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First Bohr Electron Radius............... a 0= 0.5292 X 10-10 m Speed of light in a vacuum c0 = 2.9979 X 108 m/s Electronic Charge e = 1.6022 X 10-19 C Gravitational Acceleration g = 9.81 m/s2 Plank's Constant h = 6.6262 X 10-34 J.s Boltzmann Constant k = 1.3806 X 10-23 J/K Electron Rest Mass me = 9.1096 X 10-31 kg Classical Electron Radius ro = 2.8179 X 10-15 m Electron Volt 1 eV = 1.6022 X 10-19 J Avagadro's Number Na = 6.023 X 1026 particles/kmol
1 kg = 2.2046 lbm 1 lbm = 0.45359 kg 1 lbm/ft3 = 16.019 kg/m3 1 kg/m3 = 0.062428 lbm/ft3
1 1 1 1 m2 = 10.764 ft2 ft2 = 0.092903 m2 in2 = 6.4516 E-04 m2 yd2 = 0.83613 m2 1 1 1 1 m3 = 35.315 ft3 ft3 = 0.028317m 2 gal = 0.13368 ft3 liter = 1000 cm3
1 m/s = 3.281 ft/s 1 N = 0.22481 lbf
1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s
1 lbf = 4.4482 N
1 m/s2 = 3.28 ft/s2 1 ft/s2 = 0.3048 m/s2
1 year = 3.16 E07 s 1 day = 1.44 E03 min = 8.64 E04 s
1 1 1 1 1 Pa = 1 E-05 bar = 1.4504 E-04 psia = 9.8692 E-6 atm = 0.020886 lbf/ft2 kPa = 0.14504 psia bar = 1 E05 Pa = 0.98692 atm = 14.504 psia = 2088.6 lbf/ft2 psia = 144 lbf/ft2 = 6894.8 Pa = 6.8948 E-02 bar = 0.068046 atm atm = 101.325 kPa = 14.696 psia = 1.0133 bar = 2116.2 lbf/ft2
1 1 1 1 1 1 J = 1 N*m = 1 kg*m/s2 kJ = 1 kW*s = 0.94783 Btu = 0.23885 kcal = 737.56 ft*lbf Btu = 1.0550 kJ = 0.25200 kcal = 778.16 ft*lbf kcal = 4.1868 kJ = 3.9684 Btu = 3088.0 ft*lbf kWh = 3.60 E03 kJ = 2655.2 E03 ft*lbf = 3412.2 Btu = 859.86 kcal/h ft*lbf = 1.2851 E-03 Btu = 1.3558 E-03 kJ
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 W = 1 J/s W = 3.4122 Btu/h = 0.85987 kcal/h = 1.34102 E-03 hp = 0.73756 ft*lbf/s Btu/h = 0.29307 W = 0.25200 kcal/h = 3.930 E-04 hp = 0.21616 ft*lbf/s kcal/h = 1.1630 W = 3.9683 Btu/h = 1.5595 E-03 hp = 0.85778 ft*lbf/s hp = 550 ft*lbf/s = 2544.5 Btu/h = 745.7 W ft*lbf/s = 4.6262 Btu/h = 1.3558 W = 1.8182 E-03 hp ton(Cooling Capacity)= 12,000 Btu/h = 3.5168 kW
Energy Rate per Unit Area:
1 W/m2 = 0.31700 Btu/(h*ft2) = 0.85986 kcal/(h*m2) 1 Btu/(h*ft2) = 3.1546W/m2 = 2.7125 kcal/(h*m2) 1 kcal/(h*m2) = 0.36867 Btu/(h*ft2) = 1.1630 W/m2
1 kJ/K = 0.52657 Btu/oR = 0.23885 kcal/K 1 Btu/oR = 1.8991 kJ/K = 0.45359 kcal/K 1 kcal/K = 4,1868 kJ/K = 2.2047 Btu/oR
T,K = 5/9(T,oR) T,oR = 9/5(T,K) T,oF = 9/5(T,oC T,oC = 5/9(T,oF = = + 5/9(T,oF + 459.67) = T,oC + 273.15 9/5(T,oC + 273.15) = T,oF + 459.67 32) 32)
Specific Energy, Specific Enthalpy:
1 kJ/kg = 0.42992 Btu/lbm = 0.23885 kcal/kg = 334.55 ft*lbf/lbm 1 Btu/lbm = 2.3260 kJ/kg = 0.55556 kcal/kg = 778.16 ft*lbf/lbm 1 kcal/kg = 4.1868 kJ/kg = 1.8000 Btu/lbm = 1400.7 ft*lbf/lbm
0820568 liter*atm/(gmol*K) 0.730235 ft3*atm/(lbmol*oR) 1545.31441 kJ/(kmol*K) 0.3 ft*lbf/(lbmol*oR) 10.31441 kPa*m3/(kmol*K) 8.0820568 m3*atm/(kmol*K) 1.73 psia*ft3/(lbmol*oR) .___ Universal Gas Constant R: = = = = = = = = 8.98586 Btu/(lbmol*oR) 0.
