LESSON - 1: CROP PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT What you have eaten today morning?

What is the special food crop of the south Indians? Have you ever asked yourself how that food crop is cultivated? Have you ever heard how much hurdles the farmers should have overcome to bring the food crop available to you? Do you know the various tasks involved in producing and protecting such food crops? Do you know how the ill management of the crops at the production stage lead to low yield and in the storage stage lead to wastage? Let us have a brief study on those topics here. The crop production process involved many practises, they are Soil preparation: The agricultural field should be converted into a cultivable land. The various steps involved in converting the soil cultivable is ploughing, crushing, manuring and levelling Tillage is the agricultural preparation of the soil by ploughing, ripping, or turning it. Tillage can also mean the land that is tilled. There are two types of tillage: primary and secondary tillage. Crops Suitable For Cultivation in Acid Soils Ph Level Acidic Soils 4.5 Citrus, Blue berries 5.0 Tobacco, Apple, Grapes, Plum, watermelon Cowpea, Soybean, Cotton, Wheat, Oat, Peas, Tomato, 5.5 Sorghum. Peanut, Cabbage, Carrot, Onion, Radish, Spinach, 6.0 Cauliflower. 6.5 Alfalfa, Sugarbeet

Land Preparation Summer Ploughing * Summer ploughing improves soil structure due to alternate drying and cooling. Soil permeability is increased by breaking the compacted layers. Tillage improves soil aeration which helps in multiplication of micro organisms. Organic matter decomposition is hastened resulting in higher nutrient availability. * Increased aeration also helps in degradation of herbicide and pesticide residues and harmful allelopathic chemicals exuded by roots of previous crop or weed. It also helps in reducing the soil dwelling insect pests. In view of several benefits summer ploughing could be taken up at optimum moisture level. * Frequent harrowing has to be avoided as it results in destruction of soil structure. Tillage at improper moisture level is to be discouraged as it also damages soil structure and leads to development of hard pans.

Shallow Ploughing * It is generally followed by the most of the farmers repeatedly at the same depth (12-15 Cm). As a result of this hard pans are created, which inhibits the penetration of roots in deep rooted crops. * Eg: Cotton roots grow to a depth of 2 Mts. in deep alluvial soils without any pans, when hard pans are present they grow only upto hard pan (5 - 20 cm). But shallow ploughing is practiced to open the soil crust to increase the receptivity of rainfall. Puddling * " Making soil impermeable by manipulating and compacting it in standing water, which reduces its apparent specific volume, thus facilitates transplanting." As a result of puddling, an impervious layer is formed below the surface which reduces deep percolation losses of water. Levelling * Levelling is the tillage operation in which the soil is moved to a establish a desired soil elevation stage. Due to levelling the use of water and fertilizer efficiency increases effectively. Harrowing * Harrowing is a secondary tillage operation which pulverizes, smoothens and packs the soil in seed-bed preparation and control weeds. Conservation Tillage * The main objective is to conserve soil and moisture .Conservation tillage is an operation that is designed to maintain roughness of a field surface and leave most of the previous crop residues on the surface while providing a suitable seedbed and weed control for the next crop. * This roughness reduces water run off and soil erosion. Ridges and Furrows * A long, row ridge of earth with gently sloping sides and a shallow channel along the upper side, to control erosion by diverting surface run-off across the slope instead of permitting it to flow uninterrupted down to slope. * EG: Sugarcane, Sunflower, Vegetable crops.

Bunding * It is the process of forming an artificial earthern embankment made across slopping agricultural land to cut short lengthy soil slopes and reduces run-off and erosion. * These bunds are also formed along the contours across the slope of land in the low rainfall regions to conserve soil moisture. Sowing Methods of Sowing Broad Casting * Seeds are spread uniformly over well prepared land and is covered by ploughing or planking. It is most primitive method of sowing crops. The broadcasting has severaldisadvantages. * Seeds fall at different depths when broadcasted resulting in uneven stand. 1. It requires more seed rate. 2. Seeds fallen deep in the soil may not germinate. 3. Due to broadcasting excess competition at certain areas and no competition at all in other areas takes place in the field. So, yield returns will be decreased. 4. Water use efficiency and fertilizer efficiency will be decreased. 5. There is no possibility of controlling weeds by inter cultivation. Drilling * To overcome the problems of broadcasting drilling the seeds in lines has come into practice. Weeds can be controlled economically by inter cultivation in line sown crops. In addition, drilling or line sowing facilitates uniform depth of sowing resulting in uniform crop stand. Seed rate can be considerably reduced drilling. Planting * When individual seeds or seed material is placed in the soil by manual labour, it is called planting. * Generally crops with bigger sized seeds and those needing wider spacing are sown by this method. Eg : Cotton, Maize, Potato, Sugarcane, etc. Transplanting * It is the process of planting seedlings in prepared main field. Small seeded crops like Tobacco, Chillies, Tomato, etc. are to be sown shallow and

frequently irrigated for proper germination. Taking care of the germinating seed or seedlings which are spread over large area is a problem with regard to application of water, weed control, pest control etc. Therefore, seeds are sown in a small area called nursery and all the care is taken to raise the seedlings. * The advantages of transplanting saving in irrigation water, good stand establishment and increase in intensity of cropping. In respect to paddy the nursery is raised in small puddled plots and later transplanted in the main field at required spacing. Seed Rate * The quality of seed required for sowing in a unit area of land. It is usually expressed in kg/ ha. Spacing * The distance between crop row ( inter-row spacing) and between plants within the row (intra - row spacing) is referred as spacing. It is expressed in Cms. Plant Population * Number of plants maintained in an unit area of land is known as plant population/ density. Establishment of optimum plant population is essential to get maximum yield. When sown densely competition among plants is more for growth factors resulting in reduction of yield. * Yield per plant decreases gradually as plant population per unit area is increased. The plant population density vary with the type of soil and crop. Optimum plant population density has to be maintained for securing maximum yield. Nursery Raising * When more than one crop is to be grown in an year on the same piece of land, the time occupied by each crop has to be reduced. * The seedling growth in the early stages is very slow. Seedlings need extra care for establishing in the field because of their tenderness. Small seeded crops are to be sown shallow and frequently irrigated for proper germination. * Taking care of the germinating seed or seedlings which are spread over large area is a problem with regard to application of water, weed control, pest control etc. Therefore, seeds are sown in a small area called nursery and all the care is taken to raise the seedlings. Transplanting Method

In case of rice it is also done mechanically with transplantor provided the nursery is raised through dapog method. Cassava. Papaya. Earthing Up * It is the process of putting the earth or soil just near the base for certain crops like Sugar cane. and better development of root system. Potato. Conservation of soil moisture. etc.* Transplanting is usually done manually. the seedlings are to be transplanted at optimum age and at proper depth. to give support to the plants.To avoid lodging * Cassava. 2. Seed drill. Time * For achieving good results from transplanting. The age of seedlings for transplanting depends on crop and seasonal conditions. Mechanical seed drill are generally used. It is also called as inter culturing. 3. Vegetables . Reduced competition for nutrients and water. Equipment For Sowing * Country plough (Akkadi).To facilitate irrigation. Ferti-cum-seed drill. Inter Cultivation * It is an operation of soil cultivation performed in standing crop. Banana . Purity of seed can be maintained.To provide more soil volume for the growth of tubers. Potato . Weeding * Weeding is the process of eliminating competition of unwanted plants to the regular crop in respect to nutrition and moisture. * Sugarcane. It also facilitates other operations like irrigation and fertilizer application. So that crops can be grown profitably. Papaya. It facilitates good aeration. Ridges and Furrows . The advantages of weeding are 1.

part from the plant. pods and fruits etc. to avoid over crowding and to maintain uniform plant stand. Methods * Harvesting is done by either manually or by mechanical. Crop is considered to be at physiological maturity when the translocation of photosynthates are stopped to economic part. Millets.* It is also included in inter cultivation and generally done at the base of the crop to provide extra support against lodging and also provide soil volume for better growth. tuber crops the plants are pulled and economic parts are separated. Late harvesting results in shattering of grains. Chillies. plucking.betelwine. the gap filling is done in missing areas of the planted main field to maintain optimum population . If the crop is harvested early. * In some crops like Groundnut. Paddy the crop is cut with sickles and knives. Paddy. Grapes propping is necessary to support the main crop establishment. germination even before harvesting during rainy season and breakage during processing. harvesting at correct time is essential to get good quality of grains and higher yields. picking. the produce contain high moisture and more immature grains. * Like wise thinning is also practiced in direct sown crops like Jowar. In other crops like Cotton. Manually * Manual harvesting is practiced by cutting crop with sickle or knife. digging or combination of these for removing the useful part or economic end product. thinning and propping are required as part of inter cultivation operations. Hence. In crops like Cotton. In some crops like Sugarcane. and fruits the picking is practices to remove the economic parts like kappas. In crops like Sugarcane. It also facilitates uniform spread of moisture during operation of irrigation. Time * Crops can be harvested at physiological maturity or at harvest maturity. Mechanically . Other Operations * Certain other operations like gap filling. Harvesting * It is an operation of cutting. * The yields will be low due to unfilled grains. Chillies.

Field bunds may be trimmed to avoid hibernating grass hopper egg masses. Now a days the harvesting is exclusively for harvesting crops like Paddy and threshing paddy are used. aspiration or any other mechanical means is known as cleaning. In case of rice . It is required to maintain the quality of the produce. Straw. Chillies. plant residues in crops like Cotton. Basangulu. Machines are now available for separating pods from the plants and also for shelling pods (decorticators) in respect to Groundnut crop. hand-picking. High Yielding Varieties . Sunflower etc. the remnants of the plant viz. * Processing is the conversion of the produce into a more finished condition before it is offered for sale. stubbles. there by providing source of organic matter for the next season crop. shelling of castor capsules and sowing of grain.Krishnakatukalu. So that the excreta is collected on the field which is also a good source of organic nutrients. Cleaning * The removal of foreign and dissimilar material by washing. Maize. screening. * Likewise machines are available for threshing sunflower heads. leaves. separating the grain from straw. Types of Seeds Local Varieties * Local varieties are nothing but traditional varieties but which are susceptible to diseases and pests and are having long duration for maturity. Drying is done either by using solar energy or by artificial heating. Post Harvest Field Management * After harvest of the crop.* The combines are used to perform several operations such as cutting the crop. Drying and Processing * Drying is a process by which moisture content from grain is reduced to safe limit. are ploughed into soil to decompose. * The left over stubbles. * In crops like Paddy the stubbles may be removed by ploughing after harvest to eliminate hibernating stem borer population. may be burnt as part of soil sterilization as to reduce population of harmful microbes and soil dwelling insect pests. * In some places the flock of sheep are housed (penning) during night time. etc. cleaning the grain from chaff and transporting grains to the storage tank.

Hybrids * A systematic and extensive evaluation of the experimental hybrids. viz. * Eg: I. * Weather conditions ( relative humidity.2 for the Telangana and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra pradesh. Subsequently two more hybrids. located in southern. rainfall) . across the country. four rice hybrids were released for commercial cultivation during 1994. time bound and co-ordinated efforts for the first time in the country. Possibilities for true -to. CHRH -3 and DRRH-1 were released recently. Genetically Engineered Seeds * One of the major concerns of cultivating hybrid varieties is that farmers can not use seed from the harvest for their next crop and thus have to buy new seed for each crop.type multiplication of hybrid rice are being explored through two approaches.50. I.R . These are APHR-1 and APHR.R .* High yielding varieties are dwarf varieties and having short duration with resistant to pests and diseases with maximum yield potential. * Storage conditions. at the twelve research net work centers has been taken up. the cost of hybrid seed is 5-20 times more than that of seeds of inbred varieties. Or * It is represented by germination percentage which expresses the number of seedlings that can be produced by a given number of seeds. MGR-1 for the Tamilnadu state and KRH-1 for Karnataka state. Very useful information on performance of hybrids and data on yield and yield components and other auxiliary characters of hybrids across the locations and seasons has been collected over the years. More-over. About eight hundred experimental hybrids have been evaluated so far. where as during dry season ( rabi ) the experimental hybrids are evaluated in seven centers.. goal oriented. * As a result of concerted. * Production of artificial seeds through somatic embryogenesis and * Development of apomictic hybrid rice through wide hybridization and genetic engineering techniques. * The duration of seed viability of rice varieties depends mainly on the following aspects. I. Seed Viability * Seed viability is defined as " The capability of a seed to show living properties like germination and growth". the experimental hybrids are being evaluated at 12 centers. by the state variety release committee. western and eastern India. During the wet season ( Kharif).36. * Seed moisture % at the time of storage ( 10 to 12% is desirable).R -64.

Top Seed Dormancy * Seed dormancy refers to the resting stage of embryo with low germinability of viable and freshly harvested grains. Without dormancy. seed would germinate on the standing crop. * Due to this.. where as the kharif harvested seed retains its viability till the next kharif season.Seed Moisture * The formation of germination inhibitors was accelerated under reduced oxygen tension and thereby the water content of the seed is increased which deteriorates viability. Thus. * The germination and viability of the rice seed are related to the formation of inhibitors during storage. The seed viability deteriorate very fast during monsoon season. the seed harvested during rabi season do not retain its viability upto the next rabi season. the rate being higher in fresh seeds then in older ones. from June to October months. Storage * The embryos and endosperm of seeds of different ages were found to respire. because it passes through the monsoon weather conditions i. Weather Conditions * Higher relative humidity and rainfall during the storage periods will deteriorate the seed viability . the old seeds are living but failed to germinate. * The paddy seed viability depends on the weather conditions. It is also defined as inability or failure of perfectly matured seed to germinate even when placed under conditions favourable for germination. * Seed dormancy is an important varietal trait in tropical rice where rain fall and high humidity are of frequent occurance during the maturity and harvest periods. Classification of Dormancy Seed Dormancy at Maturity Stage .e.

Duration or Length of Dormancy * This refers to the period from harvest time to the time when the seeds have broken their dormancy. Weakly Dormant * Varieties in which above 80% of dormancy is broken after 4 days of heat treatment.. i. I. Factors Influencing Dormancy Period Climatic Conditions Temperature * Rice produced during the cloudy wet season ( kharif) has a strong dormancy and longer duration of dormancy than that of produced during the summer dry season ( rabi). Some of the rice varieties ( Masuri.* Strong seed dormancy at maturity of the crop is a most desirable trait for all the kharif varieties. . the seed may germinate on the panicle itself.e. Moderately Dormant * Varieties in which 50 to 79% of dormancy is broken after 4 days of heat treatment. Intensity of Dormancy * This refers to the level of breaking dormancy by artificial means. * This is mainly due to the temperature differences ( higher temperatures in rabi) during the ripening stage of the crop. and the rice varieties classified based on germination percentage as follows Strongly Dormant * Varieties in which 50% of dormancy is broken after 4 days of heat treatment.R -50) have little or no seed dormancy and in periods of wet weather at harvest time. based on the germination percentage after heat treatment for four days at 50 degrees centigrade.

So the duration. Genetics of Dormancy * Genetically dormancy is dominant over non-dormancy. 6. Mechanism of Dormancy * Dormancy is the resultant of the slowing down effect of the metabolic process during seed maturation and also by the slow oxidation of the hormone IAA ( Indole Acetic Acid). the dormancy of the individual seed varies with in the hill and also within the panicle.3 ml per lit. between the mother tiller to tertiary tillers.. photo sensitivity and also with a range of grain types. Breaking Seed Dormancy * Among the several methods available the most suitable method to break seed dormancy at farmers level is nitric acid treatment..1 N nitric acid i. it is essential that any treatment aimed at breaking seed dormancy should hasten the rate of oxidation.. Seed Treatment . of water for 12 to 24 hours effectively breaks the seed dormancy.Relative Humidity * Higher R.Soaking the seed in o.e. Similarly there is about 7 to 10 days difference in the maturity of individual seeds within the same panicle. i.e. * The seeds in the upper portion of the panicle have earlier maturity than the lower portion of the panicle. 10ml per lit. . * The seeds can be utilized for sowing immediately after the treatment or they can be dried thoroughly and can be utilized later for sowing. where as the varieties like MTU-1001 which is having 8 weeks and above dormancy duration should be treated with higher nitric acid concentration i. of water.H in atmosphere at maturity stage also increase the degree of dormancy. Respiration is a strong competitor for the oxygen available for the dormancy breaking reaction. Dormancy is inherited independently and can combine with early maturity.e. * Hence. Age of Seeds * A wide variation in maturity of seeds can be observed within a hill.

Light * The test should be illuminated during atleast 8 hours in every twenty four hours cycle and during the high temperature period when the seeds are germinated at alternating temperatures. * Eg. with free air circulation. Seed Treatment for Breaking Dormancy (Physiological Dormancy) Dry Storage * For species where dormancy is naturally of short duration. such as to disinfect and disinfest them from seedborne or soil-borne pathogenic organisms and crop pests both in field and in storage. for a period of upto 7 days before they are placed under the prescribed germination conditions. * Provides protection from insect pests. It also refers to the subjecting of seeds to solar energy exposure. it is often sufficient to store the samples in a dry place for a short period.1250 lux from cool white lamps. Benefits of Seed Treatment * Prevention of spread of plant diseases. * Controlling soil insects. Chloris gayana. Pre-Heating * The replicates for germination should be heated at a temperature not exceeding 40 degree C. insecticide or a combination of both to seeds. immersion in conditioned water etc. Cynodon .* Seed treatment refers to the application of fungicide. In some cases it may be necessary to extend the prechilling period or to re-chilling. * Seed treatment protects seed from seed rot and seedling blight. The light intensity should be approximately 750 . Agricultural and vegetable seeds are kept at a temperature between 5 and 10 degrees Centigrade for an initial period of upto 7 days. Pre-Chilling * The replicates for germination are placed in contact with the moist substratum and kept at low temperature for an initial period. * Improves germination. Illumination is recommended especially for certain tropical and sub-tropical grasses.

