8. The mechanical proper-

断面せいD

Depth D ties of the reinforcing bars and concrete are listed in

Curvature distribution

Fig. 23 Assumed curvature distribution.

Tables 9 and 10. The test variables were 1) volume of

steel fibers (0 and 2.0 vol.%) and 2) development length

500

450【03FM16】 【06FM16】 Test

400

Shear force（kN）

Analysis

350

300 Analysis

250 σT neglected

200 Pmax: Test/Cal.=1.11 Pmax: Test/Cal.=1.18

150 Failure progress □ Crush of concrete

Failure progress ○ Max. load - Pmax

100 Test: Yc Pmax Yt Test: Yc Pmax ◇ C-Yielding - Yc

50 Cal.:

Cal.: Yc Yt Pmax Cal.:

Cal.: Yc Pmax △ T-Yielding - Yt

0

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.00.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007 143

3024

420

2524 Column

378 Main bar

300

16-D29

Hoop

21

4-D8

550

420

80

80

Beam

Main bar

1600

500

16-D29

Stirrup

25

4-D8

1302

500

448

J17FM

B-C Joint

J17NF Hoop

250

4-D8@60

340

420

3024

2524 350 Column

Main bar

310

300

12-D29

Hoop

4-D8

20

635

80

350

80 Beam

Main bar

1600

330

10-D25

Stirrup

4-D8

J14NF 20

290

330

1336

J14FM B-C Joint

Hoop

250

280 4-D8@70

350

(b) J14 series

Fig. 25 Test specimen (Cyclic lateral loading test of UFC beam-column subassemblages).

panel (14d and 17d; d: bar diameter). Every test speci- (Lateral loading test of beam-column joints)

men was designed so that both the shear failure of the Column Beam

joint panel and the flexural failure of the beam might take Steel

Test Main Main

place. The shear strength of the joint panel was estimated Fiber Hoop Stirrup

specimen bar bar Ld / Lb

by extending the following equation proposed by the (vol.%) cpw(%) bpw(%)

cpt(%) bpt(%)

Architectural Institute of Japan for ordinary reinforced

J14FM 2

concrete buildings (AIJ 1999). 3.34 1.10 2.74 0.57 14.0

J14NF 0

V ju = 0.8σ B b j D j

0.7 J17FM 2

(23) 1.82 1.02 2.39 0.47 16.8

J17NF 0

where, σB is the compressive strength of concrete

(N/mm2), bj is the effective width of joint panel (average 6.2 Test results and discussion

of the widths of beam and column) and Dj is the depth of The relationship between story shear force and story drift

the column. index of the specimens is shown in Fig. 26. Cracks and

failure patterns are shown in Fig. 27. The failure process

144 S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007

was identical in all the specimens, e.g., 1) longitudinal The envelopes of hysteresis curves of story shear

reinforcements of the beam yielded in tension, 2) lateral forces or joint panel shear stress are shown in Figs. 28

reinforcements in the joint panel yielded and 3) the joint and 29. In all the specimens, the observed maximum

panel failed in shear compression of concrete. Thus both strength was much larger than the calculated flexural

the flexural failure of the beams and the shear failure of strength or the calculated shear strength of the joint panel.

the joint panel took place as designed. The ultimate story The observed strength was 1.5 times larger in J14FM

drift index was 3% in the J17 series specimens and 8% or specimens and 1.8 times larger in J17FM specimens than

larger in the J14 series specimens. the calculated flexural strength. This indicates that both

the flexural strength of the beams and the shear strength

of the joint panel were significantly enhanced with the

Table 9 Mechanical properties of reinforcing bars.

inclusion of steel fibers.

Breaking The observed joint panel shear stresses are plotted in

Reinforcing bar Tensile Yield point

Elonga- Fig. 30 together with the results of other tests (Kimura

Strength 1989, Nakazawa 2001, Torii 2003, Iwaoka 2003 and

Strength Strain 2 tion

Standard Diameter 2 (N/mm ) Maruta 2004). AIJ Equation 23 is shown in Fig. 30.