000 N leaves Earth with 900.8s 5/12/2001 .430 kg To lift off: Thrust = Weight HB 1.840 + 30.590 = 58.000 N of fuel on board and flies to a planet where the acceleration due to gravity is 4 m/s2.TUTORIAL 1 Example 1-1 Problem Statement: A spacecraft weighting 273. How much thrust does the rocket need to insure lift off from the planet? SOLUTION: Total mass on planet = 27. 2/3 of the fuel is consumed. During the flight to the planet.
is the body rising or falling. and the acceleration due to gravity is 9. In the absence of friction. What reading is expected? If it is weighed with a spring scale that reads correctly for standard gravity. it will give: . and what is the acceleration? The body is initially at rest.7 m/s2. and will balance with 1 kg.8 m/s2.Example 1-2 Problem Statement: An external force of 225 N is acting vertically upwards on a body whose mass is 5 kg. If calibrated with "weights" based on Earth's gravity. SOLUTION: Example 1-3 Problem Statement: A kilogram mass is "weighed" with a beam balance at a point where g = 9. what scale reading is expected? SOLUTION: The beam balance reads in proportion to mass.
021 m3/kg? The acceleration due to gravity is 9. SOLUTION: .807 m/s2.The spring scale would read: Example 1-4 Problem Statement: What is the weight of the H2O occupying a volume of 0.85 m3 if v = 0.
What are the values of kinetic and potential energy of the mass. and what is the weight of the mass? SOLUTION The kinetic energy is The potential energy is The weight is COMMENT: Watch the units carefully! All terms must be converted to the same units. usually either Btu or ft*lbf for energy in the USCS. .Example 1-5 Problem Statement: A mass of 5 lbm is moving at a speed of 10 ft/s at a height of 30 ft above a reference plane.
what is the gas pressure? Will the gas pressure change if the gas volume beneath the piston is doubled? SOLUTION: By a force balance on the piston.8 m/s2.01 m2.3 kPa. . calculate the absolute pressure of the H2O.Example 1-6 Problem Statement: The exit pressure from a steam turbine is measured to be 12 inches of Hg vacuum.101 MPa and the local gravitational acceleration as 9. SOLUTION: Example 1-7 Problem Statement: A cylinder encloses a gas with a piston as shown. Take the atmospheric pressure to be 0. The area of the piston is 0. If Patm = 101. If the piston supports a mass of 50 kg (including the mass of the piston).
13. Example 1-8 Problem Statement: At the beginning of a process. gas volume.Even if the gas volume is doubled. What is the final temperature in degrees Celsius? SOLUTION: Example 1-9 Problem Statement: Determine the SI values for the following energy-related quantities: 1 Btu/(ft2-hr). therefore. the gas pressure is the same because the force balance contains no function of volume.000 Btu/lbm.000 Btu/h. The force on the gas exerted by the piston weight plus atmospheric pressure is constant regardless of piston position and. and 50. You want to stop the experiment when the absolute temperature has doubled. the thermometer reads 15 °F. SOLUTION: .
Example 2-1 Problem Statement: The numerical values of the properties x.820 200 4.031 Find: y for x = 112.8894 200 21. a) Given: x y 110 1.3 b) Given: x = 10 y z y x = 50 z 150 19. and z are given. Linearly interpolate and obtain the specified property.3561 . y.513 150 3.2074 115 1.
finding the values at x = 32 yields: COMMENTS: These are the types of interpolation that are required to obtain properties from many tables. Find: z for x = 32 and y = 181 SOLUTION: a) b) c) We must effectively create new entries for z at 181. Example 2-2 PROBLEM STATEMENT: Indicate whether the following states for water are in the liquid. at x=10 at x = 50 Now.Find: z for x = 27 and y = 150 c) Given: Same data as in b). or superheated region. saturation. Specify the quality of the states in the saturation region: . Thus.
State 1 2 3 4 5 P (kPa) 1700 1200 -500 350 T (°C) 200 -75 202 -- v (m3/kg) -0.0010 3. examine the specific volume columns in the .1318 0.0010 In order to determine the state of the water.005 Solution: State 1 State 1 P (kPa) 1700 T (°C) 200 v (m3/kg) -- In order to determine the state of the water.0 -0.3 212.5 2600.0 T (°C) 198. From the steam tables: P (bar) 15.16 906.0 20. first find the saturation temperature at P = 1700 kPa = 17 bar.44 ug(kJ/kg) 2594.4 vf (m3/kg) 0.001177 vg (m3/kg) 0.35°C.09963 uf(kJ/kg) 843. Solution: State 2 State 2 P (kPa) 1200 T (°C) -v (m3/kg) 0.001154 0. water is in the liquid region.3 Using linear interpolation: Since T = 200°C < Tsat = 204.
001059 < v = 3.9 Since vf = 0.90 2475. Using linear interpolation to determine the quality: .9 198.131 m3/kg.6 2594.saturated water table at P = 1200 kPa = 12 Bar: P (bar) T (°C) vf (m3/kg) vg (m3/kg) uf(kJ/kg) 10.0 15. examine the specific volume columns in the saturated water table at T = 75oC: T (°C) P (bar) vf (m3/kg) vg (m3/kg) uf(kJ/kg) 75 0.0 < vg = 4.3 0.0 179.5 Using linear interpolation: Since v = 0.001138 m3/kg. water is in the liquid region Solution: State 3 State 3 P (kPa) -T (°C) 75 v (m3/kg) 3.131 ug(kJ/kg) 313. water is in the saturation region.0010259 4.16 2583.001154 0.0010 m3/kg < vl = 0.1944 0.3858 0.0 In order to determine the state of the water.001127 0.68 843.1318 ug(kJ/kg) 761.