. * The seed can be utilized for sowing immediately after the treatment or they can be dried thoroughly and can be utilized later for sowing. Seed Germination * Seed germination is the resumption of growth by the embryo and development of young plant from the seed.2% solution of KNo3. These may be merchandized in combination or individual.e. of water. then re-test in a sealed polythene envelop of sufficient size will usually induce these seeds to germinate. * The seedling dip in chlorpyriphos 2. in a laboratory test. * Soaking the seed in 0.5 EC solution @ 1ml /lit of water was suggested to protect against insect pests like rice stem borer.3 ml per lit. Treatments for Promoting Germination . Gibberellic Acid( GA3) * This GA3 method is recommended for wheat. In case of paddy the seed is treated with carbendism @ 1 gm / Kg of seed to protect against plant diseases. oat etc. Sealed Polythene Envelops * When a high proportion of fresh un-germinated seeds are found at the end of the standard test. is the emergence and development from the seed embryo of those essential structures which.Potassium Nitrate ( KNo3) * The germination substratum may be maintained with 0. 10ml per lit. indicate the ability to develop into a normal plant under favourable conditions in the soil. where as the varieties like MTU-1001 which is having 8 weeks and above dormancy duration should be treated with higher nitric acid concentration i. It effectively break the seed dormancy. 6... BPH etc.e. * In case of rice among the several methods for breaking dormancy are available the most suitable method at farmers level is nitric acid treatment. for the kind of being tested. of water for 12 to 24 hours effectively break the seed dormancy.1 N nitric acid i. * Germination. Seed Treatment for Protection Against Pests and Diseases * Several insecticides and fungicides are used in seed treatment to protect the seeds from pests and diseases.

Methods for Removing Hard Seededness * Soaking * Mechanical scarification * Acid scarification. complete germination can often be obtained by re-testing after a period of dry storage. Methods of Removing Inhibitory Substances * Pre . Seed Storage Purpose of Seed Storage * The purpose of seed storage is to maintain the seed in good physical and physiological condition from the time they are harvested until the time they are planted.washing * Removal of structures around the seed.* For reasons such as physiological dormancy. * The entire storage period can be conveniently divided into following stages. * Disinfection of the seed. * Storage on plants ( physiological maturity until harvest). . Stages of Seed Storage * The seeds are considered to be in storage from the moment they reach physiological maturity until they germinate or until they are thrown away because they are dead or otherwise worthless. inhibitory substances a considerable number of hard or fresh seeds may remain at the end of the germination test. hard seededness. Methods to Overcome Physiological Dormancy * Dry storage * Pre-chilling * Pre-heating * Light treatment * Potassium nitrate ( KNo3) treatment * Gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment * Sealed polythene envelope treatment. The following methods may also be used to induce germination. * When a proportion of fresh or dormant seeds remain at the end of the test period.

storage ( warehouses) * In transit ( Railway wagons.From Breeder of Hybrid /Variety of Proprietor Breeder * Breeder Seed . * In . * In retail stores.Process start three years in advance before the actual seed production for marketing * Trusted Seed Growers . Top Seed Production Systems and procedures Why Quality Seed Production? Because: * Most Important Agricultural Input for a Farmers * For Increased Grain Yield * High Product Quality * Specific requirement * Business for companies * Employment to rural people * Backbone of nation’s economy Sources Of Seeds * Nucleus Seed. trucks. * On the user's farm. railway sheds etc.* Harvest. until processed and stored in a warehouse.From Breeder of Hybrid /Variety of Proprietor Breeder * Foundation Seed-From Breeder Seed * Certified/Truthful Seed.).From Foundation Seed Nucleus Seed /Breeder Seed à Foundation Seed Stage I/Stage-II – Certified/Truthful Seed– Commercial grain for farmer’s consumption Seed Production Planning MOTTO: Plan every thing before starting Requirements for Quality seed production facilities * Good source of BS and F/S. carts.

* Qualified dedicated seed production team * Good Seed Processing plant Machinery capable to process the full planned marketing quantity. * Storage facilities including cold storage provision for off season storage. * High Quality foundation seed minimizes the efforts for quality seed production. B/S and F/S * Seed Health Laboratory with/without finger printing facilities * Grow Out Farm (GOT) * Reliable. * Inspection of F/S plots by concern Breeders to ensure best quality Seed Production MOTTO: Dedicated Team work with Quality consciousness * Selection of reliable growers before start of season * Growers should be knowledgeable.financially sound and willing to take extra efforts to take up seed production operations * Seed production meeting before start of season for allocation of area to different production areas * Development of new production areas * Regular field inspections by seed production team at different stages of crop growth to advise growers on different operations * Random Field inspections by Seed Quality Field Team to monitor the various seed production operations * Midseason review of seed production to go for alternate area if falling short of targets. . * Plan the production of foundation Seed three years in advance before the actual marketing of Seed. * For in-house hybrids Inspection of Breeder Seed plot by team of other breeders to produce best quality breeder seed. * For in-house foundation seed of proprietary hybrids involvement of concerned Breeder with F/S production official. quick and economic transportation facilities * Knowledge of statuary Seed laws Foundation Seed Production MOTTO: Purity of Foundation will ensure minimum efforts in field for production of high quality seed * High purity of breeder seed.

dispatches and movement of Seed * Proper up storage and placement of screens. Replace worn-out parts. infestations and purity etc * Confidentiality of seed sampling and testing process * Seed health laboratory person to be trained in such a way that he catches the problems of seed even visually and to be very careful while testing these suspected lots for seed health. seed vigor. * Trained operators of plant machinery * Separate godown for incoming. sales return and ruminant seed. * Other important operations / instructions as per crop growth Seed Processing Plant Operations MOTTO: Quality of processed seed should reflect on Market * Most important function after seed production * Overhauling and servicing of plant Machinery before start of season. * Proper records of processed. Extra Important implements to be kept in godown. * Trained qualified officicial for sampling of seed during processing of seed lots * Testing of all seed lots for germination. processed. * All facilities for testing of seed produced * To ensure that every lot of seed is tested for all the quality parameters of seed health before the dispatch of seed. dispatch and sales returns Seed Health Laboratory MOTTO: To ensure that only and only quality seed reaches the growers . Grow out tests (GOT) MOTTO: To Test the Genetic purity of each and every seed lot . Keep spares for emergencies. * Co-ordination with seed health team for sampling.* Group and mass Seed Field inspections by seed production team at critical stages of crop growth in crucial highly cross pollinated crops like Pearl millet. maize sunflower and Jowar * Harvesting and threshing instructions to growers to avoid admixtures. remnant and processing losses to build full faith of seed grower in company * Record of seed arrival.

* To keep records of history of all seed lots to be kept to trace the reasons for complaints. * As no. * In high value crop seeds like sunflower and vegetable hybrids the Finger Printing technology to be used to check the Genetic purity of seed. * Do not look at short term gains while dispatching of seed at the times of Urgency of seed to market. * Regular institutional Training of staff to update their knowledge * All seed lots of hybrids. * Not to accept faults in courts in seed failures but to fight it out Seed Logistics . * Knowledge of seed laws to ensure there no convictions. of lots are known before the arrival of samples hence infra structure should be kept ready before testing season (maximum Kharif) * Highly technical qualified staff for the Grow out Tests. * In case of crops where the time gap between seed arrival and dispatch is very less the finger printing has to be adopted to avoid any problem in field. * Find the reason for the complaints * If the faults found in production/processing/Grow out tests. Department and Court cases seed failures and consumers forum cases): * Separate person to deal with court cases * To keep the records ofall seed lots.(GOT) * To strictly adhere to the plant characters of hybrids and varieties/lines * while taking the plant purity observations. * Mechanism to check the authenticity of seed complaints * Special cell to deal with seed complaints through marketing network. parental lines and in-house varieties are to be tested through grow out tests. mechanism to address those problems Handling of Seed Seed law Enforcement Agencies Motto: Hassle free marketing of seeds To Deal with Seed law Enforcement agencies (Agric. * Collection of judgments by various courts in country * Court cases can be handled easily with experience of system. Handling of Seed complaints Motto: Find the root cause of problem and rectify it immediately.* Allocation of area before the season to create all the facility required.

* The essential elements exist as structural components of a cell. Further a considerable cultivable land is being diverted year after year for industrial purpose and housing etc. * It is universally accepted that the use of chemical fertilizers is an integral part of the package of practices for raising the agricultural production to a higher place. also should be integrated to get the maximum agricultural output from every kilogram of applied nutrient in the form of fertilizers. bio-fertilizers etc. relatively quick in availability of plant-food constituents and the facility of their application in proportion suited to the actual requirements of crops and soils. * Safe movement of material by sending through quality vehicles with full protection * Use of railways instead of road transport for bulk transportation and small important seeds to far off locations * Monitoring of movement of seed till it reaches the destination Why Fertilizers * Increasing agricultural production in India by area increasing process is no longer possible as cultivable land left over is only marginal. maintain cellular organizations. Groundnut cake. . Hence self sufficiency in food lies in increasing the yield per unit area per unit time through adoption of modern agricultural technology. for want of their availability in adequate quantities. More-over the nutritional requirement of different crops could not be fully met with the use of organic manures like FYM and other bulky organic manures like Neem cake. Castor cake. function in energy transformations and in enzyme reaction. Studies conducted by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have established beyond doubt that there is a close relationship between the average crop yields and fertilizer consumption level. safely with least costs in minimum time * Selection of good reliable transporters through tendering process required for bringing the raw seed from field and dispatch of packed seed in bulk. etc. Other resource of plant nutrients like organic manures.Motto: Placement of seed at market in time. Hence there is need for an efficient use of fertilizers as major plant nutrient resource in enhancing the farm productivity. easy transport. * For the small packings dispatches selection of transporters with maximum reach to destinations * Emphasis on cost reduction through proper planning of dispatches.. Nutrients Required By Plants * Plants require 16 essential elements for their normal growth and development.. * Further fertilizers have the advantages of smaller bulk.

nucleic acid. a constituent of the cell wall. Manganese. It is known to play a catalytic role as an activator of a number of enzymes. Hence they are known as micronutrients or trace elements. Copper is a constituent of cytochrome oxidase and component of many enzymes like ascorbic acid oxidase.* Carbon. ADP. an activator of different plant enzymes and is essential for the stability of cell membranes. proteins and fats. zinc. Hydrogen and Oxygen are three naturally occurring nutrients and form about 94 per cent of the dry weight of plants. * Magnesium is a constituent of chlorophyll and chromosome. enzymes and some non-proteinous compounds.. molybdenum and chlorine are required by plants in small quantities for their growth and development. Phosphorus and Potassium are three major or primary nutrients which are to be made available in larger quantities. acts as regulator to the intake and state of oxidation of certain elements. Phosphorus plays an important role in energy transformations and metabolic processes in plants. proteins and fats during cellular respiration. * Potassium plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular organisations by regulating permeability of cell membranes and keeping the protoplasm in a proper degree of hydration. When nitrogen is a limiting factor. Molybdenum is a constituent of nitrate reductase and nitrogenase enzyme . * Iron. Calcium. * Phosphorus is a structural component of all membranes. they provide energy required for the growth and development of plants by oxidative breakdown of carbohydrates. These are the major components of carbohydrates. Phospholipids and phosphatides.hich are concerned with carbohydrate metabolism. ATP. activity of proteolytic enzymes and increases oil content in oil bearing plants. viz. * Calcium. chloroplasts and mitochondria and a constituent of sugar phosphates. manganese. Besides their structural role. most of w. The plant gets stunted and develops chlorosis. Manganese performs some function in photosynthesis. copper. * Nitrogen is an essential constituent of metabolically active compounds such as aminoacids. It stimulates root growth.reduction potential within the cells. Zinc is concerned with the functioning of Sulphydryl compounds such as cystein. in the regulation of oxidation . * Nitrogen. It activates the enzymes in protein and carbohydrate metabolism and translocation of carbohydrates and imparts resistance to plants against fungal and bacterial disease. magnesium and sulphur are secondary nutrients which are required in relatively smaller but in appreciable quantities. the rate and extent of protein synthesis are depressed and as a result plant growth is affected. phenolase and lactase. * Sulphur is required to synthesize the sulphur containing amino acids and proteins. proteins. The very fact that the micronutrient elements are required by plants in very low concentration suggests that they all function as catalysts or at least closely linked with some catalytic processes in plants. zinc and copper are components of certain biological oxidationreduction systems. boron.

* Although the hunger signs in plants are easily observed. Perhaps the best known role of iron is its catalytic role in enzyme activity. * Boron helps in cell development by its influence on polysaccharide formation. it is most essential that the crop plants should be fed properly with all nutrients. * Thus it is important to know which plant nutrients are lacking in a soil. * The basis of the method is the fact that the plant suffering from severe deficiencies and excess of mineral nutrients usually developed well-defined and typical sign of disorders in various organs. Diagnosis of Fertilizer Requirement * For obtaining maximum crop yields with maximum benefit to the cultivators. Soils deficient in particular nutrients must be supplied with fertilizers containing those plant nutrients. Biochemical methods. there is one disadvantage with . By Plant Observation * This is one of the method to know the fertilizer need of plants by means of the hunger signs of plants which can be detected by the eye. particularly in the leaves. The normal growth of a plant is determined by the supply of the nutrients. it is not easy to recognise the particular nutrient deficiency in nature due to various field conditions. 3. Iron is a constituent of cytochromes. These methods are known as diagnostic techniques. specific abnormal colours are developed in the leaves due to deficiency of plant nutrients. Usually. This requires experience and practice in the field. 2. Plant tissue tests or rapid tests. Fertilizer requirement is known by different diagnostic techniques and they are as follows . Simple and elaborate tests have been developed by the agricultural scientist to estimate the nutritional requirements of soils and crops. Chlorine stimulates the activity of some enzymes and influences carbohydrate metabolism. By Plant Analysis * The use of plant analysis as a tool to diagnose fertility status mainly consists of : 1. haem and non haem enzymes. Total analysis.and is associated with nitrogen utilization and in nitrogen fixation. However. It regulates translocation of sugars across membranes and polyphenolase activity. * The basis of plant analysis for diagnostic purposes is that the amount of a given nutrient in a plant is an indication of the supply of that particular nutrient and is directly related to the quantity present in the soil.

but offer good opportunities for research work. NPK as the treatments.In well managed state farms. while the shortage of one nutrient can limit the growth. fertilizers. * The use of plant tissue tests as a means to diagnose soil fertility status has been found to be important. Two methods are recognised amongst biological tests. PK. This is a rapid test of the cell sap of the growing plants. Ca. that is. good management practices. Complex fertilizer trials helps in determining the correct kinds of fertilizer. other nutrients may show higher contents in the cell sap irrespective of the supply. Tissue tests are getting popular because of the convenience of handling and the small number of equipment needed for the test. simple field experiments on farmers fields as well as complex field experiments are very popular. P. Mn.this method. K. potash and other nutrients. NP. the level of soil fertility is usually higher than in the farmers fields. NK. They are. The sap from the ruptured cells is tested for unassimilated nitrogen. Mo and B can be determined by this method. * Biochemical methods to determine the soil fertility require costly equipments. Zn. The test can be made in a few minutes. K. * Total analysis is used extensively in research work as this gives a quantitative indication of the level of nutrients in plants. These experiments are complicated. phosphorus. Complex Field Experiments * Complex field experiments allow the testing of many factors at a time and permit a study of interaction among various nutrients. it should be remembered that the determination of total analysis gives both the assimilated and unassimilated nutrients. However. * Simple Field Experiments . Many experiments conducted on farmers fields have revealed the deficiency of nutrients at various levels. These experiment have to be simple in nature with N. By Soil Testing . Mg. Fe. By Fertilizer Experiments * In India. expensive and can be done only by experienced people. Usually. Many nutrients such as N. * These simple field experiments on farmers fields are very educative and effective for the farmers. etc. These trials are useful for advising the correct type and amount of fertilizer. as they themselves see the deficiencies and the response of the nutrients. Microbiological methods. the mature plants are selected for this testing. This is due to the use of manures. P. Cu. use of higher plants. amount and the method of application for each of the soil zone.

Compost. Its purposes are : * To group soils into classes relative to the levels of nutrients for suggesting fertilizer practices. * Manures are classified as follows Manures Organic manures Bulky Concentrated Bulky (Slow acting with large Concentrated(Quick quantities of acting with small organic matter) quantity of organic Eg: Cattle.Sludge. leaf mould. Nitrogen is very important nutrient for plants and it seems to have the quickest and most pronounced effect. tobacco stems and water hyacinth. . Horn meal.* Soil testing is one reliable diagnostic tool whose value in evaluating soilfertility conditions has been recently recognised in India. where as organic phosphorus from bone meal and organic potassium from cattle dung ash. salinity.Eg: Nitrogenous. Ammonium. manures. Pig. * To help evaluate soil profitability and To determine specific soil conditions i. Green Cotton and Linseed Manures. acidity. Sewage. alkalinity. dried blood from slaughter houses etc. fish manure.e. Sheepmatter.. that limit crop yields and can be improved with soil amendments and other management practices. Inorganic Fertilizers Nitrogen * Nitrogen is the first fertilizer element of the macronutrients usually applied in commercial fertilizers.Eg: Groundnut Poultry.. Potassic and Sulphate fertilizers.. Soil testing is multipurpose in nature.Phosphatic. Wood ash. Blood meal. cake.Chemical fertilizers very quick acting with No organic matter. They are slow acting. Castor cake. Organic nitrogen fertilizers include oil cakes. Meal. wood ash. Horse Bonemeal. Organic Fertilizers and Manures * Organic fertilizers include both plant and animal bi-products. Inorganic manures Artificial (Artificial manures. * To predict the probability of getting a profitable response to the application of fertilizers. Organic Manures * Manures are organic or inorganic substances applied to the soil to supply one or more nutrients to plants to obtain increased yields. Goat.

