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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.

06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

NOTICE

This manual “Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools” has been prepared to provide a basis for
understanding and using spreadsheets and AutoCAD drawings prepared for designing community led
gravity water supply systems in Afghanistan. Earlier versions of the spreadsheets have been in used by
UN-HABITAT and other design engineers working in water supply projects. It is expected that use of
these tools will result in a standard methodology for designing of gravity water supply sub-projects.
This manual and any examples contained herein are provided “as is” and are subject to change without
notice. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHABITAT) shall not be liable for any errors or
for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this
manual or the examples herein.
© United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHABITAT). All rights reserved.
All rights are reserved to the programs and this manual that are included in the Gravity Water Supply
System Design Tools. Reproduction, adaptation or translation of those programs and documents without
prior written permission of UNHABITAT is also prohibited.
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) is a shareware and can also be downloaded from
www.fukuoka.unhabitat.org . Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or
redistribute the Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools so long as it is not sold for profit.

Published by:
United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHABITT), Afghanistan
House # 235, Street #8, Taimani,
Kabul, Afghanistan
Web: http://fukuoka.unhabitat.org
Email: unhabitat@unhabitat-afg.org

Author:

Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar


Engineering Advisor
UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Printed by:
Afghan Women Entrepreneurs Printing Services,
Opposite Masjeed-e-Qahraman,
Karbala,
Kabul, Afghanistan
Tel: 0093- (0)700-285-709

This Edition:
June 2008
First Edition
500 copies

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

PREFACE

The Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) were prepared by United Nations
Human Settlements Programme, Afghanistan as a part of its continuous efforts to develop
indigenous capacity of Afghan engineers engaged in rebuilding and upgrading Afghan rural as well
as urban areas. It is a complete set of tools consisting of typical Microsoft Excel spreadsheets,
AutoCAD drawings and procedural guidelines (this manual) for designing of community led gravity
water supply projects. UN-HABITAT engineers working in nine provinces and Kabul have been
using most of the presented spreadsheets for about a year. Since these tools have been verified
by real engineering sub-projects, I personally found them very useful for the stated works.
Irrespective of the sizes and locations, all water supply projects have many common features from
conception to implementation and operation. Therefore, these spreadsheets and drawings can
also be used for all other similar projects within and outside Afghanistan.
I would like to thank all the members of the Engineering Division of UNHABITAT, Kabul for their
supports to make this publication happen. My special thanks go to Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, the
Engineering Advisor of UNHABTAT, for his devotion on preparing such a set of useful tools. The
contribution of all the UNHABITAT engineers working in all the nine provinces for their continuous
support on the development of these tools is highly appreciated.
I do hope that these Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools would fill the gap that has been
felt by all the engineering stakeholders and would be able to contribute to the sector.

Ms. Nouchine Yavari


Country Programme Manager
UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks for using the Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (version 2008.06). It is a
complete set of shareware tools consisting of twenty typical Microsoft Excel spreadsheets (a
workbook), fourteen typical AutoCAD drawings and a users’ manual (this manual) recommended
for use in detailed designing of community led gravity water supply system sub-projects. An
electronic version of these tools (an Excel workbook and an AutoCAD drawing) and this manual in
Acrobat PDF format are enclosed on the attached CD ROM.

Electronic versions of my other engineering tools are also enclosed on the attached CD ROM.
The first one was made for designing micro-hydropower projects where as the second one was
made for engineering surveying and discharge measurement.

Why I Prepared the Tools

I approached this project with one goal in mind. To write a one-step Gravity Water Supply System
Design Tools that would appeal to all engineers engaged in implementing community led gravity
water supply projects in Afghanistan. That is a fairly ambitious goal. But based on the feedbacks I
received, I think I have been successful.

Microsoft Excel is the present market leader, by a long shot, and it is truly the best spreadsheet
available. Excel lets you do things with formulas and macros (Visual Basic for Application) that are
impossible with other spreadsheets. Similarly, Autodesk AutoCAD has been the best and suitable
tool for creating digital drawings. Since most of the design engineers and surveyors are familiar
with Excel and AutoCAD, I have prepared these tools on these application software platforms.

Although the above mentioned software are popular amongst all the engineers, it is a safe bet that
less than two percent of users working in Afghanistan really understand how to get the most out of
it. With the help of these tools, I have attempted to illustrate the fascinating features of Excel and
AutoCAD and nudge you into that elite group.

I have noticed that there are fairly adequate number of books prepared for designing community
led water supply systems. However, there are a few complete tools that are readily available for
engineers to enhance their skills and capacities effectively and efficiently. Moreover, trainings and
training materials distributed to design engineers in Afghanistan are not to a standard so that they
are able to design the network systems comfortably. These tools are prepared aiming to fill this
critical gap.

It would not have been possible for me to write this tools without the encouragement from United
Nations Human Settlements Programmes (UNHABITAT, Afghanistan) and of course, Mr. Bijay
Karmacharya, the Rural Programme Manager, UNHABITAT, Afghanistan. I would also like to
thank all my colleagues working in the engineering divisions of UNHABITAT, Afghanistan for their
tireless assistance and valued suggestions on composition and presentation.

What You Should Know

The Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools are prepared for practicing designers who have
basic knowledge of discharge measurement and engineering surveying, technical calculation skills
on water supply networks design and who are familiar with Excel and AutoCAD. I have attempted
to elaborate these tools in such a way that the users will learn to use these tools quite comfortably.
The calculations in the spreadsheets are intended to mimic manual calculations as far as possible.
Stepwise manual calculations of typical examples are also presented in this manual.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

What You Should Have


To make the best use of these tools, you need a copy of Microsoft Excel (XP or later, preferably
2003), Autodesk AutoCAD (2000 or later, preferably 2006) and Adobe Acrobat Reader (5.0 or
later). The latest version of a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader can be downloaded from
www.adobe.com. A downloaded copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader is included in the bundled CD-
ROM.

The minimum system requirements for installing and running presented tools are:
Operating system : Windows 98/2000/NT/XP/Vista
CPU : 486/333MHz
RAM : 128MB
Display : 640 x 480 pixels, 256 colours
CD ROM : Double-speed (for installation only)
HD : 10 MB (approximately)

How These Tools Are Organized

There are many ways to organize the materials of these tools, but I settled on a scheme that
divides them into three main parts.

Part I: Field Measurement and Design Spreadsheets


This part consists of twenty typical spreadsheets (ten calculations, four tables, five formats and a
home page) covering all calculations and field formats related to gravity water supply design
methods. These spreadsheets provide users to estimate measured discharges using conductivity
meter, calculates heads by Abney / level surveying and to design project elements.

Part II: AutoCAD Drawings


This part consists of fourteen typical AutoCAD drawings in 2000 and 2006 versions covering
drawings made for sources to end use water supply networks system. A single file with dynamic
title blocks are used for each layout is used.

Part III: Users’ Manual


This manual (also in Adobe Acrobat PDF format) illustrates aspects of using the presented
spreadsheets and stepwise calculations covering all illustrated methods for gravity water supply
designs. Procedural guidelines for site investigation and engineering surveying are not covered in
this manual. It is recommended that the manual on Discharge Measurement and Engineering
Surveying should be referred to for these guidelines.

Part IV: Digital References and Archives


Digital copies of catalogue for pumps and pipes, National Solidarity Programme (NSP) Afghanistan
technical manual on water supply and sanitation, etc are also enclosed in the CD-ROM.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Download and Reach Out


Electronic files included on the attached CD can also be downloaded from
www.fukuoka.unhabitat.org . Preparation of these tools is a continuous process. I am always
interested in getting feedback on them. Therefore, valuable suggestions and feedbacks are
expected from all the stakeholders/users so that the overall quality of gravity water supply
schemes is enhanced. Any suggestion and feedback can directly be sent to my email
pushpa.chitrakar@unhabitat-afg.org or pushpa.chitrakar@gmail.com. Sharing of related
information regarding advanced options beyond these tools is also appreciated.

Pushpa Chitrakar
Engineering Advisor
UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.

NOTICE I

PREFACE II

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS III

TABLE OF CONTENTS VI

1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 GENERAL 1
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE TOOLS 1
1.3 SOURCES OF THE TOOLS 1
1.4 TOOLS: SPREADSHEETS 2
1.4.1 Iterative Processes 3
1.4.2 Macro Security 4
1.4.3 Worksheet protection 5
1.4.4 User specific inputs 5
1.4.5 Errors 5
1.4.6 Cell notes 6
1.4.7 Cell Text Conventions 6
1.4.8 Pull Down menus and command buttons 7
1.4.9 Tools Menu and Toolbar 7
1.5 TOOLS: TYPICAL DRAWINGS 8
1.6 INSTALLATION 9
1.7 AUTOCAD PLOTTING 10

2 THE SYSTEM AND IMPLEMENTATION PHASES 13


2.1 INTRODUCTION 13
2.2 TYPES OF GRAVITY WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS 14
2.2.1 System Type 01: Continuity of flow: Open or closed based on flows 14
2.2.2 System Type 02: Interconnected ends: Dead-end and other distribution
system 14
2.2.3 System Type 03: Water sources: Ground water or surface water source 14
2.3 IMPLEMENTATION PHASES 16
2.3.1 Conception 16
2.3.2 Feasibility Study 16
2.3.3 Implementation 16
2.3.4 Operation, maintenance and Rehabilitation 17

3 FEASIBILITY STUDY 18
3.1 INTRODUCTION 18
3.2 DESK STUDY 18
3.3 FIELD STUDY: SITE INVESTIGATION 18
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3.3.1 Technical data collection 18


3.3.2 Non-technical Aspects (Social) 19
3.4 OFFIECE WORK: DETAILED DESIGN 19

4 WATER DEMAND 21
4.1 INTRODUCTION 21
4.2 DEMAND CALCULATIONS 22
4.2.1 Assumptions used for demand calculations 22
Example 4.1: Demand Calculations 22

5 INTAKE DESIGN 23
5.1 INTRODUCTION 23
5.2 DESIGN OF SURFACE INTAKES 23
Example 5.1: Surface Intake Sizing 24
5.3 INTAKE DESIGN PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES 26

6 SEDIMENTATION TANK DESIGN 27


6.1 INTRODUCTION 27
Example 6.1: sedimentation Tank Design 27
6.2 GRAVITY FED RESERVOIR DESIGN PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES 28

7 FILTRATION TANK DESIGN 30


7.1 INTRODUCTION 30
7.2 DESIGN OF SLOW SAND FILTER 31
Example 7.1: Design of Slow Sand Filter 32
7.3 DESIGN OF RAPID SAND FILTER 32
Example 7.2: Design of Rapid Sand Filter 33
7.4 GRAVITY FILTER DESIGN PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES 33

8 RESERVOIR TANK DESIGN 35


8.1 INTRODUCTION 35
8.2 GRAVITY FED RESERVOIR TANK DESIGN 35
8.3 DESIGN PROCEDURES OF GRAVITY FED RESERVOIR TANKS 36
Example 8.1: Gravity Fed Reservoir Tank Design 36
8.3.1 Gravity Fed Reservoir design Program Briefing & Examples 37
8.4 DESIGN OF WELL FED RESERVOIR TANKS 38
Example 8.2: Well Fed Reservoir Tank Design 39
8.4.1 Well Fed Reservoir Design Program Briefing & Examples 42

9 PIPE NETWORK DESIGN 43


9.1 INTRODUCTION 43
Example 9.1: Natural Flow 46
9.2 SPECIAL CASES: CRITICAL HYDRAULIC CONDITIONS 47
9.2.1 Combination Pipes 47
Example 9.2: Combination Pipes 47
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9.2.2 Negative Pressure 48


Example 9.3: Negative Pressure 49
9.2.3 Air Locks: 50
Example 9.4: Air Lock 52
9.3 PIPE SELECTION IN AFGHANISTAN 54
9.4 A COMPLETE DESIGN 55
Example 9.5: Pipe Network Design 55
9.5 PIPE DESIGN PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES 61

DATA SHEETS AND FORMATS 64


HDPE PIPE SPECIFICATIONS 64
HEAD LOSS FACTOR TABLES 64
WHO’S DRINKING WATER STANDARDS 1993 64
FORMATS 64

REFERENCES 81

TYPICAL DRAWINGS 83

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: Summary of Spreadsheets ..................................................................................................2
Table 1.2: Summary of Drawings .........................................................................................................9
Table 4.1: Summary of Typical Daily Demands ................................................................................21
Table 5.1: Strainer Specifications......................................................................................................24
Table 7.1: Comparison of SSF and RSF ............................................................................................31
Table 8.1: A typical demand regime ..................................................................................................35
Table 8.2: Summary of Reservoir Tank Calculations (all volumes are in m3) .................................37
Table 8.3: Summary of Reservoir Tank Calculations (all volumes are in m3) .................................40
Table 9.1: Recommended Values of C ..............................................................................................45
Table 9.2: % Head loss for HDP Pipe (ISI Standard).........................................................................45
Table 9.3: Equivalent Pipe Lengths of Fittings .................................................................................46
Table 9.4: Flushing Velocities to prevent air locks ..........................................................................51
Table 9.5: Design of Reservoir ..........................................................................................................56

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Iterative process .................................................................................................................3
Figure 1.2: Activation of iteration in Excel 2003 (Tools => Option =>Calculations)..........................3
Figure 1.3: Activation of iteration in Excel 2007 (MS => Excel Option =>Formulas).........................4
Figure 1.4: Setting macros to medium security (Tools=> Macros=>Security) ..................................4
Figure 1.5: Enabling macros .................................................................................................................4
Figure 1.6: Enabling macros in MS Excel 2007 (MS Office=>Excel Options=> Trust Centre=>Trust
Center Settings..=>Macro Settings). .............................................................................................5
Figure 1.7: Instruction incorporated in a cell note. .............................................................................6
Figure 1.8: A Formula presented in a cell note....................................................................................6
Figure 1.9: Colour coding of cell texts .................................................................................................6
Figure 1.10: Pull Down Menu ................................................................................................................7
Figure 1.11: Pull Down Menu ................................................................................................................7
Figure 1.12: Spreadsheet Menu and Toolbar.......................................................................................8
Figure 1.13: Computed AutoCAD commands in Excel .....................................................................10
Figure 1.14: Script file (4 sets of commands combined into a single file) and ACAD drawing......11
Figure 1.14: Script file (4 sets of commands combined into a single file) and ACAD drawing......12
Figure 2.1: Components of a typical gravity flow system utilizing surface water ..........................15
Figure 2.2: Components of a typical gravity flow system utilizing underground water .................15
Figure 5.1: Typical Strainer Arrangement ..........................................................................................24
Figure 5.2: Intake sizing spreadsheet “IntakeSizing” .......................................................................26
Figure 6.1: “SedimentationTank” spreadsheet .................................................................................29
Figure 7.1: Types of Filtration Methods .............................................................................................30
Figure 7.2: Components of a Gravity Filter System ..........................................................................30
Figure 7.3: Sieve Graph of Typical Sand Sample ..............................................................................31
Figure 7.4: Sedimentation Tank Sizing spreadsheet “SedimentationTank” ...................................34
Figure 8.1: Gravity Fed Reservoir Sizing spreadsheet “ReservoirTank” ........................................38
Figure 8.2: Pump Performance Charts for H4K Italian Pumps .........................................................41
Figure 8.3: Well Fed Reservoir Sizing spreadsheet “ReservoirTankPump” ...................................42
Figure 9.1: Longitudinal section and water profiles of a water supply system...............................44
Figure 9.2: Interpolation for % frictional factor for unlisted flow of 0.225 l/s. .................................45
Figure 9.3: Negative pressure along the pipe line.............................................................................49
Figure 9.4: Formation of a Partial Air Lock ........................................................................................50
Figure 9.5: Formation of a Total Air Lock ..........................................................................................51
Figure 9.6: Prevention of Formation of Air Locks by analyzing pipe profiles .................................52
Figure 9.7: Diagram for Example 9.4 ..................................................................................................52
Figure 9.8: Diagram for Example 8.5 ..................................................................................................55
Figure 9.9: Intake and Sedimentation tank considered in Example 9.8 ...........................................59
Figure 9.10: Pipe network design considered in Example 9.8..........................................................60
Figure 9.11: Pipe Design as per Example 9.5 by Iranian Standard & Hazen Williams Method.......62
Figure 9.12: Pipe Design as per Example 9.5 by Indian Standard & Tabulated Method. ................63

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

The presented set of tools is a complete set of Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools
recommended for detailed designs of community water supply system projects in Afghanistan. It
consists of MS Excel spreadsheets on surveying, data reduction and water supply design
components, AutoCAD drawings on water supply networks components and this manual in
Adobe Acrobat PDF formant.

The tools were prepared to provide a basis for design engineers to undertake field observations,
data reduction and design water supply networks systems as per the standard requirements for
preparing technical proposal in Afghanistan. Since most of the stakeholders are familiar with
Microsoft Excel (XP or later) and AutoCAD (2000 or later) application software, the tools were
prepared based on these software to make them simple and user friendly. During the
preparation of these tools, special efforts were made so that the skills and knowledge of
practicing surveyors and engineers are further enhanced by the use of these tools.

The tools consist of a set of twenty typical spreadsheets, fourteen drawings and a users’ manual.
Most of the spreadsheets have been in used for about a year by water supply design engineers
working under UN-HABITAT. Most of the drawings are prepared based on the illustrated design
examples. Procedural guidelines, detailed step by step calculations and guidelines for using the
presented spreadsheets are presented in the users’ manual. The Excel tools are prepared and
distributed in template/read-only formats so that the original copies are always preserved even
when users accidentally modify them.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE TOOLS

The main objective of the presented tools is to enhance the quality of water supply system
network designs both in rural and in urban Afghanistan. It is expected that the use of these tools
helps fulfilling the main objective because:

1. They function as a set of “Time Saver Kit” for precision and speed (e.g. pipe network
designs.).

2. They provide relevant references to design engineers for using and upgrading their skills
and knowledge. Useful information is incorporated within the tools and this manual so
that external references are minimized.

3. The depth of the study and design reports by different engineers are uniform and
consistent and to the required depth.

4. They serve as templates so that there is a sufficient room for further creativity and
improvement and tailoring to include specific needs of particular projects.

5. In addition, the tools are handy and user friendly. The user familiar MS Excel and
AutoCAD software platforms have been used to develop them.

1.3 SOURCES OF THE TOOLS

The Tools were prepared aiming to enhance the overall quality of flow measurement,
engineering surveying data and water supply system designs. Reviews of following sources
were carried out during the preparation of the tools:

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1. Review and assessment of on-going and new technical projects and project proposals
under National Solidarity Program (NSP) and Inter-communal Rural Development Project
(IRDP) facilitated under UN-HABITAT, Afghanistan.

2. Feedbacks from all HABITAT engineers, NSP engineers and donors.

3. Experience from other similar technical projects within Afghanistan and abroad.

4. Standard textbooks, guidelines and other standards.

1.4 TOOLS: SPREADSHEETS

General as well as special features of Excel have been utilized while developing the presented
spreadsheets. There are ten main spreadsheets each covering a tool. The list of the presented
spreadsheets and their areas of coverage are presented in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1: Summary of Spreadsheets


SN Spreadsheet Area of coverage
1 Home Home page for selecting spreadsheets and other links
2 Abney Use of Abney level surveying and plotting. Refer Discharge Measurement and
Engineering Surveying tools for details. An electronic version of the manual is
attached to the CD-ROM.
3 Levelling Levelling and plotting. Refer Discharge Measurement and Engineering
Surveying tools for details.
4 Conductivity Computation of stream discharge by salt dilution method. Refer Discharge
Measurement and Engineering Surveying tools for details.
6 IntakeSizing Chapter 5: Design of stream intake with fittings.
7 SedimentationTank Chapter 6: Design of sedimentation tanks.
5 ReservoirTank Chapters 4 & 8: Water demand calculations and design of reservoir tanks fed
by gravity flows.
8 Filter Chapter 7: Design of slow and rapid sand filters.
9 ReservoirTankPump Chapters 4 & 8: Water demand calculations and design of reservoir tanks fed
by pumping of wells.
10 PipeDesign Chapter 8: Design of pipe network systems using tabulated friction factors.
11 PipeDesignHW Chapter 8: Design of pipe network systems using analytical method by Hazen-
Williams method.
12 GI Tabulated friction factors for Galvanized Iron (GI) pipes based on Indian
Standards.
13 HDPE Tabulated friction factors for HDPE pipes based on Indian Standards.
14 HDPEHW Tabulated friction factors for HDPE pipes based on Hazen-Williams method.
15 HDPEData HDPE data sheet (diameters, thicknesses, pressure classes, PE types)
manufactured by PolyPark (Iran)
16 AbneyCal Surveying and manual calculation format for Abney Level
Surveying and manual calculation format for Conductivity Method flow
17 CondCal
measurement
Surveying and manual calculation format for Leveling.
18 LevelCal
Surveying and manual calculation format for Stadia method of surveying
19 StadiaBook
Surveying and manual calculation format for pipe network design.
20 GWSSCal

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To make to the best use of these spreadsheets, minimum knowledge of background information
and main features of Microsoft Excel is mandatory. Although excel has many salient features,
some of the basic features that were mostly used while preparing and using them are:

1.4.1 Iterative Processes

The spreadsheets are designed to


save tedious and long Is
iterative/repetitive calculations. Yes
Assume Xo Y =f(X): X=f`(Y) e=<|Yn+1 –Yn| End
Manual repetitive processes are
the main source errors and are
also time consuming factors. A No
typical repetitive process is
presented in Figure 1.1. X=X+h
Figure 1.1: Iterative process

As shown in the figure, the initial assumed value of X0 is amended until an acceptable error limit
is reached. By default, this feature is disabled and generates Circular Reference Error. The
iterative features in Excel can be activated by selecting Calculations tab (Tools->Options-
>Calculations>Tick Iteration (cycles & h)) and checking the iteration box. The Excel 2003
iteration dialogue box with this features activated is presented in Figure 1.2. Users of Excel
2007 have to activate iteration opening (MS Office =>Excel Options => Formulas) dialogue
boxes and Tick Iteration (cycles & h)) and checking the iteration box (as presented in Figure
1.3).