0010786 0.005 In order to determine the state of the water.9 Since vf = 0.0010926 0.9 0.Solution: State 4 State 4 P (kPa) 500 T (°C) 202 v (m3/kg) -- In order to determine the state of the water.95 2546. Using linear interpolation to determine the quality: .0 151. water is in the saturation region.005 < vg = 0.9 0.0010786 < v = 0.5243 ug(kJ/kg) 583.50 138.68 2561. From the steam tables: P (bar) T (°C) vf (m3/kg) vg (m3/kg) uf(kJ/kg) 5.9°C. water is in the superheat region.3749 ug(kJ/kg) 639. Solution: State 5 State 5 P (kPa) 350 T (°C) -v (m3/kg) 0.5243 m3/kg. examine the specific volume columns in the saturated water table at P = 350 kPa = 3.2 Since T = 202°C > Tsat = 151. first find the saturation temperature at P = 500 kPa = 5 Bar.5 Bar: P (bar) T (°C) vf (m3/kg) vg (m3/kg) uf(kJ/kg) 3.
08 MPa.10 MPa until the vessel contains a single phase.08 MPa and h = 1000 kJ/kg. so fluid is a saturated mixture. T = Tsat = 93.0 gram.3 kJ/kg hf < h < hg. Example 2-4 PROBLEM STATEMENT: A sealed volume of 2.10 gram and (b) 1. At the given P.5 °C. hg = 2665.0 cm3 contains saturated water.71 kJ/kg. Find: T and v SOLUTION: From Table 11s. hf = 391. The container is heated from an initial pressure of 0.Example 2-3 Problem Statement: Given: water at P = 0. Determine the final state of the water if the vessel contains: (a) 0. at P = 0. .
63 ? v (m3/kg) ? ? The states are determined by the following steps: The saturated water tables at 100 kPa = 1 bar are: P (bar) 1.Solution: Part a Problem (a) State 1 2 P (kPa) 100 ? T (oC) 99.694 hf(kJ/kg) 417.5 The quality is then: .0 2675.63 vf (m3/kg) 0.46 hfg(kJ/kg) hg(kJ/kg) 2258.0010432 vg (m3/kg) 1.00 T (°C) 99.
0014524 vg (m3/kg) 0. For the final state a saturated vapor.since v is constant.1 vf (m3/kg) 0.7 By interpolation: Solution: Part b Problem (b) State 1 2 P (kPa) 100 ? T (oC) 99.1 2724.1 2742.6 hfg(kJ/kg) hg(kJ/kg) 1378. T (°C) 303. the saturated water tables near this point are: P (bar) 90.02048 0.0 100.01803 hf(kJ/kg) 1363.4 311.9 1317.3 1407.63 ? V (m3/kg) ? ? The states are determined by the following steps: The saturated water tables at 100 kPa = 1 bar are: P (bar) T (°C) vf (m3/kg) vg (m3/kg) hf(kJ/kg) hfg(kJ/kg) hg(kJ/kg) .0014178 0.
4 2464.00311 m3/kg.8 vf (m3/kg) 0.46 2258. For the final state a saturated liquid. Example 2-5 . 200.0019243 0. This value shows directly that (a) is a saturated vapor (va > vcr) and that (b) is a saturated liquid (vb <vcr).0010432 1.5 The quality is then: since v is constant.5 365.002036 vg (m3/kg) 0.5 1826. T (°C) 361.63 0.694 417. the saturated water tables near this point are: P (bar) 190.006657 0.5 2409.005834 hf(kJ/kg) 1776.7 By interpolation: Comments: The specific volume at the critical point for water is 0.0 583.3 hfg(kJ/kg) hg(kJ/kg) 688.1.00 99.0 2675.
89°C at Psat = 3000 kPa. ug = 2544. so state 2 is superheated. Table 11s shows Tsat = 233. . Solution: State 1 is saturated (check Table 11s) v lies between vf and vg at P = 100 kPa. so it's in the compressed liquid region.6500 m3/kg and a final state where P = 3000 kPa and T = 525°C.9738 Using the known x at state 1. At state 2. From Table 13s.6933 = 0.2 kJ/kg u < uf. at P = 10 MPa. Find: T and h SOLUTION: From Table 11s.8 kJ/kg.6500 .Problem Statement: Find the change in value of enthalpy h for water (steam) between an initial state where P = 100 kPa and v = 1. so Example 2-6 Problem Statement: Given: water at P = 10.001043) / 1. uf = 1392. T = 525°C.0.96 kJ/kg. For P = 3000.0 MPa and u = 418. x = (1. Go to Table 12s.
to find T & h.001006 m3/kg vf Examining the Saturated Water tables again to determine where v = vf: P (bar) 0.0016581. and h = uf + Pvf = 418. Now.96 kJ/kg.96 kJ/kg + (10 * 103 kPa * 0.T = 100.0010040 vg (m3/kg) 34. vf = 0. h = 429.001043 m3/kg) = 429.0016581 m3/kg Therefore => v = 0.2 vf (m3/kg) 0. for uf(T) = 418. Example 2-7 PROBLEM STATEMENT: Given: Water at P = 15 MPa and v = .7 °C.010304 hf (kJ/kg) hg (kJ/kg) 1610.46 hg(kJ/kg) 2554.39 kJ/kg.800 hf(kJ/kg) 121. so water is in the compressed liquid state. assume that the specific volume is equal to the saturated liquid specific volume at the state temperature: v = 0.4 .001006 h (kJ/kg) ? Examine the Saturated Water table at P = 15 MPa = 150 bar: P (bar) 150 T (°C) 342.001006 m3/kg.04 T (°C) 28. T = 100 °C (Table 11s).0016581 vg (m3/kg) 0.96 vf (m3/kg) 0.5 At Psat = 15 Mpa. The incompressible liquid approximation gives.001006 < vf = 0. Find: T and h SOLUTION (Saturated Water Tables): State 1 P (MPa) 15 T (oC) ? v (m3/kg) 0.5 2610.35 kJ/kg.
