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gftfjfbsf lgo'lQm tTsfn vf/]h ug{ dfu
‘k|x/L bdg g/f]lsP ;zQm k|lt/f]w’
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6
kf6L{n] kf6L{dflysf] bdg g/f]sf]
kl/l:yltsf] lhDd]jf/ oxL s]kL–afbn
;/sf/ x'g]5 .Ú
zflGtk"0f{ /fhgLlts sfo{qmddfly u[x
k|zf;gsf] 7f8f] lgb]z{ gdf # cf]6f
cfklQ hgfPsf] 5 . ;f] kf6L{sf k"lj{
sdf08 OGrfh{ ljifdn] a' w jf/
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{
bds gu/ sld6Ln] cfk"mv';L u/]sf
lgo'lQm tTsfn ;Rofpg dfu u/]sf]
5 . ;f] kf6L{sf bds gu/ ;]qm]6/L
;dL/n] lj1lKt hf/L u/L gu/sf
pkk| d ' v b] l v j8fsf g] t f;Ddn]
cfˆgf gftfjfbsf cfwf/df :jf:Yo
cf;]kf;]nfO{ lagf k|lqmof 7f8f] lgo'Qm
u/] s f] / pQm sfo{ bds
gu/kflnsfsf] :jfy{df ;Lldt geP/
bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yf tyf slyt
;dfhjfb pGd'v ;/sf/sf] rl/qsf]
k|ltlaDa ePsf] elgPsf] 5 .
lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5,
zlQmzfnL k|lt/f]w ug]{ r]tfjgL o;}aLr,g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] x]lnsf]K6/af6 ;z:q kmf];{ kl/rfng lj1lKt hf/L u/L ;Î'jf;ef lhNnfsf] ;xfos, :6fkm g;{ nufotsf gu/kflnsfn] egf{ u/] s f] pQm
lbPsf] 5 . ;f]djf/ kf6L{ k|jQmf ;+ v ' j f;ef lhNnfsf] ltlnr' ª u/L cleofg 6f]nLnfO{ rf/}lt/af6 ltlnr'ª ufpFkflnsf j8f g+= ! df sd{rf/L cfk"mv';L lgo'lQm u/]sfn] lgo'lQm sfo{ tTsfn vf/]h u/L
k| s f08n] lj1lKt hf/L u/L ufpFkflnsf j8f g+= ! df ;+u7g 3]/L Psxf]/f] uf]nL rnfO{ bf]xf]/f] ;+u7g ;'b9[ tyf la:tf/ cleofgsf] ;f] egf{ sfo{ tTsfn ;Rofpg dfu ;j{:jLsfo{ ljlwdfkm{t sd{rf/L
;Î'jf;efdf hgtfsf] 3/df al;/x]sf ;'b9[ tyf la:tf/ cleofgsf] qmddf le8Gtsf] xNnf lkl6Psf]k|lt 3f]/ qmddf u[x k|zf;gsf] 7f8f] lgb]z { gdf u/]sf x'g\ . ;]qm]6/L ;dL/n] hf/L lgo'lQm ug{ dfu;d]t cl3 ;f/]sf]
kf6L{ sfo{stf{dfly tLj| k|x/L bdg # cf]6f x]lnsf]K6/af6 ;z:q kmf];{ u/]sf] lj1lKtdf bds gu/kflnsfn] 5 . dfuk| l t gu/kflnsfsf
u/]sf] eGb} bdg g/f]s] k|lt/f]w ug]{ kl/rfng u/L cleofg 6f]nLnfO{ xfn} egf{ u/]sf] sd{rf/L kbk"lt{sf] hgk|ltlglw uDeL/ geP h:tf] ;'s}
r]tfjgL lbPsf x'g\ . k|jQmf k|sf08n] rf/}lt/af6 3]/L Psxf]/f] uf]nL rnfO{ gfddf pkk| d ' v b] l v ;QfkIfsf ;+3if{sf sfo{qmd;d]t yfNg] hf/L
;+v'jf;ef lhNnfsf] l;lnr'ª ! df bf]xf]/f] le8Gtsf] xNnf lkl6Psf] eGb} lhDd] j f/ sfo{ s tf{ n ] cfkmGt / lj1lKtdf pNn]v 5 .
zflGtk"0f{ /fhgLlts sfo{qmdsf nflu ;f] cfkQL hgfPsf x'g\ . sdf08
hgtfsf] 3/df af; al;/x] s f
g] = s=kf=sf g] t f–sfo{ s tf{ d fly
OGrfh{ ljifdn] olx c;f/ !^ ut]
kf6L{sf sfo{stf{x? ;+u7g ;'b9[ tyf
sd{rf/L cfj]bgjf6 !$ s/f]8 cfDbfgL Û
sf7df8f}F . nf]s;]jf cfof]un] (! blnt / ! ;o $^ ckf+utf
;/sf/n] k|x/L kl/rfng u/L tLj| la:tf/ cleofgsf] qmddf ltlnr'ª ut h] 7 !% ut] :yfgLotxsf] ePsfn] cfjb]g lbPsf 5g\ . To:t}
bdg u/]sf] eGb} 36gfsf] lgGbf / ufpFkflndf k'us ] f a]nf x]lnsf]K6/af6 kbk"lt{ ug{ dfu u/]sf] lj1fkgdf lk5l8Psf !!^ n] cfj]bg lbPsf
eT;{gf klg u/]sf 5g\ . ;z:q kmf];{ kl/rfng u/L cleofg $ nfv $! xhf/ ! ;o $! hgfsf] 5g\ . cfof]un] lj1fkg cfj]bgaf6
lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, …Psflt/ 6f]nLnfO{ rf/}lt/af6 3]/L Psxf]/f] cfj]bg k/]sf] 5 . h'g dfueGbf !$ s/f]8 $ nfv !! xhf/ %)
zflGt / nf]stGqsf s'/f ug]{ t/ uf]nL rnfOPsf] / bf]xf]/f] le8Gtsf] $* u'0ff a9L xf] . %!% :yfgLotxsf ?k}ofF /fh:j ;+sng u/]sf] hgfPsf]
csf{ l t/ zflGtk" 0 f{ /fhgLlts xNnf km}nfPsf] atfPsf 5g\ . ( xhf/ ! ;o ^! kbsf nflu 5 . nf]s;]jf cfof]usf] lj1fkg
sfo{qmddf lxF8]sf g]skfsf g]tf– OGrfh{ ljifdn] ;f] ;dodf 6f]nLsf nf]s;]jfn] lj1fkg cfXjfg u/]sf] bf]Aa/ b:t'/;lxt eg]{ d+unaf/
sfo{stf{nfO{ bdg ug]{, uf]nL k|xf/ ;a} Hofg hf]ufpg ;kmn eP klg lyof] . d+unaf/ clGtd kmf/fd eg]{ clGtd lbg lyof] . cfof] u sf]
ug]{, ;dft]/ xTof ug]{ jnL–afbn xfn;Dd b'O{ hgf sfo{stf{ j]kQf ;do ;Ldf;Dd olt ;+ V ofdf lj1fkgnfO{ lnP/ dw] z s] l Gb| t
d08nL ;/sf/sf] bdg sfo{ lgGbgLo /x]sf] hgfPsf 5g\ . tLg hgf j]kQf cfj]bsn] kmf/fd e/]sf] nf]s;]jf /fhgLlts bnn] tLj| lj/f]w u/]sf
5 .Ú bdg g/f]s] g]=s=kf=n] zlQmzfnL ePsf]df Pshgf kf6L{ ;Dks{df cfof]usf k|jQmf ls/0f/fh zdf{n] lyP eg] ljleGg ;+3;+:yfn] klg
k|lt/f]w ug]{ r]tfjgL lbb}F lj1lKtdf cfO{k'u]sf] hgfPsf 5g\ . lj1lKtdf hfgsf/L lbP . v'nftkm{ rf/ nfv lj/f]w hgfPsf lyP . ;+3Lo ;+;b\sf]
elgPsf] 5, …To;af6 pTkGg elgPsf] 5, …b'O{ hgf sfo{stf{ cem} #$ xhf/ &^$ hgfn] cfj] b g /fHo Joj:yf ;ldltn] lj1fkg /f]Sg
;Dks{df 5}gg\ . To;dWo] Pshgf lbPsf 5g\ . Ps nfv tLg xhf/ lgb] { z g g} lbPsf] lyof] .

;nf{xL 36gf bf]xf]¥ofpg] ;kgfnfO{ v/fgL kfg]{ r]tfjgL sd/]8 ;'hg clwsf/LnfO{ lu/ˆtf/
-af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
%^& dlxnf, $# xhf/ #@^ hghflt,
@$ xhf/ () dw]zL, tLg xhf/
lj1fkglj?4 ;jf]R{ r cbfntdf ;d]t
d'2f k/]sf] lyof] .

sf7df8f}F . sflnsf]6 lhNnfsf


;a} ufpFkflnsfdf k|x/Ln] Aofks ;r{
ck/]zg u/]kl5 g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{
/ k|x/LaLr h'g;'s} a]nf le8Gt x'g]
;kgf af]s/] k|x/L ufpF k|jz] u/]df
v/fgL kfg]{ r]tfjgL lbPsf 5g\ .
sflnsf] 6 sf] Ps ljs6 ufpF d f
cfof]lht sfo{stf{ k|lzIf0f sfo{qmdf
ufpF l5/]/ vfgtnf;L ug]{, Aofks
w/ks8 ug]{, hgtf cft+lst ug]{ /
cfˆgf g]tf tyf sfo{stf{sf] k|x/Ln]
lk5f ug]{ u/]df cfˆgf] kf6L{n] k|lt/f]w
vf]ksf] jt{dfg cj:yfaf/] :jf:Yo dGqfno g} a]va/
sf7df8f} F . afnaflnsfnfO{ ef] u ] G b| / fh 8f] 6 ] n n] eg] , ha t/ rfn' cfly{ssf] ;'?b]lvsf] tkfO{n
+ ]
nufOg] vf]ksf] jt{dfg cj:yfaf/] :yfgLotxdf :jf:Yo ;+:yfx¿df vf]h]sf] tYofÍ d;Fu 5}g .
ug]{ hfgsf/L lb+b} pgn] To;sfnflu :jf:Yo dGqfno g} a]va/ /x]sf] x:tfGt/0f ul/P pxfFx¿sf vf]ksf ha :jf:Yo zfvf :yfgLo
tof/ /xg g]tf tyf sfo{stf{x?nfO{ dGqfnosf k|jQmf dx]Gb| >]i7n] ultljlwsf] tYofÍ st} k7fpg' ePsf] txx¿df :yflkt eP To;kl5
lgb]{zg lbP . cfkm'x?sf] n8fOF ;]gf atfP . :jf:Yo dGqfnosf 5}g . pgn] eg], klxnf x'g] u/]sf pgLx¿n] vf]ksf] k|ult ljj/0f cfˆg}
/ k'ln;;Fu gePsf] lhls/ ub}{ g]tf clwsf/Lx¿n] klxnf lhNnf tYofÍsf] r]g ;a} elTsP . ha sfof{nodf Ps jif{b]lv yGSofP/
/0flbkn] b]zsf] 9's'6L vQd kf/]/ hg:jf:Yo sfof{no dftxtsf :jf:Yo :yfgLotxdf :jf:Yo ;+:yfx¿df /fv]sf 5g\ .
n'6 dRrfpg] e|:6 hgk|ltlglw / ;+:yfx¿ :yfgLo txdf x:tfGt/0f x:tfGt/0f ul/P pxfFx¿sf vf]ksf pgLx¿sf cg';f/ vf]kaf/]sf]
b]zsf e|i6 bnfnx?la?4sf] n8fOFdf ul/Pkl5 vf]kaf/]sf] k|ult ljj/0f ultljlwsf] tYofÍ cfPsf] 5}g . sxfF k|ult ljj/0f sxfF a'emfpg] eGg] yfxf
;fy lbg ;Dk" 0 f{ ;' / IffsdL{ ; F u dGqfnodf gk7fOFbf dGqfno g} k7fpg] eGg] g} 6'u+ f] geP/ x'g;S5 . geP/ b/fhd} yGSofOPsf x'g\ .
cg'/f]w;d]t u/] . a]va/ ag]sf] atfPsf 5g\ . k|b]z emfkfsf] eb|k'/l:yt :jf:Yo ljtf{df]8 gu/kflnsfsf :jf:Yo
zflGtk"0f{ tl/sfn] sfo{qmd ug{ ;/sf/sf] ;fdflhs ljsf; dGqfno sfof{nodf slt aRrfx¿nfO{ vf]k ;+of]hs vu]Gb| b+ufnsf cg';f/
kfpFg] clwsf/nfO{ ;/sf/n] k|ltaGw dftxtdf /x]sf lhNnfsf :jf:Yo nufOFb5 } eGg] tYofÍ lng hfFbf vf]k vf]ksf k|ult ljj/0f kmfOn u/]/
nufPsfn] cfkm'x? afWo eP/ ;+3if{df sfof{nox¿df vf]kaf/] s'g} tYofÍ ;'kl/j]Ifs afns[i0f e08f/Ln] ljut b/fhdf /flvPsf] 5 .
ca:yf l;h{gf ePsf] 5 . g]kfn af]Nb} ;]qm]6/L /0flbkn] To:tf] r]tfagL hfg'k/]sf] atfpFb} g]tf /0fbLkn] oxL g/x]sf] k|bz
] g+ ! sf :jf:Yo lgb]z
{ s Ps jif{b]lv cfk"m;Fu To;sf] s'g} pgn] eg], xfdLnfO{ clxn];Dd
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ sfnLsf]6sf ;]qm]6/L lbPsf x'g\ . lhNnfleq ePsf s]xL ;+3if{sf qmddf em'7f d'2f nufP/ ef]u]Gb|/fh 8f]6]n atfpF5g\ . tYofÍ g/x]sf] hjfkm lbP . pgn] ;"lrt gul/Psf] x'gfn] k|ult ljj/0f
/0flbkn] ;nf{xL 36gf bf]xf]of{pg] 36gfnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ k|x/L ufpF– -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ k|b]z ! sf :jf:Yo lgb]{zs eg], rfn" cfly{s jif{ ;lsg nfUof] . -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_

;/sf/sf] ck/flws ofqf e§/fO{ Eofu'tf], cf]nL ‘5§' HjfO{+’ Û


!= ;nf{xLdf s'df/ kf}8]nsf] kf}8n ] sf] zjsf] af/]df tYox? afxL/ lyof] ls pxfF ;nf{xLsf hgtfsf] d'vdf 3fp agfOof] < 6fpsf]df dfq
sf7df8f}F . k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nLn]
8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{sf] lj4tfk|lt
k"jk{ w| fgdGqL 8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{n]
k|wfgdGqL s]kL zdf{ cf]nLnfO{ …5§'
kfzljs xTof cfP ls $–% 7fpFdf xft / v'§f aLrdf nf]slk|o x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF lsg $÷% 7fpF uf]nL xflgof] xf]nf <
ldlt @)&^ c;f/ % ut] Pp6f efF l rPsf] bfF t v;] s f] , d' v jf ;nf{xLsf xhf/f}F ls;fg, dhb'/ / lsg 5ftLdf (÷!) 7fpFdf uf]nL
csNkgLo ;dfrf/n] ;nf{ x Lsf] cg'xf/df 3fp ePsf], 6fpsf]df $÷% ;'sD' jf;Lx?sf cfzfsf] cfFvfsf] gfgL xflgof] xf]nf < s] oL k|Zgx?sf] hjfkm
cfsfznfO{ :tAw agfof] / k"/} 7fpF uf]nL xfgLPsf], 5fQLdf *÷!) x'gx' G' Yof] . /fHo jf ;/sf/;Fu 5 t < s] of]
g]kfnel/ Tof] b'Mvb ;dfrf/n] t/lËt 7fpFdf uf]nL xfgLPsf] tYox? ha @= xTofsf] k| s [ l t dfgjtflj?4sf] uDeL/ ck/fw
/ eolet agfof] . z'?df k|x/Lsf] jflx/ cfof], To;n] kmf;Ljfbsf] /fHon] s'df/ kf}8n
] sf] xTof lgs} xf]Og <
xjfnf lbFb} ;dfrf/n] ;g;gL dRrfof] qm'/tfnfO{ pbfËf] kfl/lbof] . o;sf g} aa{/tfk"j{s / qm'/tfk"j{s ?kdf #= ck/fw n' s fpg csf] {
ls ljKnj / k|x/LaLr bf]xf]/f] le8Gt u/]sf] b]lvG5 . ;fdfGo ck/flws ck/fw
xF'bf s'df/ kf}8]nsf] d[To' eof] . b[i6tfn] To:tf] xTof ug{ ;Sb}g . Tof] ;'?df ;nf{xL k|x/Ln] Pp6f em'6f]
36gfsf] csf]{ lbg g]kfn sDo'lgi6 xTofdf hf] ;'s} ;+nUg eP klg Tof] ;dfrf/ ;Dk|i] f0f u/]/ uDeL/ ck/fw
kf6L{sf dxf;lrj ljKnjsf] lj1KtL JolSt q'm/ ck/fwL ePsf] ;xh} u/]sf 5g\ . u:tLdf uPsf] k|x/Ldfly
cfPkl5 dfq 36gfsf] jf:tljstf cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . dfG5]x? Tolt df]6/ ;fOsndf cfPsf @÷# hgfsf]
aflx/ cfpg z'? u¥of] . ljKnj lj£g oftgf lbP/ kz'sf] klg xTof ;d"xn] kmfol/Ë u/]kl5 cfTd/Iffsf]
g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf ug{ ;Sb}gg, ToxfF dfgjLo ;+jb] gfsf] nflu k|x/Ln] klg uf]nL rnfpFbf pgsf]
;nf{xL lhNnf OGrfh{ s'df/ kf}8n ] sf] slQ klg efj b] l vPg . Tof] d[To' ePsf] 5 eGg] h:tf] em'6f] ;dfrf/
lu/ˆtf/ u/L xTof ePsf] eGg] /x:o cdfgjLo xTof v'daxfb'/ v8\sfsf] ;Dk|i] f0f ug]{ sfd k|x/Ln] u/] . 36gfsf]
v'Nb} uof] . kfnfdf klg ePsf] lyPg eGg] Ps s'g} 5fgljg / e]l/kmfO{ gu/L h:tfsf]
xfdLn] t a'em]s} lyof}+ s]kL, lks] hgf k"j{ PcfOhLsf] l6Kk0fL dggof]Uo t:t} ;dfrf/ ;+k|]if0f u/]/ g]kfn
/ afbnsf] u7aGwgn] b] z df 5 . Pp6f /fhgLlts g] t fnfO{ k|x/Lsf] x]8Sjf6/n] Tof] 36gfdf cfˆgf]
kmf;Ljfb nfb\5} 5, g/z+xf/ dRrfpFb} lji0f' kGt lu/km\tf/ kl5 lsg pgsf] $÷% ;+:yfut / lgof]lht ;+nUgtfnfO{ k'li6
5 / hgtfsf] /utdfly xf]nL v]n]/ 7fpFdf xft efFlrof] < lsg v'§f u¥of] . clg 36gfsf ljifodf u[xdGqL Jo+Uo ub}{ z'qmaf/ Ps sfo{qmddf HjfO{+Úsf] syf :d/0f u/fPsf 5g\ .
tf08j g[To dRrfpFb} 5 . kl5 s'df/ k5fl8 s'df/ kf}8]nsf] Pp6} ck/fw efFlrof] < lsg bfFt v;flnof] / lsg …Eofu' t fsf] syfÚ ;' g fPkl5
-af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
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n L, cfTdfZnf3f / aN8\
o fª vf“
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– s= dfcf]T;] t'ª
- ;DkfbsLo d'n'ssf] k|wfgdGqLsf] s';L{df s]xL af]nL xfn]klg s;}n] kTofOlbg] ar{ Z j lyof] . k' i ksdn bfxfn Pstf lj/f]wLsf] laNnf leg{k' g]{ qf;,
b]z / hgtfsf] eljiodfly v]nfaf8 gu/ v8\uk|;fb zdf{ cf]nL cyf{t\ s]kL
zdf{ cf]nL 5g\ . g]kfnL cfw'lgs
cj:yf g} lyPg . Ps 9+un] p leq
/ aflx/af6 cnu–cnu ePsf] lyof] .
cf]nLnfO{ g} l/emfP/ zlQm xTofpg
uf]Ko ;xdlt u/]/ 9'Ss a;]sf lyP .
gaf]nf}+ ;+u7g / zlQm cf]nL–
bfxfnsf] sAhfdf Û
Oltxf;sf #* cf}+ k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] ToxL a]nf ;d[4Lsf] gf/faf6 r'gfj Ps 9+un] eGg] xf] eg] pgL k"0f{ ;dk{0f klxnf] k6s @)&@ c;f]h b]lv
;/sf/n] lbgk|ltlbg b]z / hgtfsf] eljiodfly bf];|f] k6s k|wfgdGqLsf] lhDd]jf/L
v]naf8 ul//x]sf] 5 eGbf cGoyf gxf]nf lsgls ;Dxfln/x]sf x'g\ . ;+ljwfg;efn] /fhg s'Os + n
]
;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g]kfnsf]
;/sf/n] u/]sf x/]s sfo{n] b]z / hgtf ;+s6u|:t
aGb} uO/x]sf] 5 . b]z / hgtfsf] jf:tljs l:ylt
;+ljwfg lgdf{0f u/]kl5 u/fOPsf]
klxnf] r'gfjdfkm{t\ pgL em08} b'O{ ;/sf/n] ;+ljwfg,
ltxfO{ l gs6 ;f+ ; bsf] ;dy{ g df
ga'emL ;/sf/ cl3 a9]sf] y'k|} 36gfx? 5g\ . ;/sf/ ;~rfngsf] g]t[Tj ub}{5g\ . ljlw / k/Dk/fnfO{
@)&% kmfu'g # b]lv ;Qfsf] g]t[Tj
;/sf/n] …cfOkmf caf8{Ú sf7df8f}Fdf ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf cf]nLnfO{ -g]skf Pdfn] / nTofpFb} b'O{ ltxfO{sf]
u¥of] . To;sf] rf}tkmL{ lj/f]w eof], ;/sf/n] ;'g]g, dfcf] j fbL s] G b| s f ;f+ ; bx? hf]
cGttM ;+;bLo ;ldltn] g} ;f] cjf8{ sfo{qmd
lgjf{rgkl5 kf6L{ Pstf u/L Pp6}
ag]sf 5g\_ ;/sf/ ;~rfng ug{
andf nfb\g vf]hs ] f
/f]Sg lgb]{zg lbof] / ;f] sfo{qmd tTsfnsf nflu rflxg] ax'dt g]skfsf ;f+;baf6}
sfkmL lyof] .
sltko lg0f{ox?
:ylut ug]{ atfOP klg k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nLn] t/ pgn] cfˆgf] ;/sf/nfO{ ;Dk"0f{
ljjflbt ag]sf 5g\ .
sf]0faf6 ;'/lIft /fVg t/fO{ dw]znfO{
k'gM ;f] sfo{qmd g]kfndf u/]/ g} 5f]8\g] pb\3f]if cfwf/ agfP/ /fhgLlt ul//x]sf b'O{
u/]sf 5g\ . ptf ;/sf/n] ef/taf6 cfoft x'g] bn ;dfhjfbL kmf]/d g]kfn / /fli6«o To:tf lg0f{o ljjflbt
hgzlQm kf6L{sf] klg ;dy{g h'6fP .
kmnk"mn / t/sf/L ljiffbL k/LIf0fkl5 dfq leq\ofpg] vf;df o;f] ug{'df ;+;bleq k|d'v ag]sf dfq geO{
gLlt NofPsf] lyof] . t/, ef/tsf] bafakl5 k|ltkIfLdf k'u]sf] g]kfnL sf+u|];nfO{