Figure 1.2: Activation of iteration in Excel 2003 (Tools => Option =>Calculations)

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Figure 1.3: Activation of iteration in Excel 2007 (MS => Excel Option =>Formulas)

1.4.2 Macro Security

The spreadsheets contain Visual Basic for


Application (VBA) functions and procedures.
Because of the safety reasons against possible
virus threats, MS Excel disables such VBA
functions and procedures by default. Setting
security level to medium (Tools => Macros =>
Security => Medium) and enabling the macros
during the opening of the tools are required for the
proper execution of the tools. Dialogue boxes for
setting security level to medium and enabling the
macros are presented in Figure 1.4 and 1.5.

Figure 1.4: Setting macros to medium


security (Tools=> Macros=>Security)

Figure 1.5: Enabling macros


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Because of the high level of macro related risks, Excel 2007 has been designed to restrict many
of the stand alone macros unless and until they are certified. Excel 2007 is rather complicated in
terms of saving file formats and signing of macros to make them run properly. Therefore use of
these tools shall be limited up to MS Excel 2003. In case these tools have to be used in Excel
2007 environment, procedures for enabling Macros in MS Excel 2007 are presented Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.6: Enabling macros in MS Excel 2007 (MS Office=>Excel Options=> Trust
Centre=>Trust Center Settings..=>Macro Settings).

1.4.3 Worksheet protection

Most of the presented spreadsheets are protected against unwanted and accidental input which
may result in wrong computational output. However, some of these spreadsheets are protected
with a null password so that only expert Excel user can amend them based on their
requirements.

1.4.4 User specific inputs

Some parameters such as the head loss overrated factor of 1.3 in the intake design have their
standard optimum values. By default, the standard values are computed or presented.
However, users are allowed to enter non-standard specific values under special circumstances.

1.4.5 Errors

Mainly three types of errors are known in the presented tools. One of them is the NAME# error
which is caused by not executing custom functions and procedures because of the macro
security level set to high or very high level. In case such an error occurs, close the workbook,
activate the macro security level to medium and enable the macros when opening the workbook
again. Calculation of friction factor by Hazen-Williams method (FrictionFactorHW (Q, Pipe PN or
GI, Diameter, Thickness)) is a typical NAME# error in the traverse spreadsheets.

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Malfunctioning of circular references or mathematical errors generates VALUE# error or


unexpected results (such as negative millions cubic meters of water in the reservoir tanks).
When such an error occurs, select the error cell a cell note of the spreadsheets, press F2 and
press Enter. Such errors can also be automatically corrected by inputting the required input
values.

A REF# error occurs due to the deletion of unnecessary rows or cells, for example in pipe design
spreadsheet. In such an instance, copy the second cell from the second computation line of any
branch or use original workbook template.

1.4.6 Cell notes

Cell notes are comments attached to cells. They


are useful for providing information related to
computational procedures. Adequate cell notes are
provided in the presented spreadsheets so that
external references are minimized. For example, a
cell note for properly inputting vertical angles in
Abney Level spreadsheet is presented in Figure
1.7.
Figure 1.7: Instruction incorporated in a cell note.

Similarly, the cell note


presented in Figure 1.8
presents a formula for
calculating the length of small
diameter of the combined
pipes.

Figure 1.8: A Formula presented in a cell note

1.4.7 Cell Text Conventions

Three different colour codes are used to distinguish three different cell categories. A typical
example of colour coding of cells is presented in Figure 1.9. The colours and categories of these
cells are:

Blue cells: These cells represent


mandatory input cells. These cells are
project dependant cells and project related
actual inputs are expected in these cells for
correct outputs. The mandatory inputs
include the name of project, coordinates,
station elevations, measured pipe lengths at
site, etc.

Figure 1.9: Colour coding of cell texts

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Red cells: These cells are optional input cells. Standard values are presented in these cells.
Values in this type of cells can be amended provided that there are adequate grounds to do so.
It is worth noting that care should be taken while changing these values. As presented in the
example, the recommended factored length (Pipe L Factor) of 10% is specified. 10% added
length is justifiable to cater for neglected turbulent losses. Moreover, the additional lengths are
also recommended for purchasing to cater for unaccounted undulated pipe laying and spare
pipes required for repair and maintenance. This cell can be changed to 1.05 or 1.0 if these
factors are already considered during surveying.

Black cells: The black cells represent information and or output of the computations. For the
sake of protecting accidental and deliberate amendment or change leading to wrong outputs,
most of these cells are protected from editing. It is recommended that care should be taken
when amending black cells.

1.4.8 Pull Down menus and command buttons

Some input cells are equipped with pull down menus to facilitate the users to input standard
values related to input cells. Cells related to pull down menus can have any user specific values
than the stated standard values if the data cells are not of mandatory type. In Figure 1.10, the
pull down menu for angular measurement type is activated. There are two types of angular
measurements, namely, Degrees and Gradians that can be input. This input is a mandatory
type and users can not enter any values other than the specified ones. “Degrees” option is
selected as an input.

The outcome of the computation will be erroneous if the mandatory input data does not match
with the desired predefined values. Therefore, the spreadsheets are designed to reject such
invalid values and flag error messages with suggestions. As demonstrated in Figure 1.11, an
error is flagged when Radians is entered in stead of Degrees or Gradians.

Figure 1.10: Pull Down Menu Figure 1.11: Pull Down Menu

1.4.9 Tools Menu and Toolbar

A menu and a toolbar are added to the workbook to facilitate users’ access to all the tools
including accessing online manual and sending feedbacks. They are set to active only when the
workbook is active. The toolbar has to be dragged to either on top or side of the screen (as
presented in Figure 1.12) for convenience.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Figure 1.12: Spreadsheet Menu and Toolbar

1.5 TOOLS: TYPICAL DRAWINGS

As stated earlier, an AutoCAD drawing file with fourteen layouts for typical elements were
prepared and incorporated in the tools. These drawings covering from intake to tap-stands are
presented at the end of this manual. Since they are only typical drawings, additions of drawings
and the level of details may be changed to fulfil specific needs of a particular project. The level
of consistency, compatibility and the extent of information in the drawings are complete and
appropriate for community led gravity water supply systems. The main features of the presented
drawings are:

1. These drawings are recommended only for community led gravity water supply systems.

2. Minimum required details such as plans and adequate cross sections are provided.

3. Recommended values of elements such as the minimum thickness of a stone masonry


wall, longitudinal slope of a sedimentation tank, etc, are presented in the drawings.

4. Standard line types and symbols are used.

5. Basic drawing elements such as a dynamic title box with adequate information and
controlling signatories, scales, etc, are presented.

6. All drawings with standard layouts for printing are presented.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

The dimensions and geometries of the presented drawings should be amended according to the
considered projects details. These drawings are listed in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2: Summary of Drawings


SN Drawing Area of coverage/ Remarks
1 General Layout Plan: General layout of a scheme utilizing stream intake.
2 Headworks General Layout Plan: General layout of a headworks with a weir, a sedimentation
tank and a slow sand filter.
3 Weir Plan and Sections: Weir with dimensions and alternative weir types.
4 Sedimentation Tank Plans and Sections: Detailed dimensions and an alternative tank.
6 Slow Sand Filter Tank Plans and Sections: Detailed dimensions and an alternative tank.
3
7 50m Reservoir Tank Plan, Section and Details: Reservoir ground tank.
3
5 25m Reservoir Tank Plan, Sections: Tanks resting on an RC frame.
3
8 25m Reservoir Tank Reinforcement Details
9 Pipe Networks System Pipe Design: Output diagram of a pipe system design.
10 Pipe Networks System Profile: A longitudinal profile of a leg of a pipe system design.
11 Miscellaneous Details Manhole, Tap-stand and Pipe Laying
12 Break Pressure Tank With and Without Float Valves
13 Spring Intake Plan and Section
14 Stream Intake with in-built Filter Plan and Sections

1.6 INSTALLATION

It is recommended to install the Tools under “C:\Design Aids\Gravity Water Supply\” directory for
the full functionality of these tools. In case it is installed elsewhere, the external links for online
manual will not work. It is also recommended that the working copy of project specific
spreadsheet to be saved under the installation directory.

As stated earlier, these tools are basically design for MS Excel 2003 although they also run
under MS Excel 2000 or 2007. In order to run the spreadsheet properly, some version of MS
Excel 2003 may have to be updated by running the supplied patch file “Office2003SP2-
KB887616-FullFile-ENU.exe”. In case the macros still are not running properly, uninstall the
office completely and delete the related subdirectories. Reinstall the Excel and run the patch
file. Set the security level to medium before opening the spreadsheet.

Some Excel 2003 used in Afghanistan have problems running macros properly. Follow the
installation procedures as

1. Uninstall all Excels.

2. Install MS Excel 2007.

3. Install MS Excel 2003.

4. Run the patch file.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

1.7 AUTOCAD PLOTTING

Abney, levelling and pipe design worksheets are equipped with the collection of script file output
commands that help plotting surveying features in to Autodesk AutoCAD. A scrip file is a
collection of text commands used in AutoCAD environment. A script can execute any command
at the Command prompt except a command that displays a dialogue box. A scrip file is a text
file and has a collection of these commands. These commands should be copied and pasted on
a Notepad and saved as text file with .scr extension.

These script files can be run in AutoCAD environment by inputting script files by inputing SCR or
SCRIPT on command line. Inputting the specific file plots AutoCAD objects.

An example of computed AutoCAD commands for plotting longitudinal profile of pipe is


presented in Figure 1.13. The corresponding script file ready for plotting corresponding pline,
points and station names with residual heads is presented in Figure 1.14. Finally, the plotted
ACAD drawing is presented in Figure 1.15. It is worth noting that care should be taken to
provide accurate number of spaces while running all these command sets in a single file.

AutoCad TEXTSIZE 1.5 PDSIZE .5 PDMODE 2


Ground HGL

pline pline point Stations

0.001,2666.775 0.001,2666.775 0.001,2666.775 text 0.001,2666.775 1 45 SRC1-RH: 0.001

179.817,2650.493179.817,2665.26 179.817,2650.493 text 179.817,2650.493 1 45 Combination 1-RH: 7.384

2199.614,2576.943
2199.614,2611.706
2199.614,2576.943 text 2199.614,2576.943 1 45 RVT1-RH: 9.998

2526.693,2415.773
2526.693,2515.332
2526.693,2415.773 text 2526.693,2415.773 1 45 JCT1-RH: 32.398

2718.058,2261.923
2718.058,2409.007
2718.058,2261.923 text 2718.058,2261.923 1 45 JCT2-RH: 23.763

2962.238,2101.893
2962.238,2293.625
2962.238,2101.893 text 2962.238,2101.893 1 45 JCT3-RH: 22.324

3059.008,1937.023
3059.008,2175.867
3059.008,1937.023 text 3059.008,1937.023 1 45 JCT4-RH: 23.556

3451.706,1774.813
3451.706,2052.453
3451.706,1774.813 text 3451.706,1774.813 1 45 JCT5-RH: 19.398

3765.192,1606.663
3765.192,1922.649
3765.192,1606.663 text 3765.192,1606.663 1 45 JCT6-RH: 19.173

3982.834,1463.483
3982.834,1789.195
3982.834,1463.483 text 3982.834,1463.483 1 45 Combination 2-RH: 4.863

4738.592,1233.613
4738.592,1590.014
4738.592,1233.613 text 4738.592,1233.613 1 45 TAP07-RH: 15.345
Figure 1.13: Computed AutoCAD commands in Excel

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Figure 1.14: Script file (4 sets of commands combined into a single file)

11
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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06)

R
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Figure 1.15: ACAD drawing produced by the script file (line colour and font size amended)

:1
5.
34
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UNHABITAT, Afghanistan
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

2 THE SYSTEM AND IMPLEMENTATION PHASES

2.1 INTRODUCTION

A Gravity Water Supply System (GWSS) consists of a system of pipe networks and other
elements conveying safe and assured quantity of water from a source to users’ points by the
action of gravity. The system mostly consists of:

· Intakes (springs, stream, Kharezes and wells)

· Tanks (collection, sedimentation, break pressure, distribution and reservoir tanks)

· Outlet (taps, sediment outlets, pressure release outlets)

· HDPE or GI pipe networks connecting above structures.

A typical system of a gravity water supply system consists of four technical components /
functions as:

1. Production: This component consists of collecting water from the continuous source.
Depending on the source of water it can be further sub-divided into following categories:

a. Underground intake: Underground intakes such as production wells and Kharezes


are used as water sources in a system where ground water is utilized as the sources
of water. Most of the water supply systems in Afghanistan utilize production wells as
the sources of water. The quality of such ground water is less contaminated, has less
suspended particles and is constant in supply. Costs of production wells are usually
high.

b. Spring intake: A spring occurs when an underground aquifer penetrate the ground
surface by means of gravity or hydrostatic pressure. The quality of water from
springs is usually better than underground and surface sources. Fewer structures are
required for spring intakes making their initial as well as operational costs lesser than
the other types of production components. However, continuity of such a spring
should be confirmed before deciding other design parameters.

c. Surface intake: It consists of collecting water from surface water bodies such as
rivers, streams, etc. Quality of water from such intakes is generally highly
contaminated with relatively higher rate of suspended sediments. These intakes
have large fluctuation of water quantity and are susceptible to large floods.

2. Transmission: A transmission component of a water supply system conveys water from


production unit to a storage reservoir. A pump drives water to a reservoir tank in case of
production well system. On the other hand gravity force is utilized in case of gravity water
system consisting of surface water intakes. Provision of purification of water (bacteria,
sediment, etc) is generally made before transmitting water to a reservoir.

3. Storage: Water demand over a period of time is not constant but fluctuates considerably.
Provision of storage tanks helps storing water when the demand is less and supplying the
stored water when the demand is high. These tanks are generally designed to balance
incoming and outgoing flows for a period of 24 hours.

4. Distribution: It conveys water from storage tank to distribution outlets (service connections)
where beneficiaries consume water.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Pipe networks in transmission and distribution systems may have some additional components
such as chlorination tanks, sedimentation tanks, pressure tanks, distribution tanks, air release
valves, sediment flushing outlets, etc.

2.2 TYPES OF GRAVITY WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

2.2.1 System Type 01: Continuity of flow: Open or closed based on flows

In case a continuous water yield (supply) is adequate to meet the continuous demand at any
time, an open system is implemented for supplying water to the distribution points without
providing any storage provision. A continuous water flow with or without faucets (taps) are used
in this kind of system. This system is optimum where the distance between source and supply is
relatively short.

In reality, the distance between surface intakes and the distribution points is mostly long and the
yield is less than the maximum continuous demand. In such an instance, a closed system with
reservoirs is optimum and hence is used.

2.2.2 System Type 02: Interconnected ends: Dead-end and other distribution system

Based on distribution networks systems, water supply systems can be defined as:

1. Dead-end /Tree System: In this system a number of sub-main pipes are laid
perpendicular to a main distribution pipe. Each of these sub-mains is sub-divided into
several branches and laterals. Service connections are given from these laterals. This
system is mostly used in Afghanistan. The presented pipe networks design tools are
based on this system. A typical diagram of this type of system is presented in Figure 9.8.

2. Other systems: Other advanced systems such as Grid-iron system, Ring system and
Radial systems are used in modern planned cities. Sub main pipes are interconnected in
these systems.

2.2.3 System Type 03: Water sources: Ground water or surface water source

Based on the utilized sources of water, gravity water supply systems can be defined as:

1. Gravity water supply system utilizing underground water source: This system utilizes
water stored in underground aquifers. Water is pumped up to an elevated reservoir and
distributed through main, sub-main and laterals. This system is used in most of
Afghanistan water supply systems.

2. Gravity water supply system utilizing surface water: In case adequate amount of potable
surface water is available at adequate height, gravity water supply system utilizing
gravitational force is used for conveying water from one location to the other. This
system is mostly used in mountainous regions of Afghanistan like Bamyan and
Badakshan.

The basic differences between these systems are the source of water and use of reservoir tank
at different heights. In pumped system, elevated tanks are generally used at heights where the
head of water can drive water to distribution systems by gravitational force. Reservoir tanks are
generally used on the ground in the second type of systems. Gravity Water Supply System
Design Tools are capable of designing both the systems.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Stream

Intake

Sedimentation tank

Break pressure tank


Reservoir tank

Tap Tap

Tap

Tap

Tap
Tap Tap

Figure 2.1: Components of a typical gravity flow system utilizing surface water

Elevated
Reservoir Tank

Tap
Pump House with
valve boxes
Tap
Tap

Distribution line

Tap
Well with
Submersible pump

Tap

Tap

Figure 2.2: Components of a typical gravity flow system utilizing underground water

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2.3 IMPLEMENTATION PHASES

A water supply system has to pass through different phases from conception to operation. A
brief description of each phase is presented in the subsequent sections.

2.3.1 Conception

Need of a water supply projects, conceptual project layouts and financing are determined during
the conception phase. In Afghan rural areas, social mobilization is carried out in order to
determine water supply projects as priority projects. If water supply project is chosen as a
priority project, it will be recommended for further actions such as feasibility study and
implementation.

2.3.2 Feasibility Study

In general a pre-feasibility study is carried out prior to conducting a full fledged feasibility study.
Because of the limited resources, both the pre and feasibility studies are combined in Afghan
community water supply system designs. A feasibility study is conducted to check technical
robustness and financial feasibility of the project. Following activities are conducted during the
feasibility study of a gravity water supply system:

1. Desk Study:

a. Request from implementing authorities (CDCs, NSP, etc)

b. Fund allocation and preliminary reviews

c. Community consultation: overview, resources and water right issues, community


willingness, demand, household, population, local contribution, etc.

2. Field Study: Activities such as briefing and community consultation, verification of


collected data during the desk study, discharge measurement, engineering surveying,
issues related to water rights and tentative layout are conducted during the field study.

3. Office Work: Activities such as data reduction, fixing layout, detailed design, quantity and
cost estimates, feasibility statement and implementation schedule should be carried out
during office works. A project report should be prepared at the end of the feasibility
study.

2.3.3 Implementation

Following activities should be carried out during implementation phase of a gravity water supply
system:

1. Securing of fund and implementation modality.

2. Disbursement schedule.

3. Formation of implementation committees (technical, procurement, monitoring and


evaluation) and implementation.

4. Contract preparation and awarding.

5. Training of operators (on-the-job and separate).

6. Operation manual (including repair, maintenance) and business plan preparation/update.


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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

2.3.4 Operation, maintenance and Rehabilitation

Following activities should be carried out during operational phase of a gravity water supply
system:

1. Implementation of business plan.

2. Tariff update from time to time (usually annually)

3. Maintenance and

4. Future extension and expansion plan.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

3 FEASIBILITY STUDY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

The main purpose of a feasibility study of a community led gravity water supply project is to
prepare a feasibility study report. It should clearly mention whether the project is feasible. The
study report should be of adequate depth so that prospectus contractor can understand the
project and can quote costs required for the project implementation. As mentioned in the
preceding chapter, a feasibility study consists of following three steps:
1. Desk Study
2. Site Investigation
3. Office Works

3.2 DESK STUDY

The main purpose of a desk study is to prepare and plan for the upcoming site investigation and
office works. The desk study consists of:
1. Confirm CDC’s finalization of the selection of GWSS project as their priority project.
2. Fund allocation and preliminary review of tentative costs.
3. Community communication regarding:
o Overview of the project including security condition.
o Local resources inventory (materials and manpower)
o Households and population of targeted beneficiaries
o Total demand
o Local contribution (in kind and in cash)
o Possible sources and location of water
o Project layout and routes.
4. Planning for feasibility study activities at site
5. Prepare a check list of items required (including cash requirement).

3.3 FIELD STUDY: SITE INVESTIGATION

Site investigation consists of collecting technical as well as social data and verification of data
collected during the desk study. Adequate social mobilization should be carried out before and
after technical data collection. The activities under the site investigation are outlined as:

3.3.1 Technical data collection


1. Population study:
o Number of beneficiary households.
o Present population and growth including inflow due to internally displaced people and
migration.
o Demand assessment.
2. Hydrological study

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

o Locations of potential sources.


o Yield: flow measurement in dry/lean season (bucket, conductivity method or visual if
the source is abundant) for surface water source. Local well yield near the proposed
location in case of underground source usage.
o Quality of water at the potential sources by visual inspection and testing if clean. Water
with calcium (white scaling/deposition when boiled) is widespread in Afghanistan. As
far as possible, such water should be avoided to prevent scaling of the system making
the system technically less efficient and hazardous health-wise.
3. Topographical study:
o General visibility from source to the villages to be noted. Reconnaissance and GPS
surveying before commencing the final topographical surveying.
o Preparation of general layout locating main project structures and benchmarks.
o Location of supply points (households, social institutions like schools, hospitals, offices,
mosques, etc). According to NSP guidelines for rural water supply system, one tap
should be provided for maximum of 25 households.
4. Logistical study
o Means of transportation.
o Distances to road heads / airports.
o Availability of materials
o Availability of local skilled and unskilled manpower.
o Unit rates of local human resources and materials.
5. Geological study
o Visual inspection of type of soil along the pipe routes and at major structure locations.
o Possible geological problems and solutions.
o Location of crossings.
o Locations of landslides.

3.3.2 Non-technical Aspects (Social)


1. Water source utilization and potential disputes
2. Land rights of project locations
3. Possible political/ethnic divisions.
4. Economic conditions of village
5. Priority that the villagers place on water.
6. Expectation of the community
7. Abilities of community leaders and decision makers.
8. Condition of prior development projects
9. Community’s current sanitation practices.

