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What is Grammar?
The word “ Grammar” has been derived from French
word “gramaire” or Latin word “grammatical” or
Greek word “grammatika” which means “relating to
letter” or according to F.R Palmer the word grammar
means “to write” “Grammar is the system of rules by
which words are formed and put together to make
sentence” or grammar is the branch of linguistic
which deal with the relationship between words and
the structure of sentence”
Ten Types of Grammar
Linguists are quick to remind us that there are
different varieties of grammar--that is, different ways
of describing and analyzing the structures and
functions of language.
Comparative Grammar
The analysis and comparison of the grammatical
structures of related languages. Contemporary work
in comparative grammar is concerned with "a faculty
of language that provides an explanatory basis for
how a human being can acquire a first language . . ..
In this way, the theory of grammar is a theory of
human language and hence establishes the
relationship among all languages."
Generative Grammar
The rules determining the structure and
interpretation of sentences that speakers accept as
belonging to the language. "Simply put, a generative
grammar is a theory of competence: a model of the
psychological system of unconscious knowledge that
underlies a speaker's ability to produce and interpret
utterances in a language."
Mental Grammar
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The generative grammar stored in the brain that


allows a speaker to produce language that other
speakers can understand. "All humans are born with
the capacity for constructing a Mental Grammar,
given linguistic experience; this capacity for
language is called the Language Faculty (Chomsky,
1965). A grammar formulated by a linguist is an
idealized description of this Mental Grammar."
Pedagogical Grammar
Grammatical analysis and instruction designed for
second-language students. "Pedagogical grammar is
a slippery concept. The term is commonly used to
denote (1) pedagogical process--the explicit
treatment of elements of the target language
systems as (part of) language teaching methodology;
(2) pedagogical content--reference sources of one
kind or another that present information about the
target language system; and (3) combinations of
process and content." (D. Little, "Words and Their
Properties: Arguments for a Lexical Approach to
Pedagogical Grammar."
Performance Grammar
A description of the syntax of English as it is actually
used by speakers in dialogues. "[P]performance
grammar . . . centers attention on language
production; it is my belief that the problem of
production must be dealt with before problems of
reception and comprehension can properly be
investigated."
Reference Grammar
A description of the grammar of a language, with
explanations of the principles governing the
construction of words, phrases, clauses, and
sentences. Examples of contemporary reference
grammars in English include A Comprehensive
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Grammar of the English Language, by Randolph


Quirk et al. (1985), the Longman Grammar of Spoken
and Written English (1999), and The Cambridge
Grammar of the English Language (2002).
Theoretical Grammar
The study of the essential components of any human
language. "Theoretical grammar or syntax is
concerned with making completely explicit the
formalisms of grammar, and in providing scientific
arguments or explanations in favor of one account of
grammar rather than another, in terms of a general
theory of human language."
Traditional Grammar
The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts
about the structure of the language. "We say that
traditional grammar is prescriptive because it
focuses on the distinction between what some
people do with language and what they ought to do
with it, according to a pre-established standard. . . .
The chief goal of traditional grammar, therefore, is
perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly
constitutes proper language
Transformational Grammar
A theory of grammar that accounts for the
constructions of a language by linguistic
transformations and phrase structures. "In
transformational grammar, the term 'rule' is used not
for a precept set down by an external authority but
for a principle that is unconsciously yet regularly
followed in the production and interpretation of
sentences. A rule is a direction for forming a
sentence or a part of a sentence, which has been
internalized by the native speaker."
Universal Grammar
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The system of categories, operations, and principles


shared by all human languages and considered to be
innate. "Taken together, the linguistic principles of
Universal Grammar constitute a theory of the organization
of the initial state of the mind/brain of the language learner--
that is, a theory of the human faculty for language."
Punctuation
Using correct punctuation is vital to making your essay
effective. Misusing commas, semicolons, and other
punctuation marks can give the admissions officers a bad
impression, and it can even make parts of your essay
unintelligible.
Although a few minor errors may not make a huge difference
to your reader, a perfect error-free manuscript will make
your application essay outstanding. You should know the
basics, as listed here:
Commas
When you join two complete sentences with conjunctions
such as and, but, or for, place a comma before the
conjunction.
I want to go, but it is snowing.
If you’re unsure whether you need a comma, check to see if
the subject changes over the course of the sentence. If it
does, you need a comma: The parrot squawks obscenities,
and the dog eats nothing but steak. If there is no subject
following the conjunction, you don’t need a comma: The
parrot squawks obscenities and eats nothing but crackers.
Do not join independent clauses with a comma. Instead, use
a period or a semicolon: Incorrect: It is about to snow, we’d
better not go. Correct: It is about to snow; we’d better not
go.
Correct: It is about to snow. We’d better not go. Be sure to
enclose parenthetical statements in commas: My father, an
avid skier, wants to move to Colorado.
Also use a comma to separate parts of a date or an address
My niece was born in Morristown, New Jersey, on May 24,
2002.Finally, be sure to separate items in a list with
commas:
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Correct: Chocolate pizza pasta and ice cream are my favorite