;/sf/sf] Tof] gLlt klg t'lxPsf] 5 . o;/L x]bf{


lg/Lx agfpg' dfq lyPg,
e"/fhgLlts kl/l:yltnfO{ cfkm'gs ' n
"
;/sf/n] lkmtf{ g}
;/sf/ b]z / hgtfsf] kIfdf v/f]?kdf pqg agfpFb} ˜;+ljwfg ;+zf]wgsf] dw]zL
d'2f ;Daf]wg ug{ b'O{ ltxfO{ cfjZos klg lng' k/]sf] 5 . o:tf] x'gd' f g]kfnL
g;s]sf] k|:6 x'G5 . ;/sf/sf o:tf ultljlw / kg]{ tYonfO{ cfTd;ft ul/Psf]
;~rf/dfWodsf] bf]if /x]sf] k|wfgdGqL cf]nL / pgsf]
b]vfpg' lyof] .
/fi6« / hglxtljk/Lt sfo{sf] lj/f]w ubf{ r/d\ csf{ l t/ dw] z cfGbf] n g /
bdg ePsf] 5 . h;sf] pbfx/0fsf] nflu g]kfn dw]zLk|ltsf] s6"tf cGTosf] af6f] cf;]kf;]nfO{ nfUg yfn]sf] 5 . cfnf]rgf gkrfpg]
vf]Ng' klg lyof] . h;sf] Psdfq ;"q
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{dflysf] k|ltaGw / bdgnfO{ lng dw]zL bnnfO{ ;/sf/df ;fd]n u/]/ z}nL b]lvg yfn]sf] 5 . b'O{ ltxfO{sf] zlQm ePsf]
jftfj/0f ;UNofpg' lyof] . h;sf]
;lsG5 . ;/sf/sf] /fi6«lxt / hglxt ljk/Ltsf]
sfo{sf] lj/f]w u/]s} sf/0f g]kfn sDo'lg:6
tTsfn c;/ klg b] l vof] .
lgjf{rgcl3 dw]zdf lj/n} k|j]z
;/sf/n] NofPsf] ljifonfO{ cj1f ug]{ < xfdLnfO{
kf6L{dfly k|ltaGw nufOPsf] 5 . km]s OGsfG6/sf] u/]sf cf]nL k|wfgdGqL ag]kl5
dw]znfO{ ;Dd[4 agfpg] gf/f af]s]/ l;sfpg vf]Hg] eGg] h:tf k|jl[ Qn] clxn] l;+xb/jf/ /
gfddf p;sf sfo{stf{ dfl/Psf 5g\, k|x/L bdgnfO{ t/fO{ emg{ ;kmn eP . pk] G b|
ofbjnfO{ ;Qf/f] x 0f u/fP eg] afn'jf6f/ 3]/s ] f] b]lvG5 . lglZrt sf]6/LeGbf aflx/
tLj| kfl/Psf] 5 . ;/sf/df hfg] ghfg] åGådf /fhkfnfO{
csf]{ ;/sf/, slt k"jf{u|xL 5 eGg] s'/fsf] cNemfOlbO/x] .
sf+ u | ] ; cfˆgf] hLjgsfns}
lg:s]/ s'/f / ;'emfj g;'Gbfsf kl/0ffd b'O{ ltxfO{sf]
k'li6 k|wfgdGqL cf]nLsf] clxn] sf7df8f}F w'nf]dQ' m ;a}eGbf cnf]slk|o cj:yfdf lyof] .
;/sf/df /xFbf sf+u; ]| g]tT[ jn] lnPsf
zlQmdf ePsf] ;/sf/ Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ kl5 x6\g
eO;s]sf] eGg] cleJolQmk|lt cfdhgtfn] u/]sf]
oyfy{ lrq0fnfO{ lnP/ k|wfgdGqL cf]nLn] lbPsf]
sltko cnf]slk|o / ck|hftflGqs
xs{tsf sf/0f hgtfn] hgdtdfkm{t\
afWo x'g yfn]sf] 5 .
lynlynf] kf/]sf lyP . zL/ 7f8f]
cleJolQmnfO{ lng ;lsG5 . k|wfgdGqL cf]nLsf] u/]/ lx+8\g g;Sg] cj:yfdf k'u]sf] lht] s f cf] n L r' g fjsf a] n f efjdf lyP . cf]nL–bfxfn aLrsf] …£o" @)&# ;fpg;Dd k|wfgdGqL aGbf
cleJolQmnfO{ ulxl/P/ lgofNg] xf] eg] ;/sf/sf] sf+u|]; 3/emu8fdf o;/L km;]sf] hgtf;dIf u/]sf afrf nfu' u/fpg a]r'jf / t/af/ a]r'jfÚ ;Demf}tfsf] g]kfnn] agfPsf] ;+ljwfgdf lrQ
lyof]/5 ls p;nfO{ ;/sf/lt/ kms]/{ cfkm'gs
' n
" sf] l6d lgdf{0fdf h'6s
] f ;'O{+sf];Dd gkfPsf] dfwj g]kfn– ga' e m] s f] eGb} ef/tn] dw] z
uNtL, sdhf]/Lk|lt s;}n] lj/f]w ug'{ x'Fb}g . x]g{] / l6Kk0fL ug]{ ;fx; g} lyPg . lyP . gjlgld{t g]skfdf Psnf}6L emngfy vgfn /ge'Nn lyP . af]nf}+ -af“ s L # k] h df_
;/sf/sf] sdLsdhf]/L cf}FNofpg] ;a} /fi6« /
hg3ftL x'g\ eGg] ;/sf/sf] 7DofO{ b]lvG5 . o;/L
/fi6«lxt / hgck]Iffsf] lvNnL p8fpg] ;/sf/L
z}nL cfd :jfledfgL hgtfnfO{ dg k/]sf] 5}g .
nfu" kbfy{ ;]jg
;/sf/ tTsfn ;lRrg} k5{ . cGoyf hgljb|f]x
lglZrt 5, r]tgf eof .
k]6f« l] nod kbfy{ 9'jfgL 7Kk kfg]{ r]tfjgL
uof] cd"No hLjg
sf7df8f}F . k]6f« l] nod 9'jfgL Joj;foL dxf;+3n] Joj;foLsf dfu ;Daf]wg
gu/] ;fpg ! ut]bl] v 9'jfgL 7Kk agfpg] r]tfjgL lbPsf] 5 . kfFr a'bF ]
dfu k|:t't ub}{ dxf;+3n] dfu k"/f ug{ r]tfjgL lbPsf] xf] . dxf;+3sf]
s]Gb|Lo sfo{;ldlt a}7sn] cem} Ps jif{ 6\ofÍ/x? Eof6df btf{ x'g g;Sg]
klg lgisif{ lgsfn]sf] 5 . 6\ofªs/x? a}s + C0fdf /x]sf] C0f ;s]/ Eof6df
hfg ;do nfUg] Joj;foLsf] ts{ 5 . dxf;+3n] 6\ofÍ/x? Eof6df hfgsf
nflu xfn ;~rfngdf /x]sf 6\ofÍ/x?sf] x|f; s§L d"No to x'g' kg]{ tyf
xfn Eof6df btf{ gePsf To:tf uf8Lx? btf{kZrft laqmL ubf{ Eof6
gnfUg] Joj:yf ul/g' kg]{ klg dfu cl3 ;f/]sf] 5 .
tfn'kgsf] :yfoL ;dfwfg Û
sf7df8f}F . k'?ifx?df x'g] tfn'kgsf] :yfoL ;dfwfgsf nflu dxTjk"0f{
;kmntf j}1flgsx?n] kQf nufPsf 5g\ . n; PGhn;df ePsf] OG6/g];gn
;f];fO6L km/ l:6d ;]n l/;r{ ;Dd]ngsf qmddf j}1flgsx?n] ca dfq Ps
k|of]uaf6 of] ;d:ofsf] :yfoL ;dfwfg lgSof]n { x'g] bfjL u/]sf 5g\ . :ofgkmf]8{
g] k fn ;/sf/
ag{xfd k|a] h
;kmntfk"js
] sf j}1flgsx?n] l:6d ;]nsf] ;xof]udf lgdf{0f u/]sf] /f}+
{ a9]sf] 5 . o;/L ljsl;t ul/Psf] /f}s
ul/Psf] 5 . dflg; / d';f b'js
+ f] k/LIf0f d';fdfly
} f] l:6d ;]naf6 tof/ kfl/Psf] /f}d+ Wo] d';fsf]
;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
/f}+ gePsf] efudf k|Tof/f]k0f ubf{ To;af6 c;+Vof gofF /f}+ pld|Psf] 5 . of]
k|of]uaf6 pT;fxL ePsf a}1flgsx?n] dflg;df klg k/LIf0f ug]{ tof/L u/]sf
5g\ . 8f= Pn]S;L 6];l{ svn] eg]sf 5g\, …skfn emg]{ ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfgsf
nflu sf]ifdf cfwfl/t pkrf/ kl4df of] Ps hl6n …a|s ] y|Ú' xf] .Ú
;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu
@)&^ ;fn c;f/ @@ ut] cfOtaf/ 3