3.4 OFFIECE WORK: DETAILED DESIGN


1. Data reduction: The technical data collected from site should be reduced. Plotting of plans
and profiles showing the potential project location should be carried out. Measured discharges
should also be calculated. A tentative project layout should be prepared.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

2. Detailed Design: Detailed design of project components, quantity and cost estimates should
be carried out to check if the project is financially affordable and technically sound.
3. Report Preparation: Preparation of final drawings and report with feasibility statement, findings
and recommendations.
4. Report submission: Submission of report to concerned authorities and follow up.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

4 WATER DEMAND

4.1 INTRODUCTION

Water demand calculation is a process of assessing required volume of water of a targeted


future population of a community. It includes registration of present population data (families,
households and locations), assessing personal and institutional daily water needs, assessing
typical population growth and estimating future (typically 10-20 years of time) demands.

Water demands for regular village/city residents, students (day-scholar and boarding), mosques,
hospitals and health posts, government offices and institutions, public utilities (public bath, street
washing, etc) should be calculation using existing or standard demands. A summary of typical
demand patterns is presented in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1: Summary of Typical Daily Demands


Consumer Standard Range Remarks
(l/c/d) (l/c/d)

Villagers 45 25 to 45
Students (day-scholar). 10 5 to 10
Students (boarding) 65 35-65
Mosques 3.6 (Assuming 60% go to mosques two times a
day using 3 litres of water per visit). 1000
litres for a mosque with 300 villagers.
Hospitals & health posts 500-1000
with beds liters/bed
Health clinic without 1000 - Rural health clinics
beds 2500
Government offices and 500 to Rural offices up to 20 staff.
other institutions 1000

Water use pattern of a specific location is usually different than the others. Factors affecting
water use patterns are:

· Local climate and seasons (more water in hot season)

· Culture/Religion (Afghan people get up relatively earlier than others)

· Degree of civilization (villagers get up earlier but utilize less water than urban dwellers)

· Industrialization (more water for industrialized communities)

· Economic status and affordability (more water for rich people)

· Education on conservation (waste of water due to lack of conservation awareness)

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

4.2 DEMAND CALCULATIONS

4.2.1 Assumptions used for demand calculations

1. Population growth rate (i) = 3% (prudent rate for Afghanistan)


2. Design Span (n) = 10 to 20 years (standard is 20 years)
3. Population at the end of nth year (Pn) = Po (1+i)n. Where Po is the present population.
4. Total daily demand for regular residents (D) = d * Pn. Where d is total daily demand per capita
in l/s.
5. Total demand = total individual demand + other demands such as schools, mosques, etc.

Example 4.1: Demand Calculations

Calculate total water demand for a village called Khawal in Bamyan with:

· Number of families (HH) = 220

· Average persons per family (ph)= 6

· Design span (n) = 20 years

· Population growth rate (i) = 3%

There is a day-scholar school with 400 students and a mosque. Assume that the demands for
these institutions are additional although the students and mosque goers are from the same
village. Use standard demand for regular villagers and use 50% of standard demands for
mosques and schools.

Present population = number of households x average persons per HH

Or, Po = HH x ph

= 220 x 6 = 1320 persons

Population at the end of 20th year = present population (1+growth rate) design span

Or, Pn = Po (1+i) n

= 1320(1+3/100)20 = 2384 persons

Assume standard daily per capita demands 45 litres for villagers, 10 litres for students and 3.6
litres for mosque goers.

Total daily demand = number of users x daily rates (for villagers, schools and mosque)

= 45 x 2384 + 50%x10x400(1+3/100)20 + 50% x 3.6x2384

= 115,183 litres per day

= 115.183 m3 per day

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

5 INTAKE DESIGN

5.1 INTRODUCTION

Depending on the type of water sources, following types of intakes are used for supplying
potable water to the systems:

1. Production well: Shallow as well as deep production wells are used for collecting water
in Afghanistan. Deep wells are widely used as water intakes in most of the Afghanistan
community managed piped water supply systems. Since there is a complete lack of
underground hydrological data in most of these areas, most of wells in these projects are
designed based on limited existing data of nearby wells. The operation patterns of these
wells are amended based on the actual yields. Design of wells is beyond the scope of
this document and therefore not elaborated here.

2. Surface Intake: Stream and spring intakes are the two most popular surface intakes for
withdrawing required quantity of water. An ideal surface intake should fulfil following
criteria:

a. Withdrawal of desired flow (quantity and quality)

b. Sediment bypass of diversion structure

c. Debris bypass

d. Hazard flow bypass

e. Sediment control at the intake

f. Settling basin control (settling of sediment, flushing, etc)

g. Safe Structure (safe against sliding, overturning and sinking)

5.2 DESIGN OF SURFACE INTAKES

Design of surface intakes consists of calculating driving head which conveys designed flow from
the proposed intake to a downstream sedimentation or collection tank. The driving head is the
cumulative summation of frictional and turbulent head losses from intake to the considered free
downstream surface. It is recommended that the calculated total head loss should be overrated
by at least 30% as:

Head loss HL = over rated factor of 1.3*(frictional head loss + turbulent head loss)

HL = 1.3*(HLf + HLt)

Generally, pipe friction losses for community led water supply system are calculated using
Hazen-Williams as:

Q = 0.2785*C*D2.63*S0.54

Where,
Q = discharge (m3/s)
C = Hazen-Williams friction coefficient (typically, 140 for HDPE and 100 for GI), the
recommended values of C are given in Table 9.1.
D = internal diameter of pipe (m)
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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

S = Hydraulic gradient (energy slope) = 1: N = HL/L


L = total length of the pipe (m)

The frictional loss per 100m of pipe length (% frictional loss, %HLf) can be calculated as:

%HLf = (Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

Turbulent head losses are the summation of head losses at entrance, bends and exits and at
every change of velocity along the pipe and can be expressed as:

HLt = ∑ K * v2/2g

Where,

K = turbulent coefficient (inlet = 0.5,outlet = 1.0, etc)

v = pipe velocity (m/s) = Q/Area of pipe = 4*Q/(π*D2)

Pipe head losses due to friction and turbulent are further described in detailed in Chapter 9.

In order to trap unwanted sediment and debris at intake, strainers are used upstream end of the
intake pipe. A strainer used in
water supply project is a
perforated pipe (HDPE or GI) with Perforated HDPE Strainer
standard holes usually at 10mm
c/c for collecting water. Adequate HDPE Reducer
number of holes arranged in rows Perforated end cap
and columns around the periphery
of pipes have to be used for
assured quantity of water
withdrawal. Typical HDPE strainer
Flow
specifications (diameter of holes
and number of holes) for the
stated pipes and flows are given in
Table 5.1.
Figure 5.1: Typical Strainer Arrangement

Table 5.1: Strainer Specifications


Outlet pipe diameter 16 20 25 32 40 50 63
(mm) =>
Flow (l/s) 0.2 0.45 0.8 1.25 1.8 3 20 5
HDP Reducer 32/20 40/25 50/32 63/40 63/50 90/63 90/75
3.5mm dia, holes 48 100 168 255 375 651 1008
4mm dia, holes 40 80 132 195 285 504 777
5mm dia, holes 21 54 88 140 196 323 494
6mm dia, holes 21 32 60 91 130 234 342
7mm dia, holes 12 24 50 72 96 170 255
A factor of safety of 2 is recommended for calculating the number of perforated holes.

Example 5.1: Surface Intake Sizing

Calculate the driving head of a water supply surface intake for considering inputs:

· Design flow (l/s) = 0.6

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

· Outlet pipe, D (mm) = 25.4

· Outlet pipe type = GI

· Pipe length d/s open surface, L (m) = 5.00

· Strainer hole size, d (mm) = 3.50

· c/c distance of strainer holes (mm) = 10

· Over rated factor for head loss (safety) = 1.3

· Take the summation of K for an inlet, an outlet and a 45 degree bend as 2.0

Strainer Calculation:

As per Table 5.1, the number of holes for 25mm diameter pipe with 3.5mm holes is 168 (holes
for 0.8 l/s flow is selected). The diameter of perforated pipe (Dp) is 50mm.

With a safety factor of 2, the total number of perforated holes is Nd = 2 * 168 = 336.

The number of rows along the pipe for 10mm c/c distance holes, Nrow = INT (π*D/10)

Nrow = INT (π*D/10) = INT(π*50/10) = 15

The number of columns Ncol= Nd/Nrow = 336/15 = 22.4 say 25

Minimum length of the strainer Ls= Ncol * c/c distance = 25*10 = 250mm

Driving Head Calculations:

Headloss factor for 25.4mm diameter GI pipe with C = 100 is

%HLf = (Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= ((0.6/1000)/(0.2785*100*(25.4/1000)^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= 13.3986736m per 100m

Frictional headloss for 5m long pipe HLf = %HLf * 5/100

= 13.3986736* 5/100

= 0.6699m

Turbulent headloss HLt = ∑ K * v2/2g,

where v = 4*Q/(π*D2)

= 4*0.6/1000/(π*(25.4/1000)2)

= 1.184 m/s

Therefore, HLt = 2 * 1.184^2/(2*9.81)

= 0.1435m

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Total driving headloss HL = 1.3(HLf + HLt)

= 1.3*(0.6699 + 0.1435)

= 1.057m

5.3 INTAKE DESIGN PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES

The manual calculations considered in Example 5.1 are taken as inputs for a typical example for
calculating the same parameters in the presented spreadsheet called “IntakeSizing”. The final
outcome of the spreadsheet is the calculation of the driving heads based on the frictional and
turbulent head losses.

Intake sizing (Pipe Design by Hazen-Williams)


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), Afghanistan
Date 22-May-2008 Revision 2006.05
Spreadsheet Developed by: Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, UNHABITAT, Afghanistan.
Project Khawal CWSS Surveyed by:
Location Bamyan Centre Checked by:
CDC/CCDC Khawal CDC

Design flow (l/s) 0.600 c/c distance of strainer holes (mm) 10


Outlet pipe,D (mm) 25.4 Diameter of HDP Strainer pipe (mm) 50
Outlet pipe type GI Nr of strainer holes 336
Pipe length d/s open surface, L (m) 5.00 Nr of rows 15
Strainer hole size (d) 3.50 Nr of holes per row 25
c/c distance of stainer holes (mm) 10 Strainer pipe length (mm) 250
Hazen William coefficient (C) 100 Skin friction factor % 13.399
Wall thickness, t (mm) Velocity, v (m/s): Ok 1.18
Over rated factor for headloss (safety) 1.3 Driving head, dh (m) 1.057
Turbulent Coeff. K 2.00

Figure 5.2: Intake sizing spreadsheet “IntakeSizing”

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

6 SEDIMENTATION TANK DESIGN

6.1 INTRODUCTION

In a water supply system, a sedimentation tank is used for settling and trapping of suspended
sediment. This is achieved by reducing flow velocity and turbulence the passing flow. The
velocity is reduced by providing relatively a bigger section where as the turbulent is reduced by
providing smooth and less turbulent straight and transitional sections. Following criteria are
recommended while designing a sedimentation tank:

1. Settling of suspended sediment by reducing the flow velocity.

2. Desired water depth of the basin (D) = 750-1000mm

3. Minimum aspect ratio (L/W) = 4 (length over width ratio)

4. Detention time t = 900-1200 sec with storage reservoir

= 3600 sec without storage reservoir

Dimensions of a sediment tank are calculated by using following expressions:

Velocity v, (m/s) = Flow/Cross sectional area (Q/A)

Tank Capacity C, (m3) = t * Q

Length of tank = C/A

Example 6.1: sedimentation Tank Design

Calculate the size of a reservoir tank considering following inputs:

· Design flow, Q = 1.5 (l/s)= 0.0015 (m3/s)

· Water Depth, D (m) = 1.00

· Water Width, W (m) = 0.75

· No reservoir (detention time t = 3600 seconds)

Safe yield:

To avoid turbulence, velocity should not be more than 0.05m/s.

v = Q/(W*D)

= 0.0015 /(1.00 * 0.75)

= 0.002 m/s, which is less than 0.05 m/s, hence okay

Tank capacity (C) = t*Q

= 3600 *0.0015

= 5.4 m3

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Length of tank L = C/(W*D)

= 5.4 /(1.00 * 0.75)

= 7.20m

Aspect Ratio, L/B = 7.2/1.0 = 7.2 > 4, hence Ok.

A typical sedimentation tank suitable for smaller schemes is presented in Figure 6.1. A single
control box is adequate for controlling inlet and outlet. In case space along the length is not a
problem, a 7.2m long sedimentation tank without any bend should be provided. Separate
controls boxes for inlet and outlet should be provided in such a case.

6.2 GRAVITY FED RESERVOIR DESIGN PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES

The manual calculations presented in Example 6.1 are taken as a typical example for calculating
the same parameters of sedimentation tank design presented in a spreadsheet called
“SedimentationTank”. A sketch is also included in the design.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Sedimentation Tank Sizing


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), Afghanistan
Date 16-Jun-2008 Revision 2006.05
Spreadsheet Developed by: Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, UNHABITAT, Afghanistan.
Project Sayed Baba MHP Surveyed by:
Location Saighan, Bamyan Checked by:
CDC/CCDC Sayed Baba MHP

Design flow (l/s) 1.5 Velocity, v (m/s): Ok 0.00200


Water Depth (m) 0.75 Tank capacity, V (m3) 5.400
Water Width (m) 1.00 Length, L (m) 7.200
Detention time, t (sec) 3600 Aspect Ratio, L/B, (m): Ok 7.200

325

100

100

Figure 6.1: “SedimentationTank” spreadsheet

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

7 FILTRATION TANK DESIGN

7.1 INTRODUCTION

Water may be contaminated with suspended particles, bacteria and other soluble materials and
may pose threats to human health. Sedimentation tank are used to trap relatively bigger
sediments. On the other hand a filter is used for
removing finer particles, bacteria, colour and odour
of water so that the water is potable as well as
palatable. In filtration, water is passed through a
set of layers of granular materials like sand and
gravels. As presented in Figure 7.1, the filtration
method can be categorised as gravity and pressure
filtration methods. The gravity filter can further be
divided into slow sand filter (SSF) and rapid sand
filter (RSF). Filtrations methods using filtration
tanks, mainly SSF, are used in only a small fraction
of community water supply network systems.
Figure 7.1: Types of Filtration Methods

Both the gravity filters work on the same principle of allowing water to enter the filter media with
the help of the gravitational force. The outputs and efficiencies differ mainly because of different
media geometries and dimensions and driving head. As presented in Figure 7.2, both the
systems contain housing, water layer, filter bed, drainage system and flow control components.
A comparative table of SSF and RSF is presented in Table 7.1.

Raw water input


Overflow

Housing Water layer

Collection tank

Sand layer
Backflow ofwater
Gravel layer
for cleaning

Treated Water
Under Drainage Control Valve

Figure 7.2: Components of a Gravity Filter System

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Table 7.1: Comparison of SSF and RSF


Particulars Slow Sand Filter (SSF) Rapid Sand Filter (RSF)
Rate of filtration 100-200 litres per hour per square 3000-6000 litres per hour per square
metre of filter area metre of filter area
Efficiency High for bacteria but low for High for turbidity and colour but low
turbidity and colour removal for bacteria removel
Head loss 0.15 to 0.75m 3 to 3.5m
Filter material (sand) 600-900mm thick, 0.2 to 0.3mm 450-600mm thick, 0.35 to 0.6mm
diameter and 2-3 uniformity coeff. diameter and 1.2-1.7 uniformity
Base material (gravel) 300-750mm thick 3 to 65 mm 600-900mm thick of 3 to 40 mm
diameter gravel diameter gravel

7.2 DESIGN OF SLOW SAND FILTER

A slow sand filter consists basically of the following components:

· Housing: a tank with controlling accessories in order to house water and filter materials
and subsequently control filtration process.

· Water layer: 0.5 to 1.5m of water above the filter bed (sand)

· Filter layer: 0.6 to 0.9m thick, 0.15 to 0.35mm effective diameter sand layer with a
uniformity coefficient of 2 to 3. The uniformity coefficient (UC) of sand is defined as
d60/d10. d10 and d60 are defined as the sieve sizes in mm that permit passages of 10%
and 60% by weight of the sample sand respectively. For example, UC of sand sample
presented in Figure 7.3 with d60 =1.25mm and d10 = 0.32mm is 3.9.

Sieve Analyses of SSF Sand

100%
90%
80%
% passing by weight

70%
60%
50%
40%
30%

20%
10%
0%
0.1 1.0 10.0
0.32mm 1.25mm
Grain size (mm)

Figure 7.3: Sieve Graph of Typical Sand Sample

· Drainage system: 0.3 to 0.75m thick graded gravel in four equal layers with effective
diameters as:

o Top layer: 3-6mm

o Intermediate layer 1: 6-20mm


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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

o Intermediate layer 2: 20-40mm

o Bottom layer: 40-65mm

Example 7.1: Design of Slow Sand Filter

Find the plan area of a slow sand filter required for supplying a village with 220 households. The
filter tank is located immediately downstream of the proposed intake with an off-take capacity of
1.5 l/s of continuous flow from a nearby stream called Dokhani. The d60 and d10 of the sand
available in the village are 0.3mm and 0.15mm respectively.

Uniformity Coefficient (UC) of the given sand is

UC = d60/d10

= 0.3/0.15

= 2 which is within the limit of 2 to 3, hence ok.

The standard rate of flow of a slow sand filter is 100-200 litres/hour/square meter of filter area.

Total hourly inflow V = 1.5 l/s *(60*60s)/hour

= 5,400 litres/hour

Assuming a rate of filtration as 150 litres/hour/m2, the required area of filter is

A =5,400/150

= 36m2

Using an aspect ratio (L/B) of 4, breadth of the filtration tank (B) is given by:

L*B =A

Or, 4*B*B = A

Or, B =√ (A/4)

=√ (36/4)

= 3m

The length of the tank L = 4 * 3 = 12 m.

Depth of the tank is the summation of 0.3m free board, 1m water, 0.6m sand and 0.6m gravel
(totalling 2.5m). Three parallel perforated HDPE pipes are used for collecting water to the
system. Alternatively, the under-drainage can also be provided with a main central drainage
connected by six parallel lateral drainages. The outcomes of this calculation are presented in
Drawing no 2882-0033-05.

7.3 DESIGN OF RAPID SAND FILTER

A rapid sand filter consists basically of the following components:

· Housing: a tank with controlling accessories in order to house water and filter materials.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

· Water layer: 0.5 to 1.5m of water above the filter bed (sand)

· Filter layer: 0.6 to 0.9m thick, 0.35 to 0.60mm effective diameter sand layer with a
uniformity coefficient of 1.2 to 1.7 (coarser than SSF).

· Drainage system: 0.45 to 0.60m of graded gravel in four equal layers as:

o Top layer: 3-6mm

o Intermediate layer: 6-20mm

o Intermediate layer: 20-40mm

o Bottom layer: 40-65mm

Example 7.2: Design of Rapid Sand Filter

Find the area of a rapid sand filter required for supplying a village with 1200 households. The
filter tank is located immediately downstream of the proposed intake with an off-take capacity of
10 l/s of continuous flow.

Total hourly flow V = 10 l/s *(60*60s)/hour

= 36,000 litres/hour

Assuming a rate of filtration as 4000 litres/hour/m2, the required area of filter is

A = 36,000/4000

= 9 m2

Using an aspect ratio (L/B) of 4, breadth of the filtration tank (B) is given by:

B =√ (A/4)

=√ (9/4)

= 1.5m

The length of the tank L = 4 * 1.5 = 6 m.

Depth of the tank is the summation of 0.3m free board, 1.5m water, 0.6m sand and 0,6m
(totalling 3.0m). The under-drainage is provided by providing a main central drainage
connected by three parallel lateral drainages.

7.4 GRAVITY FILTER DESIGN PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES

Example 7.1 is taken as a typical example for calculating the same parameters of filter tank
design presented in a spreadsheet called “Filter”. As presented in Figure 7.4, two
drawings/sketches of the design with dynamic dimensions are also presented.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Slow Sand Filter Tank Sizing


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), Afghanistan
Date 17-Jun-2008 Revision 2006.05
Spreadsheet Developed by: Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, UNHABITAT, Afghanistan.
Project Sayed Baba MHP Designed by:
Location Saighan, Bamyan Checked by:
CDC/CCDC Sayed Baba MHP

Design flow, qi (l/s) 1.5 Hourly inflow, Qh (l/hr) 5400.000


Filtration Type Slow Filter area, A (m2) 36.000
Rate of filtration, q (l/hr/m2) 150 ok Width of tank, W (m) 3.000
Aspect Ratio, Ar 4 Length, L (m) 12.000
Depth of water (m) 1.0 Sand (m) 0.6 Gravel (m) 0.6
12

Inlet chamber Outlet chamber

3
Clear water outlet
Central Drain

Raw water inlet

lateral Drains

Outlet chamber

filtering Head

1 (m) Water
Adjustable Telescopeic Tube

0.6 (m) Sand

Gravel Outlet for filtered water


0.6 (m)

channel

floor

Figure 7.4: Sedimentation Tank Sizing spreadsheet “SedimentationTank”

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

8 RESERVOIR TANK DESIGN

8.1 INTRODUCTION

A reservoir tank is used for storing water when the quantity of supplied water is higher than the
demand at the considered time point and for supplying the stored water when the demand is
higher than the supply. Factors affecting the size and type of a reservoir tank are:

· Water source (ground or surface water): Storing of water utilizing surface water is a
continuous process (continuous supply flow). On the other hand, underground water is
collected in wells and pumped intermittently to elevated tanks in water supply projects
that utilize underground water.

· Demand patterns of users as described in chapter 4.

· Allocated cost.

· Topography of tank location (i.e., elevated tanks in flatter topography)

8.2 GRAVITY FED RESERVOIR TANK DESIGN

As stated above, gravity fed reservoir tanks get continuous supply of water from intakes. In this
kind of system, the intake is generally far from the supply point. A transmission pipe in this
system is generally smaller than that provided for well fed reservoir tanks. Procedures for
assessing need of reservoir of a gravity fed reservoir are:

· Calculate demands

· Calculate potential sources

· Define system: A continuous supply system is provided if the total daily supply equal to
or more than the total daily demand. Otherwise, an intermittent supply system is
provided to suppress the total demand within the total supplied quantity of water.