foods.
Correct: Chocolate, pizza, pasta, and ice cream are my
favorite foods. Colons and Semicolons Don’t use colons or
semicolons if you are unsure of how they function in a
sentence. The semicolon indicates a pause. It is stronger
than a comma but weaker than a period: My father has a
wonderful sense of humor; nevertheless, he is a strict man.
The colon means “as follows”:
We learned five stages of grief: denial, anger, bargaining,
depression, and acceptance.
It should not be used to introduce a short list:
Incorrect: I went to the store and picked up: corn on the cob,
hamburger meat, and beefsteak tomatoes.
Correct: I went to the store and picked up corn on the cob,
hamburger meat, and beefsteak tomatoes. A colon can also
be used to introduce a single word or phrase, to show a close
connection between the two parts, or to add dramatic effect.
There was only one problem with her theory: She had no
proof.
Quotation Marks
Commas and periods always go inside the closing quotation
mark:
“I ate too much,” said my little brother. My little brother said,
“I ate too much.”
The first word of a quotation is capitalized, but if you
interrupt the quote don’t capitalize the first word of the
continuation: “Because of your rude behavior,” said Mr. Lit
tell, “you can’t come on the class field trip.”
Exclamation Marks
Do not use exclamation marks to strengthen weak words.
The exclamation mark should only be used for true
exclamations or for commands (and never use more than
one):
What a day! Stop!
Spelling
Relying heavily on word-processing programs like Spell-
Check or Grammar Check can get you into trouble by lulling
you into a false sense of security. For example, Spell-Check
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doesn’t detect if you use the wrong word; it only notices if a


word is spelled incorrectly (and occasionally spell-checkers
are wrong). So if you’re not careful, it’s easy to miss that you
wrote the word compete when you meant to write complete.
Incorrect: I completed in twenty three gymnastics meats last
year.
Correct: I competed in twenty-three gymnastics meets last
year.
If you’re lucky, the admissions officers will be able to guess
from the context what you are trying to say. But there is no
reason to look careless.
Principle Division Of Grammar:
1. Orthography:. It treats of letters. It relate to correct
spelling. Spelling with reference to correctness.
2. Etymology:. The study of the origins and historical
development of the words
3. Syntax: It treats to arrange the sentence or the
grammatical rules.

The Parts of
Speech
Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of
speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the
adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the
interjection. Each part of speech explains not what the word
is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a
noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next.
The next few examples show how a word's part of speech
can change from one sentence to the next, and following
them is a series of sections on the individual parts of speech,
followed by an exercise
What is a Noun?
A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place,
thing, and abstract idea. Example .Aslam, Pen, Peshawar etc.
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A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct


object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object
complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb.
Function of Noun:
Nouns functions as a head of nouns phrase, in
subject, object, sub_compliment, Object compliment
and compliment of preposition for example
1. the chairman reached the department (subject)
2. he praised the chairman (direct object)
3. they elected him the chairman (object
compliment)
4. he is the chairman (subject compliment)
5. she gave the chairman a dairy(object indirect)
6. he was with the chairman (prepositional phrase)
Dependents:
Nouns take determiners, adjective and also
restricted relative clause as their dependents for
example
1. The girl (determiner acting as dependent)
2. Tall girls (adjective acting as dependent)
3. The girl, who had reddened her lips was Nasima
(relative clause)
Lexical morphology:
The most productive noun forming suffixes are,
Ness, Ty, Er, Ee, Ation, Ment. Examples are
1) Cleanness.2) sensibility.3) sleeper, Eater .4)
Employee.
5) Education.6) Development.
Inflection of Noun:
Inflection of nouns are contrasted on the basis of
number i.e. Singular and Plural But there are number
of nouns which are either available only in singular
form, for example,Information,Equipment etc or
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either plural form for


example,arm,brains,spirits,News etc

.
1. Noun Gender
Many common nouns, like "engineer" or "teacher," can refer
to men or women. Once, many English nouns would change
form depending on their gender -- for example, a man was
called an "author" while a woman was called an "authoress"
-- but this use of gender-specific nouns is very rare today.
Those that are still used occasionally tend to refer to
occupational categories, as in the following sentences.
Saeed was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor.
Nadeem was at the height of her career as an actress in the
1780s.
The manager was trying to write a want ad, but he couldn't
decide whether he was advertising for a "waiter" or a
"waitress"
2. Noun Plurals
Most nouns change their form to indicate number by adding
"-s" or "-es", as illustrated in the following pairs of sentences:
When Aslam was small he rarely told the truth if he thought
he was going to be punished.
Many people do not believe that truths are self-evident.
There are other nouns which form the plural by changing the
last letter before adding "s". Some words ending in "f" form
the plural by deleting "f" and adding "ves," and words ending
in "y" form the plural by deleting the "y" and adding "ies," as
in the following.
Possessive Nouns
In the possessive case, a noun or pronoun changes its form
to show that it owns or is closely related to something else.
Usually, nouns become possessive by adding a combination
of an apostrophe and the letter "s."
You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that
does not end in "s" by adding an apostrophe and "s," as in
the following sentences:
1) The red suitcase is Cassandra's.
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2) The only luggage that was lost was the prime minister's.
3) The exhausted recruits were woken before dawn by the
drill sergeant's screams.
4) The miner's face was covered in coal dust.
• You can form the possessive case of a singular noun
that ends in "s" by adding an apostrophe alone or by
adding an apostrophe and "s," as in the following
examples:
1) The bus's seats are very uncomfortable.
2) The bus' seats are very uncomfortable.
3) The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs.
4) The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus' eggs.
5) Felicia Hemans's poetry was once more popular than Lord
Byron's.
6) Felicia Hemans' poetry was once more popular than Lord
Byron's.