* Excess phosphorus leads to profuse root growth. The deficiency of Nitrogen leads to formation of yellowish or light green coloured leaves and plant become stunted. It increases the number of tillers in cereal crops and also strengthen the straw and thus helps to prevent the lodging. It enhances the development of reproductive parts and thus bringing about early maturity of crops particularly the cereals. flowering and fruiting may be delayed considerably. and become shrivelled and light in weight. 2. respiration and protein synthesis. 4. It induces nodule formation and rhizobial activity. * Deficiency of phosphorus leads to restricted root and shoot growth. It hastens leaf development and encourages greater growth of shoots and roots. The kernels of cereals and the seed of other crops do not attain their normal size. the straw becomes weak. It leads to some trace element deficiencies particularly iron and zinc. In case of cereal crops. The plants become more liable to attack of pests and diseases.Role of Nitrogen In Plants * Nitrogen is of special importance in the formation of protein in plants. It forms a constituent of every living cells in the plants. It stimulates the flowering. barley and sugarcane. 3. . leaves may shed prematurely. * Phosphorus stimulates root development and growth in the seedling stage and there by it helps to establish the seedlings quickly. It is an essential constituent of majority of enzymes and also structural component of membrane system of cell. It is intimately associated with the life process. and the crop very often lodges and straw and grain ratio is increased. It is involved in photosynthesis. 1. Phosphorus has a special action on leguminous crops. It takes active part in all types of metabolism of plant. 5. Phosphorus * Phosphorus is the second fertilizer element and it is an essential constituent of every living cells and for the nutrition of plant and animal. become thick and leathery and in some cases crinkled. 6. It plays an important role in vegetative growth and it imparts dark green colour to plants. The leaves acquire a dark green colour. In case of potato tubers phosphorus deficiency leads to formation of rusty brown lessions. It is also present in chlorophyll. fruit setting and seed formation and the development of roots. It delays reproductive growth and may adversely affect fruit and grain quality. If excess nitrogen is applied it delays ripening by encouraging more vegetative growth. chloroplasts and the mitochondria. particularly of the lateral and fibrous rootlets. particularly of root crops. Excess nitrogen deteriorates the quality of some crops such as potato. The leaves and young fruits tend to drop prematurely.

Potassium * Potassium is the third fertilizer element. Potassium acts as a chemical traffic policeman, root booster, stalk strengthener, food former, sugar and starch transporter, protein builder, breathing regulator, water stretcher and as a disease retarder but it is not effective without its co-nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. * Potassium is an essential element for the development of chlorophyll. It plays an important role in photosynthesis, i.e., converting carbon-dioxide and hydrogen into sugars, for translocation of sugars, and in starch formation. It improves the health and vigour of the plant, enabling it to withstand adverse climatic condition. It increases the crop resistance to certain diseases. Potash plays a key role in production of quality vegetables. Potassium is an enzyme activator and increases the plumpness and boldness of grains and seeds. It improves the water balance. Promotes metabolism and increases the production of carbohydrates. * Potassium deficiency causes stunting in growth with shortening of internodes and bushy in appearance, brings about chlorosis, i.e., yellowing of leaves and leaf scorch in case of fruit trees. It is also responsible for the 'dying back tips' of shoots. Its deficiency leads to reduction in photosynthesis, blackening of tubers in case of potato, tips or margin of lower leaves of legumes, maize, cotton, tobacco and small grains are either scorched or burnt. Secondary Nutrients * Secondary nutrients include calcium, magnesium and sulphur, which play an important role in plant growth and development. The details of these nutrients are given below. Calcium * Calcium as calcium pectate is an important constituent of cell wall and required for cell division. It is a structural component of chromosomes. It includes stiffness to straw and there by tends to prevent lodging. It enhances the nodule formation in legumes, helps in translocation of sugars, neutralizes organic acids which may become poisonous to plants. It is an essential co-factor or an activator of number of enzymes. It improves the intake of other plant nutrients, specially nitrogen and trace elements by correcting soil pH. Excessive amounts of calcium can decrease the availability of many micronutrients. * Deficiency of calcium lead to 'Die back' at the tips and margins of young leaves. Normal growth of plants is arrested i.e., roots may become short, stubby and bushy, leaves become wrinkled and the young leaves of cereal crops remain folded. The acidity of cell sap increases abnormally and it hampers the physiological

function of plant. As a result of which plant suffers and causes the death of plant at last. Magnesium * Magnesium is an essential constituent of chlorophyll. Several photosynthetic enzymes present in chlorophyll requires magnesium as an activator. It is usually needed by plants for formation of oils and fats. It regulates the uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus from the soil. Magnesium may increase crop resistance to drought and disease. * Deficiency of magnesium leads to yellowing of the older leaves known as chlorosis. Acute deficiency of magnesium also causes premature defoliation. In case of maize the leaves develop interveinal white strips, in cotton they change to purplish red, veins remain dark green, in soybean they turn yellowish and in apple trees, brown patches (blotches) appear on the leaves. Sulphur * Sulphur has specified role in initiating synthesis of proteins. Sulphur is an important nutrient for oil seeds, crucifers, sugar and pulse crops. It is an essential constituent of many proteins, enzymes and certain volatile compounds such as mustard oil. It hastens root growth and stimulates seed formation. It is essential for the synthesis of certain aminoacids and oils. It can be called as master nutrient for oilseed production. * The deficiency of sulphur leads to slow growth with slender stalks, nodulation in legumes may be poor and nitrogen fixation is reduced. The young leaves turn yellow and the root and stems become abnormally long and develop woodiness. In case of fruit trees, the fruits become light green, thick skinned and less juicy. Sulphur deficient plant produces less protein and oil. Micronutrients * Micronutrient elements are required by plants in very low concentration suggests that they all function as catalyst or atleast closely linked with some catalytic process in plants. Micronutrient elements include boron, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, molybdenum and chlorine. * Boron helps in cell development by its influence on polysaccharide formation. It regulates translocation of sugars across membranes and polyphenolase activity. Iron is a constituent of cytochrome, haem and non-haem enzymes. Perhaps the best known role of iron is its catalytic role in enzyme activity. * Copper, zinc and manganese are components of certain biological oxidation-reduction systems. Manganese performs some function in photosynthesis, acts as regulator to the intake and state of oxidation of certain elements.

* Zinc is concerned with the formation of Sulphydryl compounds such as cystein in the regulation of oxidation-reduction potential within the cells. Molybdenum is a constituent of nitrate reductase and nitrogenase enzyme and is associated with nitrogen utilization and in nitrogen fixation. Chlorine stimulates the activity of some enzymes and influences carbohydrate metabolism. Fertilizer Application Placement * Inserting or drilling or placing the fertilizer below the soil surface by means of any tool or implement at desired depth to supply plant nutrients to crop before sowing or in the standing crop is called placement. * With placement methods, fertilizers are placed in the soil irrespective of the position of seed, seedling or growing plants before sowing or after sowing the crops. The following methods are most common in this category. Plough - Sole Placement * In this method, the fertilizer is placed in a continuous band on the bottom of the furrow during the process of ploughing. Each band is covered as the next furrow is turned. No attempt is usually made to sow the crop in any particular location with regard to the plough sole bands. * This method has been recommended in areas where the soil becomes quite dry up to a few inches below the soil surface during the growing season, and especially with soils having a heavy clay pan a little below the plough-sole. By this method, fertilizer is placed in moist soil where it can become more available to growing plants during dry seasons. Deep Placement of Nitrogenous Fertilizers * This method of application of nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers is adopted in paddy fields on a large scale in Japan and is also recommended in India. In this method, ammonical nitrogenous fertilizer like ammonium sulphate or ammonium forming nitrogenous fertilizer like urea, is placed in the reduction zone, where it remains in ammonia form and is available to the crop during the active vegetative period. * Deep or sub-surface placement of the fertilizer also ensures better distribution in the root zone and prevents any loss by surface drain-off. Deep placement is done in different ways, depending upon the local cultivation practices. In irrigated tracts, where the water supply is assured, the fertilizer is applied under the plough furrow in the dry soil before flooding the land and making it ready for transplanting. In areas where there is not too much of water in the field, it is broadcast before puddling. Puddling places the fertilizer deep into the root zone.

Sub - Soil Placement * This refers to the placement of fertilizers in the sub-soil with the help of heavy power machinery. * This method is recommended in humid and sub-humid regions where many sub-soils are strongly acidic. Due to acidic conditions the level of available plant nutrients is extremely low. Under these conditions, fertilizers, especially phosphatic and potassic are placed in the sub-soil for better root development. Localised Placement * This method refers to the application of fertilizers into the soil close to the seed or plant. * Localised placement is usually employed when relatively small quantities of fertilizers are to be applied. Localised placement reduces fixation of phosphorus and potassium. Bulk Blending * It is the process of mixing two or more different fertilizers varying in physical and chemical composition without any adverse effects. * For this formulation certain additional materials called 'Fillers' and 'Conditioners' are used to improve the physical condition of the mixed fertilizer. This mixed fertilizer should be applied as top dressing. Liquid Fertilization * The use of liquid fertilizers as a means of fertilization has assumed considerable importance in foreign countries. Solutions of fertilizers, generally consisting of N, P2O5, K2O in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 : 2 are applied to young vegetable plants at the time of transplanting. These solutions are known as 'Starter Solutions'. * They are used in place of the watering that is usually given to help the plants to establish. Only a small amount of fertilizer is applied as a starter solution. The starter solution has two advantages. o The nutrients reach the plant roots immediately, o The solution is sufficiently diluted so that it does not inhibit growth. * As such a starter solution helps rapid establishment and quick early growth. There are two disadvantages of starter solution, if watering is not a part of the regular operation-extra labour is necessary and the fixation of phosphate may be greater. * Direct application of liquid fertilizers to the soil need special equipment. Anhydrous ammonia (a liquid under high pressure upto 14 kg per square cm. Or more) and nitrogen solutions are directly applied to the soil. This practice is very

* When unfavourable soil physical and chemical conditions. * There are certain difficulties associated with the foliar application of nutrients as detailed below. nitrogen from ammonia will be lost. * During drought period where in the soil application could not be done for want of soil moisture. Inherent or Natural Fertility . This method allows direct utilisation of the cheapest nitrogen source. These solutions may be prepared in a low concentration to supply any one plant nutrient or a combination of nutrients. * It has been well established that all plant nutrients are absorbed through the leaves of plants and this absorption is remarkable rapid for some nutrients. There are two types of soil fertility viz. 2.. Plant injury or wastage of ammonia is very little if the material is applied about 10 cm below the seed. are allowed to dissolve in the irrigation stream. Soil Fertility and its Importance * Soil fertility may be defined as the inherent capacity of soil to supply plant nutrients in adequate amount and in suitable proportion and free from toxic substances.popular in the United States of America. and hence 4. Foliar Application * This refers to the spraying on leaves of growing plants with suitable fertilizer solutions. As solutions of low concentrations (usually three to six per cent) are to be used. The nutrients are thus carried into the soil in solution. Foliar spraying of fertilizers is costly compared to soil application. Usually nitrogenous fertilizers are most commonly applied through irrigation water. only small quantities of nutrients can be applied in single spray. This saves the application cost and allows the utilization of relatively in expensive water-soluble fertilizers. 1. P and K easily soluble in water. unless combined with other spraying operations taken up for insect or disease control. * When visual symptoms of nutrient deficiencies observed during early stages of deficiency. If the application is shallow. This practice of fertilization is called "Fertigation". Marginal leaf burn or scorching may occur if strong solutions are used. Several applications are needed for moderate to high fertilizer rates. which reduce fertilizer use efficiency (FUE). * Straight and mixed fertilizer containing N. 3. Foliar application does not result in a great saving of fertilizer but it may be preferred under the following conditions.

organic matter. Good tillage. Maintenance of Soil Fertility * Maintenance of soil fertility is a great problem of our farmers. Cultivation of cover crops. etc.. irrigation. soil erosion. which is known as inherent fertility. 6. Control of weeds. inherent capacity of soil to supply nutrient. * The acquired fertility has also a limiting factor. soil composition. tillage. physical condition of soil. Application of manures. is known as acquired fertility. cropping system and favourable environment for root growth. i. soil age. 1. Factors Effecting Soil Fertility * The factors that are effecting soil fertility may be of two types. 4. Crop rotation. micro-organisms. Acquired Fertility * The fertility develops by application of manures and fertilizers. availability of plant nutrients. 3. climate and vegetation. * The following things must be properly followed for increasing the fertility of soil. as a nature contain some nutrients. Proper use of land. The inherent fertility has a limiting factor from which the fertility is not decreased. Cultivation of particular crop year after year in the same field decreases the soil fertility. 2. o Natural factors and o Artificial factors * The natural factors are those which influences the soil formation and the artificial factors are related to the proper use of land. 7. phosphorus and potassium is essential for the normal growth and yield of crop. * The factors effecting the fertility of soil are parent material. It is found by experiment that the yield does not increase remarkably by application of additional quantity of fertilizers.. To increase the soil fertility. 9. Maintenance of optimum moisture in the soil. Cultivation of green manure crops. . Control of soil erosion.e. 8. topography. 5.* The soil. Among plant nutrients nitrogen. it is necessary to check the loss of nutrient and to increase the nutrient content of soil.

The nutrients escape from the fields and are found in excessive quantities in rivers. Calcium . * Thus soil vary in acidity or alkalinity. Liming helps the availability of potash and molybdenum. Lime reduces toxicity of Al. However. saline and alkali soils occur. When Ca(OH)2 or lime is added to the soil. due to the leaching of bases. Though. on account of arid and semi arid conditions. Lime correctly refers only to Calcium oxide (CaO). About 50 per cent of fertilizers applied to crops are left behind as residues. acids soils are formed. nitrogenous fertilizers cause most harm. 2. Lime neutralizes soil acidity. 5. and these smother other aquatic vegetation and also interfere with the oxygen regulation in the water bodies. (drainage) 11. * The effects of liming on the soil and plants are as follows : 1. all the quantities of fertilizers applied to the soil are not fully utilized by plants. lakes and coastal waters. 3. Soil Reaction and Liming * It is well known fact that in high rainfall areas. Beneficial soil bacteria are encouraged by adequate supplies of lime in the soil. namely calcium and magnesium (if lime is dolamitic) for plant nutrition. Calcium hydroxide. like Calcium carbonate. The soil reaction is indicated by pH scale. while in low rainfall regions. Mn and Fe. it will become alkaline. Maintenance of proper soil reaction. that is capable of reducing the acidity of the soil. * Algae blooms occur when the nutrient load is high.10. 7. Improves soil physical conditions Fertilizers and Environmental Pollution * Fertilizers are relatively safer than pesticides which exhibit toxic properties on living systems. Contamination of the environment arises because not all the fertilizer applied is taken up by the crop and removed at . they have been found to upset the existing ecological balance. Lime furnishes two essential elements. 4. Removal of excess water. Application of fertilizers. 6. inorganic fertilizers are not directly toxic to man and other life forms.magnesium carbonate (marl) and Calcium silicate slags. 12. Liming of Acidic Soils * Liming means addition of any compound containing Calcium alone or both calcium and magnesium. This phenomena may lead to loss of fish. Lime makes phosphorus more available. but the term as applied in agriculture is universally used to include various other materials also. Among the major synthetic plant nutrients.

* Almost all such calculations are based on evaluating the extra produce at the support/market price and deducting the cost of fertilizer only at the statutory prevailing rates. ammonia are waste stream components of nitrogen manufacturing plants while fluoride. Uniformity of approach in studying the economics of fertilizer is essential. The fertilizer recommendations should be based on soil test values. The contamination is caused by domestic sewage leaking to the ground water. . lung cancer and bronchitis. increasing levels of nitrates in drinking water sources. * Another hazard associated with excessive use of fertilizers is the gaseous loss of nitrogen. In the a national wide survey it was found that many streams and more than 20 % of wells contain 10 to 50 mg or even more of nitrates per litre of water. This is usually done by reporting response per unit area or per unit nutrient applied. * Eutrophication of water bodies due to higher nitrate and phosphate concentrations. therefore. organised series of group discussions on "Economics of Fertilizer use" during 1975. Economics of Fertilizer Use * Use of fertilizer by the farmer for increased crop production depends almost entirely on its economics. High doses of carbon dioxide and ammonia that escape into the atmosphere both from fertilizer manufacturing plants and soils affect human health. * Due to high cost of commercial fertilizer marketed in India. 2. 1. New Delhi. * The oxides of nitrogen cause respiratory diseases like asthma. Further the oxides of nitrogen have been reported to adversely affect the ozone layer. lead and manganese are waste stream components of phosphatic fertilizer industry. copper.harvest. The recommendations of these group discussions are listed below. cadmium. The nitrates in drinking water can lead to several ailments. With a view to convince the farmer about the profitability of fertilizer use. Arsenic. In tropical climate the maximum recovery in dry land crops is 50 to 60 per cent and 40 per cent in rice because much of nitrogen is lost as ammonia into the atmosphere. the question of economics of fertilizer use has assumed great importance. If these waste stream of components are not properly disposed they cause harm to human beings and animals with contamination of air and water. which protects the earth from UV radiation and heating up of earth. accumulation of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium in soils and water resources are the principal causes of environmental concerns due to fertilizer use in agriculture. into the atmosphere. cost benefit ratio is also worked out. Blue . * The keeping quality of perishables like vegetables and fruits get declined with excess use of fertilizers particularly nitrogenous fertilizers.baby syndrome in infants and gastric and other forms of cancer have been related with nitrates in drinking water or diet. chromium. The fertilizer association of India.

transpiration (T) and metabolic needs of the plants.650 450 . duration. * Crop factors like variety.. 4. The water requirement of any crop is dependent upon. * Soil factors like texture.development and yield and may be supplied by precipitation or by irrigation or by both. * To washout dilute salts in the soil. depth. relative humidity and wind velocity. * It is needed for metabolic processes of the plant. * To soften tillage pans. 6. * To reduce the soil temperature. * To provide crop insurance against short duration drought. Water is needed mainly to meet the demands of evaporation (E). weeding etc. * Climatic factors like temperature.800 1500 .3. Micronutrient deficiencies should be corrected as and when needed. 7. Balanced use of fertilizer should be advocated for better economic returns. * For easy germination of the seeds from the soil. Need for Irrigation Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil for the following purposes * Irrigation is needed for normal growth and yield of the plant.2500 . Quantum of Water Requirement (mm) of Different Crops Crop Rice Wheat Sorghum Maize Sugarcane Water Requirement(mm) 900 . structure. growth stage. * Crop management practices like tillage. Quantum of Water Required by Plants * Water requirement of a crop is the quantity of water needed for normal growth. Fertilizer schedule should be adopted for the whole crop sequence instead of a single crop. crops should be irrigated at the critical growth stages.2500 450 . To get the maximum benefit from the applied fertilizers. * Irrigation water acts as a medium for transport of nutrients and photosynthates in the plant system. * To reduce the hazard of soil piping. fertilization. plant population and growing season. 5.650 500 .and topography. Use of nitrogenous fertilizer in split doses economises fertilizer use.