;/sf/L bdg, k|lt/f]w / hgck]Iff cf]nL, cfTdfZnf3f / aN8\ofª vf“b} anzfnL ;/sf/
qmflGt, ljb|f]x, hgcfGbf]ng /
hgo'4sf] d'Vo sf/0f g} hgck]Iff
;dfwfg ePg eg] lautsf] k'g/fa[tL
x'g hfG5 of] au{;+3if{sf] clgjfo{
;/sf/ wd{/fpg] 7fpFdf k'Uof] cGttM
of] k|ltaGw g]skfdfyL dfq ;Lldt cfGbf]ngsf] ;dy{gdf g]kfndfly ljw]osdf ;/sf/n] NofPsf] Joj:yfn] u/]kl5 pQm Joj:yf lkmtf{ lng]u/L
/fHoAoa:yf xf] . /fHo;Qf lgod xf] . o'4dfly x'g] bdg / ePg sL of] b]zsf] ;d[l4 rfxg] hf] gfsfaGbL yf] k /] k l5 cf] n Ln] ;+ljwfgn] k|Tofe"t u/]sf] k"0f{ k|; ] ;/sf/n] km]l/ csf]{ ;+zf]wg u¥of] .
ju{;+3if{sf] pkh xf], /fHosf] rl/q qmflGtdflysf] bdg lgtfGt} km/s s;}dfyL kl/nlIft xf] eGg] s'/f b[9tfk"js { k|lt/f]w u/]sf lyP . ToxL :jtGqtfdf s6f}lt x'g] eGb} ;j{q 8f= s] ; Lsf] cfGbf] n g
juL{o x'G5 hxfF;Dd /fHo;Qfsf] s'/f xf] . o'4 qmflGtsf] ?kdf ablnbf ;flat eof] . / ;/sf/ Ps lsl;dsf] jfxjfxLn] cf]nLnfO{ …/fli6«o lx/f]Ú sf] cfnf]rgf ePsf] 5 . k|wfgdGqLb]lv lrlsT;f lzIff ;'wf/df k6s
Aojxf/ ;dfg x'bF g} ToxfF;Dd qmflGt, bdg eg] k+rfotL z}nLdf e}/x]sf] lj4'tLo w/fkdf k/]sf] h:tf] efg ?kdf k] z uof] { . @)&$ sf] ;/sf/sf k|jQmf Pj+ ;~rf/ dGqLn] k6ssf] cfGbf]ngdf ;/sf/n] u/]sf]
lab|f]x, hgcfGbf]ng o'4 clgjfo{ 5 . at{dfg ;/sf/sf] cGTo olxg]/ ;a}lt/ eof] . o;sf] k'i6\ofO ;nf{xLdf lgjf{rgdf pgL lglj{sNk lx/f]sf g} ljw]os ;~rfOg] k|ltj4tf hgfpg' ;Demf}tf nfu' ug{ 8f= uf]ljGb s];Ln]
x'G5 . of] lj1fgsf] csf6\o lgod 5 . em'§f d'8e]6 bf]xf]/f] le8Gt / s'df/ kf}8n] sf] xTof / ul/Psf] gf}6s
+ L ?kdf r'gfjL d}bfgdf b]lvP . To;}sf] k/] s f] 5 . t/ dGqLx? s] x L yfn]sf] cfGbf]ngdf b]zsf ;a} ju{
xf] . o;sf] ;lx ;dfwfg eg]sf] g} g]tf sfo{stf{sf] lu/ˆtf/L gfafnssf] sfkmL 5 . lo / o:tf lgGbgLo kmn pgn] ;+3Lo, k|b]z ;+;b / ;Dkfbs/kqsf/nfO{ lglZrt / ;d'bfosf] ;dy{g lyof] . ;/sf/
;dfgtf xf] , ;dfgtfn] zflGt ckx/0fn] ;+s]t ub{5 . gSsnL 36gfn] ha/h:t k|lt/f]w hGdfof] :yfgLo lgjf{rgdf a9L l;6 lht]/ ljrf/wf/f-jfbsf] nfz rflxPsf] 5 ;Dxfn]nuQ} 8f= s];Lsf] cfGbf]ng v]Kg
:jtGqtfn] ;d[l4 Nofp5 . @))^ sDo'lgi6sf] b'O{ ltxfO{ ;/sf/sf] / k|lt/f]w :j?k ul/Psf aGb x6\tfn kfP . eGb} s6" l6Kk0fL ub}{ lxFl8/x]sf 5g\ . k/]kl5 cf]nLsf] ;a}k|lt gsf/fTds
t/ @)&% kmfu' g df bf] ; | f ] dfgjclwsf/ cfof] u ljw] o s wf/0ff ljsf; ePsf] lyof] . t/ 8f=
/0flbk P]8L sfo{ s fnsf nflu k| w fgdGqLsf]
lhDd]jf/L ;Dxfn]otf eg] cf]nLdf st}
dfgjclwsf/ ljw]osdf p;}u/L
;/sf/n] ;"9F k;f/]sf] 5 . cfof]usf]
s];Ln] p7fPsf ;a} dfu ;Daf]wg
ug]{ ;Demf}tf eg] kl5Nnf] k6s
b]zsf] dfof ug]{ b]zeQm g st} bDe, cx+sf/ / d g} /fHo x"F
eGg] e|d ljsf; ePsf] b]lvG5 .
If] q lwsf/;d] t s6f} l t ub} {
dxfGofoflwjQmf dftxtsf] Pp6f
k|wfgdGqL ePsf a]nf pg}n] u/]sf
lyP .
afdkGyL k|utLzLnx?sf] cfˆg} bnleqsf lj/f]wLnfO{ xf];\ jf
c? bnnfO{ x]g]{ b[li6sf]0fdf pgL
zfvfsf ?kdf kl/0ft ug{ vf]h]sf]
cf] / f] k ;/sf/dfly nfu] s f] 5 .
t/ cfkm}n] u/]sf] ;Demf}tf;d]t
kfngf gu/L ;+;baf6 ljw]os kfl/t
k6s– k6s ljjfbsf] 3] / fdf gful/s ;dfhb]lv cfof]usf k"j{ ug{ vf] l hPkl5 8f= s] ; L km] l /
df]rf{ k]lrnf] aGb} hfg'n] tflgPsf 5g\ . olx cj:yf / cWoIfx?;d] t n] of] ;+ j } w flgs cgzgdf a;]sf lyP . o;n] pgsf]
dgf]j[lQ @)^$ sf] ;+ljwfg;ef :jfoQtf v'DRofpg] rfnafhL xf] eGb} af]nL / Jojxf/df /x]sf] cGt/nfO{
kmf;LjfbL ;/sf/ wd{/fpg] lgjf{ r gaf6 7" n f] bn ag] k l5 cfklQ hgfPsf 5g\ . ;/sf/sf dGqL hgtfn] a' ‰ g kfP . Tolta] n f
k'iksdn bfxfn / pgsf] kf6L{ sdhf]/L eP ;Rofpg] t atfpFb} 5g\ ldl8ofn] 8f= s];LnfO{ lbPsf] ;fyk|lt
7fpFdf k'Uof] cGttM of] dfcf]jfbLdf b]lvPsf] lyof] .
cf]nL clxn] ;a}eGbf a9L ?i6
t/ cfof]u cWoIfnfO{ wDofpg klg
kl5 k/]sf 5}gg\ .
klg ;/sf/ ?i6 ag]sf] lyof] . cem
;/sf/n] df;L{ eftsf] laDa ag]sf]
k|ltaGw g]skfdfyL dfq g]kfnsf ;~rf/dfWod;Fu ePsf]
pgsf] af/Daf/sf] cleJolQmn]
lzIff;DalGw ljw] o s
k|fl1s :jtGqtfdfly x:tIf]k ug]{
g]skf lgs6 Jofkf/Lsf] d]l8sn
sn]hnfO{ cg'dlt lbg vf]h]kl5
;Lldt ePg sL of] b]zsf] b]vfpg yfn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] ;+ljwfg,
ljlw / k/Dk/fnfO{ nTofpFb} b'O{
u/L lzIff ljw]os NofOPsf] eGb}
lqe' j g ljZjljBfnosf k" j {
cfnf]rgf tLa| eof] .
b08xLg ;fj{ h lgs ;+ : yf /
ltxfO{sf] andf nfb\g vf]hs ] f sltko pks'nkltx?n] ;+oQ' m ?kd} cfnf]rgf clwsf/Lx?
;d[l4 rfxg] hf] s;}dfyL lg0f{ox? ljjflbt ag]sf 5g\ . To:tf ul/;s]sf 5g\ . of] ljw]os ;/sf/n] d'n'sdf c/fhstf oltlj£g 5
lg0f{o ljjflbt ag]sf dfq geO{ NofPs} :j?kdf kfl/t ePsf d'ns ' df ls hxfF h;n] h] u/]klg x'G5 eGg]
kl/nlIft xf] eGg] s'/f ;flat eof] . / ;/sf/ Ps ;/sf/n] lkmtf{ g} klg lng' k/]sf]
5 . o:tf] x' g ' d f g] k fnL
z}lIfs ljs[lt dfq y'lk|g] pgLx?sf]
lgisif{ 5 .
k|jl[ Q a9]sf] 5 . o;sf nflu jt{dfg
;/sf/ dfq sf/s kSs} 5}g . of]
lsl;dsf] lj4'tLo w/fkdf k/]sf] h:tf] efg ;a}lt/ eof] . ;~rf/dfWodsf] bf]if /x]sf] k|wfgdGqL
cf]nL / pgsf] cf;]kf;]nfO{ nfUg
;' / Iff kl/ifb ljw] o s
;'/Iff kl/ifb;lDaGw ljw]osdf
nfdf] ;dob] l v ul/Psf]
/fhgLtLs/0f / b08xLgtfsf] ;d"n
o;sf] k'i6\ofO ;nf{xLdf s'df/ kf}8n ] sf] xTof / ul/Psf] yfn]sf] 5 . cfnf]rgf gkrfpg] z}nL
b]lvg yfn]sf] 5 . b'O{ ltxfO{sf] zlQm
ljz]if Joj:yf u/L ;]gf kl/rfngsf]
Psn clwsf/ k|wfgdGqLdf /fVg
?k xf] . hgtfn] lt/]sf] s/af6
kflng] o:tf ;+ : yf / ltgsf
ePsf] ;/sf/n] NofPsf] ljifonfO{ k|:tfj ul/Psf] 5 . h;sf] rsf]{ clwsf/Lx?sf /j}of x]bf{ dWoo'uLg
gf}6s+ L sfkmL 5 . lo / o:tf lgGbgLo 36gfn] cj1f ug]{ < xfdLnfO{ l;sfpg vf]Hg] cfnf]rgf ePsf] 5 . o;n] k|wfgdGqL sfof{nox? h:tf b]lvG5g\ .
eGg] h:tf k|j[lQn] clxn] l;+xb/jf/ lg/+sz ' af6f]df nDsg vf]hs ] f] eGb} Gofo lbg] GofofwLz 3";sf08df
ha/h:t k|lt/f]w hGdfof] / k|lt/f]w :j?k ul/Psf aGb / afn'jf6f/ 3]/s ] f] b]lvG5 . lglZrt ;+;bleq / aflx/ cfnf]rgf ePsf] 5 . d'l5G5 . p;nfO{ sfjf{xL ul/Gg a?
sf]6/LeGbf aflx/ lg:s]/ s'/f / oftfoftdf l;l08s]6 cGTosf] /fhLgfdf u/fP/ pGd'lQm lbOG5 .
x6\tfn nufotsf cGo l56km'6 36gf o;}sf] kl/0ftL xf] ;'emfj g;'Gbfsf kl/0ffd b'O{ ltxfO{sf]
zlQmdf ePsf] ;/sf/ Pskl5 csf]{
xf}jf, 6fo 6fo lkm:; Û
cf]nLn] sfo{sfnsf] z'?jft ub}{
lzIff/:jf:Yo If]qsf] lgodgsf/Lsf]
lhDdf kfPsfx? lghL
t/ hgtfn] cem} gk'us ] f] / g]skf w]/} ;xgzLn / b]z ub}{ kl5 x6\g afWo x'g yfn]sf] 5 .
cfkm}n] k|:tfj u/]sf ljw]os /
oftfoft If]qdf /x]sf] l;l08s]6 tf]8g\ ]
eGb} lg0f{o u/] . hgtfaf6 jfxjfxL
;~rfnsx?;F u ;fF 7 ufF 7 u/] /
;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx?nfO{ lgsDdf kfg{
hgtfk|tL b]vfPsf] lhDd]jf/Laf6 cRrldt 5 w]/} w}o{ lg0f{ox? lkmtf{ lng'kg]{ cj:yfdf
k'us ] f] 5 . lgodgsf/L /fHosf] ;f6f]
klg kfP . t/ Tof] lg0f{o s]xL
oftfoft ?6df yk uf8L rnfpg
nfU5g\, sfjf{xL x'Gg . ljZjljBfnosf
kbflwsf/Lx? ;DaGwgsf gfddf
;/sf/ lgoGq0fd'vL /fHo agfpg lbg]eGbf a9Ldf hfg ;s]g . a? dGqL /sd ;f]xf]g{ Jo:t 5g\ . k/LIffsf]
u/]sf] ?kdf a'em]sf] 5 . nDs]sf] cfefif x'g yfn]sf] 5 . g} l;l08s]6lj?4 plqPsf] cf/f]k l/hN6;Dddf k} ; f vfP/ uf] N 8
csf{tkm{ hltklg ljw]osx? ;+;bdf nfUof] . pgn] ;ldltsf /f] S sf d]8lni6sf] gfd lgsfN5g\ . k/LIff
;fnb] v L xfn;Ddsf] o' 4 / cwf] u tLsf] ;' ? jftL logL nufotsf cGo l56km'6 36gf o;}sf] k'us ] f 5g\ jf k'¥ofOFb} 5g\ To;df /flvPsf vftfx? g} vf]lnlbP . kl/0ffddf cg'QL0f{nfO{ pQL0f{ / gDa/
hgcfGbf]ngn] oxL s'/fsf] k'i6L 36gfqmdaf6 ePsf] 5 . cfbz{ ;'vL kl/0ftL xf] t/ hgtfn] cem} gk'us ] f] ;/f]sf/jfnf;Fu 5nkmn gul/Psf], ;fj{hlgs oftfoftsf @(@ ;ldltdf yk]/ ;kmntfsf] l;+9L r9fpF5g\ .
ub{5 . hxfF c;dfgtf x'G5 ToxfF g]kfnL / ;d[4 g]kfn Aoa;fo bdg, / g] s kf w] / } ;xgzLn / b] z s;}n] yfxf kfpFnf ls eGg] z}nLn] cfwf klg sDkgLdf btf{ x'g uPsf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
czflGt x'G5 hxfF k/flwgtf x'G5 of] s'g} cgf}7f] / a'‰g sl7g ;/sf/L hgtfk|tL b]vfPsf] lhDd]jf/Laf6 ckf/bzL{ sfd ePsf] cf/f]k klg 5}gg\ . cfof]u ljs[ltsf] h/fdf k'Ub}g .
ToxfF ul/aL x'G5 . clg lab|fx] qmflGt kmf}hL /0fgLlt xf]Og{ lg/+sz
' hxfgLo cRrldt 5 w]/} w}o{ u/]sf] ?kdf nflu/x]sf] 5 . lgd{ n f kGt anfTsf/kl5 xTof xhf/sf] 3"; kqm]/ k|rf/ ub}d { f Jo:t
clgafo{ x'g k'U5 . ha qmflGtn] /f0ff zf;gs} lg/Gt/tfsf] ?kdf a'em]sf] 5 . lemgf] dfqfdf aGb sxf“ sxf“ r'Sof] ;/sf/ < lsg k| s /0f 5 . bnLo sf]6fdf el/Psf ;fj{hlgs
lasf; u/]/ cfˆgf ;a} cjojx?nfO{ cfPsf] 5 . ;lsG5 bdg w/ks6 x8\tfn gu/]sf] eP x'GYof] aftf{ x' g ' k¥of] lkmtf{ < s~rgk'/sL !# jifL{of aflnsf ;+:yfsf clwsf/Lx?af6 hgtfn]
dha't 9+un] ljsf; u5{ Tolta]nf ;lsb}g s[ltd cGt/lj/f]wsf] ;[hgf ;xdtLsf] af6f]af6 lgsf; eGg] u' 7 L ljw] o s lgd{nf kGtsf] anfTsf/kl5 ul/Psf] s;/L Gofosf] cg' e " l t ug] { <
k'FhLjfbL rl/qwf/Lx? /fHosf] zQmL u/L la36g ;lsb}g nf]jk|nf]egaf6 cfof] . Tof] a'emfO{s} cefj xf] lsgsL b]ze/ /x]sf u'7LnfO{ Jojl:yt xTof k|s/0f g]kfnL /fHo ;+/rgfsf] ;/sf/sf] d'lvof o:tf bL3{/f]u
b'?kof]u u/]/ bdg g} ;dfwfgsf] vl/b laqmL of] s'g} gofF cjtf/ xf]Og{ ;+lawfgn] lbPsf df}lns clwsf/ ug]{ eGb} ;/sf/n] ;/f]sf/jfnf;Fu s'g} Pp6f ljs[t laDasf ?kdf /x]sf] lgoGq0fdf kfOnf rfNg rfxGgg\ . a?
lasNk /f] H g] ub{ 5 g . To;n] b]v]sf] / ef]u]sf] s'/f xf] . a? dfyL k| l taGw nufpg' eg] s f] 5nkmn g} gu/L ;+;bdf ljw]os 5 . clxn];Dd xTofdf ;+nUgnfO{ pN6} ToxL b08xLgtfsf] /fhdfu{df
qmflGtnfO{ ;fk]lIfs xfgL k'¥ofP klg ;dflhs bnfnx?sf nfuL PsLs[t c;+a}wflgs sfd u/ eGg' afx]ssf] nUof] . t/ o; ljw]ossf] ;/f]sf/jfnf ;/sf/n] kqm]/ Gofosf] s73/fdf xft xNnfpgd} dUg 5g\ . lylt
d'ne"t ?kdf ;xof]uL g} x'g] u/]sf] hgqmflGt kf] cGwfsf] nfuL xfQL s] g} xf] /< o:df /fHosf] bf]; jf ;a}n] lj/f]w u/] . u'7L ljw]osn] pEofpg ;s]sf] 5}g . o;} ljifodf a;fNb}gg\ . lj/f]w u/]df cl3Nnfx?n]
5 . ;/sf/L bdgn] Aofks ?k lnG5 ePsf] 5 . tyfkL snfTds lab|fx] L sf] < zflGtk'0f{ ultljlwdfyL
;f+:s[lts cf:yfd} k|xf/ u/]sf] 7fg]kl5 af/Daf/ k|Zg ubf{ lgn{Hh k|zf;g o:t} ubf{ cfnf]rgf ePg d}n] ubf{
Tolta]nf qmfGtLsf/L larf/, g]t[Tj k|lt/f]wsf] lasf;sf] h?/L b]lvG5 . k|ltaGw nufpg' eg]sf] czflGt u/
/ sfo{lbzf ;du| If]qdf :yflkt x'G5, ;zQm k|lt/f]w / hgck]Iff eGg] cy{ nfUb}g / < zflGtk'0f{ sf7df8f}F dfq geO{ b]zsf ljleGg hjfkm lbg]eGbf pDsg] vf]lhdf dfq lsg eg]/ wf/] xft nufpF5g\ .
e};s]kl5 larf/af6 k/flht eP/ jt{dfg s]kL ;/sf/n] cfˆgf] tl/sfn] hgtfsf cfjfh p7fpbf :yfgdf ePsf] lj/f]wsf] ;fdgf b]lvG5 . @)&% ;fpg !) ut] e|i6frf/ / clgoldttfsf] ljifodf
bdgsf/Lx?n] aftf{sf] xTs08f k|of]u hgla/f]wL rl/q 9fs5f]k ug{ / n'6sf] Aojf:yf u/] adn] ;'gfpg' afWotf ;/sf/n] ug{' kof]{ . kl/0ffd ljw]os anfTsf/kl5 xTof ul/PsL kGtsf] k|Zg ubf{ k|ltkIfL bnsf g]tf;d]tsf]
ug]{ ub{5g . dfq} b]zn] 7'nf] Iflt :ju{ arfpgsf nfuL lauts} xf] . zflGtk'0f{ ;ef h'n; ' wgf{ la/f]w g} lkmtf{ lng ;/sf/ afWo ePsf] 5 . Ps jif{ x'gnfUbf;Dd klg ck/fwLsf ;+nUgtf ePsf] ljifonfO{ NofOG5 /
Aoxf]/L ;s]sf] x'G5 . !) aif]{ dxfg lg/Gt/tfdf sDo'lgi6 kf6L{dfyL ug{ gkfpg] u/L k|ltaGw y'kfl/G5 /fxbfgL ljw] o s af/]df ;'Os { f];Dd yfxf gkfpg'n] xfd|f] ;a} s'/f ;fd;'d kfg{ vf]lhG5 .
hgo'4 o;}sf] HjfnGt pbfx/0f xf] . k|ltaGw nufpg] sfd uof]{ pQm eg] k|ltjfb ToxL 9+un] ug{' afWotf o:t} csf]{ pbfx/0f ag]sf] 5, /fHo ;+/rgfsf] cj:yf b]vfpF5 . ckTofl/nf x7n] u' D b} uPsf]
hlta]nf $) ;'qLo dfu /fVof] Tof] k|ltaGwsf] 3f]if0ffkl5 h'g ;kgf s]kL xf] o;sf] ?k h:tf] klg x'g ;S5 . /fxbfgL;DalGw ljw]os . ;+3Lo ;fj{ h lgs vl/b lgodfjnLsf] ljZj;gLotf
;xh} k'/f ePsf] eP ^$ sf] :t/ kmf;LFjfbL ;/sf/n] b]vs ] f] lyof] cfh aGb x8\tfn tf]8kmf]8 / cfuhgLn] ;+;baf6 kfl/t eO{ k|df0fLs/0fsf 5} 7 f} + ;+ z f] w g cf]nLn] cfkm' k|wfgdGqL ePkl5
sfod x'Fb}gYof] . dfq} ;fy{s aftf{ / cfP/ unt ;fljt x'Fb}5 lsgsL b]z ;d[l4 x'G5 eg]/ afWotf ga'emL nflu /fi6«klt sfof{nodf k'us ] f] o; lgdf{0f If]qdf Joj;foLsf] dgk/L d'ns ' af6 w'nf] w'jF f x6]sf], kfgL k/]sf],
a} 1 flgs lgisif{ gxF ' b f qmflGt k|ltaGwsf] rf}tkmL{ cfnf]rgf / pQm ts{ ubf{ d'vt{ f x'g hfG5 . hgtfsf] ljw]osdf JolQmsf] JolQmut :jtqtf / c/fhstf lgoGq0f ug{ eGb} ds} / wfg/cfn' h:tf s[ l ifhGo
k|ltqmfGtLdf ablnPsf] lttf] ;Toaf6 sbd lj?4 gf/f 3lGsP g]skfdf ck]Iff t w]/} ;xof] ca t ;xg'sf] s'l07t ug]{ k|fjwfg /x]s} sf/0f ;/sf/n] ut a}zfv #) df /fhkqdf pTkfbg a9]sf] h:tf ts{ k6s k6s
eg] ;t{ s /xg} k5{ . lo ;a} emg hgnx/ pln{of] ;/sf/ / slyt klg t xb x'G5 . b]z n'l6;s] kf6L{n] /fi6«klt ljBfb]jL e08f/Ln] ;+;bd} ;"rgf k|sflzt u/]/ ;fj{hlgs vl/b ul//x]sf 5g\ . h'g dflg;nfO{ ;'Gbf
;sf/fTds / gsf/fTds 36gfn] s] hgk|ltlgwL afx]s s;}n] ;sf/fTds l56f] sbd rfnf]; eGg] ck]Iff lkmtf{ k7fOlbPsL l5g\ . b' O { lgodfjnLsf] 5}7f}+ ;+zf]wg u¥of] . t/ klg xfF;f] p7\5g\ . kfOknfOgaf6
k'i6L u5{ eg] h'g p2]Zo ;lxt ?kdf lnPg, sbdsf] sxL st}af6 /fv]sf] 5 . lsgsL b]zsf] /Iff ltxfO{ l gs6sf] ;+ ; bn] agfP/ To;df /flvPsf ;Demf}tf cjlwsf] efG;f–efG;fdf Uof; k'¥ofpg], g]kfnL
lab|f]x hlGdG5 Tof] p2]Zo gr'Db} :jfut ePg a? la/f]w ;a{q eof] hgclwsf/sf] Uof/]06L ;lxtsf] /fi6«klt;dIf k|df0fLs/0fs} nflu %) k|ltzteGbf a9L Dofb yKg kfgLhxfhaf6 ofqf ug{ lgdGq0ff
cyjf cfwf/ gabnL pkl/;+/rgfdf o;n] ;/sf/ / o;sf ;+rfnssf] a}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf] Ph]08f Tof] k'¥ofO ;lsPsf] ljw]os lkmtf{ lng'n] gkfOg], e|i6frf/ cleof]udf d'2f afF8\g] h:tf ljifo Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{
kl/jt{ g ;Dej xF ' b } g . t;y{ ckl/kSjtf k'i6L x'G5 . b]zsf] dfof k|fKtLsf] a}1flgs sfo{lbzf af]s]sf] s] ;Gb]z hfG5 < bfo/ ePsf Joj;foLn] ;fj{hlgs xfF:o z[+vnf dfq ag] . o:t} xf] eg]
jt{dfgdf rln/x]sf] qmflGt / e}/x]sf] ug]{ b]zeQm afdkGyL k|utLzLnx?sf] Ps dfq kf6L{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ ldl8of sfplG;n ljw] o s 7]Ssfk§fdf efu lng gkfpg] h:tf lrlgofF b|"t ultsf] /]n csf]{ xfF:o
bdg o;}sf] pkh xf] . o:sf] a:t'jfbL df]rf{ k]lrnf] aGb} hfg'n] kmf;LjfbL xf] eGg] a'em]sf] 5 . o;} u /L ldl8of sfplG;n Joj:yfsf] lgdf{0f Joj;foLn] lj/f]w ls:;f gaGnf eGg ;lsGg .
4 @)&^ ;fn c;f/ @@ ut] cfOtaf/