Using Possessive Nouns


When you read the following sentences, you will notice that
a noun in the possessive case frequently functions as an
adjective modifying another noun:
The miner's face was covered in coal dust.
Here the possessive noun "miner's" is used to modify the
noun "face" and together with the article "the," they make
up the noun phrase that is the sentence's subject.
The concert was interrupted by the dogs' barking, the ducks'
quacking, and the babies' squalling.
In this sentence, each possessive noun modifies a gerund.
The possessive noun "dogs"' modifies "barking," "ducks"'
modifies "quacking," and "babies"' modifies "squalling."
The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs.
In this example the possessive noun "platypus's" modifies
the noun "eggs" and the noun phrase "the platypus's eggs"
is the direct object of the verb "crushed."
My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the squirrels'
nest.
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In this sentence the possessive noun "squirrels"' is used to


modify the noun "nest" and the noun phrase "the squirrels'
nest" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to locate."
Types Of Nouns
There are many different types of nouns. As you know, you
capitalize some nouns, such as "Canada" or "Louise," and do
not capitalize others, such as "badger" or "tree" (unless they
appear at the beginning of a sentence). In fact, grammarians
have developed a whole series of noun types, including the
proper noun, the common noun, the concrete noun, the
abstract noun, the countable noun. the non-countable noun
and the collective noun. You should note that a noun will
belong to more than one type: it will be proper or common,
abstract or concrete, and countable or non-countable or
collective. But the major classification of noun are concrete
noun and Abstract noun.
. Concrete Nouns
A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or
anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses:
touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the
opposite of a abstract noun. The highlighted words in the
following sentences are all concrete nouns:
1) The judge handed the files to the clerk..
2) The book binder replaced the flimsy paper cover with a
sturdy, cloth-covered board
Its further classified into the following nouns.
1) Proper Nouns
Proper noun is the name of a specific person, place, or
thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical
documents, institutions, organizations, religions, their holy
texts and their adherents are proper nouns. A proper noun is
the opposite of a common nounIn each of the following
sentences, the proper nouns are highlighted:
A llama Iqbal, Quaid-e-Azam.Pakistan.America..

2) .Common Nouns
A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or
thing in a general sense -- usually, you should write it with a
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capital letter only when it begins a sentence. A common


noun is the opposite of a proper noun.
Aslam.Jawad.Asima,pen.house.bazzar etc.
.3) Collective Noun.
A collective noun is the name of a number of persons or
things, taken together and spoken of as one whole: For
example crowd, army, team, family, nation, committee,
parlimament.class.
1. The police arrested the thief.
2. A herd of cattle is passing.
4) Material noun.
A material noun is the name of a matter or substance of
which anything is made, For example, Silver, Iron, Gold,
Cotton, Milk, Rice etc
1. This table is made of steel.
2. Milk is a complete diet.
Abstract Nouns
An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you
can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is
the opposite of a concrete noun. The highlighted words in
the following sentences are all abstract nouns: Examples,
1) Buying the fire extinguisher was an afterthought.
2) Asima is amused by people who are nostalgic about
childhood.
Countable Nouns
A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a
singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or
anyone) that you can count. You can make a countable noun
plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Countable
nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and
collective nouns. In each of the following sentences; the
highlighted words are countable nouns:
1) We painted the table red and the chairs blue...
2) Miriam found six silver dollars in the toe of a sock.
Non-Countable Nouns
A non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does
not have a plural form, and which refers to something that
you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable
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noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. Non-


countable nouns are similar to collective nouns, and are the
opposite of countable nouns. The highlighted words in the
following sentences are non-countable nouns:
1) Dawood discovered oxygen.
The word "oxygen" cannot normally be made plural.
Oxygen is essential to human life.
Since "oxygen" is a non-countable noun, it takes the singular
verb "is" rather than the plural verb "are."
We decided to sell the furniture rather than take it with us
when we moved.
You cannot make the noun "furniture" plural.
The furniture is heaped in the middle of the room.
Since "furniture" is a non-countable noun, it takes a singular
verb, "is heaped."
The crew spread the gravel over the roadbed.
You cannot make the non-countable noun "gravel" plural.
What is a Verb?
A verb is used to show an action or a state of being and give
us information about subject is called verb. Such as: jump,
run, cook and drive. Rashid bites his victims on the neck.
• The verb "bites" describes the action Rashid
takes..
• There are three types of verbs:
• action verbs,
• linking verbs, and
• helping verbs
ACTION VERBS:. Action verbs are words that express action (ex:
give, eat, walk, etc.) or possession (have, own, etc.). Action
verbs
• can be either
• transitive or
• intransitive.
TRANSITIVE VERBS
A transitive verb always has a noun that receives the action
of the verb. This noun is called the direct object.
EXAMPLE: Asima raises her hand.
(The verb is raises. Her hand is an object receiving the verb’s
action. Therefore, raises are atransitive verb.)
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Transitive verbs sometimes have indirect objects, which