* reproductive and * ripening phases. * Reproductive or flowering phase:The reproductive or flowering phase comprises the period from initiation of buds to 75 % flowering. During the last part of the ripening phase the crops undergo yellowing and drying to mature.6 weeks or more.550 500 350 . * In yield formation stage otherwise known as ripening phase the end product is formed.1300 450 .6 weeks in different crops. * Each of these phases has different stages. This period in most of the seasonal ID crops last for 2 . * Vegetative phase: The early vegetative phase consists of crop establishment or initial stage during the first 2 . The growth rhythm of plant is slow during some stages and fast during some other stages. The entire reproductive phase is .700 400 .700 700 .Groundnut Cotton Soybean Tobacco Tomato Potato Onion Chillies Sunflower Castor Bean Cabbage Banana Citrus Grape Pineapple Ragi Gingelly 500 . This period is called maturity stage or late season stage and it last for 2 . This is followed by crop development stage which last for 2 . Accordingly plant demands variable supply of water. * The growth period of irrigated dry (ID) crops can generally be divided into 3 phases namely * vegetative. the plant passes through various phases and the stages of growth.3 weeks and in two seasonal crops and perennial crops for 4 .500 500 300-500 380-500 1200-2200 900-1200 500-1200 700-1000 400-450 350-400 Stages of Crop When Irrigation is Required * During the growth span.4 weeks in most crops.3 weeks after sowing.800 500 .600 600 . The flowering and yield formation period together is known as mid-season stage.700 350 .

* The utility of irrigation is judged by the cropping intensity. and bore well. There are different types of wells namely open well. Punjab. * The critical stages or otherwise known as sensitive stages of different crops for irrigation water requirement are as follows. in addition to lodging at maturity in some crops.highly sensitive growth period when the growth rhythm is fast. Therefore the soil water stress should be avoided during this period. percolation and evaporation in transit from the storage reservoir to the farmers field but also because farmers in the upper reaches of the systems often succeed in cornering more than their due entitlement of water. Andhra Pradesh. Water in the well stands at a height equal to the static water level. Critical Stages of Irrigaton Requirement * The water balance in ID crops is refered to the soil water storage in the root zone and not to the level of standing water in the field. About 18 % of the tail end area in canal commands of South India are particularly vulnerable for erratic and insufficient supply of water. not only because of losses to the extent of 50 % due to seepage. Groundnut and pulses even prefer stress during early vegetative growth to suppress excessive vegetative growth. A striking analysis carried out in four states. the cropping intensity is 200 % in the tube well (or) dug well irrigated land as against 100 % or less in canal irrigated land. The reason for this difference in yield between sources of water supply is not so far to seek. * Some crops like Cotton. In many crops the initial establishment and flowering stages are highly sensitive to excess water conditions resulting in poor performance of the root system and also shedding of flowers. tube well. Sources of Irrigation Canals * The practice of equating a hectare of canal irrigation area with a hectare of area served by ground water is not appropriate. Active vegetative phase and yield formation stage are moderate in sensitivity while initial establishment and maturity stages are least sensitive to water stress. artesian well. In most parts of the country. as in case of paddy. Haryana and Tamil Nadu has shown that the yield of food grains under well irrigation is very much higher compared to the yield under canal irrigation. Open Wells . Wells * Awell is a hydraulic hole to the water strata. The farmer who depends on canal irrigation is at the mercy of a system over which he has no control.

* Irrigation tanks serve to store and regulate water for crop production. The large diameter of the open wells permits the storage of water. In drought prone areas. bore wells are suggested. Tanks * Large tanks irrigating more than 2000 ha are classified under medium irrigation source. Monsoon rains fall erratically and confined only to a few months in the year. tanks are considered to be a useful life saving sources. Artesian Wells * Due to pressure. Though the primary purpose of tank is for irrigating crops. In coastal sands open dug wells are to be lined with concrete rings which is costly and also the availability of water is dependent on seepage water and season. it also provides drinking water for humans and cattle in the villages. They derive water from the formation hole to the ground surface. Small water reservoirs behind earthen dams are tanks. * To tap this water filter pipes (slotted filter pipes or PVC pipes with a conical bottom point) is driven inside the soil to a depth of about 9 to 15 m and water is lifted by means of ordinary pumpset from this filter point. cultivation of foreshore areas and cultivation of tank beds. But day by day the area irrigated by tanks decreases due to neglect of maintenance of tanks. Filter Points * These are shallow tube wells consisting of a well and a short length of casing pipe. environmental degradation. Tube Wells * These are sunk by inserting pipes below ground surface and passing through different geological formations of water bearing and non-water bearing strata. water from well comes to the ground without pumping are generally known as artesian wells. Bore Wells * When ground water availability is at deeper layers exceeding 16 to 20 m with hard strata.* The dug out wells upto water bearing strata of the aquifer are open wells. Filter points are generally bored in deltaic regions where aquifer formation are of coarse sand and gravel and are very near to the surface. .

About 75 % of the rainfall is received in four months i. In this method the field is divided into small plots surrounded by small bunds on all the four sides.e.West monsoon originating in the Indian ocean.. on shallow cyclonic depressions and disturbances and on violent local storms.2 ha for economising water. Water is allowed from the channel into the field without much control on either side of the flow. About 11 % of the total rainfall in the country is received during this season.1 to 0. India receives most of its rainfall from the South . Basins are connected by an irrigation channel. Check-Basin Method * Check-basin method of irrigation is the most common method among surface methods of irrigation.East Monsoon During October . Unequal geographical distribution. * South . Methods of Irrigation Flood Irrigation * Flooding method of irrigation is exclusive for lowland rice though it is used for some other crops also. * North . Basins are generally round in shape. Basin Irrigation * Basin method is almost similar to check . It covers the entire field and moves almost unguided. occasionally square in shape.basin method except that in the check-basin method entire field is irrigated while in basin method only the basin around the trees are irrigated. North-East monsoon.West Monsoon Rainfall received during the months of June .Uneven distribution and low water application efficiency are the common drawbacks of this method. June to September. The basins are small when the trees are young and their size is increased with age of the trees.Rainfall * Rainfall is dependent in different degrees. on the South-West monsoon. . unequal seasonal distribution and frequent departures from the normal rainfall characterize the rainfall of this country.July is critical and the fate of the Kharif crop depends very largely on distribution and amount of rain during these two months. * This method is suitable for fruit crops. South-West monsoon is responsible for 7580% or more of the total annual rainfall in the country.November cyclonic storms form in the Bay of Bengal and when they strike coastal Andhra Pradesh or coromandel coast they bring heavy rain to these areas. * The ideal size of each plot or basin is 0.

. Maize. more land is wasted under channels and bunds. Length of the strip ranges from 30 to 300 m and width from 3 to 15 m. * Levelling of the field not necessary. However. * Low labour cost. This method is suitable for close growing crops and medium to heavy textured soils. Border Strip Method * The field is divided into number of stripes by forming bunds of around 15 cm height. * Moisture always at field capacity in the root zone. Drip irrigation is adopted extensively in areas of acute water scarcity and especially for crops such as Coconut. * The area between two borders is the border strip. Citrus. wheat.. The advantages of drip irrigation are. Water from the channel is allowed into each strip at a time.. * Only root zone is saturated. * It is also called trickle irrigation. pearlmillet. Grape. soil structure and slope of the land. * The size of border strips depend on stream size. These parallel earth ridges are called borders. Cotton. It is suitable for close growing crops like groundnut. * High water distribution efficiency. * No fertilizer nutrient loss due to localized application. Tomato. Ber. Each field channel supplies water to two rows of check basins and water is applied to one basin after another. and are formed to guide a sheet of flowing water across a field.e. Sugarcane.* Water from head channel is supplied to the filed channels one after the other. Drip Irrigation * It is defined as the precise. Intercultivation is not possible due to bunds. the field is divided into small strips and each strip into several plots by putting bunds and these plots are called check basins. The disadvantages are more labour is required. * The advantage of this method is that the water can be applied uniformly and effectively. the most common sizes are 60 to 90 m in length and 6 to 12 m in width. controlled by each nozzle. slow application of water in the form of discrete or continuous or tiny streams of miniature sprays through mechanical devices called emitters or applicators located at selected points along water delivery lines. * Soil factor plays less important role in frequency of irrigation. paragrass etc. Banana. Brinjal and plantation crops. In such situations. fingermillet. * Highly uniform distribution of water i. but not suitable for sandy soils. The borders are laid out along the general slope or on the contour. * No soil erosion.. This method is adopted when the field is quite large and is not easy to level the entire field.

This irrigation system consists of lateral . * Fertigation can be adopted with drip irrigation. initial cost is more in installing drip method. * One end of the lateral is fixed on a pivot pad. without any land preparation.800 m long. * Centre-pivot system is largest sprinkler system with a single machine can irrigate upto 100 ha. It is also known as over head irrigation.move systems which move up and down the field. different types of sprinklers are developed. * 10 .20 % of area is not irrigated at the corners of square or rectangular plot. * Different types of sprinkler systems namely portable. The unit rotates around a centre pivot where water is pumped into the pipe. But due to increased labour costs and energy costs.move systems are developed to overcome the draw backs in centre-pivot system for irrigating square or rectangular plots. The limitations of this system are. A centre . * Some sort of knowledge is needed for successful operation of sprinkler system. * When light (< 5 cm) and frequent irrigations are to be given. Problems of Under Irrigation . semipermanent and permanent are in vogue. * When the land is too steep ( > 1% slope). * When soils are very sandy (rapidly permeable coarse textured soils) and * When supplemental irrigation is to be given to dryland crops during prolonged dry spells. * Evaporation losses are high from sprinkler irrigation especially under high temperature and low relative humidity conditions. semi-portable. * The initial cost is high.. mounted or carried by a row of five or more mobile towers.pivot sprinkler consists of a series of sprinklers mounted on a lateral pipe. Disadvantages * High winds ( > 12 km/hr) cause improper distribution of water. * Now lateral . 50 . * High energy requirement and Huge cost of the equipment. and water is distributed through sprinkler fitted on lateral. * Sprinkler irrigation can be advantageously chosen in the following situations * When the soil is too shallow eliminating the possibility of levelling of lands.e.* Variation in supply can be regulated by regulating the valves and drippers. Sprinkler Irrigation * Sprinkler irrigation system conveys water from the source through pipes under pressure to the field and distributes over the field in the form of spray of 'rain like' droplets. * The disadvantages of drip irrigation is expensive i.

Problems of Excess Irrigation * Excess irrigation causes several changes in the soil and plant resulting in reduced growth and in some cases death of plants.* Under irrigation causes reduction in photosynthesis due to reduction in photosynthetic rate. * · The nutrients in the soil leaches or evaporates. * Leaching of nitrates and denitrification occurs resulting in nitrogen deficiency. Excess water causes injury to the plant due to low oxygen supply to the root system and accumulation of toxic substances in soil and plant. uptake and assimilation of nitrogen takes place. * Permeability of roots decreased due to shortage of O2. So that accumulation of sugars and aminoacids takes place due to breakdown of carbohydrates and proteins. so that plant becomes stunted as a result yields become reduced. . so that reduction in transpiration takes place. water deficit occurs. * Respiration in the roots change from aerobic to anaerobic with the result. * Due to under irrigation hormonal balance is altered. as a result stomata are closed. * . Losses of Water * Generally water is last through leaching. It results in decreases water and nutrient uptake. senescence. chlorophyll content and leaf area. Shoot elongation. * Due to under irrigation reduction in fixation. * The following disadvantages will be observed due to water loss. * Translocation of assimilates is also affected by water stress. * Due to under irrigation. * The root growth retards. iv. * Wilting of tobacco takes place when bright sunshine occurs after a prolonged wet spell. evapotranspiration and runoff. toxic substances accumulates in roots and damage the root system. drainage. * Respiration rate decreases with increased moisture stress. * The germination percentage will be decreased. * Soil becomes very hard. * Due to under irrigation enzymatic activity decreases. * Germinating seeds are sensitive to waterlogging since they are totally dependent on the surrounding soil space for oxygen supply. abscission and production of adventitious roots takes place as a result of continuous excess irrigation. * Yield of cereals depressed if the excess irrigation given at panicle development stage.

water-use efficiency has to be a constant but it is not so. The water use efficiency for few crops is listed below. Y and ET are influenced independently or differently by crop management practices. leads to death of the plant.0 8.0 8.14 it is considered as alkaline. The pH is one of the parameters to assess the water whether it is suitable for irrigation or not based on pH values.6 13. * · The soil micro organism activity decreases.* Stomata becomes closed. * ECU = Y/G+ET * If yield is proportional to ET. The pH is a sort of voltage measurement to cover the entire range of 0-14. The factors affecting WUE are nature of the plant. fertilization and plant population. * WUE = Y/ET * Water use efficiency is also known as crop water use efficiency or consumptive water use efficiency (Ecm) if the water used for metabolic purpose of the crop (G) and is included with ET. If pH is 7. agronomic practices.2 12.4 * pH is the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration. Actually. * There are considerable differences between plant species to produce a unit dry matter per unit amount of water used resulting in widely varying values of water use efficiency. so that the transpiration process caused as a result accumulation of gases or metabolic wastes increases. it is considered as neutral. irrigation.0 9. Fertilization and other cultural practices for high crop yields usually increases WUE. . Water Use Efficiency * Water use efficiency is the yield of marketable crop produced per unit of water used in evapotranspiration. • Water requirement Grain yield (kg/ha) (mm) Rice 2000 6000 Sorghum 500 4500 Pearlmillet 500 4000 Maize 625 5000 Groundnut 506 4680 Wheat 280 3534 Fingermillet 310 4137 Water Related Issues Crop Water Ph WUE (kg/ha mm) 3. while ET is mainly dependent on climate and soil moisture. ET.it is referred as acidic and if pH ranges 7 .0 9. If the pH is less than 7.0.0 and H+ concentration exceeds OH. climate.

it is harmful to most of the crops. These values are reported as milli mhos (EC x 10-3) or micro mhos (EC x 10-6) at 250C. Sodium at higher levels in irrigation water exerts a toxic effect on crop growth.75 ds/m.* Main cations present in irrigation water are calcium. * Good irrigation water should not have excessive amounts of any salt or toxic substances. anions and toxic substances such as excess boron and fluorine.C. If boron content is more than 2. magnesium. Electrical conductivity serves as a guide to know the extent of soluble salts present in irrigation water. It can be used for irrigation on all soils and on most crops but leaching is required in case of extremely low permeable soil. In effluents and sewage waste waters ammonium and heavy metal cations are also found. * For appraisal of irrigation water quality the water samples are mainly analyzed for total salts (EC) relative proportion of cations. * Irrigation water may be classified based on EC are. This water can be safely used for crops with moderate salt tolerance.25 ds/m. Fluorine content beyond 10 ppm in irrigation water is harmful indirectly to animals who feed on plants irrigated with high fluoride waters. For example. the irrigation water is classified as low salinity water.0 mg/1(ppm) in irrigation water. C3 .High Salinity Water * Water with EC ranges of 0. The harmful effects increases with increase in total salt concentration. * Sulphate content will be more in saline water having higher E. sodium and potassium.Medium Salinity Water * It has EC between 0. C1 . The soil should have moderate level of permeability and leaching to avoid accumulation of salts. carbonates and bicarbonates. the pH of bicarbonate (HCo3) waters is usually more than 7. This water can be used for . The criteria for judging the quality of irrigation water is the total salt concentration as measured by electrical conductivity. Water EC * Natural water has E.5 and its determination may reflect the degree of sodicity in the sample.Low Salinity Water * If electrical conductivity is less than 0.75 to 2. C2 . The important anions like chlorides. sulphates and nitrates are also present in irrigation water.25 ds/m is called high salinity water.C value of much less than one unit.25 to 0. This water can not be used on soils with poor drainage.

etc.Very High Salinity Water * If EC is more than 2. visual symptoms of the plant. C4 . * The moisture extraction pattern from different depths of the soil within the crops root zone depth in deep uniform soils is about 40 % of the total moisture from first quarter of the root zone. But rice is irrigated by flooding.salt tolerant crops by providing good drainage and also by practicing management practices for salinity control. The economics of obtaining high yields dominate the scene. * The general tendency is to over-irrigate.e. Sugarcane. 20 % from the third and 10 % . Basin method of irrigation is adopted for fruit trees. The three important approaches listed below are to be taken into account for irrigation. especially if water is not brought on the basis of quantity used.25 ds/m the water is classified as very high salinity water. It is not suitable for irrigation under ordinary conditions but may be used occasionally if the soil is permeable by providing adequate drainage. water content.. Soil Based Criteria * Depletion of available soil moisture i. Cotton are commonly irrigated with furrow method. Maximum WUE can not alone be the goal always. follows some kind of decreasing increment function after a stage. Maize. Crops like Potato. such that each successive unit of input produces less profit than its predecessor. and if field service is organized to advice the farmer on when to irrigate and how much water to apply at each irrigation for a certain level of fertilization and plant population. irrigation. Climatological Criteria Iw/Cpe Ratio * Surface irrigation methods are commonly used for various crops. Yield increases from fertilizers. leaf temperature. feel and appearance method.. plant population. This tendency can be avoided only if information is available on the most efficient way to use water. 30 % from the second. plant population and irrigation regime are meagre to recommend to the farmers. * The amount of water to be applied at each irrigation depends on the amount of moisture depleted in the effective root zone depth. Plant Based Criteria * Critical stages approach. Economics of Water Use * Average yields of irrigated crops are below the economic optima because data on the best combination of fertilizer.