(N/mm ) (µ) (%)

Equation 23 can be seen to overestimate the strength of

SD980 D29 1049 － 1075 12.2 other tests, although the strengths of non-fiber specimens

D25 707 4786 946 11.4 in this test can be estimated with the equation. The

SD685 strength of fiber-reinforced specimens is much larger

D6 674 3688 878 －

than the strength calculated with Equation 23. The effect

SD785 D8 1057 7039 1194 8.9 of the steel fibers on the shear strength of the joint panel

should be evaluated.

Table 10 Properties of UFC.

Compressive Elastic 6.3 Evaluation of shear strength of

strength modulus beam-column joint

(N/mm )

2

(kN/mm )

2 AIJ design Equation 23 indicates that the shear strength

of a beam-column joint panel is controlled by the com-

Column(NF) 182 50.1

pressive strength of the joint concrete. Therefore, the

Beam(NF) 190 51.4

contribution of the tensile resistance of UFC to the shear

Column(FM) 205 53.1

resistance of the joint panel may be evaluated in terms of

Beam(FM) 211 55.0

2000 2000

1500 J17FM 1500 J17NF

Story shear force (kN)

1000 1000

500 500

0 0

-500 -500

Max. story shear

× Beam yielding Max story shear

-1000 -1000 × Beam yielding

in tension

-1500 ＊ Joint hoop yielding -1500 in tension

Limit drift index Limit drift index

-2000 -2000

-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100

1000 1000

800 J14FM 800 J14NF

Story shear force (kN)

600 600

400 400

200 200

0 0

-200 -200

Max. story shear

-400 × Beam yielding -400 Max. story shear

-600 in tension -600 × Beam yielding

＊ Joint hoop yielding in tension

-800 Limit drift index -800 Limit drift index

-1000 -1000

-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100

Story drift index (%) Story drift index (%)

S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007 145

J17FM J17NF

J14FM J14NF

J14FM

1800 to the tensile strength of UFC. The additional shear

J14NF

1600 strength, then, may be added to Equation 23 as follows.

(kN)

force (kN)

J17FM

1400 J17NF

τ p = 0.8σ B 0.7 + σ T (24)

shearforce

1200

1000 Flex. Strength

Calculated flex. The tensile strength σ T of the UFC of the test speci-

Storyshear

strength for J17 men is calculated as follows using Equations 8-10 and

600 the compressive strength σ B of standard cylinder as 208

400 N/mm2 (average of beams and columns).

Story

Flex. Strength

Calculated flex.

strength for J14

Cal. (J14)

200

f (V f ) = 0.25V f + 0.54 = 1.04 (25)

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Story driftindex

Story drift index(%)

(％) σ T = σ B 0.44 f (V f ) = 2080.44 x1.04 = 10.9 N / mm 2 (26)

Fig. 28 Envelopes of story shear vs. story drift index.

τ p = 0.8σ B 0.7 + σ T ＝ 0.8σ B 0.7 + 10.9 (27)

(MPa) 2)

50

stress (N/mm

test results.

40

7. Concluding remarks

shearstress

AIJ equation

equation (1) practical use for earthquake resistant buildings and sub-

panelshear

20 τ(σ

p =

B

0.7

0.8σMPa)

=200 B sequent analytical investigations are summarized as

J14FM follows.

1) UFC, which is basically a very brittle material like

Jointpanel

10 J14NF

J17FM rock, can be well confined with high- or ul-

J17NF tra-high-strength lateral reinforcements available in

Joint

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Story driftindex

index(%)

(％) of UFC are evaluated using Equations 3-7 while the

Story drift tensile characteristics are evaluated using Equations

Fig. 29 Envelopes of joint panel shear vs. story drift index.

146 S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007

the structural performance of high-strength concrete

50 Contribution

Joint shear stress τ p (N/mm2)

structures.” (in Japanese)

45 J14NF (Non-fiber) Japan Society of Civil Engineers (2004).

40 J17FM (UFC)

τp = 0.8σB0.7+σT

J17NF (Non-fiber) “Recommendations for design and construction of

35 σT = 10.9 ultra-high-strength fiber reinforced concrete

30 structures -Draft.” (in Japanese)

25 AIJ Equation ▽

τp = 0.8σB0.7 ▽

Joko, T., Sugano, S., Kimura, H. and Shimoyama, Y.