name the object to whom or for whom the action was done.
EXAMPLE: Nadeem gave Bushra the pencil.
(The verb is given. The direct object is the pencil. [What did
he give? the pencil]. The indirect object is Bushra..
INTRANSITIVE VERBS
An intransitive verb never has a direct or indirect object.
Although an intransitive verb may be followed by an adverb
or adverbial phrase, there is no object to receive its action.
EXAMPLE: Asima rises slowly from her seat.
(The verb is the word, rises. The words, slowly from her seat,
modify the verb. But there is no object that receives the
action.)
TRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE?
To determine whether a verb is transitive or intransitive,
follow these two steps:
1) Find the verb in the sentence.
EXAMPLE 1: Abrahim will lay down his book. What is the
action?
will lay EXAMPLE 2: His book will lie there all day. What is the
action? Will lie
Determine whether the verb has a direct object. Ask
yourself, “What is receiving the action of the verb?”
If there is a noun receiving the action of the verb, then the
verb is transitive.
If there is no direct object to receive the action, and if the
verb does not make sense with a direct object, then it is
intransitive.
EXAMPLE 1: Abrahim will lay down his book. Abrahim will lay
down what?
His book. Since the verb can take a direct object, it is
transitive.
EXAMPLE 2: His book will lie there all day.His book will lie
what? Nothing.
It does not make sense to “lie something.” Since the verb
does not make sense with a
Direct object, it is intransitive.
A linking verb connects the subject of a sentence to a
noun or adjective that
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Renames or describes it.This noun or adjective is called the


subject complement.
EXAMPLES: Rashid became a business major. (The
verb, became, links the subject, Rashid, to its
complement, a business major.) Hina is in love with
Rashid.
(The verb, is, links the subject, Hina, to the subject
complement, in love with Rashid , which describes
Hina .) The most common linking verb is the verb to be in
all of its forms (am, are, is, was, were, etc.). This verb may
also be used as a helping verb.
Two other common linking verbs, to become and to seem,
are taken as linking verbs
HELPING VERBS
Helping verbs are used before action or linking verbs to
convey additional information regarding aspects of
possibility (can, could, etc.) or time (was, did, has, etc.).They
are also called auxiliary verbs. The main verb with its
accompanying helping verb is called a verb phrase.
EXAMPLES: Reema is (helping verb) going (main verb) to
America. The trip might (helping verb) be (main verb)
dangerous. The following words, called modals, always
function as helping verbs:(Can,may,must,shall,will,could,
might ,ought to, should, would)
EXAMPLES: Rubina could learn to fly helicopters. (Could
help the main verb, learn.) Raheela will drive to Car
tomorrow. (Will helps the main verb, drive.)
EXAMPLES: Rubina could learn to fly helicopters. (Could
help the main verb, learn.)
Raheela will drive to Idaho tomorrow. (Will helps the main
verb, drive.)
In addition, the following forms of the verbs to be, to do, and
to have sometimes served as helping verbs. (Note: In other
cases, they may serve as action or linking verbs.)Am, be,
being, do, had, have, was, are, been, did, does, has, is, were

Inflection Of Verb:
The great majority of Verb contains six inflection forms. For
example the verb ( go)
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1. He goes.
2. He went.
3. They go.
4. He, She.They (shall, will, should, would) go.
5. He, She (is) they are going.
6. He, She (has) they have gone.
In 3 and 4 we have used “Go” twice called Syncretism.
Function Of Verb:
Verb as head,restrict,the range of others elements in the
clause. The base form head verb phrase,function in various
kind of clauses’
1. Open the door. (Imperative/ commond)
2. clauses may also function as compliment to the Modle
Auxillary, can,may etc. e.g He may be here soon.
3. Clauses may also take infinitives ( ) e.g It is
important to read both the copies.

Dependents:
Verb takes a wider range of dependents. For example a
transitive verb takes a direct object as dependent.
1. She is eating a Pumpkin.(direct object)
2. He Gave her a diamond ring.(Direct object/Indirect.
Object)
3. She considered him a fool.( object/ object
compliment).Because “Foll” can not take place of subject in
Passive voice so it can not be an object.
Lexical Morphology:
Verb can be derived from other parts of speech in a number
of ways.For example, by adding,”ISe,Ify “to an adjective.
1. National (Noun) __________Nationalise. (Verb)
2. Private (N) _____________Privatise. (V)
3. Synthesis (N) ____________Synthesise (V)
4. Beauty (N) _____________Beautify. (V)
5. Object (N) ______________Objectify. (V)

Subject and Predicate


Every complete sentence contains two parts: a subject and a
predicate. The subject is what (or whom) the sentence is
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about, while the predicate tells something about the subject.


In the following sentences, the predicate is enclosed in
braces , while the subject is highlighted.
Aziz{runs}.
JAziz and her dog {run on the beach every morning}.

To determine the subject of a sentence, first isolate the verb


and then make a question by placing "who?" or "what?"
before it -- the answer is the subject.
The audience littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings
and spilled popcorn.