· Define demand regime: Defining regimes consists of dividing the total daily demand into
time slots along with percentage daily demands. A typical example of demand regime
recommended by NSP, Afghanistan for rural areas is presented in Table 8.1:
Table 8.1: A typical demand regime
Time (from - to) Duration % Demand
19.00 5.00 10 hrs 0%
5.00 7.00 2 hrs 25%
7.00 12.00 5 hrs 35%
12.00 17.00 5 hrs 20%
17.00 19.00 2 hrs 20%

· Assess the need of a reservoir: A reservoir tank is not necessary if the supply at any
point of time is equal to or more than the corresponding demand. A reservoir tank is
provided to store water if this criterion does not match. The total demand at any point is
calculated as the product of the total number of taps by 0.225 l/s. 0.225 l/s is the
average tap discharge. Provision of reservoir tanks are generally economical if the
distance from the proposed intake to the supply point is relatively long (usually more than
500m).

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

8.3 DESIGN PROCEDURES OF GRAVITY FED RESERVOIR TANKS

Reservoir tank fed by gravitational force consists of calculating safe yield (l/s) by balancing the
total daily demand with the total daily supply. The design procedures are as:

· Equate the total daily demand (Dd) to the total daily supply (Sd). Calculate safe yield in
litre per second that is needed to be fed into the system continuously.

· Calculate hourly supply and demand in m3.

· Calculate total supplies (duration * hourly supply) and demands (percentage usage *
daily demand) for the given demand regime.

· Calculate the size of the tank so that the total supply is equal to the total demand
meaning there is no spilling at any time. Filling of the tank occurs when the supply is
more than the demand. Stored water is withdrawn when the supply is less than the
corresponding demand.

Example 8.1: Gravity Fed Reservoir Tank Design

Calculate the size of a reservoir tank of a gravity fed water supply system considering following
inputs:

· The source is not near the proposed reservoir tank location and continuous supply
should be limited to 2 l/s maximum.

· Total Daily Demand (m3/s) = 115.183

· Demand regime as

Time (from - to) Duration % Demand


19.00 5.00 10 hrs 0%
5.00 7.00 2 hrs 25%
7.00 12.00 5 hrs 35%
12.00 17.00 5 hrs 20%
17.00 19.00 2 hrs 20%

Safe yield:

Assume the size of reservoir tank to be roughly one third of the total demand i.e., 40 m3.

Safe yield (q) = total daily supply in litres per second.

q (l/s) = Total Daily Supply in m3/s*1000/86400

= Total Daily Demand (m3/s) *1000/86400

= 115.183 *1000/ 86400

= 1.333 l/s

= 1.500 l/s (say)

Supplies and Demands:

First Regime (19: to 5:00) i.e., 10 hours.


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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Hourly supply = 1.500/1000 * 60*60 = 5.4 m3 / hour

Total water supply during this period = 10 hrs * 5.4 m3 / hour = 54 m3

Total demand = 0

Difference = supply –demand = 54 -0 = 54 m3

Water in the tank = water in the tank (from previous) + difference

= 0 + 54

Since the tank can only store 40m3, any additional supplied water will be spilled.

Second regime (5:00 to 7:00) i.e. two hours:

Total water supply during this period = 2 hrs * 5.4 m3 / hour = 10.8 m3

Total demand = 25% of 115.183

=28.796 m3

Difference = supply –demand

= 10.8 - 28.796 = -17.996 m3 (water is withdrawn)

Water in the tank = water in the tank (from previous) + difference

= 40 + (-17.996)

= 22.004

The summary of the calculations for other regimes are presented in Table 8.2. It should be
noted that the water in the tank should not be negative. If it is negative at any regime, increase
the size of the tank and repeat all the process until water in the tank is positive. Alternatively,
the safe yield can also be increased to make the water in the tank to be positive. The choice
between these options depends up on the distance between the source and the proposed tank
and availability of safe yield.

Table 8.2: Summary of Reservoir Tank Calculations (all volumes are in m3)
Water in
Time period (from - to) Duration % Demand Demand Supply Diff tank
19.00 5.00 10 hrs 54.000 54.000 40.000
5.00 7.00 2 hrs 25% 28.797 10.800 -17.997 22.003
7.00 12.00 5 hrs 35% 40.315 27.000 -13.315 8.688
12.00 17.00 5 hrs 20% 23.037 27.000 3.963 12.651
17.00 19.00 2 hrs 20% 23.037 10.800 -12.237 0.413
Total 24 hrs 100% 115.183 129.600

8.3.1 Gravity Fed Reservoir design Program Briefing & Examples

The manual calculations presented in Examples 4.1 and 8.1 are taken as inputs for calculating
the same parameters in the presented spreadsheet called “ReservoirTank”. The first part of the
spreadsheet calculates total demands for different categories of consumptions for a given time
span (usually 10 to 20 years of time). The second part of the spreadsheet calculates total

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

supplies up to three spring or stream sources. Based on the demand-supply relations and taps
numbers, the spreadsheet recommends the need of a reservoir.

The final part of the spreadsheet calculates the size of the proposed reservoir tank. It is worth
noting that the calculations are based on the daily (24 hours) demand-supply relationships.

The tank size calculations use in-built iterative process of MS Excel and can generate errors
(such as the size of the tank is millions of cubic meters or very high negative numbers). In such
a case select the last cell of the “Water in the Tank” data, press F2 and press Enter.
Demand and Gravity Reservoir Size Calculations
United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), Afghanistan
25-Apr-2008
Spreadsheet Developed by: Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, UNHABITAT, Afghanistan.
Revision 2006.05
Project Khawal CWSS Calculated by:
Location Bamyan Centre Checked by:
CDC/CCDC Khawal CDC

Population Growth rate (i) 3% Design life 20 Years


Number of taps Tn 7 Flow/tap (l/s) 0.225
Demand Table Supply Table
Users per Individual Total demand
Particular Units unit Demands (l/day) (l/d) Source Name Safe Yield (l/s)
Nr of Family 220 6 45 59400 Source #1 Dokhani river 1.500
Students (day-scholar). 1 400 5 2000 Source #2
Students (boarding) Source #3
Mosques 1 1320 1.8 2376
3
Total yield (m /day) 129.6
Hospitals & health posts with
beds
Health clinic without beds Demand and Supply Summary
Others (Government offices, At the end of
etc) Present year 20
3
Total demand (m /day) 63.776 Demand 63.776 115.187
Supply 129.600 129.600
Comment:Supply > Demand, hence ok
Need of reservoir
Flow/tap for open system 0.2188 Reservoir is needed Population
Present 1320
3
Capacity of Reservoir Tank (m ) At the end of year 20 2384
3 3
Demand and Supplies are in m /day Optimum/Provided (m /s) 40
Schedule I
Water in the Peak demand
Time period (from - to) Duration % Demand Demand Supply Diff tank factor
19.00 5.00 10 hrs 54.000 54.000 40.000
5.00 7.00 2 hrs 25% 28.797 10.800 -17.997 22.003 3.00
7.00 12.00 5 hrs 35% 40.315 27.000 -13.315 8.688 1.68
12.00 17.00 5 hrs 20% 23.037 27.000 3.963 12.651 0.96
17.00 19.00 2 hrs 20% 23.037 10.800 -12.237 0.413 2.40

tank size Ok 40
Figure 8.1: Gravity Fed Reservoir Sizing spreadsheet “ReservoirTank”

8.4 DESIGN OF WELL FED RESERVOIR TANKS

Reservoir tank fed by ground water sources consists of calculating safe yield (l/s) by balancing
the total daily demand with the pumped total daily supply. The design procedures are as:

1. Calculate total daily demand (Dd) as in gravity fed reservoir tank design.

2. Calculate well yield based on hydro-geological data and well testing. Most of these data
are not known in Afghanistan. Therefore, assume the well yields based on the well data
of nearby existing wells. Calculate potential total daily supply (Ds).
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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

3. Check whether the yield is adequate for meeting the daily demand. In case the yield is
not adequate, alternative wells should be proposed.

4. Calculate hourly supply and demand in m3 for 24 hours.

5. Calculate total supplies (duration * hourly supply) and demands (percentage usage *
daily demand) for the given demand regime. The demand regime in this system should
also be divided into to hours.

6. Select well dimensions and pump specifications. The pump should be selected based on
performance data (stage-discharge relationship).

7. Select the size of the reservoir tank (generally 25 m3 in community water supply systems
having up to 300 households). Select switch “On” of the pump switch data until water in
the tank is not negative.

8. Repeat step 7 until satisfactory result is obtained in other cells of “water in the tank” (no
negative water in the tank). It should be noted that the step 7 is a “hit and trail” method
and need some practical experience.

Example 8.2: Well Fed Reservoir Tank Design

Calculate the size of a reservoir tank considering following inputs:

· Water is supplied by a 0.45m diameter well that can house 100mm pump. The water
surface level of the proposed elevated tank is 12m above the ground. The designed total
working head of pumping water is 70m.

· Total Daily Demand (m3/s) = 115.183

· Designed well yield is 3 l/s.

· Demand regime as
Time period (from - to) Duration % Demand
4.00 5.00 1 hrs 0.00%
5.00 6.00 1 hrs 12.50%
6.00 7.00 1 hrs 12.50%
7.00 8.00 1 hrs 7.00%
8.00 9.00 1 hrs 7.00%
9.00 10.00 1 hrs 7.00%
10.00 11.00 1 hrs 7.00%
11.00 12.00 1 hrs 7.00%
12.00 13.00 1 hrs 4.00%
13.00 14.00 1 hrs 4.00%
14.00 15.00 1 hrs 4.00%
15.00 16.00 1 hrs 4.00%
16.00 17.00 1 hrs 4.00%
17.00 18.00 1 hrs 10.00%
18.00 19.00 1 hrs 10.00%
19.00 20.00 1 hrs 0.00%
20.00 21.00 1 hrs 0.00%
21.00 4.00 7 hrs 0.00%
Total 24 hrs 100%

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Safe yield:

Daily yield of well = safe yield (l/second) * 86400 second in litres

= safe yield (l/second) * 86400 second /1000 m3

= 3 * 86400/1000

= 259.2 m3

Since the daily well yield is higher than the daily demand of 115.187 m3, the yield is adequate
and selected for further design consideration.

Supplies and Demands:

A 50Hz 4” Italian pump manufactured by Hydro Pompe Group is selected. From the pump
performance diagram presented in Figure 8.2, a 5.5kW H4K26 is selected with a lifting
capacity of 250 litres per minute at 70m head. Let’s choose a 25m3 elevated reservoir tank. A
summary of calculations are presented in Table 8.3.

First Regime (5:00: to 6:00)

Hourly supply = 250/1000 * 60 = 15 m3 / hour

Total demand = 12.5% of 115.183

=14.398 m3

Difference = supply –demand = 15 - 14.398 = 0.602 m3 (water is stored)

Water in the tank = water in the tank (from previous) + difference

= 13.481 + 0.602 = 14.083

As presented in Table 8.3, 13.481 m3 of water is already accumulated in the tank from the
previous day. As stated earlier, this is an iterative process and this value is taken from a
spreadsheet called “ReservoirTankPump”.

Table 8.3: Summary of Reservoir Tank Calculations (all volumes are in m3)
Pump Water in Spilling /
Time period (from - to) Duration % Demand Demand/hr on/off Supply Difference the tank Drawdown
4.00 5.00 1 hrs 0.00% Off 13.481 storing of 0
5.00 6.00 1 hrs 12.50% 14.398 On 15.000 0.602 14.083 storing of 0.602
6.00 7.00 1 hrs 12.50% 14.398 On 15.000 0.602 14.685 storing of 0.602
7.00 8.00 1 hrs 7.00% 8.063 On 15.000 6.937 21.622 storing of 6.937
8.00 9.00 1 hrs 7.00% 8.063 On 15.000 6.937 25.000 spilling of 3.559
9.00 10.00 1 hrs 7.00% 8.063 Off -8.063 16.937 drawdown of 8.063
10.00 11.00 1 hrs 7.00% 8.063 Off -8.063 8.874 drawdown of 8.063
11.00 12.00 1 hrs 7.00% 8.063 On 15.000 6.937 15.811 storing of 6.937
12.00 13.00 1 hrs 4.00% 4.607 On 15.000 10.393 25.000 spilling of 1.203
13.00 14.00 1 hrs 4.00% 4.607 Off -4.607 20.393 drawdown of 4.607
14.00 15.00 1 hrs 4.00% 4.607 Off -4.607 15.785 drawdown of 4.607
15.00 16.00 1 hrs 4.00% 4.607 Off -4.607 11.178 drawdown of 4.607
16.00 17.00 1 hrs 4.00% 4.607 On 15.000 10.393 21.570 storing of 10.393
17.00 18.00 1 hrs 10.00% 11.519 On 15.000 3.481 25.000 spilling of 0.051
18.00 19.00 1 hrs 10.00% 11.519 Off -11.519 13.481 drawdown of 11.519
19.00 20.00 1 hrs 0.00% Off 13.481 storing of 0
20.00 21.00 1 hrs 0.00% Off 13.481 storing of 0
21.00 4.00 7 hrs 0.00% Off 13.481 storing of 0
Total 24 hrs 100% 115.187 120.000

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26

Figure 8.2: Pump Performance Charts for H4K Italian Pumps

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

8.4.1 Well Fed Reservoir Design Program Briefing & Examples

The manual calculations presented in Examples 4.1 and 8.2 are taken as inputs for a typical
example for calculating the same parameters in the presented spreadsheet called
“ReservoirTankPump”. The first part of the spreadsheet calculates total demands for different
categories of consumptions for a given time span (usually 10 to 20 years of time). The second
part of the spreadsheet calculates potential yield from the proposed well. The spreadsheet with
these calculations is presented in Figure 8.3.

The final part of the spreadsheet calculates the size of the proposed reservoir tank. The tank
size calculations use in-built iterative process of MS Excel and can generate errors (such as the
size of the tank is millions of cubic meters). In such a case select the last cell of the “Water in
the Tank”, press F2 and press Enter.
Demand and Pumped Reservoir Size Calculations
United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), Afghanistan
22-May-2008
Spreadsheet Developed by: Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, UNHABITAT, Afghanistan. Revision 2006.05
Project Khawal CWSS Calculated by:
Location Bamyan Centre Checked by:
CDC/CCDC Khawal CDC

Population Growth rate (i) 3% Design life 20 Years Pump Specifications


Number of taps Tn 7 Flow/tap (l/s) 0.225 Capacity (kW) 5.50
Demand Table Capacity (l/min) 250.00
Individual Total
Users per Demands demand
Particular Units unit (l/day) (l/d) Well
Nr of Family 220 6 45 59400 Diameter (m) 0.450
Students (day-scholar). 1 400 5 2000 Yield (l/s) 3.000
Students (boarding) 3
Maximum Yield (m /d) 259.200
Mosques 1 1320 1.8 2376
Hospitals & health posts with beds
Health clinic without beds Demand and Supply Summary
Others (Government offices, etc) Present At the end of year 20
3
Total demand (m /day) 63.776 Demand 63.776 115.187
Population Supply 120.000 120.000
Present 1320 Comment:Supply > Demand, hence ok
At the end of year 20 2384
3
Schedule: Demand and Supplies are in m /day
Demand / Pump Differenc Water in the
Time period (from - to) Duration % Demand hr on/off Supply e tank Spilling / Drawdown
4.00 5.00 1 hrs Off 13.481 storing of 0
5.00 6.00 1 hrs 12.50% 14.398 On 15.000 0.602 14.083 storing of 0.602
6.00 7.00 1 hrs 12.50% 14.398 On 15.000 0.602 14.685 storing of 0.602
7.00 8.00 1 hrs 7.00% 8.063 On 15.000 6.937 21.622 storing of 6.937
8.00 9.00 1 hrs 7.00% 8.063 On 15.000 6.937 25.000 spilling of 3.559
9.00 10.00 1 hrs 7.00% 8.063 Off -8.063 16.937 drawdown of 8.063
10.00 11.00 1 hrs 7.00% 8.063 Off -8.063 8.874 drawdown of 8.063
11.00 12.00 1 hrs 7.00% 8.063 On 15.000 6.937 15.811 storing of 6.937
12.00 13.00 1 hrs 4.00% 4.607 On 15.000 10.393 25.000 spilling of 1.203
13.00 14.00 1 hrs 4.00% 4.607 Off -4.607 20.393 drawdown of 4.607
14.00 15.00 1 hrs 4.00% 4.607 Off -4.607 15.785 drawdown of 4.607
15.00 16.00 1 hrs 4.00% 4.607 Off -4.607 11.178 drawdown of 4.607
16.00 17.00 1 hrs 4.00% 4.607 On 15.000 10.393 21.570 storing of 10.393
17.00 18.00 1 hrs 10.00% 11.519 On 15.000 3.481 25.000 spilling of 0.051
18.00 19.00 1 hrs 10.00% 11.519 Off -11.519 13.481 drawdown of 11.519
19.00 20.00 1 hrs Off 13.481 storing of 0
20.00 21.00 1 hrs Off 13.481 storing of 0
21.00 4.00 7 hrs Off 13.481 storing of 0

Total 24 hrs 100% 115.187 120.000

Decreasable tank size 25


Figure 8.3: Well Fed Reservoir Sizing spreadsheet “ReservoirTankPump”

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9 PIPE NETWORK DESIGN

9.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the design processes of transmission (source to reservoir) and
distribution (reservoir to tap stands) pipe networks where water is conveyed by gravitational
energy of moving water. The gravitational energy due to gravity at site is equal to the elevation
difference between points such as between the intake and the reservoir tank sites. This
elevation difference is termed as the head in metres. One metre of head produces 0.981
atmosphere of pressure.

This gravitational energy is utilized for conveying the desired flow through a series of selected
pipes. Design or selection of pipes includes:

· Measuring of driving heads (elevation drops)

· Measuring of pipe lengths

· Choosing required flows

· Choosing required residual heads (the end-of-pipe pressures)

· Choosing pipe diameter that matches with the desired head losses (driving head –
residual head). Losses of heads occur due to friction and turbulent along the flow path. It
is worth noting that different pipe sizes and pipe materials have different flow capacities
for a given elevation drop. A flow is called a natural flow when the residual head is zero.

Since some basic knowledge of hydraulic theories is essential for designing pipe networks, a
brief and simplified overview of hydraulic theories useful in understanding gravity water flow in
pipes are presented in the following sections:

Continuity of Flow: For constant water flow in a pipe, flow at one part of a pipe is equal to flow
at any other part of the pipe, as shown by:

Point A Flow (QA) = Point A Velocity x Point A Area

= Point B Velocity x Point B Area = Constant

Changing of pipe cross sectional area (a larger or smaller pipe) will cause a change in velocity.
This phenomenon can be utilized when selecting a pipe size at normal or pipe combination or
negative pressure cases.

Water at Rest: When no water is flowing in a gravity-pressured pipe (as when all taps are
closed), it is in static equilibrium. Water levels are at static levels and pressures in the pipe are
termed as static heads. As no water is flowing there is not energy loss to friction and turbulent
and the pressures in the pipe at their highest at all points, highest pressure being at the lowest
point.

Water in Motion: When water is flowing in a pipe, friction loss occurs that reduces pressure
energies at all point along the pipe. With a constant flow (water in motion), a system is said to
be in dynamic equilibrium and pressures are termed as dynamic heads.

Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL): A line connecting free water surface points along the flow path.
The line at water at rest condition (static equilibrium) is termed as static HGL where as it is
termed as dynamic HGL when water is in motion (dynamic equilibrium). Static HGL is horizontal

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whereas dynamic HGL is sloped downwards from the water inlet to the outlet. In general, the
dynamic HGL is called the HGL.

Figure 9.1: Longitudinal section and water profiles of a water supply system

Friction: When water is flowing along the pipe, a certain amount of energy is lost by the friction
of water against the pipe wall (skin friction) and fittings, entries and exits of the pipe and change
of pipe cross sections (turbulence losses) and is determined by:

· The pipe wall roughness

· The velocity of the water

· Change of velocity direction creating turbulence due to fittings, etc.

Friction losses (skin friction) for water supply pipes are calculated using Hazen-Williams as:

Q = 0.2785*C*D2,63*S0.54

Where,
Q = discharge (m3/s)
C = Hazen-Williams friction coefficient (typically, 140 for HDPE and 100 for GI), the
recommended values of C are given in Table 5.01.
D = internal diameter of pipe (m)
S = Hydraulic gradient (energy slope) = 1:N = HLf/L

The frictional loss per 100m of pipe length (% frictional loss, %HLf) can be calculated as:

%HLf = (Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

In practice, percentage frictional losses are tabulated for quick manual calculations. A Sample of
such a table is presented in Table 9.2. The tabulated percentage frictional losses may be quite
different than those calculated analytically. It is also recommended that the tabulated
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percentage frictional losses should be used for GI pipes. Cells with “VLOW” flags indicate that
the pipe for the stated flows have lower velocities than recommended. “VHIGH” in the table
stands for higher velocity.
Table 9.1: Recommended Values of C
Pipe material Minimum C Maximum C
Cast iron 100 120
Galvanized steel 55 120
Steel 100 140
Concrete 100 140
Asbestos cement 120 140
Plastic pipes (PVC, HDPE, etc) 120 140
Glass reinforce plastic pipes (GRP) 140 145
Table 9.2: % Head loss for HDP Pipe (ISI Standard)
Thickness (mm) 2.2 2.55 3.05 3.95 2.55 4.85 3.15 6 3.9
ID (mm) 11.60 14.90 18.90 24.10 26.90 30.30 33.70 38.00 42.20
OD (mm) 16 20 25 32 32 40 40 50 50
Pressure 10kg/cm2 10kg/cm2 10kg/cm2 10kg/cm2 6kg/cm2 10kg/cm2 6kg/cm2 10kg/cm2 6kg/cm2
Flow (l/s) 16IV 20IV 25IV 32IV 32III 40IV 40III 50IV 50III
0.050 V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW VLOW VLOW VLOW VLOW
0.100 12.60 3.70 1.20 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.110 14.93 4.35 1.50 0.50 0.30 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.120 17.44 5.07 1.70 0.50 0.30 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.130 20.12 5.84 2.00 0.60 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.140 22.97 6.66 2.20 0.70 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.150 26.00 7.53 2.50 0.80 0.50 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.160 29.19 8.45 2.80 0.90 0.50 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW

For example, the friction factor for 20IV (pressure bar of 10) for a flow of 0.15 l/s is 7.53m per
100m of pipe. In case a flow is not listed in the flow column, the friction factor should be
calculated by linear interpolation. As presented in Figure 9.2, the friction factor for a flow of 0.225
l/s for the same pipe is calculated as 5.455 m per 100m of pipe using the straight line
interpolation method.