gf/LnfO{ cf/If0f dfq xf]Og, ;Ifd agfcf}+ 3/ d} a;]/ :gfts tyf :gftsf]Q/ ug]{ eP
dLgf u' K tf of]hgfx¿ Nofpg'k5{ . lax] ubf{ bfOhf] lbg'kg{] cj:yf 5 . hf] sf]xLnfO{ klg dfkm ug{ ;lsGg .
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn v'nf ljZjljBfno Joj:yfkg tyf sfg'g ;+sfo 8Lgsf]
sfof{no dfgejg nlntk'/n] Joa:yfkg / sfg'g ;+sfosf:gfts tyf
gf/L O{Zj/sf] cb\e't /rgf xf] . 3/sf] sfdsf] af]em, aRrfsf] h;n] ubf{ 5f]/LnfO{ /fd|/L k9fpg d :jo+ gf/L ePsf] gftfn] gf/Lsf] :gftsf]Q/txsf ljleGg ;+sfodf egf{ v'nfPsf] 5 . c? ljZjljBfnodf
gf/LnfO{ b]jLsf] k|tLs dflgPsf] 5 . kfngkf]if0fsf] lhDd]jf/L, 3/fo;L klg ufx|f] 5 . cem 5f]/LnfO{ a9L kL8fsf] af/]df af/Daf/ ;fdflhs sfg'g ;+sfodf egf{ x'g gkfO/x]sf a]nf ljBfyL{sf nflu of] 7"nf] /fxt x'g]
gf/L /rgfsf] vfgL xf] . gf/Ln] gf}+ ;d:of cflb OTofbLsf] af]em x'Fbfx'Fb} k9fPdf al9 bfOhf] lbg'kg{] cj:yfsf] ;+hfnaf6 yfxf kfpFbf ;xg ufx|f] dx;'z 5 . egf{sf nflu cfj]bg lbg] clGtd ldlt c;f/ @& ut];Dd tf]lsPsf]
dlxgf;Dd aRrfnfO{ cfˆgf] ue{df klg gf/Ln] EofP;Dd cu|tf xfl;n ;[hgf ePsf] 5 . a¿ sd k9fPdf ePsf] 5 . g]kfndf ;fdflhs ;~hfnsf] 5 . ;/sf/n] @)&@ df g]kfn v'nf ljZjljBfno P]g hf/L u/]/ ljZjljBfno
/flV5g\ . gf+} dlxgf kZrft aRrfsf] ug{] sf]lz;df nflu /x]s} l5g\ . t/ sd bfOhf] lbg'k5{ eGg] dfgl;stf ljsf; eP;Fu} o:tf 36gfx¿ aflx/
hGd lblG5g\ / x'sf{pFl5g\ . hGd / klg p;}nfO{ kfvf nufpg] k|jl[ Q a9\bf] b]vfk/]sf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ dlxnf a9L cfpg] u/]sf] b]lvG5 .
kfngkf]if0fsf] ;fy;fy} ;+:sf/n] 5 . olb o:tf] gePsf] eP k6s k6s lzIffdf x|f; cfPsf] kfOG5 . olt gf/Ldfly ePsf] cTofrf/, lx+;f,
cfˆgf] aRrfnfO{ >[Ëf/n] sfo{ klg gf/L lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ bf]xf]l/g] lyPg dfq sxfF xf] / bfOhf] ltl/;s]kl5 zf]if0f cflbsf] lj¿4df xfdL ;Dk"0f{
ub{l5g\ . cfˆgf] aRrfsf] v'zL x]bf{ xf]nf . slxn] anfTsf/ t slxn] klg 5f]/LnfO{ ;'v 5}g . pN6} p;nfO{ gf/L Psh'6 eP/ cfjfh p7fpg]
k|;'tLsf] Joyf ;d]t la;{g] ul5{g\ . d/Ggf;Gg x'gu] l/ s'6lk6, slxn] lhpFb} dfgl;s tgfjsf] ;fdgf ug'k{ b{5 . a]nf cfPsf] 5 . 3/ 3/df o:tf
ctM gf/Ln] o; ;+;f/df /rgf cyf{t hnfpg] k|of;x¿ eO/x]sf 5g\ . o;}u/L, kxf8 tyf lxdfndf klg gf/L lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ 3l6/x]sf 5g\ .
;[hgfsf] ef/ axg ul5{g\ . To;sf/0f jL/uGhdf ;'lgtf ofbjnfO{ pgs} lbgx'Fh;f] dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ cfh c¿;Fu 36]sf] 5 eg] ef]nL
gf/L ;fRr} g} dxfg x'lG5g\ . >Ldfg 8f=;lrtfgGbn] d/Ggf;Gg x'g] u/]sf 5g\ . Totflt/sf 36gfx¿ xfdL;+u klg 36\g ;S5 . To;sf/0f
xfd|f] lkt[;QfTds jf k'¿if k|wfg x'g]ul/ s'6lk6 ug'{ / c:ktfndf Tolt ;fj{hlgs x'Fb}g . kxf8df To:tf ;fdflhs ck/fwLx¿nfO{
;dfhn] gf/Lsf] ;fx;, ;Ifdtf / d[To" x'g' tyf l;/xfsf] sNof0fk'/df ;aeGbf a9L k|tfl8t 5g\ dlxnfx¿ a]nd} f va/bf/ ug'k{ b{5 . :jo+ gf/Ln]
of]ubfgnfO{ /lQe/ klg ;/fxgf s+rg d08nnfO{ lhpFb} hnfP/ dfg'{ 5fp k|yfaf6 . 5fpuf]7df a:bf klxn] To:sf] k|ltsf/ ug{} kb{5 . :yfkgfsf] af6f] vf]n]sf] lyof] .
u/]sf] kfOb}g . b'O{ rf/ gf/Ln] pRr o:tf gf/L lx+;fsf tfhf 36gfx¿ sltko dlxnfx¿n] csfnd} Hofg;d]t gf/L ;xgzLntfsf] cem k/LIff Pgcf]oc
" Gtu{t ;fdflhs tyf lzIffzf:q, Joj:yfkg / sfg'g, lj1fg,
kb xfl;n ub{}df ;Dk"0f{ gf/Lsf] pbfx/0fx¿ 5g\ . cem lgd{nf kGtsf] u'dfpg] u/]sf] 36gfx¿ klg aflx/ gn]p eg]/ ;a}nfO{ xf]l;of/ ug{' :jf:Yo / k|ljlw u/L tLg ;+sfo 5g\ . oL ;+sfocGtu{t !% j6f sfo{qmd
kl/j]znfO{ cf}Nofpg ;lsGg . s]xL anfTsf/ kl5 xTofn] t emg\ ddf{lxt cfPs} 5g\ . To:t}, anfTsf/sf kb{5 . t;y{, ;dod} gf/L lx+;fsf] ;~rfng ul/Psf] 5 . Psjif]{ sf];{cGtu{t l8Knf]df Og nfOa|]/L OGkmd]{;g
gf/Lx¿n] cfˆgf] ;xL d"Nofs+gsf] t'NofPsf] 5 . oL ;a} gsf/fTds 36gfx¿ klg w]/} x'g] u/]sf 5g\ . To:tf cGTo ug'{kb{5 gq eg] xfd|f] ;dfh Dofg]hd]G6 / kLhL8L Og O{–nlg{ª 5g\ . ;fdflhs ;+sfodf 8]9jif]{
cfwf/df gfd / k|l;l4 sdfPsf 5g\ ;f]r / ¿9Ljf9L k/Dk/fsf pkhx¿ ;fdflhs ck/fwLx¿nfO{ s8feGbf ljs[tLsf] af6f]df k'uL /f]uL x'g]5 . PdlkmncGtu{t cy{zf:q, /fhgLltzf:q / ;dfhzf:q 5g\ . lzIffzf:q
eGb}df ;Dk"0f{ gf/LnfO{ dfkg ug{ 5g\ . a] t naL gf} s /sf] ¿kdf s8f ;hfo lbg' kb{5 . ;DalGwt kIfx¿, h;n] gf/L lx+;fsf] ;+sfocGtu{t Pdlkmndf g]kfnL, c+u|]hL, ul0ft, lzIff, :jf:Yo / ;dfh
sbfkL ldNb}g . cem klg xfd|f] gf/LnfO{ lng] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . dlxnf lx+ ; flj¿4 g] k fnsf] /f]syfddf cfˆgf] of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf lj1fg 5g\ . b'Oj{ if]{ sf];d
{ f df:6;{ Og O{–ueg]G{ ; k9fO ePsf] 5 eg] 8]9jif]{
;dfhdf gf/Lsf] cj:yf bogLo 5 . lbgel/ sfd ug{] t/ vfgf vfg] a]nfdf ;+ljwfgdf klg s8f sfg'gx¿ 5g\ . 5g\ . ltgLx¿sf] klg plts} vfFrf] Pdlkmn Og cfO{;L6L k9fOG5 . ^ dlxgfsf] Ps ;]d]:6/ x'G5 . Psjif]{ sf];{
xfd|f] ;dfh gf/L lx+;fn] u|l;t 5 . ;a}eGbf kl5 vfg'kg{] /], slxn];Dd t/ s] tL sfg'g cfO;Sbf klg dlxnf 5 . xfd|f] ;/sf/n] klg s8feGbf k9\gn] ] sDtLdf #) qm]l86 cfj/sf] b'O{ ;]d:] 6/ k9]/ k/LIff lbg'k5{ . b'Oj{ if]{
gf/Ln] kfpg] clwsf/ / ;Ddfgdf gf/LnfO{ lyr]/ /fVg] xf] of] ;dfh < lx+;f Go"gLs/0f ePsf] 5 t < lsg s8f sfg'gsf] Joj:yf u/L gf/L sf];{n] ^# qm]l86 cfj/ / Pdlkmn cfO{;L6Lsf] #( qm]l86 cfj/ 5 .
cem klg sdL sdhf]/Lx¿ 5g\ . gf/LnfO{ t'R5 7fGg] /f]uL ;dfhnfO{ ;+j}wflgs clwsf/ dlxnfn] pkof]u lx+;fsf 36gfx¿nfO{ /f]Sg] k|of; ljZjljBfnon] nlntk'/sf] kf6g SofDk;, s}nfnL ax'dv ' L SofDk; wgu9L,
dlxnf cf/If0f lbFb}df gf/LnfO{ h/}b]lv pvfn]/ kmfNg'kb{5 . ug{ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ < af]S;Lsf] gfddf ug'{kg{] b]lvG5 . x'g t ;/sf/n] sf]xnk'/sf] afu]Zj/L SofDk;, kf]v/fsf] hglk|o SofDk; / O6x/Lsf] hgtf
d" n k| j fxdf ;dfj] z Ls/0f ug{ t/fO{ dw]zdf vf;u/L lbgx'F dlxnfdfly lx+;f ug]{nfO{ sfg'gL dlxnf lx+;fsf lj¿4 sfg'gx¿ SofDk;df ;Dks{ tyf k/LIff s]Gb| tf]s]sf] 5 . pks'nklt zdf{sf cg';f/
;lsGg . s] x LnfO{ ;lsPnf t/ dlxnf lx+;fsf 36gfx¿ aflx/ cfpg] sf/afxL x'g] elgPsf] 5 t/ lsg gNofPsf] xf]Og, t/ tL sfg'gx¿ sIff !@ kf; u/]/ a;]sf ljBfyL{n] qm]l86sf cfwf/df # dlxg] / ^ dlxg]
;Dk"0f{nfO{ sbfkL xf]Og . dlxnfnfO{ u/]sf 5g\ . t/fO{ dw]zdf bfOhf] eO/x]sf] 5}g < ;zQm¿kdf sfof{Gjog ePsf] 5}g . sf];{ k9\g kfpF5g\ . sf];c { g';f/ Go"gtd !% xhf/b]lv clwstd ! nfv &)
cf/If0f xf]Og, cj;/ rflxG5 . dlxnf k|d'v sf/ssf] ¿kdf b]lvPsf] 5 of] PSsfO;f}+ ztfAbLdf dlxnf / sfg'g h:tf];s ' } cfPklg sfof{Gjog xhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd z'Ns tf]lsPsf] 5 .
k'¿ifeGbf sd Ifdtfjfg x'Fb}gg\ .
dlxnfnfO{ cf/If0fdf dfq ;Lldt ug'{
eg]sf] dlxnfleqsf] IfdtfnfO{ phfu/
eg] kxf8df klg ljleGg lsl;dsf
dlxnf k|tf8gfx¿ x'G5g\ . dw]zdf
dlxnf lx+;fsf] k|d'v sf/0f bfOhf]
k'¿if, 5f]/f / 5f]/LaLrsf] e]befj
clxn] klg ;dfKt x'g ;ls/x]sf]
5}g . Gff/L k'¿ifeGbf klg a9L ;Ifd
geP;Dd To;sf] s'g} dxTj x'Fb}g .
t;y{ , gf/Lsf] ljleGg ¿kx¿
x'G5g\ . ;Ddfg ug]{ afgL a;fnf}+ . -
OlkP; kf; u/]sf cfwf dfq sf]l/of hfg kfpg
kfpg]
sf7df8f}F . j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf] nflu blIf0f sf]l/of hfg o;kfln efiff
gug'{ xf] . dlxnfO{ cf/If0fsf] ;f6f] k|yfnfO{ dfGg ;lsG5 . t/fO{lt/ of] x'lG5g\ eGg] s'/f lj1fgn] klg ;fljt n]lvsf dlxnf clwsf/sdL{ x'g\_ - k/LIffdf kf; x'gd ] Wo] cfwfdfq hfg kfpg] ePsf 5g\ . of] jif{ k/LIffdf kf;
cfTdlge{ / agfpg] l t/ vfnsf ;d:of a9L b]Vg kfOG5 . 5f]/LnfO{ u/]sf] cj:yfdf gf/LnfO{ t'R5 7fGg] dw]z bk{0f lkmr/ ;]jf_ ePsf !@ xhf/ ( hgfdWo] blIf0f sf]l/ofn] ^ xhf/ & ;o dfq sfdbf/ n}hfg]

w]/} u'gf;f] M dgf]/f]usf] ;+s]t Û


atfOPsf] 5 . of] jif{ blIf0f sf]l/ofn] pTkfbgd"ns If]qdf $ xhf/ & ;o /
s[lif d"ns If]qdf @ xhf/ sfdbf/ n}hfg] ToxfFsf] dfgj ;+zfwg s]Gb|n]
hfgsf/L lbPsf] OlkP; zfvfsf ;"rgf clwsf/L zf]efs/ e08f/Ln] atfP .
ebf} $ b]lv !* ut];Dd ;Lk k/LIf0f blIf0f sf]l/of hfg kfpg]–gkfpg] lglZrt
sf7df8f}F . sf]xL JolQm o:tf ug{' tkfO{s + f] afgL xf] . u'gf;f] ul//xFbf agfpF5 . gsf/fTds efjgf a9\b} cfk;df hf]l8Psf] x'G5, z/L/n] ug]{ e08f/Ln] hfgsf/L lbP . ;Lk k/LIf0fsf] nflu c;f/ @) b]lv @( ut];Dd
x'G5g\, h;nfO{{ x/]s s'/fdf u'gf;f] jf:tjd} Tof] afgLdf ?kfGt/0f x'G5 . hfG5 . lg/f;fjfbL ;f]r + ljsf; x'G5 . tgfjnfO{{ Psxb;Dd ;xg ;S5 . t/, /lh:6«;] g kmf/d el/;Sg' kg]{ OlkP; zfvfn] hgfPsf] 5 . kl5Nnf] ;do blIf0f
ug{k' 5{ . pgLx? s'gk} lg s'/fn] k"0f{ cyf{t xfd|f] afgL jf k|jl[ Q g} u'gf;f] :6\ofG8kmf]8{ o'lgel;{6Ln] ;g\ @)!^ clt ePdf To;n] z/L/df kL8f lbG5 . sf]l/ofn] ljb]zL sfdbf/sf] nflu efiff;Fu} ;Lkdf klg hf]8 lbFb} cfPsf] 5 .
;Gt'i6 jf v';L x'bF g} g\ . x/]s s'/fdf
s]xL g s]xL vf]6 b]V5g\ . cS;/ xfdL
cfˆgf] u'gf;f] c?nfO{{ JoQm ul//x]sf
ug]{ x'G5 . ctM o; lsl;dsf] k|jl[ Qn]
xfdLnfO{{ ;d:ofdf kfg{ ;S5 .
lj1sf] egfO{ 5, …h'g s'/f xfdLn]
df u/]sf] cWoog cg';f/ u'gf;f] ug]{
afgLn] xfd|f] dl:tissf] Pp6f lx:;fdf
g/fd|f] c;/ k'¥ofpF5, h'g :d/0f;Fu
o;n] xfd| f ] v' ; L / pT;fxnfO{ {
dfl/lbG5 . o;y{ u'gf;f] ug]{ afgLn]
cGttM cfkm}nfO{{ gi6 u5{ . u'gf;f]
ljleGg ;+u7gåf/f g]kfn k|fWofks
x'G5f}+ . u'gf;f] JoQm ug]{ cg]s tl/sf
5g\ . h:tf] /f]P/, 7'l:sP/, emu8f
rfx] h:tf] jf xfdLn] ck]Iff u/]h:tf]
x'bF g} , To;k|lt u'gf;f] ug{' xfd|f] k|fs[lts
hf]l8Psf] 5 . dl:tis / z/L/ s'g} ;dfwfg xf]Og . ;+3sf] dxflwj]zg alxisf/
u/]/, rsf{rsL{ u/]/ . oL ;a} tl/sfn]
gsf/fTdstf emNsfpF5 . u'gf;f] ug]{
k|ltlqmof xf] . olb o; lsl;dsf]
k|ltlqmof tTsfn hgfOof] / To;nfO{{
ef/tsf] tLj| bafakl5 ljiffbL hf“r lg0f{o lkmtf{
sf7df8f}F . ef/tsf] rsf]{ bafa ;x;lrjn] eg], …k|:tfjsf] ljifodf
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn /fli6«o k|fWofks ;Ë7g, g]kfn k|ultzLn k|fWofks
;Ë7g, /fli6«o nf]stflGqs k|fWofks ;‹ / g]kfn /fli6«o k|fWofks ;Ë7gn]
k|jl[ Q cfkm}df /fd|f] xf]Og . xfdL hlt dgdf /flvPg eg] l7s} x'G5 . cyf{t y]Ug g;s]/ ;/sf/n] cfoft x'g] 5nkmnkZrft\ dlGqkl/ifb\sf] a}7sn] g]kfn k|fWofks ;‹sf] !^ cf}+ dxflwj]zg alxisf/ u/]sf 5g\ . laxLaf/
hlt u'gf;f] u5f},{ Tof] k|jl[ Qsf] ?kdf g/fd|f] x'bF g} . o;n] tkfO{s + f] dgdf s'g} t/sf/Lsf] eG;f/ ljGb'df eO/x]sf] k/LIf0f ug]{ Joj:yf lkmtf{ lng] lg0f{o sf7df8f}Fdf kqsf/ ;Dd]ng ub}{ pgLx?n] ;f] 3f]if0ff u/]sf x'g\ . ;+3sf]
ljsf; x'G5 . cGttM xfd|f] afgL g} s] lsl;dsf] u'gf;f] afFsL /xFbg} .Ú oBkL ljiffbL k/LIf0f sfo{ tTsfnsf nflu u/]sf] lyof] .Ú pgsf cg';f/ o;sf jt{dfg kbflwsf/Ln] cfly{s clgoldttf u/]sf], ;a} ljZjljBfnonfO{
x'G5 eg] u'gf;f] ul/xfNg] . h] s'/fdf u'gf;f] ug]{ afgLsf] ljsf; ePdf o:tf :ylut u/]sf] 5 . pBf]u, afl0fHo ;fy} cfufdL ^ dlxgfsf nflu t/sf/L, k|ltlglwTj gu/fPsf], klAns SofDk;sf] xsdf k|ltlglw gldn]sf] nufotsf
klg lrQ ga'emfpg] . u'gf;f] hlt s'/fx? dgd} /lx/xG5 . ha dgdf tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfnosf] k|:tfjdf kmnk"mn / dfgj :jf:YonfO{ xfgL c;Gt'li6 /fVb} pgLx?n] dxflwj]zg alxisf/ u/]sf] hgfPsf x'g\ .
ul/G5, plQ a9\b} hfG5 . xfdL u'gf;f] xfdL u'gf;f] kfn]/ a:5f}, Tof] dgf]ljsf/ ;/sf/n] /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt k'¥ofpg] Soflkmgo'Qm zlQma4{s k]o sfo{qmddf af]Nb} g]kfn k|ultzLn k|fWofks ;Ë7gsf cWoIf k|f=8f=
u/]/ dgsf] ljsf/ kvfNg vf]H5f} . xf] . dgf]ljsf/n] :jf:Yodf klg c;/ u/L ef/t;lxt t] > f] d' n ' s af6 kbfy{ …OghL{ l8«S+ ;Ú / …ˆn]j/ l;Gy]l6s
t/, hlt–hlt u'gf;f] ub}{ hfG5f}, of] kf5{ . ofbjk|sfz nfld5fg]n] ;+3sf] dxflwj]zg cj}wflgs ePsf]n] cfk"mx?n] alxisf/
cfoft x'g] tfhf t/sf/L / kmnk"mnsf] l8«S+ ;–h';Ú sf] cfoftdf nufOPsf] u/]sf] :ki6 kf/] . pgn] eg], …;+3 eg]sf] ;a}sf] ;fIff ;+:yf xf] . t/,
yk a9\b} hfG5 . lsgeg] u'gf;f] ug{' xfdL lsg u' g f;f] u5f} { < eG;f/ ljGb' d } Sjf/] G 6fOg / k|ltaGw klg km's'jf ug]{ lg0f{o
g} v/fa k|jl[ Qsf] ljsf; ug{' xf] . ;fdfGot u'gf;f] ug{' xfd|f] tgfj hLjgfzs ljiffbLsf] cjz]if k/LIf0f ;/sf/n] u/]sf] 5 . s[lif tyf kz'kI+ fL
jf:tjdf u'gf;f] s'g} ;dfwfg klg Joj:yfkg ug]{ Pstl/sf x'g;S5 . clgjfo{ ?kdf ug{k' g]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] ljsf;dGqL rqmkf0fL vgfnn] klg
xf]Og . ha tkfO{+ s'g} s'/fdf u'gf;f] xfdL cfk"mnfO{{ lrQ ga'em]sf] s'/fdf lyof] . c;f/ # ut]bl] v sfof{Gjogdf ;/sf/n] k/LIf0f sfo{ lkmtf{ lnOPsf]
ug{x' G' 5, To;n] tkfO{s + f] ;d:of xn u'gf;f] u5f}{ . u'gf;f] ug{s ' f] leqL Wo]o cfPsf] of] gLlt !& cf}+ lbgdf pBf]u, ljifonfO{ k'li6 u/]sf 5g\ . z'qmaf/
x'bF g} . a? o;sf] ;fO8Okm]S6 5 . of] klg x'G5 ls c?sf] ;fxg'el" t afl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfnos} s[lif, ;xsf/L tyf k|fs[lts ;|ft]
Tof] s] xf] eg], u'gf;f] ug]{ afgLn] kfOof];\ . u'gf;f] ul//xFbf xfdL cfkm'nfO{{ k|:tfjdf dlGqkl/ifbsf] a}7sn] lkmtf{ ;ldltsf] a}7snfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{
tkfO{+sf] JolQmTjdf c;/ u5{ . kLl8t dx;'; ul//x]sf x'G5f} . vf;df lng] lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] . eG;f/ ljGb'df s[lifdGqL rqmkf0fL vgfnn] eg],
tkfO{ + s f] JolQmTj g} sdhf] / u'gf;f] ug{' eg]sf] ;]Nkm l8km]G; cyf{t ef/taf6 cfoft x'g] t/sf/L tyf …afl0fHo dGqfnon] nfOg ldlgi6«L;Fu
agfOlbG5 . x'g;S5 sltko s'/fdf cfTd/Iffsf] sdhf]/ tl/sf klg xf] . kmnk"mnsf] s8fO{sf ;fy k/LIf0f x'g 5nkmn g} gu/L Psnf}6L ?kdf ljiffbL
tkfO{n + fO{{ lrQ a'‰b}g . sltko s'/f xfdLdWo] w]/n } ] of] s'/f :jLsf/ ug}{ yfn]kl5 kl5Nnf] ;dodf ef/t k/LIf0f ug]{ lg0f{o lkmtf{ lng] ljifodf
s'/f tkfO{+nfO{{ l7s nfUb}g . t/, ;Sb}gf} ls, xfdLaf6 klg s]xL uNtL ;/sf/n] rsf]{ ?kdf of] Joj:yfsf] dlGqkl/ifbsf] a}7sdf k|:tfj nu] .
To;sf] k|ltlqmof hgfpg] c? tl/sf ePsf] 5 . xfdLn] klg s]xL sdhf]/L lj/f]w hgfpFb} lkmtf{ lng bafa lbFb} pQm lg0f{o dlGqkl/ifb\sf] a}7sn]
klg 5g\ . tkfO{n + ] u'gf;f] ug{k' 5{ eGg] u/]sf 5f} . u'gf;f] u/]/ xfdLn] cfˆgf] cfPsf] lyof] . ef/tLo b"tfaf; / :jLs[t u/]sf] 5 .Ú ;/sf/n] kl5Nnf]
5}g . h:tf] ls, sfo{nodf tkfO{d+ fly uNtL cl:jsf/ ug]{ /fd|f] afxfgf dxflwj]zgh:tf] ljifodf ;a}nfO{ ;xeflutf u/fpg ;Sg'ePg . To;}n] xfdLn]
ef/tLo lgof{tstf{ Jofkf/Lx?sf] ;dodf cfoft x'g] t/sf/Lsf] ljiffbL ulDe/ c;Gt'li6 /fVb} alxisf/ ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf xf}+ .Ú
cGofo eO/x] s f] 5 . tkfO{ + s f] kfpF5f}+ . u'gf;f] ul//xFbf Tof] xfd|f] k|jl[ Q ljleGg 6f]nL s[lif tyf kz'kI+ fL ljsf; k/LIf0f / h';dflysf] k|ltaGw g]kfnL
sfo{ynf]df tkfO{+dfly efjgfTds aG5 . afgL aG5 . ctM h'g;'s} s'/fdf To:t}, g]kfn /fli6«o k|fWofks ;Ë7gsf ;x–;+of]hs k|f=8f=/d]zk|;fb
dGqfno, cy{ dGqfno tyf pBf]u, pkef]Qmf / ls;fgsf] kIfdf lgSs}
v]naf8 eO/x]sf] 5 . e]befj eO/x]sf] klg xfdL c;Gt'i6 /xG5f} . u'gf;f] afl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfnod} k'u]/ dxTjk"0f{ dflgP klg bafadf lkmtf{ e§/fO{n] klAns SofDk;df ePsf] ;xdltnfO{ nTofpFb} cfˆgf JolQmx?nfO{
5 . oL s'/fnfO{{ ;xg'k5{ eGg] xf]Og . u5f}{ . o;n] xfd|f] dfgl;stf ljs[t of] Joj:yf :yuLt ug{ bafa lbPsf ul/Psf] 5 . sflndf6L ahf/df cfpg] dfq} dxflwj]zg k|ltlglw agfO{ Psnf}6L u/]sf]df uDeL/ c;Gt'li6 hgfP .
oL s' / f la?4 tkfO{ + n ] cfjfh x'G5, :jf:Yo v/fa x'G5 . To;afx]s lyP . pBf]u, afl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ t/sf/L tyf kmnk"mn $) k|ltzt g]kfn /fli6«o k|fWofks ;Ë7gsf cWoIf k|f=8f= hulbzrGb| e08f/Ln]
p7fpg'k5{ . h'Wg'k5{ . ;xL / tfls{s xfd|f] ;fdflhs k|lti7fdf klg o;n] dGqfnosf Ps ;x;lrjsf cg';f/ ef/taf6} cfpF5 . afFsL ^) k|ltzt !! j6} ljZjljBfnoaf6 dxflwj]zgsf] nflu k|ltlglw x'gk' g]d{ f s[lif tyf jg
ljwLx? ckgfpg'k5{ . t/, u'gf;f] cfFr k'¥ofpF5 . u'gf;f] ug]{ afgLn] pBf]u, afl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfnon] ahf/ :yfgLo pTkfbgn] cf]u6]sf] 5 . ljZjljBfno / dWoklZrd ljZjljBfnonfO{ k|ltlglwljxLg agfPsf]df cfklQ
ub}d { f tkfO{d + fly ePsf b"Jo{jxf/, s;};uF sf] ;DaGwdf kmf6f] NofpF5 . cfGtl/s tof/L u/L laxLaf/sf] eG;f/ ljefusf cg';f/ rfn' cfly{s hgfP . /fli6«o nf]stflGqs k|fWofks ;‹sf cWoIf 8f= pbo lszf]/ ltjf/Ln]
e]befj lgld6\ofGg x'bF g} . u'gf;f] ug]{ k|jl[ Q ljsf; x'bF } uPdf dlGqkl/ifb\sf] a}7sdf k/LIf0f sfo{ jif{sf] !! dlxgfdf @^ ca{ $^ sf]8 ;+3n] Psnf}6L ?kdf clwj]zg ;DkGg u/] cfk"mx?n] To;sf] lj?4df csf]{
sltko s'/fdf tkfO{n + ] Psf]xf]/f] JolQmn] cfTdljZjf; klg u'dfpF5 . tTsfn :ylut ug]{ ljifodf k|:tfj &% nfv ¿k}ofF a/fa/sf] t/sf/L /
u'gf;f] ul//xFbf tkfO{k+ l| t c?n] x]g{] s'gk} lg s'/fdf t'?Gt} k|ltlqmof hgfpg g]kfn k|fWofks ;+3 rnfpg] r]tfjgL lbP . cfk"mx?nfO{ hlxNo}klg ;+3n]
nu]sf] lyof] . !& ca{ # s/f]8 (^ nfvsf] kmnk"mn ckx]ngf / lje]b u/]sf] klg pxfFn] u'gf;f] kf]v] . pgn] eg], …;+3n]
b[li6sf]0f g} v/fa x'g;S5 . pgLx?n] ;Sb}g . cfkm'nfO{{ lrQ ga'em]sf] s'/fdf …rsf] { bafa y] U g g;s] k l5 cfoft ePsf] 5 eg] g]kfnaf6 oxL
a' ‰ g] 5 g\ ls tkfO{ + c;Gt' i 6 cfjfh p7fpg ;Sb}g . o;n] pgLx?nfO{{ ljZjljBfnodf r'gfj ubf{ xfdLnfO{ slxNo}klg yfxf lbPg . ljlwjt ?kdf
afl0fHodGqL dft[ s f ofban] cjlwdf ! ca{ @@ s/f]8 (( nfv clxn]sf] dxflwj]zgdf kfFr j6f ;+u7gn] efu lng'kg]{ xf] . t/, clxn] Pp6f
dfgl;stfsf] JolQm x'gx' G' 5 . s'g} lrGtf, tgfj jf l8k|;] gdf k'¥ofpF5 . dlGqkl/ifb\ a}7sdf k|:tfj nUg' ePsf] a/fa/sf] dfq t/sf/L tyf kmnk"mn
s'/fn] tkfO{+ ;Gt'i6 /xg'xG' g . /, u'gf;f] u'gf;f] ug]{ afgLn] dfG5]nfO{{ tgfju|:t ;+u7gn] dfq} efu lnPsf] 5 . of] cj}wflgs 5 .Ú
lyof],Ú gfd pNn]v gug]{ zt{df tL lgof{t ePsf] /]s8{ 5 .
@)&^ ;fn c;f/ @@ ut] cfOtaf/ 5