0 MPa Tsat = 342.0.0013 1.16 0.48 h (kJ/kg) 180.78 346. SOLUTION (Compressed Liquid Tables): State 1 P (MPa) 15 T (oC) ? v (m3/kg) 0.24 oC T (oC) 40 80 v (m3/kg) 1.76 331.0010064 23.0222 u (kJ/kg) 165.53 2567.739 151.06 36.4 Linear interpolation gives: and Using linear interpolation to obtain hf and Psat: Now.001006 h (kJ/kg) ? Examine the Compressed Liquid table at P = 15 MPa = 150 bar: P = 150 bars = 15.81 .
P=6900 kPa) (d) x(P=500 kPa. x=0. Example 2-8 PROBLEM STATEMENT: Find the following properties for steam from the steam tables. v=0. the temperature is higher than the critical temperature for water (373. Show all interpolation calculations.98oC) but the pressure is well below the critical pressure of 22056 kPa for water. The results from the compressed liquid tables are more accurate. P=1500 kPa) (b) h(T=200°C. P=2000 kPa) (c) T(h=2100 kJ/kg. h=2000 kJ/kg) (e) h(u=2000 kJ/kg.65) (f) h(u=3100 kJ/kg.Using linear interpolation: Comments: In this case. (a) u(T=400°C. the incompressible liquid approximation breaks down badly. Examining the Saturated Water tables: .1 m3/kg) Solution: State a State a T (oC) 400 P (kPa) 1500 u (kJ/kg) ? In this case.
so that the change in h between the saturated liquid state and the subcooled liquid state is: or.0 bar) to be above the saturation pressure at the given temperature. since v is constant for an incompressible liquid and usubcooled(T) = usat(T).65 ug(kJ/kg) hf(kJ/kg) 2595. .0 bars = 1500 kPa Tsat = 198.3 3018.5 Since the temperature (400oC) is higher than the saturation temperature at the state pressure.2690 7.1274 uf(kJ/kg) 850.45 hg(kJ/kg) 2793.1318 uf(kJ/kg) 843. The specific internal energy can be found in the superheat tables: P = 15.1899 0.3 852.8 3342.4 2951.5 s (kJ/kgK) 7.0011539 vg (m3/kg) 0.1363 7.2030 0.16 ug(kJ/kg) 2594. so this state is subcooled.001565 0.3 kJ/kg.P (bar) 15.2160 u (kJ/kg) 2884.3 vf (m3/kg) 0.5 h (kJ/kg) 3169.0 T (°C) 198. Solution: State b State b T (oC) 200 P (kPa) 2000 h (kJ/kg) ? Examining the Saturated Water tables: T (°C) 200 P (bar) 15. the state lies in the superheat region.2 3255.54 vf (m3/kg) vg (m3/kg) 0.2 shows the given pressure (20. The enthalpy of a subcooled liquid can be determined by noting that u for a subcooled liquid is chiefly a function of temperature.32 oC T (oC) 360 400 440 v (m3/kg) 0.3940 The specific internal energy is 2951.
7 2756.25 640.1 shows it to be in the saturation region.86°C (for Psat = 7000 kPa).00 6.3157 hf(kJ/kg) 623. Thus.23 670.8 we find that the given h does lie in the saturation region. checking the Saturated Water (pressure) tables: P (bar) 60.62°C (for Psat = 6000 kPa) and 285.0013187 0. from the definition x we find .9 vf (m3/kg) 0. Using linear interpolation gives: Solution: State d State d x ? P (kPa) 500 h (kJ/kg) 2000 Again using the Saturated Water (pressure) table: P (bar) 4.50 5.0011006 vg (m3/kg) 0.3 2772.3 hg(kJ/kg) 2743.9 vf (m3/kg) 0.9 2748.7 2108. with a temperature between 275.03244 0.0 70.0013513 vg (m3/kg) 0.56 hfg(kJ/kg) 2120.9 158.0 T (°C) 275.5 2086.0010882 0.9 151.3749 0.6 285.0 hg(kJ/kg) 2784.0010926 0.02737 hf(kJ/kg) 1213.00 T (°C) 147.4 1267.4140 0.Solution: State c State c T (oC) ? P (kPa) 6900 h (kJ/kg) 2100 For this state.
Then the value of h at that T (or P) is computed for the given x.65 u (kJ/kg) 2000 h (kJ/kg) ? This problem requires an iterative solution. calculate the value of u that corresponds to the given value of x = 0.65 1984.65 0.11 1993.45 897. Such an iterative solution is outlined below.65 0.7 2003.76 hg (kJ/kg) 2793.5 Linear interpolation between T = 200°C and 210°C can be carried out to obtain u at T = 205°C. The values at trial 4 can also be obtained through linear interpolation: Now. and using the corresponding saturation tables.53 hf (kJ/kg) 852.Solution: State e State e x 0.65 to give: .3°C (based on interpolation from the trials 2 and 3) at x = 0. One way is to assume a value of Tsat (or Psat).5 uf (kJ/kg) 850.65 0.65.3 0.0 Where the Saturated Water table is shown here: T (°C) 200 210 P (bar) 15. Trial T Guess (°C) x u(kJ/kg) = uf+xufg 1 2 3 4 200 210 205 208.2 2798.65 895.06 ug (kJ/kg) 2595. The selected T (or P) is then adjusted until the computed u value agrees with that given.54 19. h is computed for Tsat = 208.3 2599.91 2000.