Head loss chart for HDP Pipe(ISI Standard)


Interpolation of Friction Factors
ID (mm) 14.90 5.90
5.80 5.84
OD (mm) 20
Friction Factor (%)

5.70
pressure 10kg/cm2 5.60
FLOW 25IV Q F 5.50
5.40
0.220 5.07
0.225 5.455 5.30
0.230 5.84 5.20
5.10
5.07
25IV 5.00

F = F1+(F2-F1)/(Q2-Q1)*(Q-Q1) 0.215 0.220 0.225 0.230 0.235


F = 5.07+(5.84-5.07)/(0.230-0.220)*(0.225-0.220) Flow (l/s)
F = 5.455
Figure 9.2: Interpolation for % frictional factor for unlisted flow of 0.225 l/s.

Turbulent head losses are the summation of head losses at entrance, bends, and exits and at
every change of velocity a long the pipe and can be expressed as:

HLt = ∑ K * v2/2g

Where,

K = turbulent coefficient (inlet = 0.5,outlet = 1.0, etc)

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v = pipe velocity (m/s) = Q/Area of pipe = 4*Q/(π*D2). The velocity should preferably be limited
in a range of 0.4 to 3 m/s.

Head losses at bends and velocity change points are generally not considered in designing
community based water supply systems. In order to compensate these losses, equivalent pipe
lengths of fittings (multiple of pipe diameter) are considered and added to the total length of the
pipe. A summary of L/D ratio for different fittings is presented in Table 9.3. Alternatively, an
additional 5% to 10% of total head loss is considered to be adequate for compensating
additional head losses due to turbulent losses.
Table 9.3: Equivalent Pipe Lengths of Fittings
Fittings L/D Ratio
Tee (run - side) 68
Tee (run - run) 27
o
Elbow (90 , short radius) 33
Union 7
Gate Valve (fully open) 7
Free entrance 29
Screened entrance 150

Example 9.1: Natural Flow

Design a HDPE pipe for a system presented in Figure 9.1 for the following input parameters:

· The system is in natural flow condition.

· Length of the pipe is 350m (an additional equivalent length of 5% is already included for
turbulence losses).

· There is a gross driving head of 23m.

The energy slope (S = 1/N) is = desired head loss /pipe length

= 23/350 = 0.065714286

Consider using 25mm diameter HDPE pipe with C = 140 and PN = 10, thickness = 3.05mm.

Flow capacity of the pipe as per Hazen-Williams equation

Q = 0.2785*C*D2.63*S0.54

= 0.2785*140*((25-2*3.05)/1000)2.63*0.0657142860.54

= 0.000262775 m3/s

= 0.262775 l/s

= 15.767 l/min

Checking of velocity whether it is within 0.4 to 3 m/s

V = 4*Q/(π*D2)

= 4*0.000262775/(π*((25-2*3.05)/1000)2)

= 0.936635372 m/s, hence within the limit.

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9.2 SPECIAL CASES: CRITICAL HYDRAULIC CONDITIONS

9.2.1 Combination Pipes

When a single pipe size does not give the desired friction head loss, a combination of two pipes
is recommended and the smaller pipe length is calculated as:

100 x H - (Flarge x L)
Smaller Pipe Length (Lsmall) (m) = ---------------------------
(Fsmall – Flarge)

Where: H = the total head available for friction loss (m) = desired head loss (m)

L = total pipe length (m)

Flarge = % friction loss in the larger pipe (metre per 100 metres)

Fsmall = % friction loss in the smaller pipe (metre per 100 metres)

The length of the larger pipe Llarge(m) = L - Lsmall

It is worth noting that the small pipe should be placed downstream of the large pipe. This
phenomenon is presented in Example 9.2.

Example 9.2: Combination Pipes

Design a water supply system using the same conditions as in Example 9.1 for the following
input parameters:

· Desired residual head of 10m

· Design flow of 0.263 l/s

· Ignore turbulent head losses because additional equivalent lengths are already included
in calculating the total length of the pipe.

Consider using 32mm diameter HDPE pipe with C = 140 and PN = 10, thickness = 3.95mm.

Frictional head loss factor by Hazen-Williams is

%HLf = (Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= (0.000262775 /(0.2785*140*((32-2*3.95)/1000)^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= 2.012 m per 100m

Total head loss HL = L* %HLf

= 350 * 2.012/100

= 7.042m

Residual head = total head – head loss

= 23 – 7.042

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= 15.958 m

Since the residual head is more than 10m, a combination pipes of 32mm and 25mm is
considered for further calculations.

Frictional head loss factor for 25 mm HDPE pipe:

%HLf = (Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= (0.000262775 /(0.2785*140*((25-2*3.05)/1000)^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= 6.571 m per 100m

Desired head loss (H) = total head – residual head

= 23-10

= 13m

Length of Smaller Pipe (25mm) Length

(Lsmall) (m) = (100 x H - (Flarge x L)) /(Fsmall – Flarge)

L25 = (100*13-(2.012*350))/(7.042-2.012)

= 118.449 m

Head loss due to smaller pipe, HL25 = L25 * %HLf25/100

= 118.449 * 6.571/100

= 7.783 m

Llarge = L 32 = L – L25

= 350 – 118.339

= 261.331m

Head loss due to larger pipe, HL32 = L32 * %HLf32/100

= 261.331 * 2.012/100

= 5.258 m

Checking of total head loss HL = HL25 + HL32

= 7.783 + 5.258

= 13.041 m hence ok (0.041 m of error is due to rounding of numbers).

The results of pipe combination are presented in Figure 9.1.

9.2.2 Negative Pressure

Negative pressure (pressure less than atmospheric) often occurs where the pipe leaving the
water source is on a flat grade until it goes down a steep hill. This may result in the system

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failure due to critical siphoning, drawing of air and collapsing of the pipes. Therefore, the HGL
should always be above the pipeline (i.e., there should always be a positive pressure in the
pipe). The preferable solution is to resize the pipe section (bigger pipe, pipe combination or
lesser flow). Alternatively, a second parallel pipe can be installed in an existing system. A
typical example of negative pressure development is shown in Figure 9.3.

Figure 9.3: Negative pressure along the pipe line

Example 9.3: Negative Pressure

Using the same conditions as in Example 9.1 (23m elevation head, using 350m of 25mm
diameter HDPE pipe flowing into a trough), but with uneven grade: 3.5 m fall in 150m then 19.5m
fall in the last 200m, as shown in Figure 9.3. What pipe size (s) is needed to prevent a negative
pressure in the pipe?

Headloss factor for 25mm diameter HDPE pipe with C = 140 and PN = 10, thickness =
3.05mm is 6.571 m per 100m.

Head loss in the first leg of 150m = 6.571 *150/ 100 m

= 9.857 m.

Negative pressure of 9.857-3.5 = 6.357 m develops since the available fall is only 3.5m. To
correct this, different pipe sizes must be selected (larger pipe upstream of smaller pipe).

Headloss factor for 32mm diameter HDPE pipe with C = 140 and PN = 10, thickness =
3.95mm of 2.012 m per 100m (as calculated in Example 9.2) gives a total head loss along the
first stretch as

HL 32 = 150*2.012 /100

= 3.018 m, hence ok and the dynamic HGL is 0.482m above the ground.
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Provide 25mm diameter pipe for the rest of the pipe.

Head available = 23 – 3.018 = 19.982 m

Head loss along 200m of pipe = 200*6.571/100

= 13.142 m

Residual head = 19.982 – 13.142

= 6.840 m

The dynamic HGL are plotted in Figure 9.3.

9.2.3 Air Locks:

Gravity pressured flow is prone to partial or total blockage by trapped air pockets. Air may enter
the system either from already trapped air, from inlets, from loose fitting, from dissolved air, etc.
Air locks can form either during static conditions or dynamic conditions. Any air that is trapped
must be carried downstream to an outlet to ensure continued water flow. A total air lock can
form in a pipe which will completely block the flow of water. A partial air lock partially blocks flow
reducing the area available for water flow. The total and partial air locks are presented in
Figures 9.4 and 9.5 respectively.

Figure 9.4: Formation of a Partial Air Lock

A total air lock forms if the trough height (HT in Figure 9.5) is higher than the summation of all
the heights of air columns. Following conditions should be satisfied in order to prevent a total air
lock formation:

HT≤ H

Where,

H = driving head = Hs – (H1+H2+..)

Hs = static head

(H1+H2+..) = air lock columns

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Figure 9.5: Formation of a Total Air Lock

Formation of air locks can be prevented by laying pipe networks that has higher driving heads
(lower HT) or providing air release valves at the peaks along the pipe or providing a break
pressure tank. The first case is illustrated in Figure 9.6. Proper velocity of flow also helps
flushing entrapped air. A summary of flushing velocities to prevent air locks is presented in
Table 9.4.
Table 9.4: Flushing Velocities to prevent air locks
Nominal pipe size (mm) Flushing velocity (m/s)
16 0.40
20 0.49
25 0.55
32 0.91
40 0.70
50 0.79

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10m

Figure 9.6: Prevention of Formation of Air Locks by analyzing pipe profiles

Example 9.4: Air Lock

Check the formation of air lock for a system presented in Figure 9.7. The system consists of
32mm diameter PN10 pipe of 350m lone flowing freely into a trough. The route has a rise over a
hill of 15m and then up a second slope to the trough that must be at 9m. The design discharge
of the system is 7.5 l/min. Recommend alternative options in case an air lock forms.

Figure 9.7: Diagram for Example 9.4

Calculate Available Head

Head available at the high point = 23-15 = 8m above high point to the water source. In case
an air lock occur at the high point, there would be only this 8m head for water flow to the
trough including friction and lift to the trough.

Calculate the friction loss:

Flow in m3/s Q = 7.5 / 60/1000 = 0.000125 m3/s

Total head loss = L * % HLf


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= L*(Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100%

= L*(Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)

= 350* (0.000125 /(0.2785*140*((32-2*3.95)/1000)^2.63))^(1/0.54)

= 1.779m

In no air lock condition: the residual head of (14-1.779 = 12.221m) is available. The elevation
of the trough in air lock condition = 8-1.779 = 6.221 m. Therefore, the trough should be
located at 6.221m or else water will not reach the trough under water lock conditions.

Alternative recommendations:

1. Increase the flow so that the velocity of the flow is up to the recommended flushing velocity
of 0.91m/s (as stated in Table 9.4). Flow through 32mm HDPE PN10 pipe for a driving
head of 14m is:

Q = 0.2785*C*D2.63*S0.54

= 0.2785*140*((32-2*3.95)/1000)2.63*(14/350)0.54

= 0.000381 m3/s

= 0.380864 l/s

Flow velocity (V) = 4*Q/(π*D^2)

= 4*0.000381/(π*((32-2*3.95)/1000)^2)

= 0.85322 m/s, not okay since it is less than 0.91m/s

2. Use smaller pipe so that the flow velocity is higher. Flow through 25mm diameter HDPE
PN 10 pipe is:

= 0.2785*140*((25-2*3.05)/1000)2.63*(14/350)0.54

= 0.000200983 m3/s

= 0.200983 l/s

= 12.059 l/min

Flow velocity (V) = 4*Q/(π*D^2)

= 4*0.000200983/(π*((25-2*3.05)/1000)^2)

= 0.7163 m/s, okay since it is more than 0.55 m/s as stated in Table 9.4.

3. Install a valve on the outlet to restrict flow to 7.5 l/s and 25mm diameter HDPE PN 10 pipe.
Head loss through the pipe is:

HLf = L * %HLf

= L*(Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100/100

= 350*((7.5/60/1000) /(0.2785*140*((25-2*3.05)/1000)^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100/100

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= 5.81009576 m, hence okay since it is less than the available head of 14m.

Flow velocity (V) = 4*Q/(π*D^2)

= 4*(7.5/60/1000)/(π*((25-2*3.05)/1000)^2)

= 0.44555 m/s, not okay since it is less than 0.55 m/s as stated in Table 9.4.

Consider limiting the flow velocity of 0.55 m/s, flow capacity and other parameters are:

Flow (Q) = V*A = V*(π/4*D^2)

= 0.55*((π/4*((25-2*3.05)/1000)^2)

= 0.000154304 m3/s = 9.2582 l/min, hence okay.

Head loss for this discharge is HLf = L * %HLf

= L*(Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100/100

= 350*(0.000154304/(0.2785*140*((25-2*3.05)/1000)^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100/100

= 8.582 m, hence okay since it is less than the available head of 14m.

4. Install an air release valve at the high point to ensure release of any accumulated air.
Either of the considered pipes can be used with the air release valve. Additionally, a valve
on the outlet to restrict flow to 7.5 l/min is recommended.

9.3 PIPE SELECTION IN AFGHANISTAN

There is a complete lack of standardization of HDPE pipe in Afghanistan. HDPE pipes


manufactured in Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan are commonly used in water supply systems.
Although the brochures of the available pipes state that those pipes are manufactured using
DIN8074, DIN8075, EN1555, EN12201, etc, their geometrical parameters differs from one
manufacturer to another. Qualities of these pipes are not yet possible to be certified locally.
Although there are many manufacturers, pipes and fittings manufactured by the following
manufacturers are commonly used in the water supply schemes:

1. Polypark Pipes (Iranian)

2. Herat Polyethylene Company (Afghani)

3. Royal PVC (Pvt) Limited (Pakistani)

4. Samnan Pipes (Iranian)

Pipe specifications by these manufacturers are annexed in Data Sheets and Formats. It is
recommended that the actual geometry should be verified with the tabulated data.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

9.4 A COMPLETE DESIGN

Example 9.5: Pipe Network Design

A pipe network system proposed for one of the Bamyan CDC is presented in Figure 9.5. The
project data are also presented in the figure. Design the pipe network systems incorporating a
reservoir at joint Jn 00.

Jn 00 (good place for locating RVT)


E.2630.0
Intake (Dokhani Stream)
2000m E.2668.26
Project Data
Present Population = 220 households
Population growth rate = 3%
6 people in each family
300m

design horizon = 10 years


Yield of intake is abundant.
Number of taps = 7
Flow per tap = 0.225 l/s
Use PE 80 HDPE pipes
Jn01 Tp01
E.2586.19 Use 10m service pipe for taps
95m E.2586.19 Per capita daily water demand = 45 l/p/d
174m

Tp02 E.2586.76 E.2584.34 E.2582.70 E.2551.84


E.2585.67
E.2588.82 Jn03 Jn04 Jn05 Jn06 Tp07
10m Jn02 222m 88m 357m 285m 887
E.2589.85 Tp03 Tp04 Tp05 Tp06

Figure 9.8: Diagram for Example 8.5

Demand Calculations:

Present population (Po) = Nr of families * persons per family

= 220*6 = 1320 persons

Population at the end the tenth year (Pn) with respect to the present population

Pn = Po (1+i/100)n

P10= 1320 (1+3/100)10 = 1774 persons

Demand (D) = daily water demand * Pn

= 45 l/d/p * 1774 p

= 79,830 l/d = 79.83 m3/d

System Design (Open or closed)

Continuous supply = daily demand/86400

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

= 79,830/86400

= 0.924 l/s (say 0.925 l/s)

= 3.330 m3/hr

It is assumed that the flow is abundant. Since the distance between the source to the
proposed reservoir tank location is 2000m, it will be an optimum solution to use reservoir tank
with smaller diameter of pipe from the intake to the reservoir tank.

Maximum continuous demand = Nr of taps * tap flow = 7*0.225 = 1.575 l/s

Which is greater than the continuous supply of 0.924 l/s, therefore a reservoir tank is needed.

Reservoir tank design:

Recommended schedule with tank storage during off peak period is considered. A summary of
demands and supplies for the recommended schedule is presented in Table 9.5:
Table 9.5: Design of Reservoir
Time period (from % Water in the Peak demand
- to) Duration Demand Demand Supply Diff tank factor
19.00 5.00 10 hrs 33.300 33.300 34.000
5.00 7.00 2 hrs 25% 19.957 6.660 -13.297 20.703 3.00
7.00 12.00 5 hrs 35% 27.940 16.650 -11.290 9.413 1.68
12.00 17.00 5 hrs 20% 15.966 16.650 0.684 10.097 0.96
17.00 19.00 2 hrs 20% 15.966 6.660 -9.306 0.791 2.40

The tank size of 34 m3 was selected by hit and trail method. The basis of fixing the size of the
water tank is to have positive water balance in the water tank. Let’s select 35m3.

Intake Design:

Bamyan is a cold place and the stream water is very clean. The upstream has very little
settlements. Therefore, provision of filtration is regarded as unnecessary. Chlorination of
water during summer is recommended. In absence of chlorination tank, the proposed reservoir
tank is recommended to be used.

Let’s choose:

1. A dry stone screening

2. A collection tank with HDPE strainer and a ½” GI inverted air vent

3. A 5m long GI pipe from intake to sedimentation tank (31.8mm)

4. A sedimentation tank.

Gross length of GI pipe: actual lengths + equivalent of pipe lengths for fittings (strainer, air-vent
and a glove valve).

L = 5m + (105+27+7)*31.8/1000

= 10.8512m

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Strainer:

A strainer of 63mm diameter HDPE is used (refer to Table 5.1) for the stated flow with the
following parameters.

hole diameter = 3.5 mm at 10mm c/c

Total holes = 2 * 255 = 510

Nr of rows = INT(π*dia of strainer/10)

=INT(π *63/10) = 19 rows

Nr of columns = 510/19 = 26.84 columns (say 30 columns)

Min strainer length = 30 * c/c distance = 300mm

Use 400mm long 63mm diameter HDPE strainer.

Headloss calculation

Friction factor (HLf) for Q=0.925 l/s and 31.8 dia GI is 9.893% (From GI Pipe Table)

Exit loss factor K = 1.0

Velocity v = Q/A = (0.925/1000)/(π(31.8/1000)2/4))

= 1.16 m/s

Total head loss with a factor of safety of 1.3 is

= 1.3*(L*HLf+K*v2/2g)

= 1.3*(10.8512* 9.893% +1*1.162/2/9.81)

= 1.485m

Water level at sedimentation tank = 2668.26 – 1.485

= 2666.775m

Design of sedimentation tank:

Choose D=0.7m, B=0.7m, Sediment storage depth = 0.25m

Velocity v = Q/A = (0.924/1000)/(0.7*0.7)

= 0.00189 m/s < 0.05 m/s hence okay

Tank capacity (C) = t*Q, where a detention time of 1800 sec is considered.

= 1800 *0.925/1000

= 1.665 m3

Length of tank L = C/(B*D)

= 1.665 /(0.7 * 0.7)


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= 3.398m, use 3.5m

Aspect Ratio, L/B = 3.5/0.7 = 5 >4, hence Ok.

The designed intake and sedimentation tank are presented in Figure 9.9. The fittings and
other accessories are also presented in the figure.

Pipe design (sedimentation tank to reservoir at Jn 00)

Pipes with PE 80 HDPE and safety factors of 2.0 Polypark (Iranian pipes) are used in all
cases. The measured lengths are factored by 1.1 (i.e., 10% more). This will also be
considered in head loss calculations. An addition of 5% of gross length is considered enough
if the length is measured precisely.

Length (L) = 2000*1.1 = 2200 m

Flow (Q) = 0.925 l/s

HGL of at sedimentation tank, RL1 = 2666.775 m

RL of the second station (RVT) RL2 = 2630m

Available head (H) = 2668.26 – 1.485-2630 = 36.775m

Desired residual head (DRH) = 10m

Desired headloss dH= 36.775-10 = 26.775

Desired headloss factor (DHF) = 26.775 /2200*100 = 1.217%

Referring to HDPEHW table of PolyPark pipes, try 50mm PN 6, 3.7mm thick, %HLf50
= (Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= ((0.925/1000) /(0.2785*140*((50-2*3.70)/1000)^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= 1.290676 m/100m

Total head loss = HLf50=L*%HL

= 2200*1.290676/100 = 28.39487m> 26.775 m of available head. Hence not okay.

Try 63mm PN 6, 4.7mm thick, %HLf63 = (Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= ((0.925/1000) /(0.2785*140*((63-2*4.70)/1000)^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= 0.42167 m/100m

Total head loss = HLf63=L*%HL

= 2200*0.42167/100 = 9.27674m< 26.775 m, which is ok but not economical.

Use combination of these pipes:

Length of 50mm pipe = (Lsmall) (m) = (100 x H - (Flarge x L)) /(Fsmall – Flarge)

= (100*26.775-(0.42167*2200))/(1.290676-0.42167)

= 2013.595 m
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Length of 63mm pipe = 2200-2013.595 = 186.405 m.

Note that 50 diameter pipe may also be used if residual head of less than 10m is acceptable

Pipe design (reservoir to JCT01)

The pipe downstream of the reservoir is relatively longer and optimizing at this point may have
less or even negative residual heads downstream. The, higher residual head at this point is
quite helpful.