20 ▽

△ Maruta 2004 (2004). “An experimental study on restoring force

15 ◇ Nakazawa 2001 characteristics of RPC columns.” Proceedings of the

10 ▲ Torii 2003

◆ Iwaoka 2003 Japan Concrete Institute, 26(2), 799-804. (in

5 ▽ Kimura 1989 Japanese)

0 Joko, T., Sugano, S., Kimura, H. and Shirai, K. (2005).

0 40 80 120 160 200 240 “An experimental study for hysteresis characteristics

Concrete strength σB (N/mm2)

of beam-column joints of UFC.” Proceedings of the

Fig. 30 Joint panel shear vs. concrete strength.

Japan Concrete Institute, 27(2), 691-696. (in

Japanese)

8-10. Joko, T., Sugano, S., Kimura, H. and Kawaguchi, T.

2) Stable seismic behavior of columns can be obtained (2006). “An experimental study for restitution

even under very high axial compression when they are characteristics of precast beam – shell column joints

confined with high- or ultra-high-strength lateral re- using UFC.” Proceedings of the Japan Concrete

inforcements. The flexural behavior of UFC columns Institute, 28(2), 649-654. (in Japanese)

is well evaluated when taking the tensile resistance of Kimura, H., Sugano, S., Nagashima, T. and Ichikawa, A.

UFC and confinement by lateral reinforcements into (1989). “Experimental studies on beam-column joints

consideration and using the analytical model shown in using high-strength concrete.” Proceedings of the

Fig. 22. Japan Concrete Institute, 11(2), 525-530. (in

3) Both shear failure of the joint panel and flexural fail- Japanese)

ure of beams can concurrently take place. Steel fibers Kitakaze, N., Sugano, S., Kimura, H. and Katagiri, M.

significantly contribute to enhance the shear strength (2003). “An experimental study on compressive

of the joint panel. The contribution of steel fibers is characteristics of columns with ultra-high-strength

evaluated by Equation 24. The shear strength of the concrete.” Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute,

joint panel without steel fibers can be evaluated by 25(2), 847-852. (in Japanese)

AIJ equation 23 for ordinary concrete. Maruta, M. and Sanada, A. (2004). “Structural capacities

of interior frame using concrete of 170N/mm2 or

Acknowledgement higher.” Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute,

It is acknowledged that the test of interior beam-column 26(2), 469-474. (in Japanese)

joints was performed under the grant of the Ministry of Murakami, H., Sugano, S., Izumi, N. and Shirai, K.

Science and Education, Japanese Government, at the (2005). “An experimental study of restoring force

grant number (B)(2) 16360278. characteristics of precast shell columns using 200

N/mm2 UFC.” Proceedings of the Japan Concrete

References Institute, 28(2), 655-660. (in Japanese)

Architectural Institute of Japan (1999). “Design Murakami, H. (2007). “A study on evaluation of ultimate

guidelines for earthquake resistant reinforced strength of columns considering tensile behavior of

concrete buildings based on inelastic displacement UFC.” Master Thesis, Hiroshima University. (in

concept.” (in Japanese) Japanese)

Inenaga, E., Izumu, N., Kikuta, S., Hamada, S., Ishioka, Nakazawa, H., Kumagai, H., Tsukagoshi, H. and Kurose,

T., Takahashi, K. and Ueda, H. (2005). “Study on Y. (2001). “Development of ultra-high strength

behavior of reinforced concrete frame using reinforced concrete structures, Part 4: Loading test on

ultra-high-strength fiber reinforced concrete.” the shear behavior of beam-column joints.” Summary

Summary of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting, Vol. of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting, Vol. C-2,

C-2, 183-184, Architectural Institute of Japan. (in 663-664, Architectural Institute of Japan. (in

Japanese) Japanese)

Iwakura, S., Hori, S., Naruse, T., Watanabe, T., Obata, K., Sugano, S., Araki, H., Shirai, K. Kimura, H.,