The verb in the above sentence is "littered." Who or what


littered? The audience did. "The audience" is the subject of
the sentence. The predicate (which always includes the verb)
goes on to relate something about the subject: what about
the audience? It "littered the theatre floor with torn
wrappings and spilled popcorn."
Unusual Sentences

Imperative sentences (sentences that give a command or an


order) differ from conventional sentences in that their
subject, which is always "you," is understood rather than
expressed.
Stand on your head. ("You" is understood before "stand.")

Be careful with sentences that begin with "there" plus a form


of the verb "to be." In such sentences, "there" is not the
subject; it merely signals that the true subject will soon
follow.
There were three stray kittens cowering under our porch
steps this morning.

If you ask who? or what? Before the verb ("were cowering"),


the answer is "three stray kittens," the correct subject.
Simple Subject and Simple Predicate
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Every subject is built around one noun or pronoun (or more)


that, when stripped of all the words that modify it, is known
as the simple subject. Consider the following example:
A piece of pepperoni pizza would satisfy his hunger.

The subject is built around the noun "piece," with the other
words of the subject -- "a" and "of pepperoni pizza" --
modifying the noun. "Piece" is the simple subject.

Likewise, a predicate has at its centre a simple predicate,


which is always the verb or verbs that link up with the
subject. In the example we just considered, the simple
predicate is "would satisfy" -- in other words, the verb of the
sentence.

A sentence may have a compound subject -- a simple


subject consisting of more than one noun or pronoun -- as in
these examples:
Team pennants, rock posters and family photographs
covered the boy's bedroom walls.
Her uncle and she walked slowly through the Inuit art gallery
and admired the powerful sculptures exhibited there.

The second sentence above features a compound predicate,


a predicate that includes more than one verb pertaining to
the same subject (in this case, "walked" and "admired").
What is a Pronoun?
A proper noun is used to name a specific person, place or
thing. Such as Bill Gates, New York and the Hudson River. A
proper noun is always capitalized. . You use pronouns like
"he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less
cumbersome and less repetitive. Grammarians classify
pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun,
the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the
indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive
pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.
1) Personal Pronouns:. A personal pronoun refers to a specific
person or thing and changes its form to indicate person,
number, gender, and case.
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Subjective Personal Pronouns A subjective personal pronoun


indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the
sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I," "you,"
"she," "he," "it," "we," "you," "they."
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a
subjective personal pronoun and acts as the subject of the
sentence:
I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green
knapsack.
You are surely the strangest child I have ever met.
When she was a young woman, she earned her living as a
coal miner.
After many years, they returned to their homeland.
We will meet at the Calcutta at 3:30 p.m.
Objective Personal Pronouns An objective personal pronoun
indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb,
compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. The
objective personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him,"
"it," "us," "you," and "them."
Here the objective personal pronoun "me" is the object of
the preposition "to."
I'm not sure that my contact will talk to you.
Similarly in this example, the objective personal pronoun
"you" is the object of the preposition "to."Rehan was
surprised to see her at the race..
Here the objective personal pronoun "her" is the object of
the infinitive phrase "to see."
2) Possessive Personal Pronouns A possessive pronoun indicates
that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and
defines who owns a particular object or person. The
possessive personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers,"
"his," "its," "ours," and "theirs." Note that possessive
personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives
like "my," "her," and "their."
In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a
possessive personal pronoun: The smallest gift is mine.
Here the possessive pronoun "mine" functions as a subject
complement.
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This is yours. Here too the possessive pronoun "yours"


functions as a subject complement.
His is on the kitchen counter.
In this example, the possessive pronoun "his" acts as the
subject of the sentence.
Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.
In this sentence, the possessive pronoun "theirs" is the
subject of the sentence.
Ours is the green one on the corner. Here too the possessive
pronoun "ours" function as the subject of the sentence.
3) A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a
pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby
either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to
things that are farther away in space or time.
The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and
"those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns
or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to
plural nouns and noun phrases. Note that the demonstrative
pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though,
obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to
note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.
In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a
demonstrative pronoun:
This must not continue.
Here "this" is used as the subject of the compound verb
"must not continue."
This is puny; that is the tree I want.
In this example "this" is used as subject and refers to
something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun
"that" is also a subject but refers to something farther away
from the speaker.
Three customers wanted these.
Here "these" is the direct object of the verb "wanted."
4) Interrogative Pronouns
An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The
interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what"
and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever"
("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever").
Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an
20

interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which"


can also be used as a relative pronoun.You will find "who,"
"whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to
people,"which" and "what" used to refer to things and to
animals."Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom"
acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal. The
highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an
interrogative pronoun:
Which wants to see the dentist first?
"Which" is the subject of the sentence.
Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
Similarly "who" is the subject of the sentence?
Whom do you think we should invite?
In this sentence, "who" is the object of the verb "invite."
To whom do you wish to speak?
Here the interrogative pronoun "whom” is the object of the
preposition "to."
Who will meet the delegates at the train station?
In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun "who" is the
subject of the compound verb "will meet." To whom did you
give the paper? In this example the interrogative pronoun
"whom" is the object of the preposition "to."
What did she say? Here the interrogative pronoun "what" is
the direct object of the verb "say."
5) Relative Pronouns
You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or
clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns
are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds
"whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative
pronouns.
You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to
refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and
"whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a
preposition. In each of the following sentences, the
highlighted word is a relative pronoun. You may invite
whomever you like to the party. The relative pronoun
"whoever" is the direct object of the compound verb "may
invite.” The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is
not always elected.
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In this sentence, the relative pronoun is the subject of the


