Lecture 4: Quiz Questions

In one or two sentences, give a main function served by or housed in the following portions of the human nervous system for 1-16:

1. a. b.

Autonomic nervous system System of central and peripheral nerves Innervates the internal organs, cardiovascular system, and glands; also called visceral PNS.

c. 2. a. b.

Consists of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions. Enteric nervous system Division of the autonomic nervous system Innervates the digestive organs; consists of the myenteric and submucous plexuses.

3. a. b.

Medulla Part of the hindbrain caudal to the pons and cerebellum. Controls autonomic functions, such as respiration, blood pressure, heart rate, posture, reflex arcs, and vomiting; and also relays signals between the brain and the spinal cord.

4. a.

Pons Part of the rostral hindbrain that lies ventral to the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle.

b.

Relays signals between the cerebellum and cerebrum, and is thought to have a role in dreaming.

5. a.

Cerebellum Structure derived from the rhombencephalon, attached to the brain stem at the pons; an important movement control center.

b. c.

Muscle and reflex coordination. Plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output.

6. a.

Midbrain Region of the brain derived from the middle primary embryonic brain veisle; also called the mesencephalon. Caudally the mesencephalon adjoins the pons and rostrally it adjoins the diencephalon. Midbrain structure

especially "unconscious" vision. as one thalamic point may reach one or several regions in the cortex. d. hunger. sex. the hippocampus is in the temporal lobe and may play a role in learning and memory. b. contains most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. Controls body temperature. Visual processing center of the mammalian brain. Hippocampus Region of the cerebral cortex lying adjacent and medial to the olfactory cortex. satiety. and consciousness. Implicated in planning complex cognitive behaviors. b. a. Serves as the nerve pathway of the cerebral hemispheres. c. Regulates sleep. b. b. a. Thalamus Dorsal part of the diencephalon. wakefulness. 9. Prefrontal cortex Cortical area at the rostral end of the frontal lobe.include the tectum and the tegmentum. oculomotor reflexes. a. Hypothalamus Ventral part of the diencephalon. 10. Believed to translate "prethalamic inputs" and relay information selectively to various parts of the cortex. b. Receives input from the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus. a. In humans. and circadian cycles. Parietal lobe Region of the cerebrum lying under the parietal bone. c. personality expression and moderating correct social behavior. Auditory and visual centers. Involved in the control of the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary gland. 11. 12. and startle responses. 8. a. highly interconnected with the cerebral neocortex. 7. c. thirst. "Executive Function" Occipital lobe Region of the cerebrum lying under the occipital bone. motion sensitivity. . b. c. a.

hamstrings. speech production and comprehension. Cervical spinal cord Uppermost portion of the spinal cord. i. b. Innervates the neck muscles. a. particularly determining spacial locations of objects. b.b. a. diaphragm. Response to a sudden need for increased energy expenditure (catabolic) for intense activity . Temporal lobe Region of the cerebrum lying under the temporal bone. Involved in language processing. 17. Broca's area Region of the frontal lobe associated with Broca's (motor) aphasia when damaged. Broca's aphasia is a language disturbance in which a person has difficulty speaking or repeating words but can understand language. 18. Motor axons run in the ventral roots. Control the same regions of the body. 13. Integrates sensory information from different modalities. Heavily involved in semantics. c. shoulders. b. and triceps. controlling regions such as quadriceps. a. 14. also known as motor or nonfluent aphasia. and feet 16. b. What are two ways in which the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are similar? a. a. What types of axons run in the dorsal and ventral roots? Sensory axons run in the dorsal roots. 19. Involved in memory formation (hippocampus). d. wrists. fingers. though in the opposite ways. What is the "fight or flight" response and what part of the nervous system orchestrates it? a. b. Involved in auditory processing (primary auditory cortex). Lumbar spinal cord Section of the spinal cord housed in the 5 lumbar vertebrae at the lordotic curve. both in speech and vision. b. a. under the cervical and thoracic regions. 15. Innervates the hips and front of legs. Both involuntary and part of the autonomic nervous system.

List and briefly define three major steps in the evolution of the central nervous system. forming the neural tube. Neural tube Primitive embryonic central nervous system. and neural tube. ii. constricts pupils. Define OR sketch: neural plate. i. Subsequently move together and fuse dorsally. b. Body reduces energy expenditures and builds up reserves (anabolic). 21. Controlled by the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. neural fold. What is the "rest and digest" response and what part of the nervous system orchestrates it? a. b. c. c. Neural fold Walls of the groove that forms in the neural plate. b. 20. Segmentation Assembling the rest of the neurons in groups that control corresponding parts of the body. i. i. consisting of neural ectoderm that pinches off laterally as the neural tube forms. 22. i. d.b. e. Centralization Bringing neurons together in the middle of the animal. i. Raises blood pressure. slows heart rate. decreases blood flow to skin. i. Neural plate Ectoderm that gives rise to the nervous system. a. c. neural crest. so they can interact more quickly. c. Neural crest Primitive embryonic peripheral nervous system. i. increases blood flow to skin. dilates pupils. consisting of a tube of . Lowers blood pressure. decreases digestive activities. Cephalization Putting lots of neurons at the front of the animal (Brain). Controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. a. increases digestive activities. increases heart rate. running rostral to caudal.

and note their locations on a simple sketch of cortex. Limitations: Technically just becoming possible. Visual cortex Auditory cortex Somatosensory cortex What are two ways for finding out what function a particular brain area serves? For each. note a problem that limits the power of the method. What are two ways to find out the areas of the brain to which a particular area is connected? a. Intracellular injection Axonal transport from or to target . 23. Name three primary cortical sensory areas. Multi-unit recording: Record from hundreds or thousands of neurons at a time i. Limitations: Have to sample one neuron at a time. i. b. c. Recording from neurons with a microelectrode: What stimuli do neurons "respond" to? i. d. redundancy fMRI or PET scanning Limitations: Smallest area that can be detected corresponds to thousands of neurons. b. a. how to process the data? 25. c. Lesion studies: WHat can't the person or animal do after loss of an area? Limitations: Compensation. d. i.neural ectoderm. a. b. 24.

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