s"6gLltsf lktf rf0fSosf] ;g;gLk"0f{ hLjgL


sf7df8f}F . cy{zf:qsf lktf, rrf{df NofPsf 5g\ . t/ o;sf] oyfy{ o;/L ;'jGw'n] sfg km'Sg yfn]kl5 cGhfgs} e/df Pslbg
ko{6sn] k"mn rf]/k] l5 ====
sf7df8f}F . ko{6sn] k"mn rf]/L u/]kl5 rLgsf] Osf] kfs{ aGb ul/Psf]
5 . sdnsf] k"mnsf] ;'Gb/tfn] kl/rt ;f] kfs{sf] hfnL tf]8]/ b}lgs
gLlt zf:qsf kf/+ut Pj+ k"jL{o bz{g a'‰gsf] nflu eg] Oltxf;sf] kfgf lj:tf/} /fhf ljGb" ; f/ / rGb|u'Ktsf] nflu agfPsf] vfgf @))–#)) ko{6sn] k"mn rf]//] o;sf] ;'Gb/tfdf gf]S;fgL k'¥ofP kl5
Pj+ jfª\dosf Ps w'/Gw/ ljåfg km]l/ Psk6s kN6fpg'kg]{ b]lvG5 . rf0fSosf]aLrdf eg] b"/L a9\g yfNof] . pgsL kTgLn] vfO{g\ / To;}sf] c;/n] jif{e/sf nflu aGb ul/Psf] atfOPsf] 5 . rLgsf] l;r'cfg k|fGtdf
rf0fSosf] hGd Ozfk"j{ # ;o &! df pgsf] Hofg uof] . pgL d[To' x'g] ag]sf] Osf] kfs{ ^@ Ps8df km}lnPsf] 5 . oxfF d] dlxgf b]lv k"mn k"mNg
hlGdPsf rf0fSosf] lgwg eg] Ozfk"j{ a]nfdf ue{jtL lyO{g\ . pgsf] d[To'sf] ;'? u5{g\ / o;sf] ;'Gb/tfdf /dfpg b]z ljb]zaf6 ko{6s oxfF k'U5g\ .
@ ;o *@ df ePsf] lyof] . rf0fSon] s'/f ;'Ggf;fy cfrfo{ rf0fSon] of] kfs{ d'Vo ?kdf sdnsf] k"mnsf nflu k|Voft 5 .
cfˆgf] hLjgsfndf d'b|f /fIf;, tTsfn} uP/ rGb|u'KtsL kTgLsf] kfs{sf :6fkm emf]psf cg';f/ kfs{sf] u]6 / ljleGg :yfgdf k"mn gtf]8g\
a[xTsyfsf]z, jfo' k'/f0f, dT:o k'/f0f, k]6df /x]sf] aRrf lgsfn]sf lyP . eGg] ;"rgf 6fFl;Psf] 5 . o;sf] ;'/Iffsf nflu uf8{ klg kl/rfng ul/Psf]
lji0f' k'/f0f af}4 u|Gy dxfefio, h}g h;n] cfrfo{ k/Dk/f cg' ; f/ 5 . oBlk cfk"mx¿n] ko{6snfO{ k"0f{ ¿kdf lgoGq0f ug{ g;Sg] pgn] atfP .
k'/f0f cflb s[ltx?sf] /rgf u/]sf /fhsfh ug{ s f] nfluaf6f] kfs{sf clwsf/x¿sf cg';f/ kfs{sf] k'glg{df{0fsf nflu dfr{df kfs{
lyP . k"jL{o jfª\dosf] Oltxf;df v'nfO{l{ bPsf] lyof] . aGb ul/Psf] lyof] . kfs{sf] k'glg{df{0f ;lsP klg ko{6ssf nflu kfs{
cfrfo{ rf0fSosf] gfd :jl0f{d cIf/df tL ef/bf/n] ljGb";f/nfO{{ rf0fSo vf]lnPsf] 5}g . ko{6s ha/h:tL kfs{df l5/]/ k"mn rf]/]/ lnP/ hfg
n]lvPsf] 5 . rf0fSo Ps s'zn gePsf] eP ltdL /fhf aGg] g} lyPgf}+ yfn]sfn] kfs{ gvf]lnPsf] clwsf/L atfpF5g\ . klxnf ;'/Iffuf8{ a9fpg]
/fhgLlt1 dfq} xf]O{gg, lzIfs, eg]kl5 /fhf ljGb";f/ rf0fSonfO{{ lkmtf{ To;kl5 dfq} kfs{ vf]lng] clwsf/Lx¿n] atfPsf 5g\ .
wdf{rfo{ / s'zn cy{zf:qL klg lyP . lbg uPsf lyP . t/, rf0fSon] lkmtf{ k"mn tf]8b\ } u/]sf ko{6ssf] kmf]6f] / lel8of] clxn] ;fdflhs ;~hfndf
o:tf cfrfo{ rf0fSosf] hLjgL t x'gF gdfgL h+undf g} cfTdxTof u/]sf] efO/n ePsf 5g\ . oxfF;DdsL dflg;x¿ kfs{sf] lsgf/df ag]sf] hfnLaf6
htftt} kfO{g] u/]sf] 5 . hLjgLsf] sxfgL PsfkIfn] ;'gfpg] u/]sf] 5 . kfs{ leq l5g]{ sf]lz/ ul//x]sf b]lvG5 . ;fdflhs ;~hfn k|of]ustf{n]
ljifodf t w]/}n] w]/} s'/f ;'lg;s]sf] ptf, csf]{ kIf eg] rf0fSonfO{{ lhpFb} o:tf JolQmnfO{ hl/jfgf ug{ ;'emfPsf 5g\ .
x'g'k5{ . t/, pgsf] d[To' s;/L eof]
eGg] ;jfndf eg] st}klg pNn]v
ePsf] kfO{Fb}g . sfxLFst} pNn]v
cfuf] nufO{Psf] lyof] eGg] ljifodf
ts{ u5{ . o; ljifodf sltko
rnlrq klg lgdf{0f eO;s]sf] 5 .
cgf}7f] 9'u+ f h;sf] leq df;' x'G5 Û
sf7df8f}F . 9'+uf lghL{j j:t' xf] / o;nfO{ km'6fpFbf 6'qmf 6'qmf x'G5 .
ePklg o;df Psdt eg] /x]sf] 5}g . rf0fSosf] d[To'af/] km/s–km/s dt x'bF fx'bF } l:ytL o:tf] eof] ls rf0fSo /fhf ljGb";f/sf dGqL ;'aGw' t/ Pp6f o:tf] 9'+uf e]l6Psf] 5 h;nfO{ km'6fpFbf /ut / df;'sf 6'qmf
pgn] jfNofj:yfdf g} sfd;"q eGg] Pp6f rrf{ /fhf rGb|uK' tsf] lgwg /fhsfh 5f8]/ h+unlt/ lxF8g\ g} afWo cfrfo{ rf0fSonfO{{ b]lv;xFbg} lyP . lg:sG5g\ . lrnL / k]?sf ;d'b|df o:tf 9'+uf 6Gg} kfOG5g\ . 9'+ufnfO{ ;/{
lstfj klg n]vs ] f lyP eGg] ljZjf; ePkl5 cfrfo{ ljlwsf cg';f/ /fhf eP . ha rf0fSo ;a} sfd 5f8]/ rf0fSosf] lgwgx'g'eGbf s]xL klxn] x]bf{ ;fdfGo em}+ nfU5 . t/ o;af6 df;' lg:sG5 / ahf/df Tof] v'a}
5 . cfrfo{ rf0fSonfO{{ pgsf lktf ljGb";f/n] ;xh} /fHo k|fKt ug{ ;kmn h+untkm{ nfu], kl5 Ps ef/bf/n] pgL h;/L klg rf0fSonfO{{ l;Wofpg] laS5 . 9'u+ fnfO{ kfo'/f lrlnof+l;; gfdn] lrlgG5 . kTy/sf] df;'sf] cg]sf}+
r0fsn] g} sf}l6No gfd /flvlbPsf ePsf lyP . pgL hGdg] ljlQs} /fhf ljGb" ; f/nfO{ { gofF sxfgL v]ndf nfu]sf lyP . ToxL if8\oGqsf] kl/sf/ aG5 . t/ :yfgLox¿ o;nfO{ sfFr} vfg dg k/fpF5g\ . 9'+ufnfO{
lyP . pgsf] clxn] st} rf0fSo, cfdfsf] lgwg ePsf]n] pgnfO{{ cfˆgL atfO{lbPsf lyP ls rf0fSon] pgsL qmddf Pslbg pgL a:g]u/]sf] sf]7fdf kmf]g]{lalQs} /ut lg:sG5 .
sf}l6No, lji0f'uK' t nufotsf gfdaf6 cfdfsf] xTofsf] ljifodf s;n] / lsg cfdfnfO{{ df/]sf] eGg] sxfgL s] xf] cfuf] nufP/ rf0fSonfO{{ dfg{ ;kmn o;nfO{ lkl/o8 /s klg elgG5 . vf;df of] 9'u+ f ;d'bL| hLj xf] . o;;Fu
xfdL pgnfO{{ lrGg ;Sb5f}+ . s;}n] df/]sf] eGg] yfxf lyPg . ha pgL eg]/ . pgn] ;w}e+ /L rGb|uK' tsf] bfgfdf ePsf] eg]/ klg l6Kk0fL x'g] u/]sf] ln+u kl/jt{g ug]{ Ifdtf 5 / o;n] aRrf klg hGdfpF5 . of] hLj 7\ofSs} 9'u+ f
eG5g\ cfrfo{ rf0fSo cfˆgf] ;a} /fhf eP To;kl5 pgsf dGqL ;'aGw'n] rf0fSon] dGbdGb dfqfdf aLif xflnlbg] 5 . h] hzf] ePklg ljZj k|Voft h:t} b]lvG5 . dflyaf6 s8f b]lvg] of] 9'u+ f leqaf6 cToGt} g/d x'G5 .
sfd k"/f ul/;s]kl5 cfk"mv'zL rf0fSo lj¿4 s8f if8\oGq /Rg yfn] . u/]sf lyP . o;sf] dtna lyof] ls cfrfo{ rf0fSosf] klg lgwg eg] ;'v dflg; of] 9'u+ fsf] vf]hLdf ;d'bt| ndf k'U5g\ / o;af6 lg:sg] df;' vfg dg
h+unlt/ uPsf lyP / h+undf ;'aGw' klxn]bl] v g} rf0fSosf v/f] c?n] if8\oGq u/]/ jLif v'jfPsf] k"js { x'g ;s]g eGg ;lsg] cfwf/ k/fpF5g\ . 9'u+ fsf] df;' lgsfNgsf nflu tLvf] rSs' cfjZos x'G5 .
tk:of ug{ uPsf rf0fSo lkmtf{ cfnf]rs tyf lj/f]wL lyP . pgn] v08df klg rGb|uK' tnfO{{ s]xL gxf];\ . eg] b' a u:} kIfsf] ts{ a f6 ug{
ePgg\ . of] Psfy/Lsf] dt xf] eg]
csf]y{ /Ln] duwsL /fgL x]ng] fn] jLif
lj:tf/} lj:tf/} pgsf] dftfsf] xTof
cfrfo{ rf0fSon] u/]sf] cf/f]k nufP/
ToxL l/tqmd rNb} hfFb} lyof] . o;
ljifodf g t /fhf rGb|uK' t hfgsf/
;lsG5 . s'g kIfsf] s'/f ;xL xf]
eGg] ;jfndf eg] cflwsfl/s cWoog
cg'xf/ :Sofg u/]/ ;frf] jf em6' af]ns] f] kQf nfUg]
v'jfP/ pgnfO{{ df/]sf] eGg] s'/f klg /fhf ljGb";f/nfO{{ sfg km'Sg yfn] . lyP g t pgsf] kl/jf/ g} . kl5 dfq} atfpg ;lsG5 . sf7df8f}F . ;fdfGo ;f]wk'5df ck/fwLn] ;frf] af]N5g\ jf af]Nb}gg\ ca
cg'xf/ x]/]/} kQf nfUg] ePsf] 5 . nG8gsf] :6f6{ck km];;ˆ6n]