verb "wins" and introduces the subordinate clause "who
wins the greatest popular vote." This subordinate clause acts
as an adjective modifying "candidate”.
6) Indefinite Pronouns an indefinite pronoun is a pronoun
referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing.
An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or
some. The most common indefinite pronouns are "all,"
"another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each,"
"everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many,"
"nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody,"
and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also
be used as indefinite adjectives. The highlighted words in the
following sentences are indefinite pronouns: Many were
invited to the lunch but only twelve showed up. Here "many"
acts as the subject of the compound verb "were invited.” The
office had been searched and everything was thrown onto
the floor.
In this example, "everything" acts as a subject of the
compound verb "was thrown."
We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's
shelter garage sale.
In this sentence, "everything" is the direct object of the verb
"donated."
Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the
magazine, they found none.
Here too the indefinite pronoun functions as a direct object:
"none" is the direct object of "found.” Make sure you give
everyone a copy of the amended bylaws.
In this example, "everyone" is the indirect object of the verb
"give" -- the direct object is the noun phrase "a copy of the
amended bylaws."
Give a registration package to each. Here "each" is the
object of the preposition "to."
7) Reflexive Pronouns You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer
back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive
pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself,"
"itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note
each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.
22

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a


reflexive pronoun:
Aslam give themselves insulin shots several times a day.
The Javed often does the photocopying herself so that the
secretaries can do more important work. After the party, I
asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my
office building.Gul usually remembered to send a copy of his
e-mail to himself.
Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we
ended up doing it ourselves.
8) Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to
emphasize its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical
in form to reflexive pronouns.

The highlighted words in the following sentences are


intensive pronouns:
I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister.
The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes.
They themselves promised to come to the party even though
they had a final exam at the same time.
What Is An Adjective?
An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing,
identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually
precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.
In the following examples, the highlighted words are
adjectives:
The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops.
Mrs. Naheela papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall
paper.
The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea.
The coal mines are dark and dank.
The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots.
• An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a
phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. In the
sentence
My husband knits intricately patterned cotton.
for example, the adverb "intricately" modifies the adjective
"patterned."
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• Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle


phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sentence
Aslam listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden
under her pillow.
For example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles.

Inflection:
Most of the adjective take inflection for grad ability with a
three term paradigm. For example.
Positive__________Comparative_______________Superlative.
Tall Taller
Tallest
Young Younger
Youngest.
The comparative and Superlative degree may be expressed
either inflectionally or analytically i.e. more/most.
Function:
Adjective function as head of adjective phrase. Broadly they
have three main functions.
1) Attributive (2) Predicative (3) Post posed
Attributive:
Where it comes before a noun or verb. e.g. ( An
intelligent girl).
Predicative:
Where it comes after the Verb. e.g. (The girl is
intelligent).
Post posed:
Post posed comes immediately after the noun and
before Verb.e.g.(Some one intelligent published the book).
Dependents:
Most adjective are gradable. Syntactically they take degree
expression as dependents i.e. “Too, Er, Est, More, Most, a
bit”etc
All adjective are not gradable, and such adjectives represent
categorical rather then scale properties. For example, (1)
Atomic Scientist (2) Medical Student.
Lexical Morphology:
A number of suffixes derive adjective from nouns e.g.
24

Suffixes. Nouns._____Adjectives.
1. Full__________________Beauty____________Beautiful.
2. Less__________________Motion____________Motionless.
3. Ly___________________Friend____________Friendly.
4. Like__________________Child_____________Child like.
5. Al___________________Politics____________Political.
What is an Adverb?
An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb,
a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time,
place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as
"how," "when," "where," "how much".
While some adverbs can be identified by their
characteristic "ly" suffix, most of them must be identified by
untangling the grammatical relationships within the
sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an
adverb can be found in various places within the sentence.In
the following examples, each of the highlighted words is an
adverb:
The seamstress quickly made the mourning
clothes.
In this sentence, the adverb "quickly" modifies the verb
"made" and indicates in what manner (or how fast) the
clothing was constructed.
The midwives waited patiently through a long labour.
Similarly in this sentence, the adverb "patiently" modifies
the verb "waited" and describes the manner in which the
midwives waited..
• Here the adverb "more" modifies the adverb
"expeditiously."
• Unfortunately, the bank closed at three today.
In this example, the adverb "unfortunately" modifies the
entire sentence.
The Six Types of Adverbs
1.Adverbs of Manner:” Adverbs of manner
provide information on how someone does something.
For example: “Jack drives very carefully”.
Adverbs of Manner: Adverbs of manner are placed after the
verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence). For
example: Their teacher speaks quickly.
25

