Name: Steven P Sanderson II Date: 6/30/06 Class: Intro to Business BA11 5040 Professor: McNamara In this reaction paper I will

be talking about scientific management and the need for motivation. Some companies such as shipping and manufacturing companies like UPS and Ford Motor Co. use scientific management. Scientific management is when a company studies workers to find the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching people those methods. Frederick Taylor is known as the father of scientific management. Frederick wrote a book entitled The Principals of Scientific Management. Frederick lived from March 20, 1865 – March 21, 1915 and was an intellectual part of the efficiency movement and his ideas, broadly conceived were highly influential in the progressive era. The progressive era was a period which lasted from the 1890’s through the 1920’s. Although some experts use a narrower from 1900 – 1917 the reformers advocated the aforementioned efficiency movement. In 1874 Frederick became an apprentice machinist learning of factory conditions at the grassroots level, He earned a degree in Mechanical Engineering through a highly unusual method for the time, through correspondence through Stevens Institute of Technology. Taylor thought that by scientifically analyzing work he would be able to find the most efficient method possible through time and motion studies. Taylor believed that contemporary management was amateurish and should be studied as a discipline and that workers should cooperate with management thus no need for trade unions and that best results would come from the partnership between skilled workers and management. Clearly this seems to be the way things are going on in today’s economy as we move from manufacturing to service. Today union membership is declining and workers are becoming more educated and management and workers are working better together today and companies are becoming more efficient. Taylor was president of the ASME and tried to instill his principles their and failed, not surprisingly though. Scientific management may be efficient but no one wants to be a machine which seems to me clearly what Taylor thought people should act like in any corporation. Taylor was only president of the ASME from 1906 – 1907. In 1912 Taylor collected his articles and put them together for a book, he submitted it to the ASME for publication where he was turned down so he published Principals elsewhere without ASME approval. One company today that uses scientific management and uses it will is UPS. UPS has gone so far as to actually tell their employees how fast to walk, how to stop out of their truck, how to fold money and how to hold their keys. Now you may ask yourself, why in the world would anyone want to work for a company that tells you how to basically breathe? The answer to this is motivation, but what kind of motivation could possibly get people to work under such conditions? Well first we must understand what motivation is. Through motivation is defined in the following manner. In psychology motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and

dynamic state that should not be confused personality or emotion. Motivation is having the encouragement to do something. Some types of encouragement would be intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards. Intrinsic rewards are the personal satisfaction you feel when you perform well and complete goals. Extrinsic rewards are something given to you by someone else as recognition for good work; extrinsic rewards include pay increases, praise and promotion. UPS drivers that were mentioned earlier enjoy some very generous extrinsic rewards. Not only do they enjoy some very handsome wages but also take part in generous benefits a profit sharing plan and high amounts of praise. As I stated earlier people are not machines and cannot be treated as machines. This is evident from anxiety, phobias or back strain that many drivers from UPS have and still suffer from. At one point UPS had 2x the amount of injuries as their competitors and have since settled a $3 million fine with government agencies. To remedy this UPS has invested about $1.5 billion to improve working conditions for employees. Now with all of this said I believe scientific management can be applied but only to a certain degree. Companies with humans working for them can only become so efficient before they start coming down the other end of the efficiency parabola.

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