Length (L) = 300*1.1 = 330 m

Flow (Q) = 7 taps * 0.225 l/tap = 1.575 l/s

HGL of water at RVT, RL1 = 2630 m

RL of Joint 01 (JCT01) RL2 = 2586.19m

Available head (H) = 2630 - 2586.19= 43.81m

Desired residual head (DRH) = 30m

Desired headloss dH= 43.81-30 = 13.81m

Try 50, PN 6, 3.7mm thick %HLf50 = (Q/(0.2785*C*D^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= ((1.575/1000) /(0.2785*140*((50-2*3.7)/1000)^2.63))^(1/0.54)*100

= 3.458 m/100m

Total head loss = HLf50=L*%HL

= 330*3.458/100 = 11.411m < 13.81 m of available head. Hence okay.

Pipes for the other legs are designed in similar manner. The final tabulated calculations and
the corresponding drawing are presented in Figures 9.10 and 9.11.

600 800 600 3800 600 3500 600


Coarse screening
Dry stone masonry / Gabion
600

NWL
585

50
50

2070

stream 0.5'' dia GI air vent


2557
1485
850

3390
250

2000
1200

700
50

31.8mm dia GI
1:50
720

63mm dia HDPE,strainer with 3.5mm holes


Stone masonry collection chamber 4700
sediment washout Gate valve

63 dia PN 6 HDPE outlet

Figure 9.9: Intake and Sedimentation tank considered in Example 9.8

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Jn 00 (good place for locating RVT)


E.2630.0
Intake (Dokhani Stream)
2000m E.2668.26
63,PN6, 255m
50,PN6, 1745m Summary of PE 80 Pipes
SN Pipe Dia (mm) Thickness (mm) PN (bar) Length (m)
50,PN6, 330m

1 HDPE 16 1.80 10 44
2 HDPE 20 2.30 10 125.5
300m

3 HDPE 25 2.80 10 613.8


4 HDPE 32 2.40 6 361.9
5 HDPE 40 3.00 6 313.5
6 HDPE 50 3.70 6 3074.4
7 HDPE 63 4.70 6 180.3
20,PN10, 104.5m
Jn01 Tp01
E.2586.19
95m
50,PN6, 101.4m

E.2586.19
174m

50,PN6, 96.8m
Tp02 E.2586.76 E.2584.34 E.2582.70 E.2551.84
E.2585.67
E.2588.82 50,PN6, 244.2m Jn03 Jn04 Jn05 Jn06 Tp07
50,PN6, 357m 40,PN6, 313.5
10m Jn02 222m 88m 357m 285m 887
E.2589.85 Tp03 Tp04 Tp05 Tp06 32,PN6, 218m
16,PN10, 11m
25,PN10, 757m
16,PN10, 11m

16,PN10, 11m

20,PN10, 11m

20,PN10, 11m
Figure 9.10: Pipe network design considered in Example 9.8

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

9.5 PIPE DESIGN PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES

Two spreadsheets are presented for designing pipes networks. The first spreadsheet
“PipeDesignHW” uses analytical method for calculating percentage frictional coefficients by
Hazen-Williams method. The second spreadsheet “PipeDesign” uses tabulated data of
percentage frictional coefficients. It is worth noting that the tabulated GI friction factors for
different pipe diameters with the same coefficient C do not match with the analytically calculated
friction factor. Therefore, in case of GI pipes, the second spreadsheet should be used.

The names of the “Station 1” of pipe reaches with free water surfaces have to be started with
three specific letters corresponding to the types of the structures as:

SRC for source (such as “SRC at Dokhani stream”)

RVT for reservoir tank (such as “RVT at Khawal”)

BPT for break pressure tank (such as “BPT01”)

SED for sediment tank (such as “SED additional”)

A provision for calculating pipe lengths for pipe combination is also presented in the
spreadsheets. The elevation and length of the pipe junction are the final outcome of these
calculations that should be input as input variable for the new arbitrary junctions in the main
calculation table.

Every new leg of pipe networks has to be started after leaving a blank row. The first two
calculation rows of the main spreadsheet have to be copied to all the new legs. The second row
of the pasted cells has to be copied to the remaining rows of the considered legs. HGL of the
first station of the branching station has to be copied in “HGL station 1” of the blank row.

A friction factor table for HDPE pipes based on PolyPark (Iranian Standards) is presented to
speedup the selection process.

Four sets of AutoCAD script commands are also calculated for plotting ground profile, HGL and
naming of the joints. Since different vertical and horizontal scales are presentable in most of the
water supply profiles, a provision for vertical to horizontal scale ratio is presented. It is worth
noting that each profile should be plotted separately. A typical longitudinal profile of the first leg
with a horizontal to vertical scale of 1:5 is presented in drawings number 2882-0033-10.

Friction factor tables for HDPE and GI pipes based on ISI (Indian Standards) and DIN are also
presented for used by tabulated method that utilized these tables for calculating pipe head
losses in “PipeDesign” Spreadsheet.

The outputs by using both the analytical and tabulated methods are presented in Figures 9.11
and 9.12. Pipes from PolyPark were used in analytical method whereas pipes based on Indian
Standards were used in tabulated method. Since the internal diameters of pipes in these two
standards are different, the outputs are also slightly different.

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Gravity Water Supply Pipe Network Design by Hazen-Williams Method


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), Afghanistan
Date 01-May-2008
Spreadsheet Developed by: Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, UNHABITAT, Afghanistan. Revision 2007.08
Project Sayed Baba MHP Surveyed by: Checked by:
Location Saighan, Bamyan Instrument used: Pipe Combination (Xm) Calculation F large pipe (FS) 0.837 F small pipe (FL) 4.341
CDC/CCDC Sayed Baba MHP S Desired head loss 34.68 HGL at the first station 2601.520 Small dia pipe length (X) 757
Material C-Value PE Pipe L factor Large pipe 32 2.4 6 Total pipe length L (m) 975 Bigger dia pipe length (Y) 218
HDPE 140 80 1.10 Small pipe 25 2.8 10 Designed Discharge (l/s) 0.225 HGL at the joint 2595.185
GI 100
Reach Name Elevation (m) Pipe length (m) Pipe Specifications HGL(m) Frictional head loss Residual
Design Thickness head @
station 1 station 2 Station 1 Station 2 ground design flow l/s diameter of HDPE PN / GI station 1 station 2 factor (F) (%) total (m) Stn 2 (m) Velocity (m/s) Remarks

SRC1 Combination 1 2666.775 2658.634 163.64 180.0 0.924 63 4.70 6 2666.775 2666.018 0.421 0.76 7.38 0.41 abc

Combination 1 RVT1 2658.634 2630.000 1836.36 2020.0 0.924 50 3.70 6 2666.018 2639.998 1.288 26.02 10.00 0.65 abd

RVT1 JCT1 2630.000 2586.190 300.00 330.0 1.575 50 3.70 6 2630.000 2618.588 3.458 11.41 32.40 1.11

JCT1 JCT2 2586.190 2589.850 174.00 191.4 1.350 50 3.70 6 2618.588 2613.613 2.599 4.98 23.76 0.95

JCT2 JCT3 2589.850 2586.760 222.00 244.2 1.125 50 3.70 6 2613.613 2609.084 1.855 4.53 22.32 0.79

JCT3 JCT4 2586.760 2584.340 88.00 96.8 0.900 50 3.70 6 2609.084 2607.896 1.227 1.19 23.56 0.63

JCT4 JCT5 2584.340 2585.670 357.00 392.7 0.675 50 3.70 6 2607.896 2605.068 0.720 2.83 19.40 0.47

JCT5 JCT6 2585.670 2582.700 285.00 313.5 0.450 40 3 6 2605.068 2601.873 1.019 3.20 19.17 0.50

JCT6 Combination 2 2582.700 2595.185 198.18 218.0 0.225 32 2.4 6 2601.873 2600.048 0.837 1.82 4.86 0.39

Combination 2 TAP07 2595.185 2551.840 688.18 757.0 0.225 25 2.8 10 2600.048 2567.185 4.341 32.86 15.34 0.76

2618.588

JCT1 TAP1 2586.190 2586.190 95.000 104.5 0.225 20 2.3 10 2618.588 2604.620 13.367 13.97 18.43 1.21

2613.613

JCT2 TAP2 2589.850 2588.820 10.000 11.0 0.225 16 1.8 10 2613.613 2609.389 38.399 4.22 20.57 1.86

2609.084

JCT3 TAP3 2586.760 2586.760 10.000 11.0 0.225 16 1.8 10 2609.084 2604.860 38.399 4.22 18.10 1.86

2607.896

JCT4 TAP4 2584.340 2584.340 10.000 11.0 0.225 16 1.8 10 2607.896 2603.672 38.399 4.22 19.33 1.86

2605.068

JCT5 TAP5 2585.670 2585.670 10.000 11.0 0.225 20 2.3 10 2605.068 2603.598 13.367 1.47 17.93 1.21

2601.873

JCT6 TAP6 2582.700 2582.700 10.000 11.0 0.225 20 2.3 10 2601.873 2600.403 13.367 1.47 17.70 1.21
Figure 9.11: Pipe Design as per Example 9.5 by Iranian Standard & Hazen Williams Method.

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Gravity Water Supply Pipe Network Design by Tabulated Method


United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), Afghanistan
Date 22-Jun-2008
Spreadsheet Developed by: Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, UNHABITAT, Afghanistan. Revision 2007.08
Project Sayed Baba MHP Surveyed by: Pipe Combination (Xm) F large pipe (FS) 0.930 F small pipe (FL) 5.100
Location Saighan, Bamyan Checked by: S Desired head loss 34.68 HGL at the first station 2601.520 Small dia pipe length (X) 614
CDC/CCDC Sayed Baba MHP Instrument used: Large pipe 32 III Total pipe length L (m) 975 Big dia pipe length (Y) 361
Pipe L factor 1.10 Small pipe 25 IV Designed Discharge (l/s) 0.225 HGL at the joint 2595.808
Pipe
Reach Name Elevation (m) length Pipe dia & class/type HGL(m) Frictional head loss
Design factor (F)
station 1 station 2 Station 1 Station 2 ground design flow l/s diameter class/type station 1 station 2 (%) total (m) Residual head @ Stn 2 (m) Remarks

SRC1 Combination 1 2666.775 2658.634 255.00 280.5 0.924 63 III 2666.775 2665.586 0.424 1.19 6.95 abc

Combination 1 RVT1 2658.634 2630.000 1745.00 1919.5 0.924 50 III 2665.586 2640.010 1.332 25.58 10.01 abd

RVT1 JCT1 2630.000 2586.190 300.00 330.0 1.575 50 III 2630.000 2618.698 3.425 11.30 32.51

JCT1 JCT2 2586.190 2589.850 174.00 191.4 1.350 50 III 2618.698 2613.702 2.610 5.00 23.85

JCT2 JCT3 2589.850 2586.760 222.00 244.2 1.125 50 III 2613.702 2609.087 1.890 4.62 22.33

JCT3 JCT4 2586.760 2584.340 88.00 96.8 0.900 50 III 2609.087 2607.857 1.270 1.23 23.52

JCT4 JCT5 2584.340 2585.670 357.00 392.7 0.675 50 III 2607.857 2604.814 0.775 3.04 19.14

JCT5 JCT6 2585.670 2582.700 285.00 313.5 0.450 40 III 2604.814 2601.522 1.050 3.29 18.82

JCT6 Combination 2 2582.700 2595.808 329.00 361.9 0.225 32 III 2601.522 2598.156 0.930 3.37 2.35

Combination 2 TAP07 2595.808 2551.840 558.00 613.8 0.225 25 IV 2598.156 2566.853 5.100 31.30 15.01

2618.698

JCT1 TAP1 2586.190 2586.190 95.000 104.5 0.225 20 IV 2618.698 2602.479 15.520 16.22 16.29

2613.702

JCT2 TAP2 2589.850 2588.820 10.000 11.0 0.225 16 IV 2613.702 2607.769 53.940 5.93 18.95

2609.087

JCT3 TAP3 2586.760 2586.760 10.000 11.0 0.225 16 IV 2609.087 2603.153 53.940 5.93 16.39

2607.857

JCT4 TAP4 2584.340 2584.340 10.000 11.0 0.225 16 IV 2607.857 2601.924 53.940 5.93 17.58

2604.814

JCT5 TAP5 2585.670 2585.670 10.000 11.0 0.225 20 IV 2604.814 2603.107 15.520 1.71 17.44

2601.522

JCT6 TAP6 2582.700 2582.700 10.000 11.0 0.225 20 IV 2601.522 2599.815 15.520 1.71 17.11
Figure 9.12: Pipe Design as per Example 9.5 by Indian Standard & Tabulated Method.
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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

DATA SHEETS AND FORMATS

HDPE PIPE SPECIFICATIONS


1. PolyPark HDPE, Iran

2. Herat Polyethylene Company Pipe Specifications, Afghanistan

3. Royal PVC (Pvt) Limited, Pakistan

4. Samnan Pipes, Iran

HEAD LOSS FACTOR TABLES


1. Frictional Headloss Factors for GI (Indian Standards)

2. Friction Factors for HDPE pipes (Indian Standards)

3. Friction Factors for Polypark HDPE pipes (Iranian Standards)

WHO’S DRINKING WATER STANDARDS 1993

FORMATS

1. Abney Level Observation Book

2. Discharge Measurement Using conductivity Meter

3. Level Observation Book

4. Stadia Observation Book

5. Pipe Design Format

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Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

PolyPark HDPE Pipes according to international standards EN 1555 - EN 12201 ‫(ناریا یلم یا هدردنتسا‬ISIRA) ‫( ناریازاگ یلم تکرشو‬IGS)
Iranian National Standards and National Iranian Gas Co. DIN8074 - DIN8075
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N
Series 25 20 16 12.5 10.5 10 8.3 8 6.3 5 4 3.2 2.5 2
SDR 51 41 33 26 22 21 17.6 17 13.6 11 9 7.4 6 5
PE-63
SF1.25 PN/BR 2 2.5 3.2 4 4.8 5 6 6.3 8 10 12.4 15.9 19.9 24.9
SF1.6 PN/BR 1.6 2 2.4 3.1 3.7 3.9 4.7 4.9 6.2 7.8 9.8 12.1 15.7 19.6
SF2.0 PN/BR 1.2 1.6 2 2.5 3 3.1 3.7 3.9 5 6.3 7.8 10 12.5 15.7
PE-80
SF1.25 PN/BR 2.5 3.2 4 5 6 6.3 7.5 8 10 12.5 16 20 25 32
SF1.6 PN/BR 2 2.5 3.1 4 4.7 5 6 6.2 7.9 10 12.5 15.3 20 25
SF2.0 PN/BR 1.6 2 2.5 3.2 3.8 4 4.8 5 6.3 8 10 12.3 16 20
PE-100
SF1.25 PN/BR 3.2 4 5 6.3 7.5 8 9.6 10 12.5 16 20 25 32 40
SF1.6 PN/BR 2.5 3.1 3.9 5 5.9 6.2 7.5 7.8 9.9 12.5 15.6 19.2 25 31.2
SF2.0 PN/BR 2 2.5 3.1 4 4.7 5 6 6.1 7.9 10 12.5 15.3 20 25
OD(mm) t (mm) kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m t kg/m
1 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.80 0.084 2.20 0.099 2.70 0.115 3.30 0.133
2 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.80 0.107 1.9* 0.1121 2.30 0.133 2.80 0.154 3.40 0.180 4.10 0.207
3 25 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.80 0.137 1.90 0.144 2.3* 0.1712 2.80 0.20 3.50 0.24 4.20 0.278 5.10 0.32
4 32 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.80 0.179 1.90 0.187 2.40 0.232 2.9* 0.2723 3.60 0.327 4.40 0.386 5.40 0.454 6.50 0.52
5 40 - - - - - - 1.8 0.227 1.90 0.238 1.90 0.239 2.30 0.285 2.40 0.295 3.00 0.356 3.70 0.43 4.50 0.509 5.50 0.60 6.70 0.701 8.10 0.809
6 50 - - - - 1.80 0.287 2.0 0.314 2.30 0.361 2.40 0.374 2.90 0.44 3.00 0.453 3.70 0.549 4.60 0.666 5.60 0.788 6.90 0.936 8.30 1.09 10.10 1.26
7 63 - - 1.80 0.364 2.00 0.399 2.5 0.494 2.90 0.563 3.00 0.580 3.60 0.688 3.80 0.721 4.70 0.873 5.80 1.05 7.10 1.26 8.60 1.47 10.50 1.73 12.70 1.99
8 75 1.80 0.436 1.90 0.475 2.30 0.551 2.9 0.675 3.50 0.807 3.60 0.828 4.30 0.976 4.50 1.02 5.60 1.24 6.80 1.47 8.40 1.76 10.30 2.09 12.50 2.44 15.10 2.82
9 90 1.80 0.525 2.20 0.643 2.80 0.791 3.5 0.978 4.10 1.14 4.30 1.18 5.10 1.39 5.40 1.46 6.70 1.77 8.20 2.12 10.10 2.54 12.30 3.00 15.00 3.51 18.10 4.05
10 110 2.20 0.785 2.70 0.943 3.40 1.17 4.2 1.43 5.00 1.67 5.30 1.77 6.30 2.08 6.60 2.17 8.10 2.62 10.00 3.14 12.30 3.78 15.10 4.49 18.30 5.24 22.10 6.04
11 125 2.50 1.00 3.10 1.23 3.90 1.51 4.8 1.84 5.70 2.16 6.00 2.27 7.10 2.66 7.40 2.76 9.20 3.37 11.40 4.08 14.00 4.87 17.10 5.77 20.80 6.75 25.10 7.79
12 140 2.80 1.25 3.50 1.54 4.30 1.88 5.4 2.32 6.40 2.72 6.70 2.83 8.00 3.34 8.30 3.46 10.30 4.22 12.70 5.08 15.70 6.11 19.20 7.25 23.30 8.47 28.10 9.76
13 160 3.20 1.36 4.00 2.00 4.90 2.42 6.2 3.04 7.30 3.54 7.70 3.72 9.10 4.35 9.50 4.52 11.80 5.50 14.60 6.67 17.90 7.96 21.90 9.44 26.60 11.00 32.10 12.70
14 180 3.60 2.05 4.40 2.49 5.50 3.07 6.9 3.79 8.20 4.47 8.60 4.67 10.20 5.48 10.70 5.71 13.30 6.98 16.40 8.42 20.10 10.10 24.60 11.9 29.90 14.00 36.10 16.10
15 200 3.90 4.46 4.90 3.05 6.20 3.84 7.7 4.69 9.10 5.51 9.60 5.78 11.40 6.79 11.90 7.05 14.70 8.56 18.20 10.4 22.40 12.40 27.40 14.8 33.20 17.20 40.10 19.90
16 225 4.40 3.12 5.50 3.86 6.90 4.77 8.6 5.89 10.30 7.00 10.8 7.30 12.80 8.55 13.40 8.93 16.60 10.90 20.50 13.1 25.20 15.80 30.80 18.6 37.40 21.80 45.10 25.20
17 250 4.90 3.83 6.20 4.83 7.70 5.92 9.6 7.30 11.40 8.59 11.9 8.93 14.20 10.60 14.80 11.00 18.40 13.40 22.70 16.2 27.20 19.40 34.20 23.0 41.60 27.00 50.10 31.10
18 280 5.50 4.83 6.90 5.98 8.60 7.40 10.7 9.10 12.80 10.80 13.4 11.30 15.90 13.20 16.60 13.70 20.60 16.80 25.40 20.3 31.10 24.30 38.30 28.9 46.50 33.80 56.20 39.00
19 315 6.20 6.12 7.70 7.52 9.70 9.37 12.1 11.60 14.40 13.60 15.0 14.20 17.90 16.70 18.70 17.40 23.20 21.20 28.60 25.6 35.20 30.80 43.10 36.5 52.30 42.70 63.20 49.30
20 355 7.00 7.73 8.70 9.55 10.90 11.80 13.6 14.60 16.20 17.30 16.9 18.00 20.10 21.20 21.10 22.10 26.10 26.90 32.20 32.5 39.40 39.10 48.50 46.3 59.00 54.30 - -
21 400 7.90 9.82 9.80 12.10 12.30 15.10 15.3 18.60 18.20 21.90 19.1 22.90 22.70 26.90 23.70 28.00 29.40 34.10 36.30 41.3 44.70 49.60 54.70 58.8 66.50 68.90 - -
22 450 8.80 12.30 11.00 15.30 13.80 19.00 17.2 23.50 20.50 27.70 21.5 28.90 25.50 34.00 26.70 35.40 33.10 43.20 40.90 52.3 50.30 62.70 61.50 74.4 - - - -
23 500 9.80 15.20 12.30 19.00 15.30 23.40 19.1 28.90 22.80 34.20 23.9 35.70 28.40 42.00 29.70 43.80 36.80 53.30 45.40 64.5 55.80 77.30 68.30 91.8 - - - -
24 560 11.00 19.10 13.70 23.60 17.20 29.40 21.4 36.20 25.50 42.80 26.7 44.70 31.70 52.50 33.20 54.80 41.20 66.90 50.80 80.8 62.50 97.00 - - - - - -

* 3MM/EN1555: 1-0.16 (Kg/m) 2- 0.210 (Kg/m) 3-0.275 (Kg/m) SDR: (Standard Dimention Ratio)=d/s SF:(Safty Factor) PN:(Pressure Nominal) Series=1/2(d/s-1)

65
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Herat Polyethylene Company Pipe Specifications (Afghanistan)