2.Adverbs of Time” Adverbs of time provide


information on when something happens. For example:”
We'll let you know our decision next week”.
Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of time are placed after the verb
or entire expression (at the end of the sentence).For
example: She visited her friends last year.
3.Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency
provide information on how often something happens. For
example: “They usually get to work at eight o'clock”.
Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency are placed
before the main verb (not the auxiliary verb). For example:
He often goes to bed late. Do you sometimes get up early?
4.Adverbs of Degree:” Adverbs of degree provide
information concerning how much of something is done. For
example: “They like playing golf a lot”. Adverbs of Degree:
Adverbs of degree are placed after the verb or entire
expression (at the end of the sentence). For example: She'll
attend the meeting as well.
5.Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment
provide a comment, or opinion about a situation. For
example: “Fortunately, there were enough seats left for the
concert”. Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment are
placed at the beginning of a sentence. For example: Luckily,
I was able to come to the presentation
6.Adverb Formation”Adverbs are usually formed by
adding '-ly' to an adjective.For example:” quiet - quietly,
careful - carefully, careless – carelessly”
Adjectives ending in '-le' change to '-ly'.
For example: possible - possibly, probable - probably,
incredible - incredibly

Adjectives ending in '-y' change to '-ily'.


For example: lucky - luckily, happy - happily, angry - angrily
26

Adjectives ending in '-ic' change to '-ically'.


For example: basic - basically, ironic - ironically, scientific -
scientifically some adjectives are irregular. The most
common irregular adverbs are: good - well, hard - hard, fast
-fast
Conjunctive Adverbs:
You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses
together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs
are "also," "consequently," "finally," "furthermore," "hence,"
"however," "incidentally," "indeed," "instead," "likewise,"
"meanwhile," "nevertheless," "next," "nonetheless,"
"otherwise," "still," "then," "therefore," and "thus." A
conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two
independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon.
Inllection:
Most adverb are gradable, but majority of them take
periphrastic forms (More/ Most) e.g.
Slowly________more slowly_____________most slowly.
Similarly most of them take inflection like adjective e.g.
soon___sooner____soonest.
Fast_______Faster________Fastest.
Function:
Many adverbs are gradable, like adjectives e.g.
Very slowlly, more slowly. Most slowly, but they are different
from each other between of their function in phrases.
Lexical Morphology:
A large number of adverbs derived from adjective by
suffixation of “ly”.e.g
Ly (suffix) _________Slow (adjective)______________Slowly.
(adverb)

What is a Preposition?
A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other
words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition
introduces is called the object of the preposition.
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or
logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as
in the following examples:
27

The book is on the table.


The book is beneath the table.
The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table.
She held the book over the table.
She read the book during class.
In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the
noun "book" in space or in time. A prepositional phrase is
made up of the preposition, its object and any associated
adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as
a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common
prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after,"
"against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before,"
"behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between,"
"beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except,"
"for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off,"
"on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since,"
"through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under,"
"underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and
"without."

What is a Conjunction?
You can use a conjunction to link words, phrases, and
clauses, as in the following example:
I ate the pizza and the pasta.
Call the movers when you are ready.
Co-coordinating Conjunctions
• You use a co-coordinating conjunction ("and," "but,"
"or," "nor," "for," "so," or "yet") to join individual words,
phrases, and independent clauses. Note that you can
also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as
prepositions.
In this example, the co-coordinating conjunction "for" is used
to link two independent clauses.
Subordinating Conjunctions
• A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent
clause and indicates the nature of the relationship
among the independent clause(s) and the dependent
clause(s).
28

The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after,"


"although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once,"
"since," "than," "that," "though," "till," "until," "when,"
"where," "whether," and "while."
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a
subordinating conjunction:
After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.
The subordinating conjunction "after" introduces the
dependent clause "After she had learned to drive."
“If the paperwork arrives on time, your
cheque will be mailed on Tuesday”.
Similarly, the subordinating conjunction "if" introduces the
dependent clause "If the paperwork arrives on time."
“Gerald had to begin his thesis over again
when his computer crashed.”
The subordinating conjunction "when" introduces the
dependent clause "when his computer crashed."

What is an Interjection?
An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey
emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of
the sentence. You usually follow an interjection with an
exclamation mark. Interjections are uncommon in formal
academic prose, except in direct quotations.
The highlighted words in the following sentences are
interjections:
Ouch, that hurt!
Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today.
Hey! Put that down!
I heard one guy say to another guy, "He has a new car, eh?"
I don't know about you but, good lord, I think taxes are too
high!
Subject: The subject is the agent of the sentence in the
active voice; it is
The person or thing that does the action of the sentence,
and it normally
Precedes the verbThe subject may be a single
noun.Example: “Coffee is delicious.”
“Milk contains calcium.”
29

The subject may be a noun phrase. A noun phrase is a group


of words
Ending with a noun. (It cannot begin with a preposition.)
Example: That new, red car is John’s.
Mini-test:
1. George likes boats.
2. Mary, John, George, and I went to a restaurant last night.
3. The weather was very bad yesterday.
4. The chemistry professor cancelled class today.
5. The bank closed at two o’clock.
In some sentences there is not a true subject. However, it
and there can often
Act as pseudo-subjects and should be considered as subject
when rules call for
Moving the subject of a sentence.
It is a nice day today.
There was a fire in that building last month.
There were many students in the room.
It is raining right now.
Complement: Complement completes the verb. It is
similar to the subject
Because it is usually a noun or noun phrase; however, it
generally follows the
Verb when the sentence is in the active voice.
Examples of complements:
John bought a cake yesterday. (What did John buy?)
Jill was driving a new car. (What was Jill driving?)
He wants to drink some water. (What does he want to drink?
She saw Asif the movies last night. (Whom did she see at the
Movies?)
They called Mary yesterday. (Whom did they call?)
He was smoking a cigarette. (What was he smoking?)
Modifier: A modifier tells the time, place, or manner of the
action. Very
Often it is a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase is a
group of words
That begins with a preposition and ends with a noun.
Example of prepositional phrases:
In the morning, at the university, on the table
30

A modifier can also be an adverb or an adverbial phrase.