v. .3 3099. We note that we are very close to the required state. T values that bracket both the required v and the required u.5 3108.6 3330. Now the pressures are scanned to see which pressure gives v near 0. Again.1079 0. so we can search the superheat tables for a temperature with a value of u close to the value of 3100 kJ/kg.1 u (kJ/kg) 3100 h (kJ/kg) ? Since u > ug for all conditions in the Saturated Water tables. we note that u is a weak function of P. the pressure is between 3000 and 4000 kPa. this set of values lies in the superheat region.7 h(kJ/kg) 3344. assuming a linear relation over the region between the points.08642 u(kJ/kg) 3020.1 3456. At moderate pressures.1 m3/kg at T = 500°C. The constant P and constant T lines are superimposed on the diagram. We can construct the table below for states that bracket the given state: State 1 2 3 4 P(kPa) 3000 3000 4000 4000 T(°C) 450 500 450 500 v(m3/kg) 0.08002 0.Solution: State f State f v m3/kg 0.1 3010. a temperature of about 500°C appears about right (check pressures in the range 600 to 8000 kPa to see that this is so). It appears that at 500°C.4 The table entries have P. The figure below shows the situation on a plot of u vs.1162 0.4 3445.
with states 6 and 7 known. P and h that correspond to the given v.2 Now.5 3017.1 0. Any of these properties can be found from the relations where z is the property to be determined. and P are found at states 6 and 7.We now must perform a double interpolation to find that T. where T and v are known. the values of u. h. State 6 7 P(kPa) 3544 3283 T(°C) 500 450 v(m3/kg) 0. linear interpolation can be used to define state 5 using This results in h5 = 3446.u at state 5.0°C. This is done as follows: First.0 kJ/kg at T = 498.5 3340. This linear interpolation results in the table. .6 h(kJ/kg) 3450.1 u(kJ/kg) 3103.
problems involving property determinations of the type necessary in parts (e) and (f) require tedious calculations and provide room for considerable error. Example 2-9 Problem Statement: Steam is at T = 650°C and P = 2000 kPa. P = 40 MPa) = 3516. so h2-h1 = 4150. P = 0. Determine the specific volume in cubic meters per kilogram and the mass in kilograms.3803.2 = -286. V = 60 m3 .Comments: Obviously. and h(T = 650°C. T = 20°C.2 kJ/kg.9 kJ/kg.1 MPa. h(T = 650°C. Thus. the results obtained from the table entries depend on linear interpolations among the available states in the table.3803. Further.9 . h2-h1 = 3516.9 kJ/kg b) From Table 12s. h(T = 800°C.3 .2 = 347. P = 2000 kPa) = 3803. SOLUTION: a) From Table 12s. P = 2000 kPa) = 4150.3 kJ/kg. Find the change in the enthalpy of the steam when a) T is held constant and P is changed to 40 MPa b) P is held constant and T is changed to 800°C.7 kJ/kg Example 2-10 Problem Statement: Helium occupies a rigid container at the given conditions. More complete tables allow better interpolation and therefore better accuracy.
0 m3 of O2 is heated from an initial pressure of 0. SOLUTION: Assuming ideal gas behavior .25 MPa and a temperature of 50°C to a final temperature of 325°C. Determine the mass of the gas and its final pressure.SOLUTION: Assuming ideal gas behavior The value of R is from Example 2-11 Problem Statement: In a rigid tank 1.
SOLUTION: Assuming ideal gas behavior Example 2-12 Problem Statement: Air occupies a rigid container at the conditions shown below.25 MPa and a temperature of 50°C to a final temperature of 325°C.6 kg SOLUTION: Assuming ideal gas behavior . density = 1/v = 1.00 kg/m3 . Determine the temperature in Kelvins and the total volume of the container.Example 2-11 Problem Statement: In a rigid tank 1. Determine the mass of the gas and its final pressure. P = 0. m = 453.1 MPa.0 m3 of O2 is heated from an initial pressure of 0.
35 Methane 190.1 MPa and 20°C e) Water at 0. Substance Tcr (K) Pcr (MPa) Air 132.4 Water 647.Example 2-13 Problem Statement: Can the following fluids in the specified states be treated as ideal gases? a) Air at 0.60 22.5 .01 MPa and 30°C f) Ammonia at 12 MPa and 450 K SOLUTIONS: The critical point data is given in Table 2.1 Ammonia 405.06 11.1 MPa and 20°C b) Air at 13 MPa and 900°C c) Methane at 2 MPa and 1000°C d) Water at 0.77 4.5 3.
0005 0.853 3. Thus: a) b) c): ideal gas d) e) f): non ideal behavior .110 1.005 0. The two states of (d) and (e) are in the sub-cooled region (from steam table).468 0. z is close to 1 for an ideal gas. Problem a) b) c) d) e) f) Tr Pr z 1.057 0.00007 1. we use the compressibility factor law.To use the compressibility charts. The specific volume is almost constant.434 0. Tr = T/Tcr and Pr = P/Pcr.71 It is not possible to find z of Parts (d) and (e) from the compressibility chart because this state lies outside the range of plotted values and below the saturation curve indicated by the long dashed curve.448 6.027 8.0007 2.453 0.211 0.0 1.689 0.05 1. the reduced temperature and pressure must be found.005 0. Hence.