PE 100 PN 3.2 PN 4 PN 5 PN 6.4 PN 7.8 PN 8 PN 9.6 PN 10 PN 12.7 PN 16 PN 20 PN 25 PN 32 PN 40
PE80 PN 2.5 PN 3.2 PN 4 PN 5 PN 6 PN 6.4 PN 7.7 PN 8 PN 10 PN 12.5 PN 16 PN 20 PN 25.8 PN 32
PE63 PN PN 2.5 PN 3.2 PN 4 PN 4.8 PN 5 PN 6 PN 6.3 PN 8 PN 10 PN 12.6 PN 16 PN 20 N
25 20 16 12.5 10.5 10 8.3 8 6.3 5 4 3.2 2.5 2
51 41 33 26 22 21 17.6 17 13.6 11 9 7.4 6 5
Dia (mm) t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m
10 1.8 0.048 2.0 0.052
12 1.8 0.060 2.0 0.064 2.4 0.074
16 1.8 0.084 2.2 0.099 2.7 0.115 3.3 0.133
20 1.8 0.107 1.9 0.112 2.3 0.133 2.8 0.154 3.4 0.180 4.1 0.270
25 1.8 0.137 1.9 0.144 2.3 0.171 2.8 0.200 3.5 0.240 4.2 0.278 5.1 0.320
32 1.8 0.179 1.9 0.187 2.4 0.232 2.9 0.272 3.2 0.327 4.4 0.386 5.4 0.454 6.5 0.520
40 1.8 0.227 1.9 0.238 1.9 0.239 2.0 0.285 2.4 0.295 3.0 0.356 3.7 0.430 4.5 0.509 5.5 0.600 6.7 0.701 8.1 0.809
50 1.8 0.287 2.0 0.314 2.3 0.361 2.4 0.374 2.9 0.440 3.0 0.453 3.7 0.549 4.6 0.666 5.6 0.788 6.9 0.936 8.3 1.090 10.1 1.260
63 1.8 0.364 2.0 0.399 2.5 0.494 2.9 0.563 3.0 0.580 3.6 0.688 3.8 0.721 4.7 0.873 5.8 1.050 7.1 1.260 8.6 1.470 10.5 1.730 12.7 1.990
75 1.8 0.436 1.9 0.457 2.3 0.551 2.9 0.675 3.5 0.807 3.6 0.828 4.3 0.976 4.5 1.020 5.6 1.240 6.8 1.470 8.4 1.760 10.3 2.090 12.5 2.440 15.1 2.820
90 1.8 0.525 2.2 0.643 2.8 0.791 3.5 0.978 4.1 1.140 4.3 1.180 5.1 1.390 5.4 1.460 6.7 1.770 8.2 2.120 10.1 2.540 12.3 3.000 15.0 3.510 18.1 4.050
110 2.2 0.706 2.7 0.943 3.4 1.170 4.2 1.430 5.0 1.670 5.3 1.770 6.3 2.080 6.6 2.170 8.1 2.620 10.0 3.140 12.3 3.780 15.1 4.490 18.3 5.240 22.1 6.040
125 2.5 1.000 3.1 1.230 3.9 1.510 4.8 1.840 5.7 2.160 6.0 2.270 7.1 2.660 7.4 2.760 9.2 3.370 11.4 4.080 14.0 4.870 17.1 5.770 20.8 6.750 25.1 7.790
140 2.8 1.250 3.5 1.540 4.3 1.880 5.4 2.320 6.4 2.720 6.7 2.830 8.0 3.340 8.3 3.460 10.3 4.220 12.7 5.080 15.7 6.110 19.2 7.250 20.3 8.470 28.1 9.750
160 3.2 1.530 4.0 2.000 4.9 2.420 6.2 3.040 7.3 3.540 7.7 3.720 9.1 4.350 9.5 4.520 11.8 5.500 14.6 6.670 17.9 7.960 21.9 9.440 20.6 11.000 32.1 12.700
180 3.6 2.500 4.4 2.400 5.5 3.070 6.9 3.790 8.2 4.470 8.6 4.670 10.2 5.480 10.7 5.710 13.3 6.980 16.4 8.420 20.1 10.100 24.6 11.900 29.9 14.000 36.1 16.100
200 3.9 2.460 4.9 3.500 6.2 3.840 7.7 4.690 9.1 5.510 9.6 5.780 11.4 6.790 11.9 7.050 14.7 8.560 17.2 10.400 22.4 12.400 27.1 14.800 33.2 17.200 40.1 15.900
225 4.4 3.120 5.5 3.860 6.9 4.770 8.6 5.890 10.3 7.000 10.8 7.300 12.8 8.550 13.4 8.930 16.6 10.900 20.5 13.100 25.2 15.800 30.8 18.600 37.4 21.800 45.1 25.200
250 4.9 3.830 6.2 4.830 7.7 5.920 9.6 7.300 11.4 8.590 11.9 8.930 14.2 10.700 14.8 11.000 18.4 13.400 22.7 16.200 27.9 15.400 34.2 23.000 41.6 27.000 50.1 31.100
280 5.5 4.830 6.9 5.980 8.6 7.400 10.7 9.100 12.8 10.800 13.4 11.300 15.9 13.200 16.6 13.700 20.6 16.800 25.4 20.300 31.3 24.300 38.3 28.900 46.5 33.300 56.2 39.000
315 6.2 6.120 7.7 7.520 9.7 9.370 12.1 11.600 14.4 13.600 15.0 14.200 17.9 16.700 18.7 17.400 23.2 21.200 28.6 25.600 35.2 30.800 43.1 36.500 52.3 42.700 63.2 49.300
355 7.0 7.730 8.7 9.550 10.9 11.800 13.6 14.600 16.2 17.300 16.9 18.000 20.1 21.200 21.1 22.100 26.1 26.900 30.2 32.500 39.7 39.100 48.5 46.500 59.0 54.800
400 7.9 9.820 9.8 12.100 12.3 15.100 15.3 18.600 18.2 21.900 19.1 22.900 22.7 26.900 23.7 28.000 29.4 34.100 36.3 41.300 44.7 49.600 54.7 58.800 66.5 68.900
450 8.8 12.300 11.0 15.300 13.8 19.000 17.2 23.500 20.5 27.700 21.5 28.900 25.5 34.000 26.7 35.400 33.1 43.200 40.9 52.300 50.3 62.700 61.5 74.400
500 9.8 15.200 13.3 19.000 15.3 23.400 19.1 28.900 22.8 34.200 23.9 35.700 28.8 42.000 29.7 43.800 36.8 53.300 45.4 64.500 55.8 77.300 88.3 91.800
560 11.0 19.100 13.7 23.600 17.2 29.400 21.4 36.200 25.5 42.800 26.7 44.700 31.7 52.500 33.2 54.800 41.2 66.900 50.8 80.800 62.5 97.000
630 12.3 24.000 15.4 29.900 19.3 37.100 24.1 45.900 28.7 54.100 30.0 56.400 35.7 66.700 37.4 69.000 46.3 84.600 57.2 102.000

66
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Royal PVC (Pvt) Limited (Pakistan)


Specifications for PE 100 Pipes STANDARD DIN 8074

PN 4 6 10 16
SDR 26 17.6 11 7.25
Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm)
Dia (mm) Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max
20 1.8 2.2 1.9 2.3 2.2 3.3
25 1.8 2.2 2.3 2.8 3.5 4.1
32 1.8 2.2 1.9 2.3 3 3.6 4.5 5.2
40 1.8 2.2 2.3 2.8 3.7 4.4 5.6 6.4
50 2 2.5 2.9 3.4 4.6 5.3 6.9 7.8
63 2.5 3 3.6 4.1 5.8 6.6 8.7 9.8
75 2.9 3.4 4.3 5 6.9 7.8 10.4 11.7
90 3.5 4.2 5.1 5.9 8.2 9.3 12.5 14
110 4.3 5 6.3 7.2 10 11.3 15.2 17
125 4.9 5.6 7.1 8.1 11.4 12.8 17.3 19.3
140 5.4 6.2 8 9.1 12.8 14.3 19.4 21.6
160 6.2 7.1 9.1 9.3 14.6 16.3 22.1 24.5
180 7 8 10.2 11.5 16.4 18.3 24.9 27.6
200 7.5 8.7 11.4 12.8 18.2 20.3 27.6 30.6

67
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Samnan Polyethylene Pipes (Iran)

PE 63

PN 2.5 PN 3.2 PN 4 PN 6 PN 10
Dia (mm) t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m
20 2 0.117
25 2 0.15 2.3 0.171
32 2 0.196 3 0.279
40 2 0.248 2.3 0.285 3.7 0.43
50 1.8 0.299 2 0.314 2.9 0.44 4.6 0.666
63 1.8 0.380 2 0.399 2.5 0.494 3.6 0.688 5.8 1.050
75 2 0.478 2.4 0.572 2.9 0.675 4.3 0.976 6.9 1.48
90 2.2 0.639 2.8 0.791 3.5 0.978 5.1 1.39 8.2 2.12
110 2.7 0.941 3.5 1.2 4.3 1.46 6.3 2.08 10 3.14
125 3.1 1.23 3.9 1.51 4.9 1.88 7.1 2.66 11.4 4.08
140 3.5 1.54 4.4 1.92 5.4 2.32 8 3.34 12.8 5.11
160 3.9 1.95 5 2.47 6.2 3.04 9.1 4.35 14.6 6.67
180 4.4 2.48 5.6 3.12 7 3.84 10.2 5.48 16.4 8.42
200 4.9 3.05 6.2 3.84 7.7 4.69 11.4 6.79 18.2 10.4
225 5.5 3.06 7 4.84 8.7 5.96 12.8 8.55 20.5 13.1
250 6.1 4.76 7.8 5.99 9.7 7.37 14.2 10.6 22.8 16.2
280 6.9 5.98 8.7 7.47 10.8 9.18 15.9 13.2 25.5 20.3
315 7.7 7.51 9.8 9.45 12.2 11.7 17.9 16.7 28.7 25.7
355 8.7 9.54 11.1 12.1 13.7 14.7 20.1 21.2 32.3 32.6
400 9.8 12.1 12.4 15.2 15.4 18.7 22.7 26.9 36.4 41.4
450 11 15.2 14 19.2 17.4 23.7 25.5 34 41 52.4

68
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Samnan Polyethelene Pipes (Iran)

PE 80

PN 2.5 PN 3.2 PN 4 PN 6 PN 10 PN 16
Dia (mm) t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m
10
12
16 1.8 0.084
20 1.8 0.107 2.3 0.133
25 1.9 0.144 2.8 0.200
32 2.4 0.232 3.6 0.327
40 1.9 0.238 3.0 0.356 4.5 0.509
50 1.8 0.287 2.3 0.361 3.7 0.549 5.6 0.788
63 1.8 0.364 2.0 0.399 2.9 0.563 4.7 0.873 7.1 1.260
75 1.8 0.436 1.9 0.457 2.3 0.551 3.5 0.807 5.6 1.240 8.4 1.760
90 1.8 0.525 2.2 0.643 2.8 0.791 4.1 1.140 6.7 1.770 10.1 2.540
110 2.2 0.786 2.7 0.943 3.4 1.170 5.0 1.670 8.1 2.620 12.3 3.780
125 2.5 1.000 3.1 1.230 3.9 1.510 5.7 2.160 9.2 3.370 14.0 4.870
140 2.8 1.250 3.5 1.540 4.3 1.880 6.4 2.720 10.3 4.220 15.7 6.110
160 3.2 1.630 4.0 2.000 4.9 2.420 7.3 3.540 11.8 5.500 17.9 7.960
180 3.6 2.050 4.4 2.490 5.5 3.070 8.2 4.470 13.3 6.980 20.1 10.100
200 3.9 2.460 4.9 3.050 6.2 3.840 9.1 5.510 14.7 8.560 22.4 12.400
225 4.4 3.120 5.5 3.860 6.9 4.770 10.3 7.000 16.6 10.900 25.2 15.800
250 4.9 3.830 6.2 4.830 7.7 5.920 11.4 8.590 18.4 13.400 27.9 19.400
280 5.5 4.830 6.9 5.980 8.6 7.400 12.8 10.800 20.6 16.800 31.3 24.300
315 6.2 6.120 7.7 7.520 9.7 9.370 14.4 13.600 23.2 21.200 35.2 30.800
355 7.0 7.730 8.7 9.500 10.9 11.800 16.2 17.300 26.1 26.900 39.7 39.100
400 7.9 9.820 9.8 12.100 12.3 15.100 18.2 21.900 29.4 34.100 44.7 49.600
450 8.8 12.300 11.0 15.300 13.8 19.000 20.5 27.700 33.1 43.200 50.3 62.700
500 9.8 15.200 12.3 19.000 15.3 23.400 22.8 34.200 36.8 53.300 55.8 77.300
560 11.0 19.100 13.7 23.600 17.2 29.400 23.5 42.800 41.2 66.900 62.5 97.000
630 12.3 24.000 15.4 29.900 19.3 37.100 28.7 54.100 46.3 84.600
710 13.9 30.500 17.4 38.000 21.8 47.200 32.3 68.700 52.2 107.000
800 15.7 38.800 19.6 48.100 24.5 59.700 36.4 87.200 58.8 136.000
900 17.6 48.900 22.0 60.900 27.6 75.600 41.0 110.000 66.1 172.000
1000 19.6 60.500 24.5 75.200 30.6 93.100 45.5 136.000
69
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Samnan Polyethelene Pipes (Iran)

PE 100 DIN 8074 WITH SF = 1.6

PN 2.5 PN 3.1 PN 3.9 PN 5 PN 5.9 PN 6.2 PN 7.5 PN 7.8 PN 9.9 PN 12.5 PN 15.6 PN 19.2
Dia (mm) t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m t (mm) kg/m
10
12
16 1.8 0.084 2.2 0.099
20 1.8 0.107 1.9 0.112 2.3 0.133 2.8 0.154
25 1.8 0.137 1.9 0.144 2.3 0.17 2.8 0.2 3.5 0.24
32 1.8 0.179 1.9 0.187 2.4 0.232 2.9 0.272 3.6 0.327 4.4 0.386
40 1.8 0.227 1.9 0.238 1.9 0.239 2.3 0.285 2.4 0.295 3 0.355 3.7 0.43 4.5 0.509 5.5 0.6
50 1.8 0.287 2 0.314 2.3 0.361 2.4 0.374 2.9 0.44 3 0.483 3.7 0.549 4.6 0.666 5.6 0.788 6.9 0.936
63 1.8 0.364 2 0.399 2.5 0.494 2.9 0.563 3 0.58 3.6 0.688 3.8 0.71 4.7 0.873 5.8 1.05 7.1 1.26 8.6 1.47
75 1.8 0.436 1.9 0.457 2.3 0.551 2.9 0.675 3.5 0.807 3.6 0.828 4.3 0.976 4.5 1.02 5.6 1.24 6.8 1.47 8.4 1.76 10.3 2.09
90 1.8 0.525 2.2 0.43 2.5 0.791 3.5 0.978 4.1 1.14 4.3 1.18 5.1 1.39 5.4 1.46 6.7 1.77 8.2 2.12 10.1 2.54 12.3 3
110 2.2 0.785 2.7 0.943 3.4 1.17 4.2 1.43 5 1.67 5.3 1.77 6.3 2.08 6.6 2.17 8.1 2.62 10 3.14 12.3 3.78 15.1 4.49
125 2.5 1 3.1 1.23 3.9 1.51 4.8 1.84 5.7 2.16 6 2.27 7.1 2.66 7.4 2.76 9.2 3.37 11.4 4.08 14 4.87 17.1 6.77
140 2.8 1.25 3.8 1.54 4.3 1.88 5.4 2.32 6.4 2.72 6.7 2.84 8 3.34 8.3 3.46 10.3 4.22 12.7 5.08 15.7 6.11 19.2 7.25
160 3.2 1.63 4 2 4.9 2.42 6.2 3.04 7.3 3.54 7.7 3.72 9.1 4.35 9.5 4.52 11.8 5.5 14.6 6.67 17.9 7.96 21.9 9.44
180 3.6 2.03 4.4 2.49 5.5 3.07 6.9 3.79 8.2 4.47 8.6 4.67 10.2 5.45 10.7 5.71 13.3 6.98 16.4 8.42 20.1 10.1 24.6 11.9
200 3.9 2.46 4.9 3.05 6.2 3.84 7.7 4.69 9.1 6.51 9.6 5.76 11.4 6.79 11.9 7.05 14.7 8.56 18.2 10.4 23.4 12.4 27.4 14.8
225 4.4 3.12 5.5 3.86 6.9 4.77 8.6 6.89 10.3 7 10.8 7.3 12.8 8.55 13.4 8.93 16.6 10.9 20.5 13.1 25.2 16.8 30.8 18.6
250 4.9 3.83 6.2 4.83 7.7 5.92 9.6 7.3 11.4 8.59 11.9 8.93 14.2 10.6 14.8 11 18.4 13.4 22.7 16.3 27.9 19.4 34.2 23
280 5.5 4.83 6.9 5.98 8.6 7.4 10.7 9.1 12.8 10.5 13.4 11.3 15.9 13.2 16.6 13.7 20.6 16.8 25.4 20.3 31.3 24.3 38.3 28.9
315 6.2 6.12 7.7 7.52 9.7 9.37 12.1 11.6 14.4 13.5 15 14.2 17.9 16.7 18.7 17.4 23.2 21.2 28.6 25.6 35.2 30.8 43.1 36.5
355 7 7.73 8.7 9.53 10.9 11.8 13.6 14.6 16.2 17.3 16.9 15 20.1 21.2 21.1 22.1 26.1 26.9 32.2 32.5 39.7 39.1 48.5 46.3
400 7.9 9.82 9.8 12.1 12.3 15.1 15.3 18.6 18.2 21.9 19..1 22.9 22.7 26.9 23.7 28 29.4 34.1 36.3 41.3 44.7 49.6 54.7 58.8
450 8.8 12.3 11 15.3 13.8 19 17.2 23.5 20.5 27.7 21.5 28.9 25.5 34 26.7 35.4 33.1 43.2 40.9 52.3 50.3 62.7 61.3 74.4
500 9.4 15.2 12.3 19 16.3 23.4 19.1 28.9 22.5 34.2 23.9 35.7 28.4 43 29.7 43.8 36.8 53.3 45.4 64.5 55.8 77.3 68.3 91.8
560 11 19.1 13.7 23.6 17.2 29.4 21.4 30.2 25.5 42.8 26.7 44.7 31.7 52.5 32.2 54.8 41.2 66.9 50.8 80.5 62.5 97
630 12.3 24 15.4 29.9 19.3 37.1 24.1 45.9 28.7 52.1 30 56.4 35.7 66.5 37.4 69.4 46.3 84.6 57.2 102
710 13.9 30.5 17.4 38 21.8 47.2 27.2 58.4 32.3 68.7 33.9 71.5 40.2 84.4 42.1 88.1 52.2 107 64.8 130
800 15.7 38.8 19.4 48.1 24.8 59.7 30.6 73.9 36.4 57.2 38.1 91.1 45.3 107 47.4 112 58.8 136

70
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

GI frictional headloss factors


Dia => 1/2"GI 3/4"GI 1"GI 1 1/4"GI 1 1/2"GI 2"GI 2 1/2"GI 3"GI 4"GI
Flow (l/s) 12.7 mm 19.1 mm 25.4 mm 31.8 mm 38.1 mm 50.8 mm 63.5 mm 76.2 mm 101.6 mm
0.100 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.120 8.980 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.140 12.180 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.160 15.860 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.180 20.040 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.200 24.700 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.220 29.850 6.660 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.240 35.480 7.910 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.260 41.600 9.270 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.280 48.210 10.730 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.300 55.310 12.310 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.320 62.890 13.990 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.340 70.960 15.770 4.930 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.360 79.510 17.670 5.520 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.380 88.550 19.670 6.140 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.400 98.080 21.780 6.800 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.420 V HIGH 24.000 7.490 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.440 V HIGH 26.330 8.210 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.460 V HIGH 28.760 8.970 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.480 V HIGH 31.300 9.760 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.500 V HIGH 33.950 10.580 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.550 V HIGH 41.040 12.790 3.530 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.600 V HIGH 48.800 15.200 4.190 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.650 V HIGH 57.240 17.820 4.910 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.700 V HIGH 66.340 20.650 5.690 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.750 V HIGH 76.120 23.680 6.520 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.800 V HIGH 86.570 26.930 7.420 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.850 V HIGH 97.690 30.380 8.360 2.610 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.900 V HIGH V HIGH 34.040 9.370 2.930 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.000 V HIGH V HIGH 41.990 11.550 3.610 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.100 V HIGH V HIGH 50.770 13.960 4.350 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.200 V HIGH V HIGH 60.380 16.590 5.170 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.300 V HIGH V HIGH 70.820 19.460 6.060 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.400 V HIGH V HIGH 82.100 22.550 7.030 2.190 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.500 V HIGH V HIGH 94.210 25.870 8.060 2.520 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.600 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 29.420 9.160 2.860 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.700 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 33.190 10.330 3.220 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.800 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 37.200 11.580 3.610 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.900 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 41.430 12.890 4.020 V LOW V LOW V LOW
2.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 45.890 14.270 4.450 V LOW V LOW V LOW
2.100 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 50.690 15.760 4.915 V LOW V LOW V LOW
2.200 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 55.490 17.250 5.380 V LOW V LOW V LOW
2.300 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 60.745 18.885 5.885 1.500 V LOW V LOW
2.400 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 66.000 20.520 6.390 1.630 V LOW V LOW
2.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 71.710 22.290 6.940 1.760 V LOW V LOW
2.600 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 24.060 7.490 1.910 V LOW V LOW
2.700 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 25.975 8.085 2.050 V LOW V LOW
2.800 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 27.890 8.680 2.210 V LOW V LOW
2.900 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 29.945 9.320 2.370 V LOW V LOW
3.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 32.000 9.960 2.530 V LOW V LOW
3.200 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 36.400 11.320 2.890 0.980 V LOW
3.400 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 41.070 12.770 3.250 1.100 V LOW
3.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 43.550 13.540 3.430 1.160 V LOW
3.600 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 46.030 14.310 3.640 1.232 V LOW
3.800 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 15.940 4.060 1.376 V LOW
4.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 17.650 4.480 1.520 V LOW
4.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 22.320 5.660 1.910 V LOW
5.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 27.540 6.980 2.360 V LOW
5.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 33.300 8.505 2.875 0.900
6.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 39.610 10.030 3.390 1.060
6.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 11.830 3.995 1.250
7.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 13.630 4.600 1.440
7.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 15.710 5.300 1.655
8.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 17.790 6.000 1.870
9.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 22.500 7.590 2.360
10.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 27.750 9.360 2.910
12.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 13.460 4.190
14.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 18.300 5.690
22.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 14.000