Yamamoto, K. and Konno, O. (2003). “Experimental Murakami, Y. and Kitakaze, N. (2003). “An

study on the beam-column joints of ultra-high-strength experimental study on the compressive properties of

reinforced concrete structure.” Summary of Technical super-high-strength concrete.” Summary of Technical

Papers of Annual Meeting, Vol. C-2, 513-514, Papers of Annual Meeting, Vol. C-2, 13-14,

Architectural Institute of Japan. (in Japanese) Architectural Institute of Japan. (in Japanese)

S. Sugano, H. Kimura and K. Shirai / Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology Vol. 5, No. 2, 133-147, 2007 147

Shimizu, K., Kanakubo, T., Kanda, T. and Nagai, S. Suma, S., Sugano, S., Izumi, N. and Shimoyama, Y.

(2004). “Evaluation of shear strength of PVA-ECC (2004). “An experimental study on precast concrete

beams.” Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute, shell RPC columns.” Proceedings of the Japan

26(2), 1537-1542. (in Japanese) Concrete Institute, 26(2), 805-810. (in Japanese)

Shimizu, K., Ujiie, T., Kanakubo, T. and Kanda, T. Takenaka Corporation (2007).

(2005). “Evaluation of shear characteristics of “http://www.takenaka.co.jp/”

PVA-ECC beams.” Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Torii, T., Hayashi, K., Takamori, N., Teraoka, M. Uchida,

Institute, 27(2), 1333-1338. (in Japanese) K. and Kato, Y. (2003). “Experimental study on

Shimizu, K., Kanakubo, T., Kanda, T. and Nagai, S. mechanical properties of RC beam-column

(2006). “Evaluation of tensile properties of PVA-ECC subassemblages using ultra-high-strength materials

using bending test.” Journal of Structural and (Part 1: Outline of Experiment).” Summary of

Construction Engineering, Architectural Institute of Technical Papers of Annual Meeting, Vol. C-2,

Japan, No. 604, 31-36. (in Japanese) 513-514, Architectural Institute of Japan. (in

Shirai, K., Tanano, H., Fukuyama, H. and Kage, T. Japanese)

(2003). “Structural properties of beams using reactive Ujiie, T., Shimizu, K., Kanakubo, T. and Katagiri, M.

powder concrete.” Proceedings of the Japan Concrete (2005). “Shear behavior of fiber-reinforced RPC

Institute, 25(2), 841-846. (in Japanese) beams.” Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute,

Sugano, S., Kimura, H. and Shirai, K. (2005). 27(2), 1339-1344. (in Japanese)

“Experimental studies on seismic behavior of columns Yamana, K., Yasojima, A., Shirai, K. and Sugano, S.

and interior beam-column joints which used 200MPa (2007). “Evaluation of tensile properties of UFC using

fiber-reinforced concrete.” Proceedings of the 8th U.S. bending test.” Summary of Technical Papers of Annual

National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Meeting, to be published, Architectural Institute of

April 18-22, San Francisco, California, USA, Paper Japan. (in Japanese)

No. 555.