b'Kr]Zj/ dxfb]j M wfld{s ko{6sLo :yn


sf7df8f} F . b' K r] Z j/ dxfb] j jf} 4 wdf{ n DaLx?n] bf] ; | f ] ufO{ uf]7fnf]df x/fPkl5 vf]hL ub}{ eO{ b'Kr]Zj/ gfdfs/0f ePsf] csf]{
…cfl6{lkml;on OG6]nLh]G; l;:6dÚ tof/ kf/]sf] 5 . h'g l;:6dn] ck/fwLsf]
cg'xf/ g} :Sofg u/]/ ;frf] jf em'6 af]ns
] f] kQf nufpg] 5 . o;sf] 6«fon
l5§} la6«]g / ef/tsf] d'DaO{ k|x/Ln] kl/If0f ug]{5 . PcfO{ l;:6ddf #)
s/f]8eGbf al9 cg'xf/sf efj zfldn u/]sf] 5 .
dflg;sf] lbdfudf s] rln/x]sf] 5 To;sf] k|ltlaDa cg'xf/df b]lvG5 .
dlGb/ g'jfsf]6 lhNnf sf] /fpta];L kz'kltgfysf] ?kdf k'sfb}{ cfPsf hfFbf 5Ëf5'/sf] kx/f]df cfˆgf] rf/} ls+jbGtL kfOG5 . b'Kr]Zj/ dxfb]jsf]
dgf]j1} flgsx?n] ;g !(^) d} klxnf] k6s o:tf] tYo kQf nufPsf lyP .
uflj;df cjl:yt wfld{s ko{6sLo 5g\ . ljif]zu/L lgM;Gtfg bDkltsf] y'gaf6 b'w r9fO/x]sf] e]l6Pkl5 ;f] d]nf eg{ /fhwfgL sf7df08f},+ wflbª,
pgLx?n] o;nfO{ cfTdxTof ug]{ sf]lz; u/]sf s]xL JolQmdf k/LIf0f u/]sf
:yn xf] . ljz]ifu/L hf]8L h'/fpg / OR5f k"/f ul/lbg] ePsf]n] d]nfdf 7fpF d f b' K r] Z j/ dxfb] j /x] s f] /;'jf, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, dsjfgk'/,
lyP . olb s'g} JolQm ha/h:tL xf:of] eg] To;sf] efj cfFvfdf b]lvb}g .
;Gtfg dfUgs} nfuL o; :yfgdf eL8 nfUg] u/]sf] b'Kr]Zj/ ;+/If0f ljZjf;df k|Tos jif{ wfGok"l0f{dfsf uf] / vf, lrtjg nufot b] z sf
of] Ps k|sf/sf] dfOqmf] P:k|];g xf] . ;f]xL cg'?k ck/fwLsf] cg'xf/df
eQmhgx? b'Kr]Zj/ dxfb]j k'Ug] ;ldltn] atfPsf] 5 . b'Kr]Zj/sf] lbg ljif]z d]nf nfUb} cfPsf] 5 . ljleGg efux?af6 oxfF jif]g{ L xhf/f}F
b]lvg] efjnfO{ l;:6dn] /]s8{ ug]{5 .
ub{5g\ . ;b/d'sfd ljb'/b]lv k"j{df bz{g ugf{n] dgn] lrtfPsf] k'Ug], csf]t{ km{, ;d'Gb| dGygkl5 lgl:sPsf] bDktL eQmhgx? dxfb]j;Fu ;Gtfg
/x]sf] /fptj]+zL uflj;sf] b'Kr]Zj/ k'q k|fKtL x'g,] nfdf] ;do;Dd gaf]Ng] sfns'6 ljif ;]jgn] /GylgPsf dxfb]j dfUg cfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . wfld{s
ko{6gsf] uGtJosf] ?kdf
tl:a/af6 dlxnfsf] j:q x6fpg ldNg] Pk aGb
ultnf] ;Defjgf af]ss ] f] sf7df8f}F . tl:a/af6 dlxnfx¿sf] j:q x6fP/ gSsnL tl:a/ agfpg
o; d]nfdf tfdfª, z]kf{ ldNg] bfaL ul/Psf] Pp6f PknfO{ To;sf lgdf{tfx¿n] aGb u/]sf 5g\ .
hfltsf k/Dk/fut krf; cd]l/sL 8n/ d"No /flvPsf] 8LkGo"8 Pkdfly db/af]8{ gfdsf]
;+:s[ltsf] k|bz{g /f]rs j]a;fO6df n]v 5flkPkl5 o;sf] cfnf]rgf ePsf] lyof] . l/e]Gh kf]g{
/ cgf}7f];uF x]g{ kfOG5 . cyf{t\ k|ltzf]wsf] efjgfn] cGo JolQmsf] gUg tl:a/ jf lel8cf] j]a;fO6df
;/sf/L:t/af6 oxfF /fVg] sfo{lj?4 cleofg rnfPsfx¿n] ;f] PknfO{ vt/gfs eg]sf lyP .
s'g}klg ko{6sLo lgdf{tfx¿n] ljG8f]h / nfOgS;df rNg] Pksf nflu ;+;f/ tof/
dxTjsf] k| r f/k| ; f/ gePsf] eGb} j]a;fO6af6 o;nfO{ lgsfn]sf 5g\ . Ps hgf lgdf{tfn]
gePsf] n ] d] n fafx] s l6\j6/df n]v]sf 5g\– o;sf] b'?kof]usf] ;Defjgf w]/} a9L 5 . xfdL
cGo ;dodf oxfF o;/L k};f sdfpg rfxb}gf}F . ;f] Pk lsg]sfx¿n] k};f lkmtf{ kfpg] / ca
cfpg]sf] ;+Vof clt g} o;kZrft\ ;f] Pksf] s'g} gofF k|f¿k gagfpg] pgLx¿n] atfPsf 5g\ .
Go" g /x] s f] b' K r] Z j/ pgLx¿n] of] Pk ePsf dflg;x¿nfO{ Tof] z]o/ gug{ cg'/f]w u/]sf 5g\ .
d]nf ;+/If0f tyf lgdf{tf ;d"xn] ;f] Pk dgf]/~hgsf nflu s]xL dlxgf cufl8 agfPsf]
Joj:yfkg ;ldltn] atfPsf lyP . To;sf nflu cf6{lkmzn OG6]lnhG; cyf{t\ oflGqs rft'o{
hgfPsf] 5 . b'Kr]Zj/ k|of]u ul/Psf] lyof] . ;f] ;ˆ6j]c/ j]a;fO6dfkm{t\ b'O{ eh{gdf pknAw
dxfb] j h:tf wfld{ s lyP . lgMz'Ns pknAw eh{gdf lgdf{0f ul/Psf] tl:a/dfly 7"nf] jf6/dfs{
Pjd\ P]ltxfl;s x'GYof] eg] lslgPsf] eh{gdf Pp6f s'gfdf km]s' n]lvPsf] ;fgf] 5fk x'GYof] .
;Dkbfsf] ;+ j 4{ g / cfˆgf] lj1lKtdf lgdf{tfx¿n] eg]sf 5g\– ;fFRr} eGg'kbf{ To;sf] sfd
k|rf/k|;f/ u/L cfGtl/s uHha lyPg / lglZrt k|sf/sf] tl:a/df dfq} sfd uYof{] . db/af]8{df
n]v 5flkPkl5 Pksf] j]a;fO6df cfpg] dflg;x¿sf] ;+Vof XjfQ} a9]sf]
dxfb]jsf] dlGb/df o:tf] cf:yf afnaRrf af]Ng] ljZjf;df oxfF uf];fOs'08 hfFbf b'Kr]Zj/df cfPsf] Pjd\ jfXo ko{6sx? leq\ofpg ;s]
lyof] . db/af]8{;Fu s'/f ub}{ l/e]Gh kf]g{lj?4sf] cleofg Aof8of;sf
af]s]/ hfg] eQmhgsf] cfsif{0fn] 6f9f6f9fsf eQmhgx? efsn ug]{ / hg>'tL kfOG5 . g'jfsf]6sf] dfq geO{ /fli6«o cfly{s
;+:yfks Sof6lng afp8]gn] ;f] PknfO{ 8/nfUbf] eg]sL lyOg\ . ca
kl5Nnf] ;dodf ;f+:s[lts tyf efsn k'/f ePkl5 klg dxfb]jsf] To;}n] ;f]xL :yfgdf b'w]Zj/ ;d' G gltdf dxTjk" 0 f{ b] g /xg]
slxNo} gUg tl:a/ glvr]sf hf] sf]xL klg l/e]Gh kf]ga{ f6 kLl8t x'g;S5 .
wfld{s dxTjnfO{ phfu/ ;d]t bz{gsf nflu oxfF cfpg] ub{5g\ . dxfb]j pTktL ePsf / kl5 cke|z a'l4lhjLx?sf] ljZjf; 5 .
o:tf] k|ljlw ;fj{hlgs ¿kdf pknAw x'gx' bF' g} .
ul//x]sf] 5 . 5f]/f5f]/L gePsfsf] ;Gtfg,
x/] s jif{ s f] k' ; dlxgfdf ljjfx gePsfsf] ljjfxsf] nug
wfGok"l0f{dfsf cj;/df ;ftfJofkL
ljif]z d]nf, lzj/fqL, ;fpg dlxgf
tyf x/]s ;f]daf/ b'Kr]Zj/ dlGb/df
d]nf nfUg] ub{5 . oxfF d'VotM ;Gtfg
gx'g] bDkltx? ;Gtfg dfUg cfpg]
u/fOlbg k|fy{gf ug]{ u/]sf] / OR5f
k"/f klg ePsf] w]/} eQmhgx?sf]
cg'ej klg oxfF ;'Gg kfOG5 . b'ud
If]q ;d]t dflgg] o; wfld{s :yndf
/x] s f] b' K r] Z j/ dlGb/ ;ft;o
{ t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+
/ dxfb]jsf] elQmkl5 b}jL zlQmn]
;Gtfg k|fKt x'g] ljZjf; ul/G5 .
wfGok" l 0f{ d fb] l v Ps;ftf nfUg]
d]nfnfO{ k/Dk/fb]lv rNb} cfPsf]
ld6/eGbf cUnf] r§fgsf] kx/f]df
cjl:yt 5 . dlGb/sf] km]bLdf /x]sf]
tfbL gbLaf6 agfOPsf] 3'dfp/f] l5F8L
x'Fb} kfn}kfnf] eQmhgx?n] k"hf /
OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+
d]nf g]kfns} ;Gbe{df eg] cln cgf]7f]
/ km/s 5 .
bz{gsf nfuL pSng] u/]sf 5g\ .
b' K r] Z j/ dxfb] j sf] pTklQ g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8
…h] dfUof] ToxL k"/f x'g]Ú wfld{s kf}/fl0fs sygcg';f/ rf/;o kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&!
ljZjf; /x]sf] o; dlGb/nfO{ lxGb" / jif{cl3 :yfgLo Ps tfdfªsf] b'x'gf]
6 @)&^ ;fn c;f/ @@ ut] cfOtaf/

cf“ksf] cfZro{hgs kmfObfx?


sf7df8f}F . clxn] cfFksf] l;hg, lnkf]k|f]l6gsf] sd pkl:yltnfO{ x' G 5 . o:tf vlghsf] cefjdf k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . PsrDrf cfFksf]
wGg ;/sf/ em'lSsg' x'Gg
x/]s ;fFem
– an/fd ltdlN;gf
cfFk w]/s } f] /f]hfO{df kg]{ ub{5 . sfFrf] 36fpg d2t u5{ , h;af6 dflg;df ljleGg :jf:Yo ;d:of u' b L / abfdsf] kfp8/df Ps
/ kfs]sf] b'j} cfFk vfg ;lsG5 . sf]n]:6]/f]nsf] dfqf 36\5 . b]vfk5{g\ . 6]anrDrf b'w ld;fP/ k]i6 agfpg';\ ;/sf/ cfˆg} 3/ k'Ug' x'G5
sfFrf] cfFk crf/, t/sf/L, ;'s'6L $= z/L/df cNsfnfOgnfO{ !)= of}g Ifdtf a9fp5 M cfFkdf / cg'xf/df nufpg';\ . @) ldg]6kl5 cfˆg} cf]5\ofgdf ;'Tg' x'G5
agfP/ laqmL ul/G5 . kfs] s f] ;Gt'lnt kf5{ M o;n] dfgj z/L/df x'g] le6fldg O{n] dflg;df of}gIfdtf wf] P kl5 o;n] cg' x f/df rds
cfFknfO{ h'; agfP/ klg vfg] rng cNsfnfOgnfO{ ;Gt'lnt /fVg d2t a9fpg d2t u5{ . o;n] sf]n:] 6]/f]n Nofp5 . cfˆg} >LdtL;Fu dl:sg' x'G5
5 . cfFkdf k|z:t kf}li6s kbfy{ kfOg] u5{, lsgeg] o;df dflns Pl;8, 36fpg / dw'd]x /f]Sg d2t u5{ . !$= skfnsf nflu klg nfebfoL wGg ;/sf/ em'lSsg' x'Gg
x' F b f ;Gt' n g ldnfP/ vfPdf 6f6f{l/s Pl;8 tyf /fd|f] dfqfdf cfFkn] /utdf x'g] 3fts xf]df]l;:6fOg M le6fldg / vlgho'Qm ePsfn] o;n]
skfnsf] j[l4nfO{ klg nfebfoL x'G5 . em'lSsP klg s'/f r'x'b}g
o;n] slG8;g/sf] klg sfd u5{ . / cfh;Dd s'g} jjfn ePsf] 5}g .
o;df x'g] le6fldg Pn] rfFof x6fp5
/ skfndf rds Nofp5 .
cf}ifwf]krf/ M s'g} ;fFem
slAhot / clws jfo' ePdf
cfFksf] sf]of cfuf]df kf]Ng] / To; dlb/fn] cw{–a]xf];L ePsf] avt
leqsf] u'bL lgsfNg] / To;df !–$
efu lxª / l;b] g " g ld;fP/
w]/} k6s em'lSsg' eof] ;/sf/
cf}ifwLnfO{ l;;Ldf /fVg] / cfjZostf l5d]sLsf] 9f]sf 9s9sfpg' eof]
cg';f/ !–@ u|fd cf}ifwL dgtftf]
kfgL;Fu vfg] u/]df !–@ lbgd} 7Ls xf]6njfnLsf ufnf d';fg{' eof]
x'G5 . cfltYotf u/]s} cf]5\ofgdf
o:tf] /f]u nfu]df cf"k vfg' x'b" g}
!= PnhL{ M cfFk l56f] kfSg w]/} k6s ;' pDsfpg' eof]
SoflN;od sfjf{O8sf] k|of]u ul/G5 . slt k6s t ;/sf/
To;}n] PnhL{ ePsf dflg;x?n] cfFk
vfg' x'bF g} hf] dflg;x?nfO{ PnhL{sf] kvf{n r9\bf r9\b} v'd{'l/g' eof]
;d:of 5 pgLx?n] cfFk vfg'x'Fb}g . t/,
@= d' 6 ' s f] /f] u L M cfF k df
kf]6fl;zodsf] dfqf Hofbf x'G5 . ;/sf/sf] zlQmsf ;fd'
:jf:YonfO{ kmfObf klg k'U5 . cfFknfO{ ;fOl6«s Pl;8 x'G5 . txnfO{ lgoGq0f u/L Åbof3ft x'gaf6 cfFk w]/} vfFbf z/L/df sf]n:] 6«fn
] a9\g] ;f/f tYox¿ lg/Lx eP
kmnsf] /fhf elgG5 . zf:qdf o;nfO{ %= kfrg k|lqmof /fd|f] agfp5 M arfp5 . xf]df]l;:6fOg /Qm gnLnfO{ u5{ . o;n] d'6'df ;d:of u5{ .
cd[t kmn elgPsf] 5 . cfFk sfFrf] d]jfn] h:t}, cfFkn] klg kfrg cj?4 ug{ ;S5 / Åbof3ft x'g] #= c:ydf M cfFkdf Pgfsfl8{s ;j} ;fIfLx¿ lghL{j eP
xf];\ jf kfs]sf], b'j}df cf}ifwLo u'0f zlQmnfO{ /fd|f] agfp5, lsgeg] o;df ;Defjgf x'G5 . Pl;8 x' g fn] cj:yfdf ePsf
x'G5 . cfo'jb{] sf cg';f/, cfFksf kfFr} kmfOa/ pNn] V o dfqfdf x' G 5 . !!= ANofsx]8 -sfnf /f}+_ sf] la/fdLx?n] cfFk vfg' x'Fb}g . o;n] o;/L
c+u cyf{t\ af]qmf, h/f, kft, kmn, kmfOa/n] lb;f /fd| f ] x' G 5 / pkrf/ M cfFkn] z/L/df c+udf ePsf ;f; lng ;d:of k}bf u5{ . ;/sf/sf] huhuLsf] ;dodf
k"mn ;a} sfddf cfpF5g\ . kfs]sf] d]6faf]lns /]6nfO{ j[l4 u5{ . sfnf /f}+sf c+z x6fpg klg d2t $= bf"t M cfFkdf le6fldg–;L
cfFk u'lnof], jLo{jw{s, kf}li6s, ^= 5fnfdf rds Nofp5 M cfFkn] u5{ . o;sf nflu Ps rDrf cfFksf] x'G5 . o;sf] clws ;]jgn] le6fldg tL ;j} 36gf ;fd;'d eP
jfo' g fzs, sflGtbfos, zLtn, 5fnfsf nflu lgs} /fd|f] u5{, 5fnfdf u'bL, cfwf rDrf b'w of dx ld;fP/ ;Lsf] dfqf a9\5 . h;sf sf/0f k6s–k6s em'lSsP/ klg
lkQgfzs x'G5 . cfFksf] ;]jgn] ef]s ePsf sfnf wAaf tyf bfu x6fp5 ld>0f tof/ kfg{'k5{ . o;nfO{ uf]nf] bfFtdf gf]S;fg k'¥ofpg] sfd u5{ .
klg a9\g] u5{ . o;n] d'6n ' fO{ alnof] / k|fs[lts rds Nofp5 . cfFkdf tl/sfn] ;DalGwt 7fpF d f %= d'vsf] 5fnf hfg] ;d:of : nf]sn] lha|f] lems]/ eG5–
agfpg'sf] ;fy} lkQnfO{ lgoGq0fdf x'g] le6fldg P / a]6f Sof/f]l6gn] nufpg'k5{ . o;n] d/]sf] 5fnf tyf cfFkn] zl//df udL{ k}bf u5{ . o;sf wGg ;/sf/ em'lSsg' x'Gg Û
Nofpg] sfd u5{ . cfFk skmjw{s 5fnf k'glg{df{0f u5{ . gpld|Psf /f}+ x6fO{ cg'xf/df rds sf/0f cf]7df 5fnf hfg] ;d:of
klg dflgG5 . cfFk rfp/L /f]Sg;d]t &= PlG6clS;8]G6o'Qm M cfFkdf Nofp5 . b]lvG5 .
k|efjsf/L dflgG5 . PlG6clS;8] G 6 x' g fn] sf] i fnfO{ !@= /f]uk|lt/f]wL M cfFkdf @% ^= 8fola6Lh M 8fola6Lhsf] ;ef;bsf] l6s6 afF8\bfsf] avt
cf"k vfbfsf] kmfObfx? M k'ghLj{g lbg tyf k'glgdf{0f ug{ d2t k|sf/sf Sof/f]6]gf]O8\; x'G5g\ / ;d:of ePsf JolQmx?n] cfFk vfg'
!= SofG;/af6 arfp5 M cfFk u5{ . o;n] 5fnfnfO{ leq} a f6 ltgLx?df pRr dfqfdf le6fldg l; x'Fb}g . cfFk w]/} g} u'lnof] x'g] ePsf of lgo'lQmsf] gfd 5fGbfsf] avt
PlG6clS;8]G6o'Qm x'G5, h;n] :tg /f;folgs kbfy{ s f] c;/af6 x'g] x'gfn] z/L/nfO{ /f]u k|lt/f]wL sf/0f z/L/df ;'u/ n]en a9\5 . Toqf] sfo{stf{sf] eL8df
SofG;/, k|f]:6]6 SofG;/ sf]nf]g hf]ufp5 . agfpg d2t u5{ . &= k] 6 sf] ;d:of M cfF k df
SofG;/ tyf No'sl] dofaf6 arfp5 . *= k|hgg Ifdtfdf j[l4 u5{ M !#= PlG6 Plhª kmfObf M o;n] kmfOj/sf] dfqf w]/} x'gfn] z/L/df ;j}eGbf klxn]
@= b[li6zlQm a9fp5 M o;df x'g] cfFkF kmf]n6] / kmf]lns Pl;8o'Qm x'G5, SofG;/ u/fpg ;Sg] w'nf]sf vt/gfs udL{ k}bf u5{ . To;}n] k]6sf] ;d:of
le6fldg P / /]l6gf]nn] cfFvfsf] zlQm h;n] k|hgg Ifdtf a9fpg d2t s0faf6 5fnfnfO{ hf]ufp5 . o;df ePsf dflg;x?n] cfFk vfg' x'Fb}g . cfˆg} >LdtL ;Demg' eof]
a9fp5 . u5{ . ePsf le6fleg l;n] 808Lkmf]/ cfpg *= df]6f]kg M cfFkdf ;'u/ / 5f]/L–a'xf/L ;Demg' eof]
#= kmfOa/ / le6fldg l;sf] (= vlgho'Qm M cfFkdf sk/, lbb}g+ . o;nfO{ k|ToIf nufpg] xf] eg] Sofnf]/L w]/} x'gfn] df]6f] dflg;x?n]
e08f/ M cfFkdf x'g] kmfOa/ / ;]nl] god, lh+s tyf kf]6fl;od x'G5, k|fs[lts df]:r/fOh/sf] sfd u5{ . klg cfFk vfg' x'Fb}g . o;sf sf/0f ;fnf–;fnL ;Demg' eof]
le6fldg l;sf] k| r " / dfqfn] h'g dfgj :jf:Yosf nflu cfjZos o:t}, o;nfO{ km];jf;sf] ¿kdf klg emg\ tf}n a9\g] u5{ . efOelthf ;Demg' eof]

gªdf kl/jt{g uDeL/ /f]usf] ;+st]