from the last quarter. usage of new agro-chemicals and adoption of intensive crop cultivation techniques.. hybrids. The entire effort of growing a crop will be defeated in absence of crop protection resulting in financial loss to the grower. 25 million tonnes of oil seeds and 15 million tonnes of fibres per annum. plant hoppers etc. the periodical unabated explosions of aphids. cutworms. What are Pests . there were frequent set backs to crop production experienced in the shape of abiotic and biotic stresses during the last two decades in several food crops where intensive farm practices were adopted.ecosystems responded spontaneously to the technologies of green revolution with introduction of several components in crop production like developing and adopting high yielding varieties. At present day the role of crop protection in agriculture is of great importance and a challenging process than before. Similarly about 150 plant pathogens such as fungus and bacteria are now shielded against fungicides. as direct crop damagers and disease transmitters in different regions of the country have made agriculture less remunerative and highly risk prone. there is need to reduce if not eliminate these losses by protecting the crops from different pests through appropriate techniques. So the crop protection against various pests is a must in agriculture. the depth of water applied should be less since the root system is shallow. whiteflies. as the so called resistant species should be brought under check. Mango. Some of the weedicides also found effective earlier failed to control weeds now-a-days. can be attributed to insect pests. increased pest populations leading to the stage of collapse of economy. In the past one and half decades. But these steady gains in agricultural production over past four decades have not fully overcome the problem of rising demand caused by soaring population growth. Groundnut. * Experts assessment reveal that around 22 per cent of yield losses in major crops like Rice. defoliators. at times keep the planners and executors to be helpless. * The gains of green revolution reflected in the shape of production of 200 million tonnes of food grains. Why Crop Protection * India with diversified agro . pod borers. * Generally the amount of water applied at each irrigation is about 50 mm in red soils and 60 mm in black soils. Tomato. * Adding to the population explosion. Sugarcane. Chillies. * Hence. * The ability of some of these pests to develop resistance curbs the effectiveness of many commercial chemicals. At early stages of crop growth. bollworms. * All other management practices of crop husbandry will be futile if the crop is not protected against the ravages of pests. coccids. etc. In absence of crop protection the yields may be drastically declined. Grapes.. Cotton. Sorghum. * Among these stresses on major crops. Resistance has accelerated in many insect species and it was reported that more than 500 insect and mite species are immune to one or more insecticides at present.

jackals. The goal is to reduce crop damage to a level where it is economically tolerable. A number of non-chemical cultural practices form the core of IPM. In integrated pest management both crop and pest are seen as part of a dynamic agro-ecosystem. mites. IPM In Sustainable Agriculture . Losses caused due to pests * It is a well known fact that insects being widely distributed became more problematic in tropical climate. only using chemicals as a last resort. Top Integrated Pest Management (Ipm) What is Ipm ? * IPM is a system that in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible manner as possible and maintains the pest populations at levels below those causing economic injury (FAO.* 'PEST' is an organism that causes damage resulting in economic loss to a plant or animal. The losses caused by insect pests like Spodoptera.. snails and slugs. But IPM does not preclude chemical pesticide usage.5 million species of insects so far described few are so conspicuous in their presence due to their ability to develop rapidly and becoming serious by attacking food crops directly and indirectly. etc. Of 1. stored products and animals. particularly in intensive crop management regions of the country.. Pesticide usage is one of weapons in the management armoury to us that can be exploited sensibly and judiciously. Whitefly and Aphids are so enormous that these made the farmer to disturb the present ecosystems with continuous use of excessive insecticides. and resurgence. * The expression of "Pest" is used very broadly to insects. using control measures whose cost both economic and ecological is not excessive. 1972). other invertebrates like nematodes. It can also be said that pest is a living organism that thrives at the expense of other living organism. etc. * In developing country like ours insects are dominating over other pests by acquiring characters like resistance to toxic chemicals. and vertebrates like rats. Heliothis. * Disease producing pathogens of plants and weeds are also referred as crop pests. that cause damage to crops. birds. * IPM attempts to capitalize on natural biological factors that limit pest out breaks.

* When the bio-agents existing in the area did not attain a level. * To cater the needs for location specific cropping systems the suitable technologies should be developed by Research workers from time to time. * Leading to less risk-prone vis-a-vis low input oriented agriculture. * Involving physical labour along with agro-machinery and chemical means. * The research findings that are practically implementable should be popularized by the Extension workers through education to farming community. light and sticky traps. * When residues of insecticides do not become problematic. * Acceptable socially. * When field scouts fixed plot survey indicate a particular dominating stage of pest in the field. Farmers have to be trained in scouting. economical and applicable at field level. The pesticide industry should not wield enormous financial power and maintain market dominance against ecological and environmental safety. * When insecticide resistance due to usage of insecticides does not surface practically. * Developing human resource to understand the recyclic (energy transfer) phenomenon of agro-ecosystems. * Restoring ecobalance to the extent possible.* For sustainable agriculture IPM is location specific and resource oriented process in terms of . * When the role of bio-agents and other environmental resistance factors are less perceptible. . meaningful co-operation is very much needed from corporate pesticide industry to make IPM successful at farmers level. Integrated Pest Management Strategy * While developing IPM strategy one has to select different components that are readily available. * Preserving land races of the crops that can with stand biotic and abiotic stresses. * Dovetailing traditional methods with modern techniques. * Highlighting the importance of organic nutrition. * Farmers should also be trained in selection of suitable pesticide. When to use Crop Protection Chemicals * When adult activity is in increasing trend resulting in unacceptable pest load on crop as indicated by pheromone. Farmers training is a continuous process and is an important integrated part for successful implementation of IPM. diagnosis of pest infestation and arriving ETLs for need based chemical application in time. economically and politically. * An healthy. resurgence and residues. that can influence the pest population. use of proper lethal dose and proper coverage of foliage to avoid risks of resistance.

* Seeds of Resistant varieties. and microbial preparations of NPV & Bt. * Good plant protection equipment. * Bait preparations. yield levels have substantially increased resulting in a marketable surplus which has to be stored till prices are favourable for sale. In view of these situations suitable technology is. harvesting time may also coincide with heavy rainfall or severe cyclone and floods. * Natural enemies like Trichogramma egg cards. * Bird perches. light traps. * Finally mostly farm based renewable resources that can enhance the recycling phenomenon of ecosystem should form part of IPM strategy. Which Products Form Part of The Ipm Strategy * Different monitoring tools like pheromone traps. infested plant portions as identification tools. * Soft and target specific pesticides. Post Harvest operations * Post-harvest operations are assuming importance due to higher yields and increased cropping intensity. . * Seed dressing chemicals and seed dressing machines. light and sticky traps can be advantageously used. Field scouting adopting fixed plot survey or roving survey should be taken from time to time to monitor the crop in determining whether the pest population attained ETLs. So identification of pests and beneficial insects is of prime importance before any control operation is executed. Sometimes. coloured sticky traps.How can a Crop be monitored * A field crop is monitored to determine a pests economic status or to determine whether a natural enemy is at a level capable of suppressing a pest's population density. * Ecofriendly insecticides like Neem products and bio-fungicides like Trichoderma sp. With increase in irrigation facilities and easy availability of fertilizers. therefore. * Harvesting assumes considerable importance because the crop has to be harvested as early as possible to make way for another crop. natural enemies. * Preserved specimens of pests. necessary for reducing the harvesting time and safe storage at farm level. intensive cropping is being practiced. * Monitoring tools like pheromone. Due to introduction of modern technology. The post-harvest losses are estimated to be about 25 per cent.

* For want of required storage space in godowns food grains are also stored in the open and this method of storage is known as CAP storage. * The stacks are built in the form of domes. which was nearly 10 per cent of the total production. Cap stands for cover and plinth. and seeds intended for sowing in the following seasons. Crates are placed on floor. Infrastructure * Out of the total food grain production. The market value of the produce is generally low at harvesting time. Hence. planning commission stated that food grains wasted during post-harvest period could have fed up 117 million people for a year. storage and processing. Each of the godown can hold 5000 tonnes of bagged food grains. The growers. As protection against rain and sun the stacks are covered with thick (600 to 1000 guage) black polythene sheets and the cover is tied to the stack with the help of plastic ropes. The godowns are the most common structures for above ground bag storage. more than 70 percent is with the farmer and rest is stored by governmental organizations like central warehousing corporation and Food corporation of India and traders. * Traders and Co-operatives at market centres need storage structures to hold grains when the transport facility is inadequate. So the grower need storage facility to hold a portion of produce to meet the feed and seed requirements in addition of selling surplus produce when the marketing price is favourable. there is necessity to store the produce for different periods primarily for commercial reasons. * The government also needs storage structures to maintain buffer reserves to offset the effects produced by the vagaries of nature. mats are spread on the crates and finally bags are placed over the crates. vegetables and fruits etc. commercial crops like Chillies. The principal adviser. transporters and warehouse men have to develop storage facilities for proper storage of food grains. Grain is also stored in bulk using large silos. Storage * Harvesting of crop is seasonal. processors. * The godowns have all the facilities for fumigation. but consumption of food grain is continuous. oilseeds.. providing aeration and rat proof. Open spaces in warehouses and elsewhere are used for storing produce. An ideal storage facility should satisfy the following requirements . * The important operations carried out after harvesting of the crop are threshing. drying.* A recent estimate by the Ministry of Food and Civil supplies put the total preventable post-harvest losses of food grains at about 20 million tons a year.

Further the grain stored underground have poor appearance and musty smell. rectangular or circular. A small hole is provided at the base for taking out the grain and a larger hole is provided at the top for filling it with grain. Straw Bins * For storing paddy in humid zones dried plants are used for making temporary structures. * This underground structure is not suitable for high rainfall and high watertable areas. Wheat. At the time of filling a layer of straw is placed on all sides. birds. * It should protect grain from excessive moisture and temperature favourable to both insect and mould development. unloading. * It should be economical and suitable for a particular situation. Mud Bins * The mud bins are made of unburnt clay mixed with straw with 1 to 3 inch thick wall and are oval. straw is spread over the grain and then topped with a layer of soil. Both the inlet and outlet holes are plugged while grain is stored. moulds. Insect infestation is less in the under ground storage and it is cheaper over above ground storage structures.. Sorghum. These structures are simple underground dig-outs upto a depth of 5 m varying in sizes to hold from a small quantity upto 50 tonnes. can be stored underground for a period of 2 years. disinfection. loading. etc. insect pests. rodents. rains. Types of Storage * Holding grain in bulk in underground is an age old method of rural storage. * The pits are lined with brick or concrete so that moisture from walls and bottom does not damage the grain.* It should provide maximum possible protection from ground moisture. fire. * It should provide the necessary facility for inspection. cleaning and reconditioning. Bukhari Bins . Paddy. Fingermillet. Several types of above ground storage structures mentioned below are also in use in our country. * After the pit is filled. Each structure holds 2 to 6 quintals of grain. etc. which after being filled with grain are further reinforced from outside by winding paddy straw ropes around the whole structure..

* Storage in bags and Loose or bulk storage.C. the grain is stored in bags. . Usually steel and alluminium bins are circular in shape. as substantial losses occur during storage of grain from insect pests. Kothar Type Bins * These bins are very much similar to a timber box placed on a raised plat form. a plastic covering where grain is intended for very early onward movement. which is generally supported on pillars. The bins have long durability and produced on commercial scale. * In the tropical regions. alluminium R. Hapur with its branch at Ludhiana and Hyderabad have developed several metal bins of different capacities for scientific storage of grain in rural areas. the control measures have to be taken against insect pests. These bins are fire and moisture proof. Bag storage can be done under a roof of Galvanized Iron sheets. Usually no control measures against insects is needed for short-term storage. The capacity of silo ranges from 500 to 4000 tonnes. but the minimum investment is enough on permanent structures and equipment. there are two ways of storing grains i. The capacity may vary from 3 to 10 tonnes. at the producer's level (rural storage) trader's level and urban organizational storage. If bag storage produce is intended for long time.. . processing and treatment of grains for ensuring their quality during storage.C are used for storage of grains outside the house.* This is a cylindrical structure and is made of mud and split bamboo's. The capacity may vary from 9 to 35 tonnes. where the tiled or thatched roof is placed over it as a protection against sun and rains. moulds. The capacity ranges from 1 to 10 tonnes. The storage in bags has the advantage of being shortterm storage. * The storage structures in rural areas are not ideal from scientific-storage point of view. rodents. Silos are huge bins made with either steel.e. Methods of Storage * The grains are stored at three different levels. The bin is always placed on a wooden or a massonary plat form to prevent its contact with the ground. Both the floor and walls are made of wooden planks. warehouses and also undertaken periodical inspection. etc. The urban organization uses modern facilities and structures like silos. A silo has facilities for loading and unloading grains. Storage in bags requires considerable labour. * Generally. keeping the requirements of the farmers in view the Indian grain storage institute (IGSI). alluminium or concrete. Metal Bins * Bins made of steel. viz.

transport the produce to go-down.* The bulk storage has an advantage of greater storage capacity per unit volume of space. Responses to lower or higher prices occur in the next production cycle. or shops for sale to the consumers.e. or tractors by the growers. * In regulated markets some amenities are provided for sellers and the growers can secure maximum value for their produce. . Transportation * When once the grain is threshed and dried it will be transported from the field to store houses by bullock carts. Marketing * In general most of the producers sell the grains at their door steps in villages. Government agencies like Food Corporation of India etc. lorries. The traders on purchasing. however often closely connected with financial needs of the growers and sometimes indebtedness. In bulk storage the insect infestation is also lower over bag storage. transport the produce from one place to another place either by road or rail (waggons) for long term storage and sometimes to export to other countries by sea (cargo). If production exceeds demand. * The disposal of the produce. At village level defective measures and weights are used by traders and also the prices paid to farmers are much lower than regulated market rates. Now-a-days farmers are encouraged to sell their produce in near by regulated markets.. If the produce is not properly bagged and handled there will be some loss during transport. to avoid transport. Less labour is involved in loading and unloading and there is no need of investment in purchasing gunny bags. Prices raise when production fell short. open system and auction system are adopted depending on the type of produce sold.. In market yards several methods like cover system. either at the village or at the market yard is. The grain can be kept for several years in bulk storage. * At present in some places the cold storage facilities are also available. * This transport mainly uses trucks i. * Though several measures are taken by government the marketing of agricultural produce is facing problems and growers are not getting the reasonable price for their produce. Since the rural banking system is improved the farmers to a large extent they are out of clutches of greedy private money lenders who exert pressure to dispose produce for lower price. Farmers can utilize these cold storage facilities for stocking their produce on payment of rent and the produce can be disposed when there is remunerative price in the market. price declines until the market is cleared. Sometimes if the market price is favourable the produce is disposed to the traders soon after drying. though some labour is involved in transport.

Purposes Of Tillage * Plowing loosens and aerates the soil which in turn facilitates deeper penetration of roots.Tine. maintains the fertility of the soil. Disc Harrow & Offset Disc 2. Rotavator 3.[citation needed] * It helps in the mixing of organic matter(humus)and nutrients evenly throughout the soil. To burry trash under soil 5. To open soil for drying 3. It is debatable whether worms benefit or suffer from tillage.* Therefore.Offset) Disc Plough Objectives 1. though fertility can decline as microorganisms' boom period after tilling is followed by a bust period. To uproot stubbles and weeds 4. Primary Tillage: * Ploughs (Mould board. To kill weeds Secondary Tillage 1. depth. The government has to bring buyers and sellers together. establish consistent grades and product quality standards for better marketing of agricultural produce at all times. Puddler 4. A drawback is the compaction of the lower layers of soil. * It is used for destroying weeds. develop price information systems. 2. Disc. the acreage for a particular crop based on demand and the supporting prices for each commodity need to be monitored by the rulers based on demand and supply studies. To obtain required tilth of 10-15 cm. Land plane Disc harrow and Offset disc: .[citation needed] * It helps in the growth of microorganisms present in the soil and thus.

Power requirements are of the order 14-18k W/m at 7. 7. Objectives Under wet (saturated) conditions 1. To work soil 10-15 cm (4-6") deep. * Front discs face out ward (and throw soil outward) – back discs face inward. * The yield of paddy crop from the field puddled by disc harrow was the highest in the field experiments. incorporation of straw & to kill weeds. Front angle of discs is generally about 20o. and the back discs slightly more. * The draft (97-122 kgs) of such a disc . To chopping . Concave face of gang discs face opposite directions. As the angle of a harrow is increased.2 km/hr 2. Level in two planes (front to back. Key points 1. side to side) 4. conducted on use of different type of bullocks – drawn implements. 4. Cut to a maximum of ¼ of the disc diameter . * In well soaked soil disc harrow can be used for puddling without initial opening and in such case 4 to 5 operations are generally required. consists of two operations by disc harrow completes the puddling of one ha in 12 to 15 hours. * A light type of tandem disc harrow (weight 40 kg) with 8 discs spaced at 13 cm each having a working width of 110cm in two gangs is very suitable for puddling operation. Stabilizer chains should be relatively loose (but not so loose that implement hits tires) 3. 2. Have bumper pads between center discs (to stop discs from knocking) 9. Front disc blades wear faster than following blades 8.Disc Harrow * The secondary tillage. To soften ground for subsequent puddler operation. To tear up roots. 3. * Tandem disc – Two sets of gangs front and rear in the shape of an "X". 6. Offset disc – Single front gang with single rear gang. the depth of cut and increase.harrow was less than that of wooden plough (136-160 kgs). * Disc harrow for puddling should be provided with scrapers for keeping the disc clean from mud and weeds. Main adjustment is top hitch 5.

Puddler Objectives * Decrease weeds * Decrease percolation as a result of soil dispersion. you should not turn in the field with rotavator down . * Involve a lot of moving parts so maintenance costs are higher. Key Points * Power requirements are of the order 20-35k W/m at 7. back discs cut should be between front disc cut) * Don’t cut deeper than ¼ of disc diameter Rotavator Objectives * Develop suitable tilth for seed germination/planting * Kill weeds * Uproots straw. . * PTO shaft should be horizontal to the ground when the rotovator is lowered and in use * Blade depth . Should leave a relatively flat surface – a depression or ridge in the middle of a tandem disc harrow indicated that disc spacing. Use of Rotavators should be limited.e..the maximum cut should be approximately 1/3 of diameter Don’t * In dry fields.10. Often used for nursery seedbed. if possible as they: * Energy requirements are more than other land preparation equipment. working speed or top link of the three point hitch need adjustment Don’ts * disc cut should not overlap (i.2 km/hr * PTO shaft turns at 540rpm * PTO shaft should overlap by 10-15 cm.