- PD CEN-TR 15728 2008 Inserts for Lifting and Handling Precast ElementsUploaded bydicktracy11
- ASTM A-615Uploaded bybill_lee_242
- ACCE Bulletin Apr-Jun 09Uploaded byYuvarasu
- 4.2.1 HVA Capsule Adhesive Anchoring(151-166)Uploaded byJonathan Douglas
- The Strength of Filler Joist Floors.Uploaded bystan80
- Design of TowerUploaded bysyedbaseer
- AREMA-MSE.pdfUploaded bysam
- Weld wire specUploaded byRajaSekarsajja
- Testing of SandUploaded byਕੁਲਵੀਰ ਸਿੰਘ ਧੂੰਮੀ
- Tian WanUploaded bySourav Basak
- TIVAR_CleanStat_PDS_GLOB_E_19092016.pdfUploaded bysulatnigabo
- Hognestad 1955.pdfUploaded byHizbawi Sisay
- 08605 Pure 50+.pdfUploaded bycorrokoko
- ReinforcementUploaded bycivilsadiq
- Reinforcement WorksUploaded byRounak Maheshwari
- Finite Element Artificial Intelligence About CivilUploaded byLeon Corona
- NilsonUploaded byJefferson Felipe
- foundation_for_sulphur_linE_ANCHOR_SUPPORT.xlsUploaded byshangz1511
- IJMPE 2016.pdfUploaded byANIS ROSYIDAH
- SM108Uploaded byShaker Mahmood
- plmsspresentation-160125183502Uploaded byRajdeep Singh
- Tensile Test Prof.narendra Kumar Muhammed.is_tensUploaded byMuhammed Minhaj
- Jurnal Wayan Mustika InggrisUploaded byWayan Mustika
- Load Combinations Due to ACI 2008Uploaded byAhmed
- Compressive Flexural and Splitting Tensile StrengtUploaded bynovan
- IRJET-Experimental Evaluation of Strength and Ductile Behavior of Square Concrete Columns Reinforced with Prefabricated Cage Reinforcement SystemUploaded byIRJET Journal
- CIB13826Uploaded byاسماعيل جودة
- EXTENSION PROPOSAL 2015 (first sem).docxUploaded byArnold Magdalita Francisco
- documentsUploaded byNarayana Mugalur
- ShorWall Half Model Analysis 1.3 081012Uploaded byAlexandre Basso

- rc0207_concretefeature_0307vlr.pdfUploaded byTho Tran
- Self-Compacting Concrete - Procedure for Mix DesignUploaded byM HAFEEZ RAJA
- concrete grade 200 MPaUploaded byTho Tran
- concrete grade 150 MPaUploaded byTho Tran
- ACI 309.1R-08 Report on Behavior of Fresh Concrete During Vibration_MyCivil.irUploaded byTho Tran

- CE2155 - Stability of Compression MembersUploaded byJulia
- BGE Lesson Plan 2017-18Uploaded byAbdul Rehaman
- Direct Shear Lab TestingUploaded byMelissa Crystal Sammy
- GQH DEEPSOILUploaded byShamsher Sadiq
- Diseno Por Corte CA Av Mayor Avmin Vpilar Rev0BUploaded bygabriwe
- HEB400 ANKRAJUploaded bySerkanAydoğdu
- ME2112-Lab Manual-1 (vs Rev)Uploaded byZih
- Tiang Pendek BiUploaded byafend
- 130123091 Subgrade Modulus in Structural Engg DesignUploaded byMohammed Faisal T
- AGARD-AG-201-VOL-2Uploaded bygreatsteel
- Earthquakes and Faults Module(1)Uploaded byJoeseph Co
- Fatigue of Grouted Joint ConnectionsUploaded byscrane@
- A Measure of Earthquake Motion Capacity to Damage Medium Period Structures - FajfarUploaded byreynaldo1976
- Din 1045-1 ManualUploaded byMladen Milinkovic
- CUMBIA Theory and User Guide (1)Uploaded bySiul Onarbmaz
- section_1Uploaded byJuan Francisco Marin Mendiola
- Angular Distortion 1Uploaded byZulhusni Che Razali
- Natural Fiber Composite Design and Characterization for Limit Stress Prediction in Multiaxial Stress StateUploaded bychristian emeka okafor
- Lecture16_4on1Uploaded byrazvanfcs
- 14 Fracture MechanicsUploaded byAlexander Narváez
- Fatigue.pdfUploaded byNandan Obul Reddy
- UGM_FatigueofWelds_Mentley.pdfUploaded bydudumuitoloco
- Thesis.pdfUploaded byminchanmon
- Resume 11 2013 - Amjad ArefUploaded byAmjad J. Aref
- Rebound Property in Low Velocity Impact of Two Equivalent BallsUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Pile Cap Design 6Pile (2)Uploaded byAnkit Ghildiyal
- RCDUploaded byKim Gabayno
- Literature ReviewUploaded byPrakash Suhagiya
- document (4).pdfUploaded bytonicors_806375834
- Application of Mohr Coulomb criterion to ductile failureUploaded byMoataz Hesham Soliman