1 = 252. It is cooled at constant volume to T = 189. Example 2-15 PROBLEM STATEMENT: 5 kg of methane is enclosed in a rigid container at a pressure of 90 bar and a temperature of 250 K.2 = 2.2 K for nitrogen. According to compressibility factor chart.5 = 119 atm.2 = 189. Find the volume of the container using the generalized compressibility chart.5 = 5.55. Following the constant vr' line until it intersects with the line at Tr. At State 1. Pr.4/126. vr' = 0.Example 2-14 Problem Statement: Nitrogen gas is originally at P = 200 atm. Tcr = 126. It will be shown that methane in these conditions cannot be assumed an . it is not appropriate to use the ideal gas law or the gas tables.5 atm.3 K.2 = 1.34.2 = 3. Thus P2 = 3.0 for this process. Given & Find Given: Substance: methane (1 kg) T = 250 K P = 90 bar Find: Volume (m3) Assumptions 1.1 = 200/33. Since the chart shows z far from 1. What is the pressure at the lower temperature? SOLUTION: From Table 2.5 give Pr. T = 252. Pcr = 33.97 and Tr.3/126.4 K.55 x 33.
71 The compressibility factor is defined as: Solving for V: Substituting values: . respectively The molecular weight is The reduced temperature is The reduced pressure is Using the generalized compressibility chart Z = 0.ideal gas Solution The critical temperature and pressure of methane are.
Weights are placed on the piston such the pressure inside the cylinder is 300 bar and the temperature is 150oC. Given & Find Given: Carbon dioxide contained in a piston cylinder device T1 = 150oC P1 = 300 bar V1 = 10 liters T2 = 310oC Find: V2 (in liters) Assumptions 1. Heat is transferred to the gas until the temperature reaches 310oC.Example 2-16 PROBLEM STATEMENT: Carbon dioxide is contained in a piston cylinder device. Using the generalized compressibility chart. The initial volume is 10 liters. determine the final volume. respectively: . It will be shown that CO2 in these conditions cannot be assumed an ideal gas Solution The critical temperature and pressure of carbon dioxide are.
Z = 0.74 The compressibility factor is defined as: The mass contained in the cylinder is: Substituting values: State 2 .The molecular weight is: State 1 Using the generalized compressibility chart.
95 The volume at State 2 can then be calculated from: Example 2-17 PROBLEM STATEMENT Calculate the change in enthalpy (kJ/kg) for nitrogen between T1 = 25°C and T2 = 650°C using the ideal gas tables. Given and Find . P2 = P1 = 300 bar Pr2 = Pr1 = 4.Since the process is constant pressure.06 The reduced temperature at State 2 is: So that the compressibility factor at State 2 is: Z2 = 0. Compare the result to that found by using the polynomial equations for cp and to that found by using the mean value of cp for the temperature range between 25 and 650°C.
h1 = 677. T1 = 25°C.52 kJ/kg and therefore the enthalpy change can be calculated directly: h2 .53 kJ/kg Solution Using Polynomial Function for cp(T) The change in enthalpy for a simple compressible substance can be calculated from: so that The function cp(T) can be obtained from Table 3s as a polynomial of the form Note temperatures must be entered in K.99 kJ/kg h2(650°C) = 987. Substituting the polynomial function into the integral yields: .h1 (kJ/kg) Assumptions: Nitrogen behaves as an ideal gas Solution Using Ideal Gas Tables The ideal gas table for nitrogen (Table 6s) gives the following values for enthalpy: h1(25°C) = 309. T2 = 650°C Find: h2 .Given: Nitrogen. not °C.
0838 kJ/kg-K x (923-298) K = 677.For nitrogen. the mean cp for the temperature range between 25 and 650 °C is (by interpolation) 1. Taking this value as a constant specific heat: Substituting values yields: h2 . For gases with more than two atoms in the molecule. the coefficients of the polynomial are: a=28.01 kg/kmol. using the mean value of cp over the temperature range.157x10-2 c=0. The assumption of constant specific heat.0838 kJ/kg-K.h1 = 1. T1 = 25 + 273 = 298 K.8081x10-5 d=-2.873x10-9 Substituting M=28. is quite accurate so long as cp varies linearly with T over the range of interest (reasonably valid for diatomic gases).h1 = 678. this assumption begins to break down and thus assuming constant cp would result in greater error.90 b= -0. since we are taking a difference in temperatures in this equation. and T2 = 650 + 273 = 923 K: h2 . Problem 3-1 PROBLEM STATEMENT: . COMMENTS: All three methods in this case yield results that agree within a fraction of a percent.12 kJ/kg Solution Using Mean cp From Table 4s.34 kJ/kg Note that. it would have been OK to use °C instead of K for T1 and T2.
2 m3.2 m3 Piston travels: 2x3 = 20 cm The final pressure and temperature (P3.1 m2. Heat is now transferred to the water. Given & Find Given: Substance: Water Vapor (50 kg) Piston Area: 0. Determine: y The final pressure and temperature (P3. More heat is transferred to the water until the piston rises 20 cm more. causing part of it to evaporate and expand. When the volume reaches 0. The crosssectional area of the piston is 0.1 m2 Spring Constant: 100 kN/m State 1: T = 25oC. T3) y The work done during this process (1W3) y Also show the process on a P-V diagram. T3) Find: . the piston reaches a linear spring whose spring constant is 100 kN/m. P = 150 kPa Note: The initial state is a subcooled liquid (T < Tsat at P) State 2: V = 0.A piston-cylinder device contains 50 kg of water at 150 kPa and 25oC.
or The process from state 1 to state 2 is a constant pressure process. Assumptions 1. Therefore. Piston is frictionless 3. Water at State 1 can be treated as a saturated liquid 2. The force balance now becomes: or . Neglect Kinetic and Potential Energy Final Pressure Between states 1 and 2 the piston is not in contact with the spring.The work done during this process (1W3) Also show the process on a P-V diagram. The piston comes into contact with the spring at state 2.