sf7df8f}F . gªn] dfgj :jf:Yosf] x6{ km]lno/, sn]hf] /f]u, s'kf]if0f cflb ;f]/f]l;; klg x'g;S5 . s]xL u8a8 ePsf] cj:yf x'g;S5 .
Toqf] tgfj, Toqf] le8ef8
Toqf] bjfj, Toqf] eg;'g
k6s–k6s em'lSsg' kg]{ xf]
cj:yf s:tf] 5 eg] / O+ l ut /f]usf] ;+s]t u5{ . lgnf] gª sfnf] /ªsf] wsf{ b] l vg'
ug{;S5 . gªdf ;]tf] b]lvg', u'nfaL ;] t f] ] gª lgnf] /ªn] b]lvg] gªn] z/L/df gªdf sfnf] /ªsf] wsf{ b]lvPdf ;/sf/ g} eP/ dfq} xf]
/ªsf] b] l vg' jf cf} F n f jl/kl/ olb gªsf] jl/kl/ uf9f ;]tf] clS;hgsf] sdL ePsf] eg] / o;n] uDeL/ /f]usf] ;+s]t ul//x]sf]
3fph:tf] b]lvg' :jf:Yodf s]xL b]lvPdf sn]hf]sf] ;d:of ePsf] dfGg hgfpF5 . To:tf] /ªsf] gª b]lvPsf x'g;S5 . o:tf] x'g'sf] sf/0f t'?Gt wGg ;/sf/ em'lSsg'
/f]usf nIf0f 5g\ eGg] hgfp xf] . ;lsG5, h:t} x]kf6fOl6; . kmf]S;f]sf] ;d:of h:t} Olkm;]df ePsf] kQf nufpg'k5{ . 5fnfsf] ;a}eGbf 6\ofs–6\ofs cfkmGt 5fGg' eof] .
sn]hf], kmf]S;f] jf d'6s ' f] ;d:of ;d]t kx]+nf] gª klg x'g;S5 . s]xL d''6'sf ;d:of 8/nfUbf] SofG;/ …d]nfgf]dfÚ n] eP/
gªaf6 klg yfxf kfpg ;lsG5 . kx]nf] gªsf] d'Vo sf/0f km+un klg o; k|sf/sf gªn] atfpg klg o:tf] ePsf] x'g;S5 .
cfpg';\, gªn] atfpg] :jf:Yosf] OGkm]S;g xf] . olb OGkm]S;g a9]sf] ;S5g\ . gª 6f] l s/xg] afgL ;/sf/
/x:oaf/] cfpg';\ hfgf}F . v08df gª sfnf] x'g;S5 / df]6f] w;f{ b] l vg] gª gª 6f]Sg' ;fdfGo afgL dfq gx'g
km' ; | f ] gª eP/ gª efFlrg ;S5 . s]xL b'n{e olb gªdf ;]tf] w;f{, s'lRrPsf] ;S5 . of] cA;] l ;e sDknl;e cfˆgf] p2]Zodf k|i6 x'g' x'G5
km';|f] gª s]xL uDeL/ /f]usf] s];df kx]n F f] gªn] yfO/f]O8, kmf]S;f]sf] h:tf] b] l vof] eg] ;f] / f] l ;;, l8;c8{/ klg x'g;S5 . of] eg]sf]
nIf0f x'g;S5 . km';f| ] gªn] Plgldof, ;d:of, dw'd]x, 5fnfsf] ;d:of cf/yfOl6;sf nIf0fx? x'g ;S5g\ . Ps k|sf/sf] dfgl;s ;d:of xf],
sf] cfˆgf] sf] k/fO{ lrGg' x'G5
o:tf] cj:yfdf gªsf] /ª kl/jt{g h;df dflg;nfO{ Pp6} sfd ul//xg s;nfO{ prfNg]
x'g], gªsf] jl/kl/sf] 5fnf xNsf dg nfUg] x'G5 . olb tkfO{+ of] afgL
/ftf] / v}/f] b]lvG5 . cfkm}+ 5f]8\g ;Sg'x'Gg eg] 8fS6/sf] s;nfO{ k5fg]{ a'‰g' x'G5
6' q m] s f tyf lrl/Psf gª k/fdz{ lng';\ . s;nfO{ lgrf]g]{
;' V vf clg 6' l qm/xg] gªn] ljleGgy/L tyf cj:yfsf gªn]
yfO/f]O8sf] nIf0f x'g] atfpF5 . :jf:Yodf ljleGg ;d:ofsf] nIf0f s;nfO{ lryf]g]{ e]p kfpg' x'G5
km+un OGkm]S;g eO{ gª kx]n F f] x'g] b]vfpg] eP klg of] b'ne { ?kdf x'g hlt w]/} em'lSsP klg
clg 6'lqmg], lrl/g] x'G5 . ;S5g\ . gªdf ;d:of b]lvg]lalQs}
gª jl/kl/ ;' l Ggg' xflgsf/s tyf 8/nfUbf] x'G5 eGg] cfˆgf] lxt x'g] s'/fdf
gª jl/kl/ ;'lGgPsf] 5, /ftf] xf]Og . ;a} ;]tf gª x'bF d} f x]k6fOl6; ;/sf/ slxn} em'lSsg' x'Gg
b]lvG5 / b'vfO klg w]/} dx;'; x'G5 g} nfu]sf] x'g;S5 eGg] xf]Og . olb
eg] To;n] klg s]xL ;d:of 5 eg]/ tkfO{+ cfˆgf] gªdf cfpg] kl/jt{gk|lt olt w]/} wk]8L 5
bzf{ p F 5 . o:tf] cj:yfn] s] x L ;hu x'g rfxg'x'G5 eg] lrlsT;s olt w]/} df/fdf/ 5
/f]u;Fu nl8/x]sf] cj:yf b]vfpF5 . jf 5fnf/f]u ljz]if1;Fu ;Nnfx
of]] n'k;sf] ;+s]t tyf tGt'x?df lng'xf];\ . wGg ;/sf/ em'lSsg' x'Gg .
@)&^ ;fn c;f/ @@ ut] cfOtaf/ 7

dlxnfn] ljz]if clwsf/sf] nflu n8\g cfjZos


dlxnf eg] / ;Daf] w g ubf{
sltnfO{ g/fd|f] nfU5, pgLx? gf/L
ub{5g\ . sf]xL cfOPglhcf]sf] k};f
;Sgsf] nflu ax; ub{5g\ t sf]xL
kl5Nnf] cj:yfkl5 dfq xf] . ;+;f/e/
clxn] klg xfdL laleGg s'ky| fsf
cfly{s clwsf/ u'dfP/ bf;Tjsf]
cj:yfdf hLjg afFr]sf 5g\ . sf]xL
/ pkef]Qmfjfbn] dflg;nfO{ ufFh]sf]
5 . of] ;Gbe{ cfly{s clwsf/ u'ds ] f]
em}+ cj:yfdf afFRg] l:yltaf6 d'Qm
ug{ ;a} nfUg' h?/L 5 . clxn] klg
gfddf ;Daf]wg ug{ ?rfp5g\ . /fhgLlts :jfy{ k'/f ug{sf] nflu cj:yf b]Vb5f}+ h'g dlxnflaz]ifnfO{ dlxnf blnt cj:yfsf] kL8f k'?if dlxnf ;d'bfo a9L k|efljt ePsf] dlxnf ;d'bfon] ljz]if clwsf/sf]
pgLx? :qL eg]/ cfb/efjsf] ;fy ax;nfO{ pTsif{df k'¥ofpg] k|oTgdf nlIft u/]/ rn]sf lyP . xfd|f] eGbf a9L ;x]/ afFr]sf 5g\ eg] b]lvG5 . ;a} s'/f k'FhL / To;;Fu nflu n8\g' cfjZos 5 . wd{sf]
;Daf]wg u/]sf] 7fGb5g\ . sf]xL nflu/x]sf x'G5g\ . sf]xLn] ;/f]sf/sf] ;dfhdf af]S;L k|yf, 5f}kl8 k|yf, If]qLo tyf hftLo cj:yfsf] kL8f hf]l8Psf] zlQm;Fu hf]l8P/ cfpFbf hfnaf6 d'Qm x'g] / k'h F Lsf] k|efjaf6
gfdb{sf] gfddf ;Daf]wg ub{5g\ t laifo 7fg]/ ax; ug]{ u/]sf 5g\ t b]psL tyf s'df/L k|yf, sGofbfg klg To;/L g} ef]lu/x]sf 5g\ . dlxnf ;d'bfo a9L zf]lift, plTkl8t, d'Qm ge}sg sf]xL vf;df d'Qm ePsf
sf]xL cfOdfO{ eg]/ klg ;Daf]wg ug]{ s;}n] of] a];/f]sf/sf] ax; 7fGg] k|yf, k}lqs ;DklQlaxLg x'g] rng, sf]xL ;dfg g} 5g\ lg eGg] efjsf bldt, cGofo / bldt cj:yfdf x'bF g} g\ eg]/ a'‰g' h?/L 5 . dlxnfsf]
ts{x? u5{g, sf]xL slxNo} x'g g;Sg] k'u]sf] b]lvG5 . ;dfhdf dlxnf sfd ;]jfsf] nflu eGg] dfGotf /
ljgf]b bfxfn ts{x? ug]{ ub{5g\ . Psfyl/n] rflx+ ;d'bfo a9L lab|f]lx ag]sf] cj:yf l:yltaf6 dlxnf d'Qm x'g' h?/L 5 .
s] k'?ifx?aLrdf rflx+ ;dfgtf 5 b]lvG5 . x/]s ju{;+3if{ / lab|f]xx? d'VotM /fhgLlts g]t[Tjaf6
l:ylt s:tf] / eg]/ k|ltk|Zgx? ug]{ ub{5g\ .
o;}aLr xfdL ;a} rf;f] gePsf]
dlxnfsf] d'lQm;Fu hf]l8P/ cfpFbf
pgLx? cu| df]rf{df pkl:yt ePsf]
o;sf] kxn lng cfjZos x'G5 .
l:ylt s:tf] s7f]/ cj:yfdf 5 eg]
laifodf klg cfOPglhcf]sf] of]hgfdf b]Vg ;lsG5 . laz]ifu/L hgo'4df larf/sf] cfwf/df dflg;sf] ;DaGw
s7f]/ cj:yfdf ax;df k'Ug] u/]sf klg 5f}+ . vf;df
s;l/ ;Dej x'G5 n}+lus ;dfgtf <
of] ;d'bfo a9L cfzfjfbL ag]/
lqmofzLn ag] s f] cg' e ' u L x/] s
sfod ePsf] x'G5 . gftf / /Qm
;DaGw sdhf]/ x'Fb} u}/x]sf] 5 .

5 eg] larf/sf] of] laifodf 3f]lTnP/ ;f]Rg' h?/L 5 .


hgfj/x? aLrdf g s;}nfO{
laz]if clwsf/ 5 g c;dfgtf /
cg';Gwfgstf{n] atfPsf 5g\ .
dflg; ;Eo ;dfhlt/ nlDsgsf]
nflu dlxnfnfO{ laz]if k|fyldstfdf
larf/sf] cfwf/df >Ldfgsf]
larf/df lx+8\g dlxnf jfWo ePsf]
cj:yf 5 . >Ldfgn] kf6L{x? rxfbf{
cfwf/df lje]b 5 . dflg; ;r]t k|0fL xf] hf]
cfˆgf cfjZostfsf ;a} ;jfnx?sf]
/fv]/ ;fdflhs ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ug{'
cfjZos 5 . dlxnfsf] / tdfd
dlxnf klg ;f]xL cg';f/ kl5kl5
lx+8g\ jfWo ePsf kL8f klg cf]sNg]
;dfwfg ug{;Sg] Ifdtf /fVb5g\ . d'lQmsfdL >dhLljsf] nflu ;dfh cj:yfdf k'us ] f 5g\ sf]xL dlxnfx? .
dflg;sf] ;DaGw n}+lus c;dfgtf klg clxn]sf]
;dfwfgsf] ;jfn xf] h'g ;lhn}
;j{xf/f juL{o b[li6sf]0fdf cfwfl/t
eP/ gofF ;+/rgfdf v8f ug{' h?/L
;r]t / ;+ul7t dlxnfx?n] o;df
ult lbg' cfjZos 5 . k'?ifn] klg
dflg;n] ;dfwfgsf] Odtf /fVb5 t/ 5 . ;dfg :jtGqtfsf] gf/fdf dlxnfO{ dlxnfsf] of] cj:yfnfO{ ;Ddfghgs
sfod ePsf] ePsf] 5}g . lsg o:tf] 5 t < lsgls
;a} dflg;n] o;sf] ;dfwfg vf]hs ] f
em'SofP/ km]l/klg ;fFem kgf{;fy skm{' 9Ën] ;Daf]wg ug{' cfjZos 5 .

x'G5 . gftf / 5}gg\ . cem eGg] xf] eg] zf;s ju{n]


g} o;sf] ;dfwfg ug{ gvf]hs ] fn] of]
le;f z'Ns a9\of]
hl6n h:tf] ag]sf] 5 . sf7df8f}F . ;/sf/n] ;fpg ! ut]b]lv nfu' x'g]u/L emG8} !) jif{kl5
k|jz] f1f -le;f_ z'Ns a9fPsf] 5 . ko{6s, cWoog, u}/ko{6sLo, Jofj;flos
/Qm ;DaGw sdhf]/ x'bF } u}/x]sf] 5 . ;dfgtfsf] s'/f ubf{ lg/k]If eP/
vf]Hg yfNof}+ eg] xfdL c;Dej /x]sf]
lgZsif{df k'Ub5f}+ . ;dfgtfsf] s'/f
/ cfjf;Lo le;f b:t'/ a9fpg] dlGqkl/ifb\sf] lg0f{ocg';f/ u[x dGqfnon]
kl/jlt{t le;f z'Ns nfu" ug{ nfu]sf] xf] . cWofudg ljefun] gofF le;f
larf/sf] cfwf/df >Ldfgsf] larf/df lx+8g\ ;fk]lIft s'/f xf] . dlxnf dfq x}g
juL{o ;dfhdf k'?ifk'?ifaLrdf klg
z'Ns sfof{Gjog ug]{ tof/L u/]sf] 5 . u[xn] kl5Nnf]k6s @)^% ;fpg !
ut]bl] v gofF le;f z'Ns sfof{Gjogdf NofPsf] lyof] . emG8} !) jif{kl5
c;dfgtf 5 . juL{o ;dfh /x];Dd g]skf cWoIf s]kL cf]nL g]tT[ jsf] ;/sf/n] le;f z'Ns a9fpg] lg0f{o u/]sf]
dlxnf jfWo ePsf] cj:yf 5 . >Ldfgn] dlxnf–k' ? if ;dfgtfsf] s' / f
cfsfzsf] kmn x' G 5 . n} l us
xf] . ljefusf dxflgb]{zs O{Zj//fh kf}8]nn] cGt/f{li6«o cEof;sf] ;d]t
cWoog u/]/ le;f z'Ns a9fpg] lg0f{odf k'us ] f] atfpb} kl/jlt{t le;f
;dfgtfsf] laifodf ax; ubf{ juL{o z'Ns ;fpg ! b]lv sfof{Gjogdf cfpg] hfgsf/L lbP .
kf6L{x? rxfbf{ dlxnf klg ;f]xL cg';f/ ;d:ofsf] laifodf ghf]l8sg ;dfwfg
vf]Hg] Psvfnsf] a'hj'{ f b[li6sf]0f;Fu
u[x dGqfnon] ko{6sLo le;fcGtu{t !% lbgsf] ax'k|j]zL le;f b:t'/
#) 8n/ k'{ofPsf] 5 . o;cl3 !% lbgsf] ax'k|j]zL le;f z'Ns @% 8n/
kl5kl5 lx+8g\ jfWo ePsf kL8f klg xf]l;of/ /xg' kb{5 .
Psvfnsf dflg; n}lus laifodf
ax; ubf{ ;+jw} flgs, sfg'gL, cfly{s,
ltg{k' Yof]{ . To:t} #) lbgsf] ax'kj| z
] L le;f z'Nsdf !) 8n/ a9fP/ %)
cd]l/sL 8n/ k'{ofPsf] 5 . ko{6sn] o;cl3 #) lbgsf] ax'k|j]zL le;fsf]
$) 8n/ ltb}{ cfPsf lyP . u[x dGqfnon] () lbgsf] ax'k|j]zL le;f
cf]sNg] cj:yfdf k'us ] f 5g\ sf]xL /fhgLlts cfwf/df ;dfgtf g} 5
eGg] ub{5g\ . kfl/jfl/s cfwf/df
z'Ns () af6 a9fP/ ! ;o @% 8n/ k'¥ofPsf] 5 .
u[xn] () lbgsf] ax'k|j]zL le;fdf #% cd]l/sL 8n/ a9fPsf] 5 .
x]bf{ klg ;dfg clwsf/ sfod 5 o;cl3 () 8n/ ltbf{ () lbgsf] ax'kj| z ] L le;f kfOGYof] . ko{6s le;fsf]
dlxnfx? . ;r]t / ;+ul7t dlxnfx?n] t/ kl/jf/sf] k|d'vsf] :jfldTjdf
;DklQ /xg] u/] s fn] a] d ] n sf]
Dofb yk ubf{ le;f cjlwleq k|ltlbg # cd]l/sL 8n/ ltg{'kg]{5 . Dofb
u'lh|Pkl5 le;f yk ubf{ a]Un} hl/afgf ltg{k' 5{ . ko{6sn] ax'kj| z ] L le;f
cj:yfdf c;dfgtf em}+ nfUg]u/L
o;df ult lbg' cfjZos 5 . k'?ifn] klg ;d:of >[hgf x'g] u/]sf] 5, cj:yfsf]
;dfwfg vf]hk] l5 ;dfgtfsf] glhs
yKbf ca @% cd]l/sL 8n/ ltg{'kg]{5 . o;cl3 ;f]xL k|of]hgdf @) 8n/
dfq ltg{k' Yof]{ .
z}lIfs pkflw k|fKt x'g] u/L cWoog/t ljBfyL{ / cfl>t kl/jf/n]
dlxnfsf] of] cj:yfnfO{ ;Ddfghgs 9·n] k'luG5 eGg] pgLx?sf] wf/0ff 5 .
zl/l/s agfj6 kf]yL hftLsf]
;fgf] / xn'sf x'g] ub{5, efn] hftLsf]
k|ltdlxgf #) 8n/ ltg{'kg]{5 . o;cl3 pgLx¿n] @) 8n/ ltg{'kYof]{ .
z}lIfs pkflw gkfpg]sf nflu @% cd]l/sL 8n/af6 a9fP/ k|ltdlxgf &%
8n/ k'¥ofPsf] 5 .
;Daf]wg ug{' cfjZos 5 . h:tf] cfsif{s / a9]dfgsf] x'Fb}g .
efn] hftL :jefj}n] zlQmzfnL / o;cl3 pgLx¿n] %) 8n/ ltb}{ cfPsf lyP . t/ e'6fgsf ljBfyL{sf
nflu eg] pQm z'Ns nfu" x'Fb}g . e'6fgL ljBfyL{ / pgLx¿sf cfl>t
:jtGq x'G5 . of}lgs lx;fan] klg
ub{5g\ . cfwf cfsfz eg]/ ;f+sl] ts u/]sf 5g\ . sf]xLsf] s] ts{ cfpg] ltns tyf bfOhf] k|yf, laleGg xd]zf tof/L cj:yfsf] h:tf] efg kl/jf/sf nflu % 8n/ a9fP/ k|ltdlxgf !% 8n/ k'¥ofPsf] 5 .
efifdf ;Daf]wg u/]sf] klg xfdL e]6g u/]sf] 5 eg] juL{o d'2fnfO{ ax;sf] cj:yfdf la6'nL x'g] rng, jfnljjfx, x'G5 . h}las lx;fjn] klg kf]yLaf6 cWoogcg';Gwfg ug{ cfpg] cGo ljb]zL / cfl>t kl/jf/sf nflu !)
;S5f}+ . s}of}+ dlxnfx?n] cfˆgf] h'gL s]Gb|df /fVg' kg]{df n}+lus, hftLo, cfl>t / lgoGqt x'g] cj:yf, k'?ifsf] km}nfj6sf] Ifdtf sdhf]/ /x]sf] x'G5 . 8n/ le;f z'Ns a9fP/ %) 8n/ k'¥ofOPsf] 5 . pgLx¿n] o;cl3
lagf ;Daf]wg klg latfPsf 5g\ . ;f+:s[lts, If]qLo h:tf d'2fnfO{ wfld{s agfpg] lgot cflb dlxnfn] o;n] agfPsf] la;dtf ;dfhdf xfdL k|ltdlxgf $) 8n/ ltb}{ cfPsf lyP . u}/ko{6sLo le;fcGtu{t kqsf/
gfd s] lyof] eg]/ hfGg' kg]{ cj:yf ax;sf] s]Gb|df n}hfFbf ;a} k|of;x? ef]lu/x]sf ;d:of x'g\ h;sf] k|efj hlt;'s} ldnfP klg a/fa/ ug{ / cfl>t kl/jf/sf] le;f z'Ns % 8n/ a9fP/ !% 8n/ k'¥ofOPsf] 5 .
g} gcfOsg pgLx?sf] h'gL laTbf Joy{ x'g k'Ub5g\ . h]xf];\ n}+lus hLjgsf x/]s If]qdf b]Vg ;lsG5 . ;lsGg . clxn] ;dfhdf b]lvPsf] o;cl3 pgLx¿n] k|ltdlxgf !) 8n/ ltg{'kYof]{ . bft[/fi6«sf] nufgLdf
klg ;dfh k|Zg p7fpFbg} Yof] . h]xf];\ d'2fnfO{ lnP/ ;Fwh } ;f] ax; x'g] u/]sf ;tLk|yf h:tf] q"m/ / lgb{oL k|yf lae]bsf] sf/0f oxL g} xf] . o;f] eg]/ ;~rflnt u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfdf sfo{/t ljb]zL / cfl>t kl/jf/n] k|ltdlxgf
clwsf/ vf]Hg] dlxnfx? dlxnf eg]/ 5g\ h'g cfjZos klg 5 . dlxnfsf] hLjgaf6 efu]sf] cj:yf ts{ ug]x{ ?sf] klg ahf/ sDtfsf] 5}g . %) 8n/ ltg{'kg]{ ePsf] 5 . o;cl3 pgLx¿n] k|ltdlxgf #) 8n/ ltb}{
g} ;Daf]wg ?rfpg] ub{5g\ . dlxnf dlxnf ;/f]sf/ r]tgfsf] pkh 5 eg] k/ g;b}{ rf]vL sGof ljjfx xfdL afFrs] f] a'hj'{ f ;dfhdf P]gf cfPsf lyP . u[x dGqfnon] pgLx¿sf] le;f z'Nsdf @) cd]l/sL 8n/
clxn] ;Daf]wg ug}{kg]{ cj:yfdf xf] . ;lbof}+b]lv bf;tfsf] cj:yf xf] ug]{ eGb} sfvdf af]s]/ n}hfg] h:tf] hlQs} 5n{Ë b]lvPsf] s'/f s] 5 eg] a9fPsf] xf] .
5g\ . dlxnf–k' ? if ;dfgtfsf dlxnf ;d'bfosf] . laut dlxnfsf] ljj]sxLg ljjfxk4tL klg clxn] JolQmsf] :jfldTjsf] k'h F Ldf cfwfl/t Ps s/f]8 ?k}ofFeGbf a9L JolQmut nufgL ug]{ ljb]zL / cfl>t
ax;x? w]/} x'g] u/]sf 5g\ . sf]xL nflu cToGt si6s/ / ;+s6sf] ;dfhaf6 pGd'ng e};s]sf] cj:yf cfly{s tTjsf] pkl/;+/rgfsf] cfwf/ kl/jf/ jf ;+:yfsf clws[t k|ltlglwnfO{ Ps jif{eGbf sd cjlwsf] ax'kj| z ] L
gfl/jfbL x'F eGb} ax; u5{g\ t sf]xL cj:yf xf] . dlxnfn] dflg;sf] h'gL 5 . ;a} dlxnfn] Ps} lsl;dn] / wd{ ;+:s[ltsf] hfnn] dflg; le;fafkt @) 8n/ / Ps s/f]8eGbf sd nufgL ug]{ / Ps jif{eGbf sd
dlxnf clwsf/jfbL eP/ ax; kfpg] cj:yf clwsf/sf] n8fO{+sf] ;d:of ef]lu/x]sf 5}gg, sf]xLn] afFlwPsf 5g\ . o;df pQ/cfw'lgstf cjlwsf] ax'k|j]zL le;fsf nflu #% 8n/ ltg{'kg]{5 .
8 @)&^
sf= lh=;fn
k|= c;f/
sf= b= @@ ut] cfOtaf/
g+= !^#÷@)^#÷^$