Last night, hurriedly, next year, outdoors, yesterday
Example of modifiers:
Aslam bought a book at the bookstore. (Where did Aslam
buy a book?)
Arif was swimming in the pool yesterday. (Where was Arif
swimming?)
And (When was Jill swimming?)
She drove the car on Main Street. (Where did she drive?)
We ate dinner at seven o’clock. (When did we eat dinner?)
Note: The modifier normally follows the complement, but not
always.
However, the modifier, especially when it is a prepositional
phrase, usually
Cannot separate the verb and the complement.
The Noun Phrase
The noun phrase is a group of words that ends with a noun.
It can contain
Determiners (the, a, this, etc.), adjectives, adverbs, and
nouns. It cannot begin
With a preposition. Remember that both subjects and
complements are generally noun phrases. Count and non-
count nouns: It is possible, however, to count some no count
Nouns if the substance is placed in a countable container.
Glass of milk-one glass of milk, two glasses of milk …
What is Tense?
Tense (noun): a form of a verb used to indicate the time,
and sometimes the continuation or completeness, of an
action in relation to the time of speaking. Time).Tense is a
method that we use in English to refer to time—past, present
and future. Many Languages use tenses to talk about time.
Other languages have no tenses, but of course they can still
talk about time, using different methods. So, we talk about
time in English with tenses. But, and this is a very big but:
We can also talk about time without using tenses (for
example, going to is aSpecial construction to talk about the
future, it is not a tense) One tense does not always talk
about one time.Here are some of the terms used in
discussing verbs and tenses.
31

Mood
1) Indicative mood expresses a simple statement of fact,
which can be positive (affirmative) or negative
I like coffee.
I do not like coffee.
2) Interrogative mood expresses a question.Why do you
like coffee?
3) Imperative mood expresses a command .Sit down!
4) subjunctive mood expresses what is imagined or
wished or possible
The
 President ordered that he attend the meeting.
Voice
Voice shows the relationship of the subject to the action. In
the active voice, the subject does the action (cats eat
mice). In the passive voice, the subject receives the action
(mice
Are eaten by cats). Among other things, we can use voice to
help us change the focus of
Attention.
Aspect
The action or state referred to by the verb is completed (and
often still relevant),
For example:
I have emailed the report to Jane. (so now she has the
report)
(This is called perfective aspect, using perfect tenses.)
The action or state referred to by the verb is in progress or
continuing (that is,
Uncompleted), for example:
We are eating.
(This is called progressive aspect, using progressive
[continuous] tenses.)
Determiner:
A determiner is a word that determines noun use. it is a word
such is “a, the, this, each, some, either, my, and,
your,” that appears before any descriptive and decides the
kind of reference that a man has.
There are three classes of determiners:
32

1. Pre-determiner:
Pre-determiner comes before a determiner. or in more
technical Word Pre-determiner a word which proceeds and
qualifies another determiner, as “both, dose in, both my
hand”
Examples: (all, both, half, double, twice, three, one-third etc)
1. All this money
2. Both my hand.
3. Half this milk.
2. Central determiner:
Central determiner comes in the center of a pre-determiner,
such as “an, the, those”
Examples:
1. All those work.
2. Both these sisters.

3. Post-determiner:
These are items which follow determiner but proceed
adjectives, such as “other, two, first,”
There are three types of post-determiner (1) Cardinal
Numerals (2) Ordinal Numerals (3) Quantifiers.

Examples:
1. Cardinal Numerals (One, two three……..)
2. Ordinal Numerals (first, second, third…..)
3. Quantifiers. (Many, few, several, much, little,)
The Verb Phrases:
A verb phrase consists of a main verb preceded by one or
more helping verbs. These helping verbs work together with
main verb as a unit. For example
1. Is leaving. 2. Had seemed. 3. May become. .4. Could
jump.5.Should move? Etc
Direct Object:
A direct object is the word or phrase in the sentence that
indicates somebody or something directly affected by the
action of the verb, such as “Cat” in “She fed the cat”
33

Indirect Object:
Indirect is the person or thing action is done to. If function as
the recipient of the action shown by a verb and its direct
object, for example “the cat” in “she gave the cat a meal”
Object Complement:.
An object complement is the complement that refers to
object. It is a noun, Pronun,or adjective that is a complement
of a verb and qualifies its direct object, For example,
“Angry” in “He make me angry”
1. He made them happy.
2. They elected him their leader.

Mr. Syed Alam Subject Specialist


of English.
M.A English (Literature and Applied to
Linguistic from NUML)
Language Diploma from NUML.
Email: Syedalam.khan@gmail.com
Contact No:+923329423721