2*0.0010 0. Thus v3 = 0. Thus 1 2 3 P (kPa) 150 150 350 V (m3) 0.05 0.0044 T(oC) 25 111.9 Work The pressure remains constant during process 1-2 and changes linearly (a straight line) during process 2-3.0044 < vg @ 350 kPa => State 3 is also in the saturation region.20 0.Final Temperature The temperature can be determined from the steam tables.4 138.22 v (m3/kg) 0. Wb = .0040 0.050 m3 V3 = V2 + 2x3*Ap = 0. Then the boundary work during this process is simply the total area under the process curve.20+0.0040 < vg @ 150 kPa => State 2 is in the saturation region.22 m3 v2 = 0.0010 = 0.1 = 0. thus V1 = m * v1 = 50*0.
=27. The work can also be calculated from the expression for an expansion or compression process: From state 1 to state 2 P is constant.5 kJ PV Diagram Comments The above is based on the principle of using the simple concept that work = area under the process path on a P-V diagram. therefore .
where From state 2 to state 3 the compression of the spring adds force and the work integral becomes and Now.3 kPa and T = 300K is contained within a . The total boundary work is thus Wb = 1W2 + 2W3 or Example 3-2 PROBLEM STATEMENT: Air with mass of 1 kg and initially at P = 101.
Air behaves as an ideal gas 2. Assume air is an ideal gas. (a) Draw a P-V diagram of the process. Given & Find Given: Air contained in a piston-cylinder device is an ideal gas T1 = 300 K P1 = 101. so that heat transfer to the surroundings maintains the temperature of the air at 300K. (b) Calculate the work done on the gas during the process. thus compressing the gas. Isothermal process Solution Part a: A force balance on the piston yields: At the initial state.3 kPa T2 = 300 K Find: The work done on the air as it is compressed Assumptions 1. they can be combined into one pressure Po. Label the initial state 1 and the final state 2. The cup on top of the piston is then filled at a constant rate until it contains 50 kg of water.cylinder. Since these remain constant throughout the process. A general expression fot the pressure of the air in the cylinder is then: . The compression proceeds slowly. the mass of water mwater = 0 and the pressure of the air in the cylinder is due to the combined effects of the atmospheric pressure acting on the piston area and the weight of the piston.
3 116.9 v (m3/kg) 0.The pressure at State 2 can then be calculated from: And since the temperature is known: A property table can be constructed: State 1 2 And the P-v diagram is: T (K) 300 300 P (kPa) 101.736 Note that while this appears to be a straight line. it is in fact a curve.850 0. .
the following is true: which is equivalent to a polytropic process (Pvn = const.U1 = 0 so that Q = W. Example 3-3 PROBLEM STATEMENT: Find the work done.Part b: For an ideal gas undergoing a constant temperature process. in kilojoules. . This provides the P-v relationship that is necessary to calculate the work using the relationship: Substituting into the above equation yields: Using the values calculated in part a: Comments: Note that this is not an adiabatic process. by an ideal gas in going from state A to state C along the path shown in the P-V diagram. In other words. An energy balane for this process yields Q-W = U2 . all of the energy that is put into the gas through compression is rejected as heat transfer.) with n = 1.
The substance behaves as an ideal gas Solution The process from A to B is constant temperature.Given & Find Given: An Ideal Gas undergoes a constant temperature process followed by a constant pressure process. VA = 3 m3 VB = 2 m3 PB = 100 kPa VC = 1 m3 PC = 100 kPa Find: The work done on the air as it is compressed Assumptions 1. Since the substance in question is an ideal gas. we can say: and .
The work for this process is then:
Substituting values gives:
The process from B to C is constant presure. The work for this process is expressed as:
Substituting values results in:
The total work for the process from State A to C is:
Example 3-4 PROBLEM STATEMENT:
A weightless and frictionless piston moves 10 cm. against an ideal gas (that is, a gas with properties that obey Pv=RT) contained in a cylinder that has an inside diameter of 15 cm. A spring is also within the cylinder, positioned as shown. The spring exerts no force on the piston in the initial position, but is touching the piston. The spring has a spring constant of 2 x 104 N/m. During the piston motion, the gas in the cylinder is maintained at 1 atm.
(a) How much work was done by the piston? (b) What fraction of the work is done in compressing the gas? (c) What fraction of the total work done by the piston is done in the first 5 cm of the piston travel?
Given & Find
Given: An Ideal Gas undergoes a constant pressure process. Piston diameter = 0.15 m Piston displacement = 0.1 m Spring constant = 2 x 104 N/m Find: (a) How much work was done by the piston? (b) What fraction of the work is done to compress the gas? (c) What fraction of the total work done by the piston is done in the first 5 cm of the piston travel? (d) What is the heat transfer associated with this process?