vf]ksf]===== 3/3/df k'uL lu/ˆtf/ ug]{ atfP . lgikIf hfFra'em–cg'udg u/L aflx/ ;Sy] . xfdLnfO{ nfUYof] hgo'4n]
k7fpg g;lsPsf] xf] . dGqfno;Fu
pgn] eg], …xfdLn] ufFpdf g]skflj?4
ck|]zg ;'? u/]sf 5f}F . s'g} klg
Nofpg klg ;f] kf6L{n] cfu|x u/]sf]
5 . ;fy} ;/sf/n] bdg, ck|]zg
k|r08 / afbnnfO{ pRr dfgjLo
r]tgfsf] ljsf; u/]sf] 5 t/ ;Qfdf
‘hnjfo' kl/jt{g;DaGwL 5'§} sfg'g agfp’
k|ult ljj/0f gx'Fbf cGbfhsf e/df xfntdf rf/}lt/af6 3]/faGbL u/]/ hf/L /fv] o;sf la?4 k|lt/f]w k' u ] k l5 pN6f] kl/0ffd b] l vof] , sf7df8f} F . tTsfnLg sfo{of]hgf Joj:yf u/]sf] b]lvFbf
vf] k ljt/0f eO/x] s f] :jf:Yo g]skfsf] sflnsf]6sf g]tfx?nfO{ ;+3if{df pqg g]skfn] ;Dk"0f{ kf6L{ cfttfoL, h+unL / qm'/ kfqdf ktg k|wfgGofofwLz cf]dk|sfz ld> / hnjfo' kl/jt{g;DaGwL PsLs[t
dGqfnosf clwsf/Lx¿sf] egfO 5 . kqmfp u5f}{F .Ú klQm / Gofok|]dL hgtfnfO{ clkn ePsf /x]5g\ . k"j{u[xdGqL hgfb{g GofofwLz t]haxfb'/ s];Lsf] Ohnf;n] sfg'g lgdf{0f geP;Dd pQm of]hgf
To;sf] ;Lwf c;/ vf]k s]Gb|x¿df sflnsf]6sf u|fld0f :t/df g]kfn ;d]t u/]sf] 5 . zdf{n] eg]– ……s'df/sf] xTofn] …d]nu9L @)&% k'; !) ut] hf/L u/]sf] / gLlt cg'?ksf sfo{of]hgfx?n]
kl//x]sf] df]/ª pnf{af/LsL :jf:Yo sDo' l g:6 kf6L{ s f g] t f tyf 36gf ;Demfof] tYo aª\ufP dfGo km};nfsf] k"0f{ kf7 ;fj{hlgs ub}{ u/]sf k|fjwfgx?sf] cjnDag /
:jo+;l] jsf l8sdfof lnDa'n] atfOg\ . sfo{ s tf{ x ?n] ljleGg ultljlw
;/sf/sf]===== x'Fb}g .ÚÚ ldgf kf08]n] t elgg–……st} ;jf]R{ r cbfntn] hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] sfof{Gjog ug{' u/fpg' elgPsf] 5 .
pgn] elgg, rf/ dlxgf aL;LhL vf]k a9fPsf] / g]skflj?4 k|x/Ln] ufFpdf /fdaxfb'/ yfkfn] emg} cfqmf]lzt / k]z]j/ xTof/fn] xTof u/]sf] t cg's"ng tyf Go"gLs/0f ug{ 5'§} clwjQmf kbdaxfb' / >] i 7n]
cfPg . To;kl5 hfkflgh ck| ] z g ;' ? u/] k l5 :yfgLo cfqmfds k|:tlt /fv]/ k"/} ;/sf/sf] xf]Og{ <ÚÚ sfg'g agfpg'kg]{ km};nf u/]sf] 5 . g]kfndf jftfj/0f ;+/If0f;DaGwL
OG;]kmnfOl6;lj?4sf] vf]k tLg rf/ gful/sx? lgs} ql;t ePsf 5g\ . l8hfOgdf 36gf 36fOPsf] emg} :k:6 *=o' 4 sf] klg lgod x' G 5 km};nfsf] k"0f{kf7df elgPsf] 5, ag]sf] jftfj/0f ;+/If0f P]g, @)%#
dlxgf g} cfPg . tYofÍ lng] / @)%@ ;fndf tTsfnLg g]skf - ePsf] 5 . cfO{=lh=lk= ;j]Gb| vgfn, u[xdGqL …jftfj/0f ;+/If0f P]g @)%# n] df hnjfo' kl/jt{gnfO{ cg'sn " g tyf
lbg]aLr tfnd]n gx'g' / ;DalGwt dfcf] j fbL_n] ;' ? u/] s f] bzaif] { $= ck/fwLx? n' s ] s f 5} g g\ /fd a= yfkf, k|wfgdGqL cf]nL / jftfj/0f ;+ / If0f;lxt hnjfo' Go"gLs/0f ug]{ s'g} sfg'gL Joj:yf gx'bF f
dGqfno g} o;af/] hfgsf/ gx'g] hgo' 4 sf] bb{ g fs kL8f ef] u ] s f s'df/ kf}8n ] sf] xTofdf ;+nUgx? csf]{ k|TofzL k'ik sdn bfxfnnfO{ kl/j{tg;DaGwL s]xL Joj:yf u/] klg 5'§} dfu ub}{ ;jf]R{ r cbfntdf l/6
hf]lvdo'Qm cj:yf /x]sf] :jf:Yo sflnsf]6sf gful/sx? k'g d'n's hgtfsf] gh/df l5k]sf 5}gg\ / yfxf 5 ls 5}g\ xltof/;lxt cfdg] hnjfo' kl/j{tgsf] cg'sn " g tyf lgj]bg bfo/ u/]sf lyP .
dGqfnosf clwsf/Lx¿ atfpF5g\ . åGådf hfG5 ls eGg] cg'dfg nufpg pgLx? c1ft 5}gg\ . kl/jf/sf ;fdg] eO{/x]sf ;z:q o'4df klg Go"gLs/0f ug]{ ;Gbe{df Pp6f 5'§} hnjfo' kl/jt{g cg'sn " g tyf
k|b]z ! sf :jf:Yo lgb]{zs yfn]sf 5g\ . ufFpdf g]skfn] ultljlw ;b:onfO{ klg zj x]g{ glbg] ;Qfsf lu/ˆtf/ kl5 o:tf cdfgjLo xTof sfg'g lgdf{0f u/L ;d:ofsf] ;Daf]wg Go"gLs/0f ug{sf nflu tof/ u/]sf]
8f]6]nn] eg], of] cj:yf eg]sf] a9fpg' / ;/sf/ g]skfk|lt lbg k|ltlbg ck/fwLx?nfO{ hgtfn] Ps÷Ps ug'{ ck/fw x'G5 . o'4sf] klg lgod ug{ h?/L ePsfn] ;f];DaGwL PsLs[t hnjfo' kl/jt{g gLlt, @)^& df
cnfld{ª cj:yf xf] . afnaflnsfsf cfqmfds aGg', k|x/L klg ufpF s]lGb|t lrg]sf 5g\ . ck/fwL sf] x'g < 7"nf– x'G5, cg'zf;g x'G5, cGt/fli6«o sfg'g oyfzL3| lgdf{0f u/L nfu" ug{' ePsf] Joj:yfx?nfO{ tTsfn
nflu Ifo/f]u, Eofu't] /f]u, nx/] x'gn' ] :yfgLo gful/s åGåsf] rk]6fdf 7"nf o'4sf a]nfdf b'ZdgnfO{ 3]/f d"No–dfGotf / sfg"g x'G5 . t/ u/fpg' .Ú k/dfb]zsf] ;f] km};nfdf k|efjsf/L tyf 7f]; ?kn] sfof{Gjog
vf]sL, x]kf6fOl6; aL, wg'if6+sf/, kg]{ 8/ l;h{gf ePsf] 5 . clxn];Dd xfn]/ ;dfTbf klg o:tf h3Go, ;nf{xLdf s'g} o'4 lyPg, s;}n] hnjfo' kl/j{tgaf6 k/]sf / kg{ ug{ l/6 lgj]bgdf dfu ul/Psf] lyof] .
kf] l nof] , hfkflgh ToxfFsf hgtfx? eg] bdgsflj?4 cdfgjLo / qm'/ xTof x'Fb}gg\ / Tof] xltof/ af]s]sf] lyPg / ljKnj hfg] k|efjnfO{ Go"gLs/0f ug{ s]xL – :g]xf lrdf}l/of
OG;]kmnfOl6;nufot /f]ulj?4sf k|lt/f]w ub}{ cfO/x]sf 5g\ . cGt/f{li6«o sfg"gsf lx;fjn] klg g]tT[ jsf] zQmLaf6 Pp6f klg xltof/
vf]k nufOg] ul/G5 . dfgjtf lj/f]wL ck/fw x'G5 . olb xTof/f Pp6} jf p:t} kfqx? x'g\ . lbg ;kmn x'G5 eGg] s'/f b]vfPsf
g]kfndf afnaflnsfnfO{ vf]k k|x/L==== ;/sf/ lhDd]jf/ x'Fbf] xf] t jf
k|of]u ePsf] lyPg . ef]hk'/df lty{ l3ld/]sf] xTof To:t} 5g\ . ;f]xL Jo+Uosf] hjfkm 8f=
u/]/ cfkm};uF To; If]qdf 3'dfO/x]sf] s'df/ kf}8]nsf] xTof sf08n] qm'/ ck/fwLx?n] u/] . e§/fO{n] o;/L kmsf{Psf 5g\– …xfd|f]
lbOF b } 5 eGg] s' / f cGt/f{ l i6« o k|wfgdGqL yf]/} klg ;+jb] gzLn x'bF f b]zsf] zL/ lgx'l/Psf] 5, dfgj
;d'bfon] kTofpg g;Sg] kl/l:ylt ck'i6 vj/ aflx/ cfO/x]sf] eP klg ;+;bsf] /fHo Joj:yf ;ldltsf] kfnfdf tLg sIffdf k9fOg] 3d08L
cflwsf/Ls ?kn] cem} k'li6 gePsf]n] x'g t of] 36gfkl5 u[xdGqL, k|x/L ;Eotfsf] ckdfg ePsf] 5 . cfhsf]
cfPsf] dGqfnosf k|jQmf dx]Gb| cfOlhkL, ;nf{xLsf P;kL / 36gfdf 5nkmndf g]kfn k|x/Lsf cfO{=lh=lk= Eofu' t f] s f] syf xfn] / k| d n]
b'O{ hgfsf] cj:yf c1ft g} /x]sf] 5 .Ú PSsfO{zf}F ztfAbLdf klg /fHosf] ;j] { G b| vgfnn] s' d f/ kf} 8 ] n sf] >f]tfx¿nfO{ xF;fpg'eP5 Û Tof];Fu}
>]i7n] atfP . pgn] eg], :jf:Yo ;+nUgx?nfO{ jvf{:t ub}{ h]n rnfg r]tgf:t/ olt lj£g h+unL < olt
If]qdf tYofÍ dxTjk"0f{ xf] . oxL ePg o:t} OGrfh{ ljifdn] clxn];Dd k[i7e"ldsf ljifodf af]n]sf s'/fx? lgb'nL gfd u/]sf afx'g s;/L
k|x/L, ;]gfdfly ;z:q cfqmd0f gug]{ ug'{ kb{Yof] . t/, la8Djgf k|wfgdGqL j9L cdfgjLo, qm'/ / lx+;|s < olt
eg] g]kfndf afnaflnsfnfO{ vf]k cfkmF} ck/fwLs dgf]j[lQsf 5g\ . k|fof]lht 5g\ . u[xdGqL afbnn] sfstfnL k/]/ 7"nf] Hof]ltifL sxlng
kf6L{sf] gLltnfO{ slx klg kf6L{n] a9L ;+j]bgfxLg < O{ltxf;n] o;sf] af]ns ] f ck/fwLs cleJolQmx? /]s8{ k'us] f lyP eGg] syf klg ;'gfOlbPsf]
nufOFb}5 eGg] s'/f ljb]zL klg %=;+ ; bsf] /fHo Joj:yf lx;fa lstfa t ug]{ g} 5 . afbn /
kTofpFbg} g, tkfO{+ klg kTofpg' x'Gg pn‹g gu/]sf] k|i7 kf/]sf 5g\ . 5g\ . km]l/ klg eGg} k5{, k|wfgdGqL eP cem 7"nf] xfF;f] km'6\Yof] ls <
lj1lKtdf elgPsf] 5, …t/ ;/sf/n] ;ldltdf ePsf] 5nkmn cf]nLsf] ;Qfd08nLn] Ps k6s xfd|}
/ d klg kTofpFlbg . tYofÍ 5}g eg] ;nf{xL 36gfsf] ljifodf ;+;bsf] s]kL cf]nL yf]/} klg /fi6«jfbL / syf o:tf] 5– lgb'nL afx'g
lgxTyf g]tf / sfo{stf{dfly bf]xf]/f] k'vf{x?sf] o'4 O{ltxf;nfO{ k9\g k5{ . nf]stGqjfbL x'GYo] eg] ;nf{xLsf ;fFemdf ;;'/fnL k'u]5g\ . ;f;" leq
cfufdL lbgsf of]hgf s;/L agfpg] < /fHo Joj:yf ;ldltdf ePsf] c+u|]h / g]kfnsf] o'4df c+u|]hx?n]
tNnf ;/sf/x¿ :jfoQ ePsfn] le8Gtsf] gfddf lu/ˆtf/kl5 lgz+; P;=lk=, cfO{=lh=lk= / u[xdGqLsf] ;]n/f]6L ksfpFb} /lx5g\ . HjfOF aflx/
xTof ug]{, ufpF ck|]zg ug]{, 3/x? 5nkmn / ToxfF b]lvPsf k|:t'tLx?n] u/]sf] jL/ g]kfnL of]4fx?sf] k|z; + fsf]
sdhf] / L ug] { n fO{ sf/afxL tyf klg ck/fwLx?sf] PS;kf]h ePsf] avf{:tL x'g' kb{Yof] . of] ulDe/ lk+9Ldf a;]/ afF;sf l;Gsf efFRb} /f]6L
vfgtnf;L ug]{, w/ks8, y'g5]s, O{ltxf;nfO{ k9\g k5{ . t/ lj8Dagf k|sl[ tsf] ck/fw xf] . ulDe/ dfgjtf uGg yfn]5g\ . ksfO;s]kl5 ;f;"n]
cg'udgdf ;+3Lo ;/sf/sf] lkmtnf] 5 . 5nkmnsf qmddf ;nf{xLs} ck/fwLs dgf] j [ l Q ePsf qm' /
e"ldsf x'g] pgn] atfP . t/ of] cj:yf em'Ýfe'2fdf dlxgf} y'gfdf oftgf lbg] lj/f]wL ck/fw xf] / u}/Goflos xTof HjfOFnfO{ b]lv5g\ / rf/j6f /f]6L
h:tf sfddf /fHo g} nfluk/]sf] 5 .Ú Pshgf ;f+;bn] cfFz' emfb},{ eSsfgLb} zf;sx?jf6 Tof] ck]Iff ug'{ sdhf]/L
;'wf/ ug{ dGqfno k|of;/t /x]sf] / ?Fb} cfˆgf] efjgf cleJoQm u/]sL ck/fw xf] . To;sf/0f ha /fHon] yfndf /fv]/ HjfOFnfO{ lbO5g\ Û
o;} qmddf uPsf] h]i7 * ut] x'G5 . g} o:tf h3Go ck/fw ub}{ hfG5, HjfOFn] eg]5g\– …/f]6L kfs] b'O{ aL;
k|jQmf >]i7sf] egfO 5 . lyO{g . hgfb{g zdf{, /]vf zdf{, (=/fHo4f/f JolSt xTofsf
ef]hk'/df tLy{ l3ld/]sf] / cl:t ev{/} xTofsf >[v+nfx? a9fpFb} hfG5 eg] rf/, HjfOFsf efudf lsg rf/ <Ú
;nf{ x L==== cfiff9 % ut] ;nf{xL lhNnfsf] o;f]bf ;'jb] L, ltyf{ uf}td, dLgf kf08], >Lª\ v nf ToxfF ljb|fx] x'G5 / abnf lng] af6f]df 7\ofSs} /f]6Lsf] ;+Vof ldn]kl5 ufpFe/
lu/ˆtf/ ul/Psf g]skfsf g]tf tyf nfnaGbLdf ;nf{xL lhNnf O~rfh{ l8nf ;+uf| n } f, lbn]Gb|k;
| fb a8', dx]Zj/ xfdLnfO{ yfxf 5 jt{dfg cf]nL /
h+u uxt/fh, emk6 /fjn ;a}n] b]z hfG5 . ;f;"n] HjfOF cAan Hof]ltif ePsf]
sfo{stf{x?nfO{ lagf ;t{ l/xf ug{ s'df/ kf}8n ] sf] o;/L g} lu/ˆtf/Lkl5 jfbn d08nLsf] ;/sf/ ljKnjsf] /fHon] h:t} ljb| f ] x Ln] klg k|rf/ ul/5g\ .
;/sf/;Fu dfu u/] . olb lu/ˆtf/ sfo/tfk"0f{ xTof ul/Psf] lj1lKtdf 36gfsf] lj/f]wdf cleJolQm lbFb} ljrf/b]lv cQflnPsf] 5 . pgLx?
5fgjLg u/L bf]ifLnfO{ sfjf{xL ug{ OGsfpG6/sf] /0fgLlt agfof] eg] s] ufpFdf wf]aLsf] uwf x/fPsf]
cfˆgf g]tf tyf sfo{stf{ lagf zt{ hgfO{Psf] 5 . pQm 36gfdf lab]zL ljKnj kf6L{ n fO{ k' / } l;Wofpg x'G5 < /fHon] t w]/} ;xg ;Sg' k5{ . /x]5 . wf]aLn] HjfOF;Fu x/fPsf] uwf
l/xf gu/L kf6L{ yk z;Qm ;+3if{df zlQms]Gb|x?sf] ;d]t xft /x]sf] k'li6 ;'emfj lbP . rfxG5g\ . ljKnj, k|sf08, s+rg,
^=u} / Goflos xTofsf] ;/sf/sf] kmfF;LjfbL rl/qn] hgtfnfO{ kQf nufOlbg eg]5g\ . ca k¥of]
hfg] r]tfjgL lb+b} To;af6 pTkGg ePsf] g]=s=kf=n] hgfPsf] 5 . ;'bz{g / ;Gtf]if j'9f du/x?nfO{ cfTd ;'/Iffsf nflu klg xltof/ km;fb . ef] l nkN6 ljxfg} s f]
x'g] kl/0ffdsf] efuLbf/ ;/sf/ :j+d clxn] ;+v'jf;efdf klg bf]xf]/f] ljkIfdf cfdhgdt aj{/tfk"j{s ;kmfof ug{ rfxG5g\ .
lgz:q JolQm, hgtfsf] nf]sk|Lo af]Sg afWo agfpg] eof] . h'g;'s} z' e ;fOtdf cfpg cfu| x ub} {
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