* The tines of harrow penetrate about 15 cm deep in the wet ploughed soil and effect puddling by stirring and combing action. * The main purpose of puddling is to reduce percolation of water. * The draft of the implement varies from 114 kg to 112kg which is with in the pulling power of a pair of average sized bullocks. to kill weeds by decomposing and to facilitate the transplanting of paddy seedlings by making the soil softer. Frame . * The puddler consists of 1. fitted on a frame. each having 4 paddles mounted on an axle. * It breaks up the clods and churns the soil.* Level the soil for better planting conditions and/or for snail control (where a problem) Key Points * Power requirements of the order 7k W/n at 7. those used at IRRI) can be used with a "Laser" guided System. * The weed stubbles and mud accumulated in front of the harrow are easily removed by tilting the handle forward and allowing the accumulated material to escape below the tines in course of operation. after initial opening has been made by the plough.. * The weight of the puddler including its beam is with in a range of 30 to 40 kg only. Comb Harrow * The comb harrow commonly used in the Philippines and recently introduced in India.2 km/hr * Puddlers should be used only when necessary for snail and water management. * Two or three operations of the harrow are adequate to complete the puddling of wet soil after one initial ploughings by mould board plough. * Note: Rotopuddlers (e. * A common puddler used in this country has three puddling units. * The axle with the puddling units is freely mounted on two bearings. made of metal or wood. Bullock drawn puddler * Puddler is used for preparation of paddy fields with standing water after initial ploughing. * Puddling is done in a standing water of 5 to 10 cm depth.g. is simple efficient one for puddling of wet field.

Beam 6. The missing hills can be due to presence of stones/foreign matter that would have obstructed the fingers that pick the seedlings from the tray. * Operation of the transplanter: * Check oil level in gear box. Other land levelling equipment * A ladder or a wooden beam is used for levelling. * Axle: Axle is made of mild steel bar of about 25 mm in diameter or of mild steel pipe.2. The size of the paddle is about 225 x 125 mm . It’s made of mild steel flat. * Frame: The frame consists of front piece. * Metal cross: Metal cross holds the paddles in position. * Paddles: Paddles are made of mild steel sheets having a thickness of about 3. * Mechanical paddy transplanter: Features of the machine: * Available with its own source of power of 3-HP diesel engine. * Provision to vary the plant to plant spacing – 10 and 12 cm. * The inclined edge is provided with an angle iron while working in dry condition the weight of the implement and operation is confined to the sharp edge and thus make it more effective in breaking the clods as compared to ladder type where the weight is distributed over the entire surface area of the two plants. Paddles 3. * Under wet conditions the side plants permit accumulation of water in front of the leveller making it float on the water and there by reducing its weight and the draft by 40% due to buoyancy. The paddles are riveted to metal cross. * Beam: Beam is made of wood and is suitably fixed to the frame with the help of braces and the other end to the yoke for hitching to animals. * Handle: Wooden handle is attached as handle supports for guiding the movement of the puddler. * While operating observe for any missing hills in any particular row and diagnose the problem immediately. the rare and side pieces made of steel angle section or wood. fuel tank and grease the specified parts. * Provision for cage wheel for field use and rubber wheel for transport. . Handle. the leveller consists of a single plank held at an inclination to horizontal surface between two hinged side plates curved upward. * Covers eight rows at a time with a row to row spacing of 23 cm.5 m width has a comparable (even less in case of working under wet condition) draft to that of a 2 m ladder type leveller. Axle 5.15mm. the implement of 2. Metal cross 4.

* Better utilization of nutrients by managing uniform depth of water through out the field * Perfect levelling helps in complete draining of water . * If a pulse is sown after paddy uniform establishment of pulse crop can be achieved * Oxygen diffusion is more uniform * Reduction of deep percolation of water and inputs to a certain extent. * Available Transplanters Now a days mechanical transplanting of paddy is also recommended and practiced in some places. The transplanter performs with missing hills of 2-3 per cent. * Just before the operation of transplanter. Levelling * Levelling helps in bringing undulated field left over after puddling into levelled field * To maintain uniform depth of water in main field * To increase water use efficiency by maintaining shallow depths of water upto panicle initiation stage. * Observe the depth of planting the lever and adjust accordingly. * Shallow planting is possible only at shallow water depth which helps in better seedling establishment which helps in term for early tillering. a thin film of water is necessary to ensure the free movement of transplanter and avoid adhering of soil to the moving parts of the transplanter. * Observe the number of plants per hill and adjust to the requirement using the lever operating the finger movement. . It can transplant about one hectare in a day of 8 hour run.Transplanter Operation: For efficient operation of transplanter the land preparation and knowledge of the mechanical provisions incorporated with the transplanter are essential to be known. * Performance: There will be a net saving of 40 per cent over the manual transplanting. * Maintenance of shallow water depth is possible only when the land is perfectly levelled. * M/s Godavari farm equipment’s. Jagityala. level it and remove the water after 24 hours (for clayey) or 12 hours (for sandy/loamy soil) before the transplanting. Kharimnagar district developed a machine with modification of the machine originally fabricated by international rice research institute.* Choose the right speed of operation for a plant hill to hill distance of 10 or 12 cm. Land preparation * Puddle the land.facilitates easy harvesting of crop without loss of grain. In black or clayey soils the settlement is critical as the loosened soil can bury the seedlings planted.

in favour of shallower ploughing and other less invasive tillage techniques. and allows it to hold moisture better. It has been a basic instrument for most of recorded history. but tillers are also helpful when seeding and levelling lawns. and later in many areas by horses and mules. the first mechanical means of pulling a plough used steam-power (ploughing engines or steam tractors). a ploughed field is typically left to dry out. In the past two decades plough use has reduced in some areas (where soil damage and erosion are problems). Gardens are the area most frequently tilled. However. Ploughs were initially pulled by oxen. but these were gradually superseded by internal-combustion-powered tractors. for the laying of cables. It has been a basic instrument for most of recorded history. rice is grown in different types of soils. Tilling is the process of breaking up and stirring soil. as well as preparing the earth for side-scan sonar[citation needed] in a process used in oil exploration. Experts point out that in India. bringing fresh nutrients to the surface. Someone may want to till the soil to prepare it for planting. The plough (American spelling: plow. rice is grown in such varied soil conditions that it is difficult to point out the soil on which it cannot be grown. bringing fresh nutrients to the surface. In modern use. and later in many areas by horses and mules. It also aerates the soil. both pronounced /ˈplaʊ/) is a tool used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting. allowing them to break down. in favour of shallower ploughing and other less invasive tillage techniques. or to reduce the amount of weeds in the area. In industrialised countries. and is then harrowed before planting. a ploughed field is typically left to dry out. and represents one of the major advances in agriculture. and represents one of the major advances in agriculture. and is then harrowed before planting. In industrialised countries.e. to mix in organic matter. allowing them to break down. soils having . and allows it to hold moisture better. while burying weeds and the remains of previous crops. Ploughs were initially pulled by oxen. but these were gradually superseded by internal-combustion-powered tractors. In modern use. The primary purpose of ploughing is to turn over the upper layer of the soil. It also aerates the soil.The plough is a tool used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting. the first mechanical means of pulling a plough used steam-power i. The primary purpose of ploughing is to turn over the upper layer of the soil. Ploughs are even used under the sea. or even large fields where crops will be grown. steam tractors. In the past two decades plough use has reduced in some areas where soil damage and erosion are problems. In India. while burying weeds and the remains of previous crops.

5. derives from these two sources its nourishment and means of growth through the various stages of its development. may be divided according to the materials from which they are made . It grows well in soils having a pH range between 5. however. Along with hydrogen and oxygen the carbon forms the cellulose. The combustible matter is composed of six elements: carbon." "nitrogenous manures. some manufactured by artificial processes. The term "manure" originally meant that which was "worked by hand" (Fr. starch.e. The organic or combustible matters are those which are lost. or according to the constituents which they mainly supply . the inorganic or mineral matters are those which are left behind as an "ash" after the burning. but all useful as a means of improving the fertility of the soil. The inorganic or mineral matters comprise a comparatively . a turnip crop 89 or 90%. the use of the term spread to other materials. Whatever it be. * Good amount of clay and organic matter are considered ideal for rice cultivation. sulphur and a little phosphorus. MANURES AND MANURING. again. along with the water. and with these same elements and sulphur the carbon forms the albuminoids of plants. The modern tendency to turn attention less to the consideration of manurial applications given to land and more to the physical and mechanical changes introduced thereby in the soil itself. "phosphatic manures. About one-half of the combustible matter of plants is carbon. In America the term "fertilizers" is more generally adopted. and inorganic or mineral matters." "fish manure. nitrogen. sugar. Gradually. manure in this sense being what we now call "farmyard manure" or "dung. which plants contain.5 and 6. The plant.e. some of home origin." and (b) "artificial manures. a grass crop will contain about 75% of water. Water constitutes by far the greater part of a living plant. Chemical analysis has shown that plants are composed of water. manoeuvre).g. oxygen. Prominent among such processes was that of directly applying "manure" to the land. but gradually came to apply to any process by which the soil could be improved.. "bone manure." Manures. colour of the soil etc. the word "manure" is now generally applied to anything which is used for fertilizing the soil.g. organic or combustible matters. growing in the soil. would seem to be carrying the word "manure" back more to its original meaning." "potash manures." &c." "wool manure." the excreta of farm animals mixed with straw or other litter.* Good water retention capacity. and surrounded by the atmosphere.. when the plant is burnt. hydrogen. and in Great Britain the introduction of the "Fertilizers and Feeding Stuffs Act" has effected a certain amount of change in the same direction. The subject of manures and their application involves a prior consideration of plant life and its requirements. Hence we have two main classes of manures: (a) what may be termed "natural manures. &c. The classification of soils has been done depending upon the soil texture." or there may be numerous combinations of these to form mixed or "compound" manures. some imported.

being now transferred to the plant. In this way important substances. Ultimately Hellriegel supplied the explanation by showing that. This has been shown by growing plants in water dissolved in which are salts of the elements present in plants. Boussingault first. These various mineral constituents. elements are found in the ash e. and also water to some extent. phosphorus and sulphur. certain of the Leguminosae. were able to fix the atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. the ammonia and other nitrogenous bodies undergoing ready conversion into nitrates in the soil. or else accumulate in the sap and are deposited on the older tissue. The roots are able not only to take up soluble salts that are presented to them. but they can attack and render soluble the solid constituents of the soil. at all events. and ultimately seed. silicon and chlorine." and it therefore becomes necessary to inquire how they are to be supplied. on the other hand. But it was always recognized that certain plants.g. under the influence of light. magnesium. but not essential. maintaining that there was no evidence of this utilization. that plants can take up a small quantity of ammonia by their leaves. It would seem. calcium. however. So far. as also lime. and to convert it into nitrates for the use of the plant. The above constituents that have been classed as "essential. together with small quantities of manganese and other rarer elements. go to form new tissue. oxygen is given off and carbon is assimilated.small part of the plant. The leaves take up. and then Lawes. which in turn fed upon the carbohydrates of the plant and were thus living in a state of "symbiosis" with it. the carbonic acid and other gases of the atmosphere. The atmosphere is the great storehouse of organic plant food. enriched the land with nitrogen to an extent greater than could be accounted for by the mere supply to them of nitrates in the soil. this has not been shown to be the case with any other plants than the . being subsequently built up into the various organic bodies forming the plant's structure. too. other. but they contain. too. also sulphur and phosphorus. In addition. as essential constituents of plant life. Roots can further supply themselves with nitrogen in the form of nitrates. clover for example. This was found to be the result of the action of certain organisms within the nodules themselves. These elements are accordingly termed "essential. is obtained from the decayed vegetable matter in the soil. Whether the nitrogen of the air can be utilized by plants or not has been long and strenuously discussed. thus transforming them into available plant food. the plant obtains. in the case of fungi. From the soil. but the free or uncombined nitrogen of the air cannot be directly assimilated by the leaves of plants. iron. sodium. is decomposed in the chlorophyll cells. by means of its roots. Gilbert and Pugh. and absence of any one will involve failure. by the medium of swellings or "nodules" on their roots. The carbonic acid. Carbon. its mineral requirements. are supplied to the plant. through their stomata. By omitting in turn one or other of the elements aforesaid it is found that the plants will not grow after they have used up the materials contained in the seed itself. the following elements: potassium. such as phosphoric acid and potash. and nearly all its nitrogen and water." are necessary for the growth of the plant.

beali in Orissa. That continuous cropping without return of manure ends in deterioration of the soil is well seen in the case of the wheat-growing areas in America. there to meet. but. but gradually its productive power decreases from year to year. and. or consumed on the land by live stock. and America now manufactures and uses for herself large quantities of artificial and other manures. Alternate names . Cultivation practices of Paddy Submitted by naipictuasdharwad on Fri.the produce began to fall off and the cultivators moved on to fresh lands. aus or ahu in Assam.13:43 Posted in Dry and semi-dry cultivation Production Technology Rice India UASRaichur (Karnataka) English Dry System of Cultivation (upland rice) Sowing . in time. Situation . the straw was burned and nothing was returned to the land.Broadcasting in the high level land with outbreak of the monsoon.Leguminosae. Without an adequate return to the land of the matters removed in the produce. the herbage. with the same experience.Bhatta or Kavali in Kannada. Crops of wheat were taken one after another.summer Application of organic manure . its fertility cannot be maintained for many years.Followed in almost all rice growing states in India but mainly confined to tracts which get either the south-west or north-east monsoon or both and do not have adequate irrigation facilities. Under conditions of natural growth and decay. aus in West Bengal.90 to 110 days Cultivation practices: Ploughing . But in all densely peopled countries. or that new land is too far removed for ready transport of the produce. on dying down and decaying. 03/06/2009 . bhadi or kuari in Uttar Pradesh Duration . where old forests have been cleared and the land brought under cultivation. Where land is plentiful and easy to be obtained it is more convenient to clear fresh forest land than to improve more or less exhausted land by the application of manure. In newly opened countries. when no crops are gathered in. and now that the available land has been more or less intensely occupied. the virgin soil often possesses at first a high degree of fertility. under cultivation. returns to the atmosphere and the soil the elements taken from them during life. it is necessary to resort to artificial means to restore the natural fertility of the land and to maintain and increase its productiveness. and where the former mode of cultivation cannot be followed. it has been found necessary to introduce the system of manuring. We must now consider how the different requirements of the plant in regard to the elements necessary to maintain its life and to build up its structure affect the question of manuring. labour and skill. though it is asserted by some that many other plants can take up the nitrogen of the air directly through their leaves. there is no clear evidence as yet of this. a succession of crops deprives the land of the constituents which are essential to healthy and luxuriant growth.

bacteria. Sowing . To effectively control them. The bushes are cut and burnt. pesticides were recommended to be used. the rain water is impounded in the fields and the young crop of five to six weeks is inter cultivated by using slit hoe with about 5 cm of standing water in the field for partial weeding. A primitive type of shifting cultivation called punam cultivation in Malabar. kumari in South Kanara.July-August. The land is abandoned after the harvest of rice and allowed to recoup its fertility. after the strengthening of monsoon.May-June in the case of the crop dependent on the south-west monsoon September . This operation is also called as hodtha operation. thinning as well as stirring of soil to promote root formation. jhum in Assam hills is being done in scrub jungles on a small scale. Each crop has a large number of enemies in the form of insects.Season . the crop yields would suffer very badly. Control of insects and diseases is one of the great challenges posed to human knowledge. The land is ploughed with pre-monsoon showers and rice is sown as a pure or mixed crop. Use of insecticides and fungicides has grown on enormous scale to control the insects and diseases. rodents. weeds. the damage due to insects and diseases has increased in the last 25 years. Your rating: Most of the food crops are subjected to damage by insects and diseases. when the south-west monsoon is active. Despites this.ever since the first insecticides was discovered in 1920. Extent of damage by insects and diseases .their actual control is an ever growing challenge. podu in the Circars.sown or broadcast as a dry crop for about two months and when more water is available.north-east monsoon. fungi. Fresh jungle land is broken up for cultivation every year. Although detailed work has been done in every insect/disease of every crop to understand the nature of insects and diseases and how to control them . .sown or broadcast Seed rate . it is treated as wet crop.60-80 kg/ha When the moisture is at the marginal level the surface soil is compacted by a light roller. Season . Chemical control of insects and diseases of various crops was widely recommended . mites etc unless they are controlled effectively. Large number of insects and diseases are recognized on every food crop. Semi-dry System of Cultivation Sowing .

If the insect pests suck the sap from various parts of the plant. which include insects. Control measures of the insect-pests of major crops Name of the Crop Rice Wheat Name of Insect-Pest Gundhy bug Leaf hopper Gujhia weevil Shoot fly Nature of Damage Attack during post flowering period Attack on Leaves Grubs feed on the roots and adults cut the growing points Attack seedling and kill the central shoots Control Measure Spray monocrotophos Spray monocrotophos Aldrin dust in the soil before sowing Soil application of phorate at . mites etc. insect pest control. bacteria. rodents and fungi.Pest Control If insect pests attack the plant by cutting and destroying the root an insecticide like chloropyrophos is mixed in the soil to control it. They are: • • • • • Use of resistant varieties Optimum time of sowing the crops Crop rotation and cropping system Clean cultivation Summer ploughing Rabi crops are more susceptible to insects and pests as against kharif crops as warm and humid climate is congenial for infestation. insects. If insect pests attack the plant by cutting the stem and leaves and it is a boring type of insect. etc. diseases or weeds. make a class of chemicals used to control pests. Each one is controlled by group of chemicals like insecticides. Certain preventive measures can be adopted to protect crops from weeds.Insects Rice Wheat Jowar Bajra Cowpea green gram Black gram Soyabean 10% 5% 12% 5% 3% 2% 2% 3% Diseases 15% 15% 18% 8% 15% 14% 11% 9% Pesticides. If field crops are infested with insects and pests. mites. weeds. rodents. in general. fungicides. weedicides. respectively. bactericides. it can be controlled by dusting or spraying contact insecticides like malathion. disease control and weed control measures have to adopted. fungi. Insect . lindane and thiodax. it can be controlled by spraying systemic insecticides like dimethoate and metasystox.