1. Neglect changes in kinetic and potential energy 2. The temperature change is small enough that specific heats can be treated as constant
The total work is the combined work done against the air and the spring:
Now, with pressure constant, F = kx and let dS = dX, the work can be expressed as:
The first term can be rearranged using the relationship V = A x. Since we are considering work done by the piston, x will be considered positive in the downward direction. Taking the initial position of the piston to be x1 = 0 gives:
b) The fraction of the work that was done compressing the gas is:
c) The fraction of the total work done in the first 5 cm of compression is:
d) For this analysis it is convenient to consider the air in the cylinder as the system. With assumptions 1 and 2, the heat transfer associated with this process can be calculated by first examining the 1st Law:
this can be rewritten as: Substituting values: Note: The heat transfer out of the system is greater than the work input due to the temperature drop that was necessary to maintain a constant pressure. The temperature drop can be calculated from: .In this case. the work term is only the work done on the air. Using the Ideal Gas Law: and substituting this into the energy balance: Since pressure is constant. and with V = mv.
Find the total work done in the process. Is it work done on or by the system? Show the process on a Tv diagram.8 MPa. SOLUTION: . The water undergoes an isobaric process until it becomes a saturated liquid.Example 3-5 Problem Statement: The piston/cylinder device shown contains one kilogram of water at a temperature of 200°C and pressure of 0.
The water is cooled until half the container is filled with liquid and half is vapor by volume (state 3). is given by and the specific volume is v2 = vf3 = vg1 = 0. Interpolating from Table 12s yields . SOLUTION: State 1 is specified by P1 = 20 MPa and x1 = 1.out).0. The pressure where the piston leaves the stop. Draw the process on the P-v diagram. Determine the work per unit mass for the process (w13. The final state (3) is indirectly specified by the volume (which will yield quality when the other independent property is determined).8 x 10-3 m2 is supported against stops (see figure) by water at the saturated vapor state and 20 MPa (state 1).005874 m3/kg. The process starts at the saturated vapor state and could either be a constant volume process directly to state 3 or the process could be constant volume to an intermediate state (2) and constant pressure process to state 3.Example 3-6 Problem Statement: A piston of mass equal to 900 kg and area equal to 9. state 2.
02459) 0. The volume fraction is put into quality form by Solving for x gives so that state 3 is x3 = 0.000 (0.00576 and v3 = 0.00577 1. State P (kPa) 1 2 3 v (m3/kg) x 1.001 (0.005874 (0.001 0.5. The P-v diagram and the state table are now complete as indicated.002240 m3/kg. the fraction of vapor is found at state 2 as which is greater than the required 50 percent. Thus this is not the final state since more liquid is in state 3.To determine if this is the final state.002240) The work is evaluated as .005874) 1. The final state is given by P3 = 1001 kPa and Vg/V = 0.0 20.
Determine the work done by the water and the final temperature and pressure.Example 3-7 Problem Statement: A piston encloses 1 kg of saturated water which is initially 10. The volume at the top stops is 0.0 MPa. The water is heated in the system shown in the figure until the water is at the saturated vapor state. The initial pressure is 1.0 percent liquid on a mass basis.19 m3. SOLUTION: .
19 m3/kg and 1.The specific volume at state 1 is and the value at state 2 is State 2 (0. Thus.19 m3/kg and x3 = 1.0. . The piston now rests against the stops and is heated at constant volume until the final state (saturated vapor) is reached.0 MPa) is in the saturation region so that the process is not completed. by interpolation from Table 11s. State 3 is given by v3 = 0.
and the work done by the water is W12 = +15 kJ.1750) 0. The H2O inside is initially a saturated vapor at 270°C.175) (179. Draw and label the processes on a T-u diagram. Determine: a) the initial and final mass of H2O.9 (0. The state variables are summarized in the table below State P(MPa) V(m3) 1 2 3 1.9) (0.19 0. SOLUTION: . The piston is free to move.19 -1.0 1.0 Example 3-8 Problem Statement: A piston-cylinder device with one set of stops has dimensions as shown.9) (0.19) (179.4987 MPa to support it.19) (181) 0. It is cooled until half the mass is a liquid. and b) the total work done (kJ). The piston requires a pressure of 5.0 (1025) T(°C) v(m3/kg) x (0.
Example 3-9 Problem Statement: Water (14 kg) is contained in the piston-cylinder device. a) Plot and label the process (T-v plot).6 MPa. b) What is the total work done (kJ)? c) What is the change in internal energy? SOLUTION: a) b) . The H2O is heated from an initial temperature of 150°C to a final temperature and pressure of 450°C and 0.
SOLUTION: . The piston rises owing to a heat transfer to the water until the water is in the saturated vapor state. The spring constant is 150 kN/m and the piston area is 0.02 m2. The volume initially enclosed is 0. The spring touches the piston but exerts no force at this initial state.Example 3-10 Problem Statement: The cylinder shown contains 0.150 MPa.1 kg of water at 0.005 m3. Determine the final temperature and pressure in the water and evaluate the change in internal energy.
0 2.09959 0.08872 Taking a linear relation for this saturation data gives The spring relation and the saturation data must intersect at State 2.First we will need to calculate our initial state variables where Patm + mg/Agc is constant and given by From the tables. so .25 0. P (MPa) vg (m3/kg) 2.
4) (212.15 2.0 (2599. equivalently.52) .73) 1.8 kJ/kg or. The state variables are summarized in the table below State 1 2 T (°C) (111.Solving for v2 yields v2 = 0.0994 m3/kg and P2 = 2.49) P (MPa)M v (m3/kg) 0.553.05 (0.003 0.003 MPa and u2 .04225) (533.u1 = 2599.7 = 2045.09943) x u (kJ/kg) (0.52 .