Avoid water logging . leaf. Adult beetles feed on leaves Both nymph and adult suck the sap of all the plant parts Both nymph and adult suck the sap of leaves Spray endosuIfan Shoot borer Pyrilla Chick pea Pod border Spray carbaryl Apply thimet granules before sowing Spray metasystox solution in water Dusting with .e. Air borne diseases can be controlled by treating the infested parts with fungicide spray. Later on make holes in the pods and feed on the developing grain The grubs feed on roots. flower and fruit. . Air borne diseases attack all aerial parts of the plant i. Spray bavistin at 10 days interval Wheat Rust Red rot Yellow. Later on enter into growing point and damage base of shoot it The caterpillars bore into the central shoot and make Apply lindane in water in furrows tunnel downwards. They girdle the stem and mixed cropping. The entire crop can be destroyed if they are not controlled in time. Treat seed with hot air at 54°C for S hours Deep sowing at 8-10 cm depth in the light soil Sugarcane Grassy shoot Chickpea Pigeon pea Wilt Stem rot Development of brown to dark brown lesions on Grow sorghum and pigeon pea as the stem near soil surface. Seed and soil borne diseases can be controlled by treating the seed and soil. malathion Ground Nut White grub Aphids Painted bug Mustard Disease Control Plants often get infested with disease causing pathogens.Name of the Crop Name of Insect-Pest Nature of Damage Control Measure sowing Top borer Sugarcane Larvae bore into the midrib of leaves and make Apply phorate granules at the tunnel. brown or black elongated spots appear on Spray dithane solution in water at 10 leaves days interval Small red spots on leaf mid rib appear Production of numerous thin tillers from the base The leaves become yellow and dry up Dip the sets in 0.25 percent a gallol solution for 5 minutes before sowing. They feed inside the soft tissue on sets before planting Both nymph and adult suck sap from underside of the leaf The caterpillars first feed on tender leaves. Pathogens are transmitted by: • • • seed and soil water air Seed soil and water borne diseases mostly attack roots and plant stem. Control measures for the disease of major crops Name of the Crop Rice Name of Disease Blast Symptoms Brown boat-shaped lesions appear on the leaves Control Measure Seed treatment with thiram solution in water.

Name of the Crop Name of Disease plant dies Symptoms Control Measure Weed Control Weeds are unwanted plants that grow in the fields where crops grow. weeds are classified into narrow-leaf and broad-leaf. The weed could be another crop plant or a plant of another variety of the same crop. nutrients and water. The following are some of the weeds of the Kharif season and the Rabi season. Warm and humid climate being more congenial for the growth of weeds. pest and diseases. 2) Wild Sorghum (Wild jowar) Broad Leaf Example: 1) Amaranthus (chaulai) 2) Trianthema (Saathi) . Often weeds harbour many insects. they are more during the Kharif season than the Rabi crop. The growth of weeds in fields has an adverse affect on crops because they compete with the crops for space. So if a mustard plant grows in a wheat field it has grown out of place and so is considered to be a weed. Kharif Season Narrow Leaf Example: 1) Nutgrass (motha). Based on the structure of the leaf. light. The yield becomes poor and so also the quality of the crop.

2) Wild oat (Jangali jaii) Broad Leaf Example: 1) Chenopodium (Bathua) 2) Convolvulus (Hirankhwci) .Rabi Season Narrow Leaf Example: 1) Phalaris (Mandoori).

fluchloralin. 4-D. Example: atrazine. Methods For Controlling Weeds Mechanical Method Removal of weeds by mechanical methods are: • • • • • • pulling them out (uprooting) with hand removal by using a hoe or trowel interculture ploughing burning and flooding Cultural Method Cultural methods of controlling weeds include: • • • • proper seed bed preparation timely sowing of crops intercropping and crop rotation Chemical Method Spraying of special chemicals called weedicides or herbicides is a chemical method. short statured groundnut and slow growing pigeon pea crops are more prone to weeds. isoproturon Biological Method The biological method involves the use of some appropriate insects or some other organisms on the crop field having weeds. short duration maize and millets.During Kharif season. Example: Cochneal insects are used to eradicate opuntia (a weed. Crop Management The Crop Improvement and Management program targets problems of significant field (broadacre) crops which can have either genetic or agronomic solutions. The . They selectively destroy the weed plants but do not harm the crop plants. 2. Aquatic weeds are controlled by grass carp (a kind of fish). commonly called prickly pear).

it is advisable to grow rice seedlings by dapog method to compensate the time loss.4-D chemical 625 gm in 700-800 litre water and for Phalaris minor. Desuckering of tobacco crop has to be attended to allow better leaf growth on main plant. tomato.program aims to increase productivity. In case of other states where there is limited rains. in-situ mulching or for incorporation in soil under puddled condition. pigeonpea were affected due to non occurrence of winter rains. chickpea. Sowing of watermelon may be initiated in coastal Orissa. fodder crops followed by irrigation In all standing crops light irrigation is to be given. seedlings are affected due to frost injury. Hand weeding of onion. Green weeds and leguminous tree leaves my be lopped and used for composting. Since winter season is dry. Farmers of eastern region are advised to complete transplanting of boro rice. Isoproturan (75%) 1. the same dose can be applied once in 2months. harvesting of late sown coriander. In dill. Weather and Weather based Crop Management Plan Land tillage for spring maize. greengram. Mulching the basins of Coconut and Arecanut with palm leaves. potato and tobacco fields. In well puddle fields at a spacing of 15x 15 cm. 60 and 40 kg N. One sixth of the 50% dose of the recommended dose of fertilizer may be applied once a month for Kerala conditions through drip irrigation in Coconut. For broad leaved weeds 2. sunflower. sugarcane. In main fields 60. pulses. dry Coconut husk & coir pith and other crop residues may be followed for effective conservation of moisture. Farmers of eastern region are advised to harvest the crops at physiological maturity. jute and maize for fodder may be taken up. Rainfed crops like blackgram. Sugarcane should be harvested and earmarked for ratoon. maize. oilseeds. cumin and fenugreek is advised. It is advised to harvest maize cob and market it instead of going for grain to save irrigation water. It must be ensured that the produce is dried well. Crop Management in India In northern region. soil mulching and other practices will help in in-situ conservation of residual moisture for successful Rabi cropping. urad. Top dressing with urea in wheat. In seed spices. sustainability and utilisation of major crops and cropping systems of mutual importance .0 kg in 800 litre water/ha should be sprayed. garlic & other spices are to be attended. wheat.P and K/ha should be applied as basal application. Trees on agricultural land may be prunned to open-up canopy for light penetration for crops. . Weeding and interculturing of rabi crops specially winter maize. Eradication of Orobanche should be taken up in mustard. Wherever. moong. transplanting of summer rice is advisable where assured irrigation facilities are available. irrigation for late sown crop and harvesting of early sown crop are to be takenup.

in the standing crop. For charcoal rot management in maize. Himalayan rats are seen to damage the cereal crops in Kumaon area. If the larvae cross 2 per plant in 20 plants per acre. AP and Tamilnadu. Instead of one spray of propiconazole 25 EC.07% Endosulfan 35EC is advised. Dwarf Cavendish which are commercially grown in Maharashtra. Banana farmers are advised to spray Propicanazole 0. The rodent population is expected to explode.viride or one spray of T. In the north-eastern states bamboo flowering has been reported in Arunachal Pradesh & Mizoram.3 l/ha or chloropyriphos @ 3 l/ha be done. two sprays of T.07% is recommended in the affected patches. Mass trapping using bamboo traps as well as mass-baiting as a community level campaign may be . The crop loss can be reduced by timely baiting interventions. In Kumaon area and in parts of eastern UP. For this.1% Karathane is also effective for the control.Crop Protection For management of Karnal bunt . spray of 0.viride at 31-39 days and 41-49 days provide a non-chemical (biological control) management of disease. the insecticide application should be only needbased and never as per any schedule.1% with wetting agent (Teepol/sandovit 5ml/litre water).2% each at 21 day interval. To control blister beetle in cucumber. However. Dusting with sulphur dust @ 25 . Grand Naine.30 kg/ha is advised.05% Monochrotophos 36SL or 0. The weather is conducive for ocurrence of Sigatoka leaf spot disease especially in Cavendish group of Bananas like Robusta. Suitable steps to install bait stations on a community scale has to be undertaken. one spray of propiconazole 25EC @ 0. This is applicable to safeguard mulch material in Cocconut and Arecanut basins.1% and Mancozeb 0. Spraying 2-3 times 0. For management of termites. Bavistin 0. Karnatak.1% may be given (in seed crop only) at ear head emergence stage. In the North-Western and Indogangatic plans. water stress should be avoided at postflowering stage.viride (at 31-39 days) followed by one spray of propiconazole 25 EC at growth stage 41-49 can be given to attain near complete control. spraying of endosulfan or any contact insecticide at 2 litres per hactare may be taken up. Bengal gram (chicken pea) crop at flowering stage shall attract pod borer damage. 3-4 sprays of Mancozeb (Dithane M-45) effectively reduce rust and Turcicum leaf blight intensity in susceptible varieties.1% Bavistin or 0. Present weather situation is favourable for the powdery mildew disease in pea crop. Calixin 0. Endosulfan 35EC @ 2. Drenching of Chlorpyriphos 0. collect the adults mechanically and crush them or spray Endosulfan @ 2ml/litre Dip the ginger fingers with Redomil MZ72 or Spectra MZ 72 @2gm/lit of water for 30 minutes and keep in the shed To protect the crop from pea pod borer. One spray of T. the broadcasting of the insecticide treated soil 15 DAS be practiced. widespread damage of crops due to white grub is noticed.1%. Gujarat.

of water) in breeding sites. Eucanthecona furcellata are found effective in managing the pest. They can be managed by spraying carbaryl 0. Root feeding of neem formulations containing 5 % Azadirachtin @ 7.01% (200mg/ lit.05 %.5g/l or Dimethoate 1. gram and vegetables.4% Bordeaux mixture (40 gm Copper sulphate and 40 g lime in 10 litre water) or Copper-oxy-chloride 20 g/10 litre/20 sq m or metalaxyl (2g) + mancozeb (20g) in 10 litre for 100 sq m to be applied. / chlorpyriphos 0. Wherever there is incidence of attack of fruit and shoot borer in Brinjal. Avoid spraying in un-pollinated inflorescence.) & neem cake 250g + fine sand (250g).5 ml water. Prophenophos @ 2 ml or Carbaryl @ 3g/l of water may be sprayed. application of organics@50 kg/palm.1%. it is recommended to arrange pheromone traps @ 4 per acre.5ml/l is recommended.taken-up particularly in the districts of Arunachal Pradesh. Application of Karathane (0. Avoid using wettable sulfur as it brings down the myco-acarine population. Isolated incidence of stem bleeding has been reported from North Malabar(Kerala). Root feeding with 5% Calixin.fifth month old bunch. Placing pheromone traps helps in monitoring tree and to capture the adult beetles. Rhinoceros beetle: Fill the leaf axils with naphthalene balls 10g (4 nos. The Coconut slug caterpillar. Mizoram. additional application of 5 kg neem cake fortified with Trichoderma harzianum. Pollachi (Tamilnadu) and Ambajipetta (Andhra Pradesh). For the management of wilt in cumin.2%. In addition release of predatory pentatomid bug. Spray Methyl demeton or Endosulphan or Quinalphos @2 l/ha as and when the damage crosses designated threshold levels. Cardamom and Vanilla.1%) for controlling powdery mildew in Mango is advised. Damping-off and Leaf blight disease in Tobacco nurseries under excess moisture are anticipated. Sap sucking insects damage crops such as Oilseed crops. Spray carbaryl 50% WP 0. . Pest Management of Coconut Palms Eriophyid mite infestation in coconut palms can be managed by spraying neem oilgarlic-soap mixture at 2% concentration.5 ml + 7. chipping and dressing the chiseled portion with 5% calixin followed by coal tar application. spray of Acephate @ 1. Suggested live irrigation in moisture stress areas for Black pepper. Clip the infested shoots and fruits and destroy them.05% is recommended. For the control of thrips in Chilli. Conthyla rotunda has caused severe damage to the palms in Nagercoil District of Tamil Nadu. 0. drench the soil with the carbendazim 0. For management of anthracnose disease spraying Hexaconazole 0.The spray droplet is to be directed towards second . In addition to coconut they feed on banana also. For the management of aphids in wheat crop. Integrated disease management includes regulation of moisture regime. foliar spray of Methyl demeton 25EC @ 2 litre/ha on infected rows at the start of the aphid colonization be given. Nagaland and Manipur where rodent explosion is currently seen.

Red palm weevil: Stem injection of 1% Carbaryl 50 % WP @ 1 litre per palm. Black headed caterpillar: Spraying Dichlorvos @ 0. ICM combines the best of modern technology with some basic principles of good farming practice and is a whole farm. environment and land management systems. LEAF and Sainsbury's: ICM is a method of farming that balances the requirements of running a profitable business with responsibility and sensitivity to the environment.02 % or malathion @ 0. To minimise consumption of non-renewable and other resources. The flow chart above. water and the air and to preserve. and for this reason Integrated Crop Management was developed: There are two definitions of ICM in use in the UK at present: Sustainable Development White Paper: To provide an adequate supply of food and other products in an efficient manner. INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT (ICM) ICM is a system of crop production which conserves and enhances natural resources while producing food on an economically viable and sustainable foundation. enhance energy efficiency and minimize pollution. where feasible. in conjunction with the ATB. ICM is a 'whole farm approach' which is site specific and includes: . In the UK it is not always possible to keep livestock alongside arable crops. details. and need for long term agricultural sustainability. biodiversity in the landscape. ICM is particularly appropriate for small farmers because it aims to minimize dependence on purchased inputs and to make the fullest possible use of indigenous technical knowledge and land use practices. Place pheromone traps @ 1 per ha. It is based on a good understanding of the interactions between biology. the concepts of integrated farming systems and their evolution. The adult weevils can also be trapped using attractants such as fresh toddy fermented with yeast/acetic acid or fermented mixture of crushed sugarcane+ jaggery + Banana. long term strategy. To safeguard the quality of soil.05 % helps to bring down the population. British Agrochemical Association. Previous subjects have dealt with the historical problems associated with production orientated agriculture and consequential environmental build up. This subject area examines the concepts of. It includes practices that avoid waste.

by means of farm produced substitutes and better management of inputs. such as inorganic fertilizers.The use of crop rotations Appropriate cultivation techniques Careful choice of seed varieties Minimum reliance on artificial inputs such as fertilisers. pesticides and fuel. there should be effective seedbed preparation and crop establishment . Sustainable? One of the main objectives of ICM is the reduction or replacement of external farm inputs. Total replacement is not possible without significant loss of yields. fuel) Reduce soil erosion Reduce adverse effects on soil invertebrates such as earthworms and predatory beetles and spiders However. The principals and practices of ICM are outlined below: Crop rotations: Increase diversity of crop species to prevent disease and pest carry over from crop to crop Ensure effective nutrient uptake by scheduling crops with different nitrogen demands in the correct sequences Preserve soil fertility. structure and minimize erosion by ensuring adequate crop cover. but partial substitution of inputs can be achieved by the use of natural resources. pesticides and fossil fuels Maintenance of the landscape The enhancement of wildlife habitats Maize and clover intercropping. The clover provides ground cover (erosion minimisation) and nitrogen fixation therefore reducing artificial inputs. This would then lead to reduced production cost and less environmental degradation.e. the avoidance of waste and efficient management of external inputs. good rooting depth and reduction of compaction Use of disease resistant cultivars to minimize the need for agro chemical inputs Soil protection: Minimal cultivations to: Reduce energy usage (i.

field margins. and to provide recreational areas for people A greater diversity of broad leaved weeds may be left within crops to provide food sources for birds and insects. providing the aggressive crop damaging weeds are contained Energy efficiency: . ones that have minimal off target effects Alternative husbandry techniques such as mechanical weeding In crop monitoring systems (such as traps) to assess pest levels to scale pesticide use to the level of the problem Improve habitat for predators to increase natural level of biological control Wildlife and landscape: Planning a programme for the whole farm (cropped and non cropped areas) to enhance biodiversity and landscape features: Hedges.e. beetle banks and conservation headlands allowing wild species to establish and migrate. ditches. i. climate and topography of individual farms Crop nutrition: Nutrient inputs should be carefully balanced in respect of: Individual crop requirements Crop off takes Soil residues and residues from previous crop Regular soil analysis is recommended Use of cover crops/green manures before spring sown crops to minimize leaching and erosion Crop protection: Integrated pest management Minimal use of well selected pesticides.Cultivations dependent on soil type.

Detailed analysis of energy use.Do farmers generally take into account fuel efficiency when purchasing machinery.. biodiversity has increased.. launched in 1991 who's main aim is to promote ICM. LEAF Linking Environment and Farming web site ICM in practice The environmental benefits of ICM are difficult to quantify and are related to longer term processes.75/year and includes an audit.e. less passes Replacement of high fuel consumption machinery. and provides further guidelines on which farming practices to choose and avoid when working toward an integrated farm management system.. On the long term projects. LEAF encourages farmers to take up ICM through the LEAF audit.. Data from the experimentation... there have been improved bird numbers and reduced nitrate leaching and soil erosion. with more efficient alternatives Rationalization of vehicle movements Pause for thought. This is a charitable organisation... information pack. the largest of which is Linking Environment and Farming (LEAF). LEAF currently has 24 demonstration farms on commercial holdings. especially fossil fuels Remedial action to minimize waste Consider alternative energy sources Change in cultivation practice. or are they more concerned with horsepower and versatility? Efficient machine or expensive fuel guzzler? Pollution and waste: Strict following of codes of practice Recycling of crop residues recycling or safe disposal of non organic wastes There are currently four large scale ICM research projects in the UK. i. with a over 500 farmer members. Individual Farm membership costs from £58. trial farms and various projects has indicated: . regular newsletter etc.

wildflower . Integrated Crop Management aims to reconcile the economic demands on agriculture with environmental protection. orchards. This is also possible when intensely cultivated fields alternate with natural habitats in which countless animal and plant species thrive. Bayer CropScience has shown that agriculture and species diversity are not contradictory concepts and can even benefit from each other.25% The drawbacks: The control of some weeds is very problematic Omission of ploughing and herbicide treatments can lead to a build up of cleavers. blackgrass and other weeds Integrated Crop Management Fields and Biotopes: Good Neighbors! Modern agriculture ensures that sufficient food is available Modern agriculture must produce high yields.15% yield reduction but indications that this is reducing as experience grows Quality of produce is generally maintained Variable costs reduced by 20 .Generally a 5 . Part of each of the 25-hectare farms has been specifically reserved for nonagricultural use. Agriculture and species diversity are not contradictory concepts In its projects on Integrated Crop Management and on Biodiversity.70% Nitrogen inputs reduced by 16 . The company has implemented Integrated Crop Management on its two experimental farms in England since 2003. This land provides space for hedges. The coexistence of agricultural land and wildlife sanctuaries is also an important aspect of this principle.30% Gross margins maintained or slightly increased Pesticide inputs reduced by 30 .

the company is working. Moreover. Some 8. Providing a protective shield to reap a good harvest At Biostadt India Limited. skylarks and other birds have nested in the hedges and trees. The new vegetation has not only prevented the reduction of the water level. our strategic . British farmers frequently visit Bayer CropScience’s farms in England to gather useful tips on how they can improve biodiversity on their own farms. thus increasing the species diversity. fungicides. Numerous farmers throughout the country have now followed this example. our tie-up with ISO 9000 toll manufacturers helps us in offering you specialty products like Wapkil. Gauging the critical importance of this aspect in farming.meadows. Dartriz. Many fruit trees depend on pollination by flying pollen carriers like bees. Our manufacturing base for crop protection chemicals is located in North and Central India. since many fruit trees depend on pollination by flying pollen carriers like bees. fruit gardens. Evident etc. field mice enjoy the plentiful insect prey. Added to this. herbicides and adjuvants. Bayer CropScience has also gained experience with biodiversity projects in Brazil. Biostadt India Limited have a diverse range in crop protection chemicals that include 45 products. corn buntings. A new home for bullfinches and his friends The arrangement has been fully accepted. Together with a citrus farmer. and bees collect nectar from the wildflower meadows. services and programs to help you nurture your crops and reap the benefits of healthy produce. Brimstone butterflies lay their eggs. ranging from insecticides. In the meantime bullfinches. dikes and ponds – all excellent habitats for a variety of animal and plant species. on a concept to try to stop the drying up of a waterway along the farm and the resulting erosion. for example. but also has attracted many birds and insects to the farmland. we understand the importance of protecting the crops that provide ample nourishment to the entire human race. Biostadt India Limited has lined up an array of the best products. These pollen collectors are a good example of the synergy between species diversity and agriculture. Those who offer bees food and a habitat also help commercial fruit growers.000 saplings of native species have been planted along the banks.

. the free encyclopedia Minor crop Areas in India: P Pulses. our crop protection products offer various options at pocket-friendly prices. A successful alliance with world leaders in Agro Chemical business has added more weight to our global standing and helped us market their star products in India. S Sugarcane. promptly. we believe that Mother Earth showers its bounty on those who respect her as well as protect the environment.1 Agricultural practices Agriculture in India From Wikipedia. 1. The legible label instructions on our products focus on optimizing safety for the user and the land. and T Tea. And our crop protection chemicals ensure this with their result .successful produce of healthy crops. without any time lag.000 retail centers ensures that you get the requisite product. C Cotton.spread over 25. J Jute. Also. A vivid demonstration of our crop protection products in the field has helped us prove its efficacy in controlling crop disease and eradicating weeds and pests. At Biostadt. Cn Coconut.

However. Today. farmers' rights are of particular importance in India and thus the Act also allows for farmers to save. India is the largest producer in the world of milk. cashew nuts. was responsible for the research leading to the "Indian Green Revolution" of the 1970s.[5] It is the third largest producer of tobacco. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and logging accounted for 16. tea. a sui generis legislation. is still the largest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of India. it also provides an environment for the continuing development and use of landraces.[7] The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI). coconuts. sugar. and Development / Strengthening of Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure.[2] Coffee. Agriculture in India has a long history dating back to ten thousand years. Grading and Standardization. turmeric and black pepper. Recently Government of India has set up Farmers Commission to completely evaluate the agriculture program. However the recommendations have had a mixed reception.[3] It also has the world's largest cattle population (281 million). rice. tea. and rice. established in 1905. even if it is of a protected variety. and specializes in statistical techniques for animal and plant breeding. Fisheries are both produced and exported from this region.[6] Initiatives The required level of investment for the development of marketing. storage and cold storage infrastructure is estimated to be huge. The government has not been able to implement various schemes to raise investment in marketing infrastructure.[4] It is the second largest producer of wheat. This not only saves the livelihoods of many farmers. sow and sell seeds as they always have. ginger. mixed farming In August 2001 India's Parliament passed the Plant Variety Protection and Farmers' Rights Act. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is the apex body in agriculture and related allied fields. The Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute develops new techniques for the design of agricultural experiments. India had to comply with TRIPS and include PVP.6% of the GDP in 2007. including research and education. employed 52% of the total workforce[1] and despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP. analyses data in agriculture. groundnut and inland fish.[9]. Among these schemes are Construction of Rural Go downs.[5] India's population is growing faster than its ability to produce rice and wheat.[5] India accounts for 10% of the world fruit production with first rank in the production of banana and sapota.[8] The Union Minister of Agriculture is the President of the ICAR. The way it always was . Market Research and Information Network. India ranks second worldwide in farm output. says Suman Sahai.The fertile Ganges River Delta—known for severe flooding and tropical cyclones— supports cultivation of jute. Being a WTO member.

[18] Settled life soon followed with implements . At the same time overpumping made possible by subsidized electric power is leading to an alarming drop in aquifer levels.[11] World Bank also says that the allocation of water is inefficient. Current agricultural practices are neither economically nor environmentally sustainable and India's yields for many agricultural commodities are low. and credit markets. Farmers' access to markets is hampered by poor roads. this is a limited resource. Poorly maintained irrigation systems and almost universal lack of good extension services are among the factors responsible. slow progress in implementing land reforms and inadequate or inefficient finance and marketing services for farm produce. rudimentary market infrastructure. which is the statutory apex agent for rural development in the subcontinent. resulting in disguised unemployment and low productivity of labour.6% of the land was irrigated in 2003–04. The average size of land holdings is very small (less than 20. Adoption of modern agricultural practices and use of technology is inadequate. hampered by ignorance of such practices. Agricultural subsidies and taxes often changed without notice for short term political ends.[11] The overuse of water is currently being covered by over pumping aquifers. Such small holdings are often over-manned. land. The irrigation infrastructure is deteriorating. family disputes. India has inadequate infrastructure and services. A good monsoon results in a robust growth for the economy as a whole. Government intervenes in labour. high costs and impracticality in the case of small land holdings.[15][16][17] [edit]History Main article: History of agriculture in India Indian agriculture began by 9000 BC as a result of early cultivation of plants.000 m²) and is subject to fragmentation. Overregulation of agriculture has increased costs. price risks and uncertainty. specifically the Monsoon season.[edit]Problems Slow agricultural growth is a concern for policymakers as some two-thirds of India’s people depend on rural employment for a living. Inconsistent government policy.[12] Illiteracy. general socio-economic backwardness. but as these are falling by foot of groundwater each year. —World Bank: "India Country Overview 2008"[10] The low productivity in India is a result of the following factors: According to World Bank. as revealed by the fact that only 52. Indian Branch: Priorities for Agriculture and Rural Development". due to land ceiling acts and in some cases. India's large agricultural subsidies are hampering productivityenhancing investment. while a poor monsoon leads to a sluggish growth. unsustainable and inequitable. and domestication of crops and animals.[13] which result in farmers still being dependent on rainfall.[14] Farm credit is regulated by NABARD. Irrigation facilities are inadequate. and excessive regulation.

known as the "Father of the Green Revolution" in India. The cash crops include cotton.S.[6] natural rubber. gingelly and chillies. The younger generation rapidly moves out of villages due to education and white collar jobs and that is also worstly hit this sector. tea. Greengram. Blackgram and Horsegram). coffee.000 . Important crops Gingelly Field in Regunathapuram of Pudukkottai district in Tamil Nadu The principal food crops are rice.[9] sapota. [2] Tamil Nadu is the home land of Dr M. the free encyclopedia Paddy fields at Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu Tea Plantation in The Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu Agriculture is the most predominant sector of the economy of Tamil Nadu. 70% of the states population is engaged in agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood.[6] the second largest producer of mangoes.[6] tea[10] and sugarcane.[21][22] Plants and animals—considered essential to their survival by the Indians—came to be worshiped and venerated. The important horticultural products are bananas and mangoes. Swaminathan. Redgram.[8] groundnut and the third largest producer of coffee.The state is the largest producer of bananas.and techniques being developed for agriculture.[26][27] Despite some stagnation during the later modern era the independent Republic of India was able to develop a comprehensive agricultural program.[7] coconut.[5] flowers.[11] Tamil Nadu's sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India.[23] The middle ages saw irrigation channels reach a new level of sophistication in India and Indian crops affecting the economies of other regions of the world under Islamic patronage.[6] tapioca. ragi.35 lakh mt. maize.[28][29] Agriculture in Tamil Nadu From Wikipedia. The state is historically known for its agriculture from ancient times.[4].43 lakh hectares of which the Gross Irrigated Area is 33. jowar (cholam).[3] But now this is steadily declining due to industrialisation and real estate business. oilseeds. rubber.[1] Tamil Nadu has as an area of 1.[21] Indian products soon reached the world via existing trading networks and foreign crops were introduced to India. bajra (cumbu). coconut.[11] The state has 17. Annual food grains production in the year 2007-08 was 100. and pulses (Bengalgram. a state in India.3 Lakh km2 with a gross cropped area of around 58.09 lakh hectares which is 57% and the balance 43% of the area are under rainfed cultivation.[19][20] Double monsoons led to two harvests being reaped in one year.[24][25] Land and water management systems were developed with an aim of providing uniform growth. sugarcane.

Vegetables. Chrysanthemum.[15] Tamil Nadu's sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India. The main flowers grown in Tamil Nadu are Jasmine.[13]. Presently . Flowers. The second crop is called the ‘Thaladi’ that grown in 5 to 6 months Oct . Vegetable Plantation in The Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu [edit]Horticulture training centres The horticulture training centres functioning in Tamil Nadu are:[13] Kudumianmalai (Pudukkottai district) Madhavaram (Thiruvallur district) Thali (Krishnagiri district) Ooty (The Nilgiris) [edit]Sugar industry Sugar Industry is an Agro-based industry and Sugarcane is cultivated by about 5 Lakhs farmers in Tamil Nadu. Plantation crops. Marigold and Rose. 3 Sugar Mills in Public Sector and 22 Sugar Mills in Private Sector.96 lakh ha. Tamil Nadu is also a leading state in the production of flowers with the total production of horticultural crops standing at 99. Medicinal and Aromatic plants. Third is 'Samba' and has a duration of almost 6 months from Aug to January.Nov. Mango and Banana are the leading fruit crops in Tamil Nadu accounting for over 87% of the total fruit production. Spices.0 Lakh Hectares comprising of about 2% of the total cultivable area. Mullai. Tamil Nadu accounts for 10% in fruits and 6% in vegetables. is covered under various horticultural crops. The first one is the ‘Kuruvali’ (the short term crop) with duration of three and a half to four months from June to July to Oct . The main vegetables grown are Tapioca. [4] [edit]Horticulture Grapes Cultivation Theni district of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu with Seven agro-climatic conditions and varied soil types is better placed for production of Fruits. The registered Sugarcane crop is cultivated in an area of 2. the second highest in India. Paddy is grown in large excess because rice is the main staple food of the state. There are three crops based on duration. Brinjal and Drumstick.Nov to Feb March.47 Lakhs during 2003-04.hectares of land under oil palm cultivation. Onion.[13] The total production of horticultural crops is 192.[13] In terms of production.[11] [edit]Sugar mills in Tamil Nadu There are 41 Sugar Mills in Tamil Nadu comprising of 16 Sugar Mills in Co-operative Sector.5 to 3.[14] Horticulture is an important segment of Agriculture sector which contributes about one . in India.fifth share in the economy of Agriculture and allied sectors.[13] Horticulture is the fastest growing sector within agriculture in Tamil Nadu. About 10.28 lakh MT. Tomato.[12] .

In recent years.88% and to the agriculture and allied activities it is 26. Russia etc. There is a good potential for export of eggs.827. The value of leather and leather products exported from Tamil Nadu was 5. egg products and frozen chicken meat from our State to Gulf countries.521 million numbers to 8809.98 crores. during the same period.51 crores.[16] During the year 2008-09. The Milk production which was 55.[15] [edit]Animal husbandry Main article: Animal husbandry in Tamil Nadu Farmer with oxen in Tamil Nadu 1993 The livelihoods of most rural and low income communities in Tamil Nadu are to a large extent based on agriculture / livestock / poultry. Fishing has been a major source of livelihood for coastal and inland fishing communities. an increase of 90%.73 lakh tonnes during 2008-09. small and marginal farmers.83% of total egg production and stands 9th in milk production and 2nd in egg production in the country. an increase of 2%.89%.[16] [edit]Fisheries Fishing boats on Palk Strait in Tamil Nadu Fish is a source of healthy food for humanity at large.774 million numbers. the gross value of output of livestock in the State was 14. Madurantakam Co-operative Sugar Mill (from 2001-02 season) Madura Sugars(from 2002-03 season) and Arunachalam Sugar Mills (from 2003-04 season) are not functioning.[16] [edit]Poultry A chick in Tamil Nadu Poultry rearing which had been a cottage industry all along has now become a big industry by itself in many places in the districts of Namakkal.[16] [edit]Livestock During the year 2008–09.[16] The Tamil Nadu poultry industry contributes 16. Erode and Coimbatore.[16] The State contributes 5.[16] Estimated Meat production increased from 220 million kg in 2006-07 to 419 million kg in 2008-09. the per capita availability of milk is 235 grams per day and egg is 133 numbers per annum. Likewise. The total area available for grazing in the State is 1. The Animal Husbandry sector plays a vital role in providing subsidiary employment to rural folk and guaranteed household income to landless agricultural labourers. Salem. the estimated Egg production increased from 8041.23 % of total milk production and 15.[16] The contribution of livestock sector to the Gross State Domestic Product is 2.38 Sugar Mills are functioning while 3 mills viz. fisheries have become an important economic activity and contribute to .489.10 lakh hectares. Historically. an increase of 10%.5% of country’s total poultry export.60 lakh tonnes during 2006 07 increased to 56.

Promotion of Precision Farming .77. Special steps to enhance the availability of quality pulses seeds and oilseeds. Restoration of Soil Health – Need based Macro and Micro Nutrient application as per Soil Health Card recommendations.adoption of drip fertigation with all scientific practices. of marine products valued at 1.[18] [edit]Governance Paddy Fields in Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu Paddy Fields in Tamil Nadu The Central and Tamil Nadu State Government is continuously taking efforts to make Agriculture which is a primary sector.T.220. about 68. It has 13 Coastal Districts and 591 fishing villages with 363 fish landing centres.[19] The Government of India during 2007-08 waived agricultural loan obtained from Commercial Banks at national level amounting to 60. Out of which 2.[17] [edit]Dairy Milk is the prime product of Dairying.000 crores. Encouraging production of Vermi Compost at Farm Hold Level and Municipal Compost production and Bio-input production by Self Help Groups for enriching soil health besides promoting green manuring and use of bio-fertilizers. in which Tamil Nadu is one of the frontline States in milk production and ranks as number one in the country in the coverage of more than 50% of revenue villages under Co-operative ambit.[17] During 2008-09.[19] [edit]State support for agriculture The major initiatives undertaken by the Government of Tamil Nadu to achieve the targeted agricultural production during 2009-10 are listed below:. India is the largest milk producing country in the World. Tamil Nadu is one of the important coastal States in the East coast.significant growth in nutritional security. Promotion of Micro Irrigation – especially for high water intensive crops like sugarcane and coconut . as a growth engine for economic development of the State.90 crores waived for the agriculture loan obtained by Tamil Nadu farmers from Commercial Banks.00 lakhs was exported from Tamil Nadu.866 crores.29 lakhs members.97 lakh tonnes. Quality seed supply – Promotion of newly released High Yielding / Hybrids. During 2006-07 the State Government have waived agriculture loan obtained from Co operative Banks to the tune of 6.[2] Adoption of System of Rice Intensification technology . Tamil Nadu is having a coastline of 1076 km.843.[18] There are 8246 functional primary milk societies with 22. Tamil Nadu ranks third in Marine fish production and the annual marine fish catch for the year 2008-09 was 3.397 M. employment generation and foreign exchange earnings.

Dissemination of market price information of various districts through media and internet on a daily basis for the benefit of farming community. The Department of Agricultural Marketing. and economically by involving them to take up entrepreneurial activities.[2] [edit]Agricultural marketing and Agri-business Agriculture sector needs ‘well-functioning Market’ to drive growth. animal husbandry and forestry products for the benefit of the consumers. compartmental bunding. Farm Mechanization . Establishment and maintenance of regulated markets to facilitate marketing of agricultural produce for the benefit of the farming community. Technology dissemination through private extension and input supply by establishing Agri Clinics with soil testing facilities in all the blocks. marketing. socially.Distribution of machineries to overcome the problem of labour scarcity. besides distribution of machineries suitable for rainfed condition. publicity and propaganda. establishsing farm ponds and adoption of dryland development technologies to enhance productivity of rainfed crops. which is functioning since 1977 enhance many activities. value addition and processing their produce through regulated markets by taking up training. some of them are:[20] Establishment and maintenance of Uzhavar Sandhais for the benefit of farmers as well as consumers. Agmark grading of agricultural.Special focus to enhance the productivity of pulses through DAP spraying / Micro Nutrient application and timely plant protection. Creating awareness among the farmers about the benefits of grading. Steps to promote soil and moisture conservation measures. Empowerment of farm women groups technologically. employment and economic prosperity. Promotion of Food Processing to minimize wastage of agricultural products and to increase employment opportunities.[20] . Setting up Agriculture Export Zones for promoting export of agricultural produce by increasing the area under exportable crops and also providing necessary post harvest management and other infrastructure required and information on prices prevailing at international markets as an integrated approach.

2 Basic practices of crop protection 1.1.4 Types of irrigation 1.5 Protection from weeds .3 Preparation of soil and sowing 1.

8 Marketing 1.6 Harvesting.9 Rotation of crops 1.10 Biotechnology in Agriculture 1.1.11 Biotechnology in food processing . 1.7 Storage 1.

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