Note: velocity range (0.3 to 3m/s)

71
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Friction Factors for HDPE pipes (Indian Standards)


or HDP Pipe(ISI Standard) 2.2 2.55 3.05 3.95 2.55 4.85 3.15 6 3.9 7.6 4.85 3.25 6.85 3.7 5.4
ID (mm) 11.60 14.90 18.90 24.10 26.90 30.30 33.70 38.00 42.20 47.80 53.30 56.50 76.30 102.60 99.20
OD (mm) 16 20 25 32 32 40 40 50 50 63 63 63 90 110 110
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Pressure 10kg/cm 10kg/cm 10kg/cm 10kg/cm 6kg/cm 10kg/cm 6kg/cm 10kg/cm 6kg/cm 10kg/cm 6kg/cm 4kg/cm 6kg/cm 2.5kg/cm 4kg/cm
Flow (l/s) 16IV 20IV 25IV 32IV 32III 40IV 40III 50IV 50III 63IV 63III 63II 90III 110I 110II
0.050 V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW VLOW VLOW VLOW VLOW VLOW VLOW VLOW VLOW VLOW VLOW
0.100 12.60 3.70 1.20 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.110 14.93 4.35 1.50 0.50 0.30 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.120 17.44 5.07 1.70 0.50 0.30 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.130 20.12 5.84 2.00 0.60 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.140 22.97 6.66 2.20 0.70 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.150 26.00 7.53 2.50 0.80 0.50 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.160 29.19 8.45 2.80 0.90 0.50 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.170 32.54 9.41 3.10 1.00 0.60 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.180 36.07 10.42 3.43 1.10 0.60 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.190 39.75 11.47 3.78 1.20 0.60 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.200 43.60 12.57 4.14 1.30 0.80 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.210 47.62 13.72 4.51 1.45 0.85 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.220 51.79 14.91 4.90 1.60 0.90 0.50 0.30 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.225 53.94 15.52 5.10 1.65 0.93 0.53 0.33 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.230 56.13 16.14 5.30 1.70 0.95 0.55 0.35 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.240 60.63 17.42 5.72 1.80 1.00 0.60 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.250 65.28 18.74 6.15 1.95 1.10 0.65 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.260 70.10 20.11 6.60 2.10 1.20 0.70 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.280 80.20 22.97 7.53 2.40 1.40 0.80 0.50 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.300 90.94 26.00 8.51 2.70 1.60 0.90 0.50 V LOW V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.320 102.30 29.21 9.55 3.03 1.80 1.00 0.60 0.30 V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.340 V HIGH 32.58 10.64 3.37 1.92 1.10 0.70 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.360 V HIGH 36.12 11.79 3.73 2.12 1.20 0.70 0.40 0.30 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.380 V HIGH 39.83 12.99 4.11 2.33 1.30 0.80 0.50 0.30 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.400 V HIGH 43.71 14.24 4.50 2.56 1.50 0.90 0.50 0.30 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.420 V HIGH 47.75 15.54 4.91 2.79 1.60 1.00 0.50 0.30 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.440 V HIGH 51.95 16.89 5.33 3.03 1.70 1.00 0.60 0.40 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.460 V HIGH 56.33 18.30 5.77 3.28 1.90 1.10 0.60 0.40 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.480 V HIGH 60.86 19.75 6.23 3.53 2.00 1.20 0.70 0.40 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.500 V HIGH 65.56 21.26 6.70 3.80 2.18 1.30 0.70 0.50 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.520 V HIGH 70.42 22.82 7.20 4.08 2.34 1.40 0.80 0.50 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.540 V HIGH 72.80 24.42 7.69 4.36 2.51 1.50 0.80 0.50 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.550 V HIGH 74.85 25.24 7.94 4.50 2.59 1.55 0.85 0.50 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.560 V HIGH 76.90 26.08 8.21 4.65 2.68 1.60 0.90 0.50 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.580 V HIGH 81.00 27.79 8.74 4.96 2.85 1.71 1.00 0.60 V LOW V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.600 V HIGH 85.00 29.54 9.28 5.26 3.02 1.81 1.00 0.60 0.30 V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.620 V HIGH 89.10 31.35 9.85 5.58 3.20 1.92 1.10 0.70 0.40 V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.640 V HIGH V HIGH 33.21 10.42 5.90 3.39 2.03 1.20 0.70 0.40 V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.650 V HIGH V HIGH 34.16 10.71 6.06 3.48 2.09 1.20 0.70 0.40 V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.660 V HIGH V HIGH 35.11 11.01 6.23 3.58 2.15 1.20 0.70 0.40 V LOW VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.680 V HIGH V HIGH 37.06 11.62 6.58 3.77 2.26 1.30 0.80 0.40 0.30 VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.700 V HIGH V HIGH 39.07 12.23 6.92 3.97 2.38 1.30 0.80 0.50 0.30 VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.720 V HIGH V HIGH 41.12 12.88 7.28 4.18 2.50 1.40 0.90 0.50 0.30 VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.740 V HIGH V HIGH 43.22 13.53 7.65 4.39 2.63 1.50 0.90 0.50 0.30 VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.750 V HIGH V HIGH 44.30 13.85 7.83 4.49 2.69 1.50 0.90 0.50 0.30 VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.760 V HIGH V HIGH 45.37 14.19 8.02 4.60 2.76 1.50 0.90 0.50 0.30 VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.780 V HIGH V HIGH 47.56 14.87 8.41 4.82 2.89 1.60 1.00 0.50 0.30 VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.800 V HIGH V HIGH 49.81 15.55 8.79 5.04 3.02 1.70 1.02 0.60 0.30 VLOW V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.850 V HIGH V HIGH 55.96 17.35 9.80 5.62 3.36 1.91 1.15 0.65 0.35 0.30 V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.900 V HIGH V HIGH 62.10 19.23 10.86 6.22 3.73 2.11 1.27 0.70 0.40 0.30 V LOW V LOW V LOW
0.950 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 21.21 11.97 6.85 4.10 2.32 1.40 0.75 0.45 0.30 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 23.27 13.13 7.51 4.50 2.52 1.52 0.80 0.50 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.050 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 25.42 14.33 8.20 4.90 2.76 1.67 0.90 0.55 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.100 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 27.66 15.59 8.91 5.33 3.01 1.82 1.00 0.60 0.40 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.150 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 29.98 16.89 9.65 5.77 3.25 1.96 1.08 0.65 0.50 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.200 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 32.39 18.24 10.42 6.22 3.49 2.11 1.16 0.70 0.50 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.250 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 34.89 19.64 11.21 6.70 3.77 2.28 1.25 0.75 0.50 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.300 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 37.48 21.08 12.03 7.19 4.04 2.44 1.34 0.80 0.60 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.350 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 40.15 22.57 12.88 7.69 4.32 2.61 1.43 0.85 0.65 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.400 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 41.80 24.11 13.75 8.21 4.59 2.77 1.52 0.90 0.70 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.450 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 25.70 14.65 8.74 4.90 2.96 1.62 0.96 0.75 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 27.33 15.58 9.29 5.22 3.15 1.73 1.02 0.80 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.550 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 29.01 16.53 9.86 5.53 3.33 1.83 1.08 0.85 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.600 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 30.74 17.51 10.44 5.84 3.52 1.93 1.14 0.80 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.650 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 32.51 18.51 11.03 6.18 3.73 2.04 1.21 0.90 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.700 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 34.33 19.54 11.64 6.53 3.93 2.16 1.28 0.90 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.750 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 20.59 12.27 6.87 4.14 2.27 1.34 1.00 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.800 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 21.68 12.91 7.21 4.34 2.38 1.41 1.05 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.850 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 22.78 13.57 7.59 4.57 2.50 1.48 1.10 V LOW V LOW V LOW
1.900 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 23.91 14.24 7.96 4.79 2.63 1.56 1.15 0.30 V LOW V LOW
1.950 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 25.07 14.92 8.34 5.02 2.75 1.63 1.20 0.30 V LOW V LOW
2.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 26.25 15.62 8.71 5.24 2.87 1.70 1.30 0.30 V LOW V LOW
2.100 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 28.70 17.06 9.53 5.73 3.14 1.86 1.40 0.30 V LOW V LOW
2.200 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 31.24 18.57 10.35 6.22 3.41 2.02 1.50 0.40 V LOW V LOW
2.300 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 34.40 20.13 11.23 13.50 3.70 2.19 1.60 0.40 V LOW V LOW
2.400 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 37.20 21.75 12.11 7.28 3.98 2.35 1.70 0.40 V LOW V LOW
2.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 40.10 23.43 13.05 7.84 4.29 2.54 1.90 0.50 V LOW V LOW
2.600 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 25.16 13.99 8.40 4.59 2.72 V HIGH 0.53 V LOW V LOW
2.700 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 26.96 15.00 9.01 4.92 2.91 V HIGH 0.55 V LOW V LOW
2.800 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 16.01 9.61 5.25 3.10 V HIGH 0.57 V LOW V LOW
2.900 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 17.08 10.25 5.60 3.31 V HIGH 0.60 V LOW V LOW
3.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 18.15 10.88 5.94 3.51 V HIGH 0.62 V LOW V LOW
3.200 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 20.41 12.23 6.67 3.94 V HIGH 0.70 V LOW V LOW
3.400 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 22.79 13.65 7.44 4.39 V HIGH 0.79 V LOW V LOW
3.600 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 15.15 8.25 4.86 V HIGH 0.87 V LOW V LOW
3.800 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 16.71 9.10 5.36 V HIGH 0.96 V LOW V LOW
4.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 18.35 9.98 5.88 V HIGH 1.04 V LOW V LOW
4.200 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 20.06 10.91 6.42 V HIGH 1.14 V LOW V LOW
4.400 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 11.87 6.98 V HIGH 1.24 V LOW V LOW
4.600 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 12.86 7.57 V HIGH 1.35 V LOW V LOW
4.800 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 13.90 8.17 V HIGH 1.45 V LOW V LOW
5.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 14.97 8.80 V HIGH 1.55 0.37 0.44
5.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 17.82 10.46 V HIGH 1.85 0.45 0.53
6.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 12.25 V HIGH 2.14 0.52 0.61
6.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 14.17 V HIGH 2.49 0.60 0.71
7.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 2.83 0.68 0.80
7.500 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 3.21 0.77 0.91
8.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 3.59 0.86 1.01
9.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 4.44 1.06 1.25
10.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 5.37 1.28 1.51
11.000 V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH V HIGH 6.39 1.52 1.79

72
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Friction Factors for Polypark HDPE pipes (Iranian Standards)


Head loss chart 1.8 for HDP
2.3 Pipe(ISI
2.8 Standard)
3.6 2.4 4.5 3 5.6 3.7 7.1 4.7 3 6.7 3.4 5.3
ID (mm) 12.40 15.40 19.40 24.80 27.20 31.00 34.00 38.80 42.60 48.80 53.60 57.00 76.60 103.20 99.40
OD (mm) 16 20 25 32 32 40 40 50 50 63 63 63 90 110 110
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Pressure 10kg/cm 10kg/cm 10kg/cm 10kg/cm 6kg/cm 10kg/cm 6kg/cm 10kg/cm 6kg/cm 10kg/cm 6kg/cm 4kg/cm 6kg/cm 2.5kg/cm 4kg/cm
Flow (l/s) 16PN10 20PN10 25PN10 32PN10 32PN6 40PN10 40PN6 50PN10 50PN6 63PN10 63PN6 63PN4 90PN6 110PN2.5 110PN4
0.050 2.37 0.82 0.27 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.100 8.55 2.98 0.97 0.29 0.19 0.10 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.110 10.20 3.55 1.15 0.35 0.22 0.12 0.08 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.120 11.99 4.17 1.36 0.41 0.26 0.14 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.130 13.90 4.84 1.57 0.48 0.30 0.16 0.10 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.140 15.95 5.55 1.80 0.55 0.35 0.18 0.12 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.150 18.12 6.31 2.05 0.62 0.40 0.21 0.13 0.07 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.160 20.42 7.11 2.31 0.70 0.45 0.24 0.15 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.170 22.85 7.95 2.58 0.78 0.50 0.26 0.17 0.09 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.180 25.40 8.84 2.87 0.87 0.55 0.29 0.19 0.10 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.190 28.08 9.77 3.17 0.96 0.61 0.32 0.21 0.11 0.07 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.200 30.87 10.75 3.49 1.06 0.67 0.36 0.23 0.12 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.210 33.79 11.76 3.82 1.16 0.74 0.39 0.25 0.13 0.08 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.220 36.83 12.82 4.16 1.26 0.80 0.42 0.27 0.14 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.225 38.40 13.37 4.34 1.31 0.84 0.44 0.28 0.15 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.230 39.99 13.92 4.52 1.37 0.87 0.46 0.29 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.240 43.27 15.06 4.89 1.48 0.94 0.50 0.32 0.17 0.11 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.250 46.67 16.25 5.28 1.60 1.02 0.54 0.34 0.18 0.11 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.260 50.19 17.47 5.67 1.72 1.09 0.58 0.37 0.19 0.12 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.280 57.57 20.04 6.51 1.97 1.26 0.66 0.42 0.22 0.14 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.300 65.42 22.77 7.40 2.24 1.43 0.75 0.48 0.25 0.16 0.08 0.05 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.320 73.72 25.66 8.33 2.52 1.61 0.85 0.54 0.28 0.18 0.09 0.06 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.340 82.48 28.71 9.32 2.82 1.80 0.95 0.61 0.32 0.20 0.10 0.07 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.360 91.69 31.92 10.37 3.13 2.00 1.06 0.67 0.35 0.22 0.12 0.07 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.380 NA 35.28 11.46 3.46 2.21 1.17 0.75 0.39 0.25 0.13 0.08 0.06 0.01 0.00 0.00
0.400 NA 38.79 12.60 3.81 2.43 1.29 0.82 0.43 0.27 0.14 0.09 0.07 0.02 0.00 0.00
0.420 NA 42.46 13.79 4.17 2.66 1.41 0.90 0.47 0.30 0.15 0.10 0.07 0.02 0.00 0.00
0.440 NA 46.28 15.03 4.55 2.90 1.53 0.98 0.51 0.33 0.17 0.11 0.08 0.02 0.00 0.01
0.460 NA 50.25 16.32 4.94 3.15 1.66 1.06 0.56 0.35 0.18 0.12 0.09 0.02 0.00 0.01
0.480 NA 54.37 17.66 5.34 3.41 1.80 1.15 0.60 0.38 0.20 0.13 0.09 0.02 0.01 0.01
0.500 NA 58.64 19.05 5.76 3.67 1.94 1.24 0.65 0.41 0.21 0.13 0.10 0.02 0.01 0.01
0.520 NA 63.06 20.48 6.19 3.95 2.09 1.33 0.70 0.44 0.23 0.15 0.11 0.03 0.01 0.01
0.540 NA 67.63 21.96 6.64 4.24 2.24 1.43 0.75 0.48 0.25 0.16 0.12 0.03 0.01 0.01
0.550 NA 69.96 22.72 6.87 4.38 2.32 1.48 0.78 0.49 0.25 0.16 0.12 0.03 0.01 0.01
0.560 NA 72.34 23.49 7.10 4.53 2.40 1.53 0.80 0.51 0.26 0.17 0.12 0.03 0.01 0.01
0.580 NA 77.19 25.07 7.58 4.83 2.56 1.63 0.86 0.54 0.28 0.18 0.13 0.03 0.01 0.01
0.600 NA 82.20 26.70 8.07 5.15 2.72 1.74 0.91 0.58 0.30 0.19 0.14 0.03 0.01 0.01
0.620 NA 87.34 28.37 8.58 5.47 2.89 1.85 0.97 0.62 0.32 0.20 0.15 0.04 0.01 0.01
0.640 NA 92.63 30.08 9.10 5.80 3.07 1.96 1.03 0.65 0.34 0.21 0.16 0.04 0.01 0.01
0.650 NA 95.33 30.96 9.36 5.97 3.16 2.01 1.06 0.67 0.35 0.22 0.16 0.04 0.01 0.01
0.660 NA 98.06 31.85 9.63 6.14 3.25 2.07 1.09 0.69 0.36 0.23 0.17 0.04 0.01 0.01
0.680 NA NA 33.66 10.18 6.49 3.43 2.19 1.15 0.73 0.38 0.24 0.18 0.04 0.01 0.01
0.700 NA NA 35.52 10.74 6.85 3.62 2.31 1.21 0.77 0.40 0.25 0.19 0.04 0.01 0.01
0.720 NA NA 37.42 11.31 7.22 3.82 2.43 1.28 0.81 0.42 0.27 0.20 0.05 0.01 0.01
0.740 NA NA 39.37 11.90 7.59 4.02 2.56 1.35 0.85 0.44 0.28 0.21 0.05 0.01 0.01
0.750 NA NA 40.36 12.20 7.78 4.12 2.62 1.38 0.88 0.45 0.29 0.21 0.05 0.01 0.01
0.760 NA NA 41.36 12.51 7.98 4.22 2.69 1.41 0.90 0.46 0.29 0.22 0.05 0.01 0.01
0.780 NA NA 43.40 13.12 8.37 4.43 2.82 1.48 0.94 0.49 0.31 0.23 0.05 0.01 0.02
0.800 NA NA 45.48 13.75 8.77 4.64 2.96 1.55 0.99 0.51 0.32 0.24 0.06 0.01 0.02
0.850 NA NA 50.88 15.39 9.81 5.19 3.31 1.74 1.10 0.57 0.36 0.27 0.06 0.01 0.02
0.900 NA NA 56.56 17.10 10.91 5.77 3.68 1.93 1.23 0.63 0.40 0.30 0.07 0.02 0.02
0.950 NA NA 62.52 18.91 12.06 6.38 4.07 2.14 1.36 0.70 0.44 0.33 0.08 0.02 0.02
1.000 NA NA 68.75 20.79 13.26 7.01 4.47 2.35 1.49 0.77 0.49 0.36 0.09 0.02 0.02
1.050 NA NA 75.25 22.76 14.51 7.68 4.89 2.57 1.63 0.84 0.53 0.40 0.09 0.02 0.03
1.100 NA NA 82.02 24.80 15.82 8.37 5.33 2.80 1.78 0.92 0.58 0.43 0.10 0.02 0.03
1.150 NA NA 89.06 26.93 17.17 9.08 5.79 3.04 1.93 1.00 0.63 0.47 0.11 0.03 0.03
1.200 NA NA 96.36 29.14 18.58 9.83 6.27 3.29 2.09 1.08 0.68 0.51 0.12 0.03 0.03
1.250 NA NA NA 31.43 20.04 10.60 6.76 3.55 2.25 1.16 0.74 0.55 0.13 0.03 0.04
1.300 NA NA NA 33.80 21.55 11.40 7.27 3.82 2.42 1.25 0.79 0.59 0.14 0.03 0.04
1.350 NA NA NA 36.24 23.11 12.22 7.80 4.10 2.60 1.34 0.85 0.63 0.15 0.03 0.04
1.400 NA NA NA 38.77 24.72 13.08 8.34 4.38 2.78 1.43 0.91 0.67 0.16 0.04 0.04
1.450 NA NA NA 41.37 26.38 13.95 8.90 4.68 2.97 1.53 0.97 0.72 0.17 0.04 0.05
1.500 NA NA NA 44.05 28.09 14.86 9.47 4.98 3.16 1.63 1.03 0.77 0.18 0.04 0.05
1.550 NA NA NA 46.81 29.85 15.79 10.07 5.29 3.36 1.73 1.10 0.81 0.19 0.05 0.05
1.600 NA NA NA 49.64 31.66 16.74 10.68 5.61 3.56 1.84 1.16 0.86 0.20 0.05 0.06
1.650 NA NA NA 52.55 33.51 17.73 11.30 5.94 3.77 1.94 1.23 0.91 0.22 0.05 0.06
1.700 NA NA NA 55.54 35.42 18.73 11.95 6.28 3.98 2.06 1.30 0.96 0.23 0.05 0.06
1.750 NA NA NA 58.60 37.37 19.77 12.61 6.63 4.20 2.17 1.37 1.02 0.24 0.06 0.07
1.800 NA NA NA 61.74 39.37 20.83 13.28 6.98 4.43 2.28 1.45 1.07 0.25 0.06 0.07
1.850 NA NA NA 64.95 41.42 21.91 13.97 7.34 4.66 2.40 1.52 1.13 0.27 0.06 0.08
1.900 NA NA NA 68.24 43.52 23.02 14.68 7.72 4.89 2.53 1.60 1.19 0.28 0.07 0.08
1.950 NA NA NA 71.61 45.66 24.15 15.40 8.10 5.14 2.65 1.68 1.24 0.29 0.07 0.08
2.000 NA NA NA 75.04 47.85 25.31 16.14 8.48 5.38 2.78 1.76 1.30 0.31 0.07 0.09
2.100 NA NA NA 82.14 52.38 27.71 17.67 9.29 5.89 3.04 1.92 1.43 0.34 0.08 0.10
2.200 NA NA NA 89.53 57.09 30.20 19.26 10.12 6.42 3.31 2.10 1.55 0.37 0.09 0.10
2.300 NA NA NA 97.21 61.99 32.79 20.91 10.99 6.97 3.60 2.28 1.69 0.40 0.09 0.11
2.400 NA NA NA NA 67.07 35.48 22.62 11.89 7.54 3.89 2.46 1.83 0.43 0.10 0.12
2.500 NA NA NA NA 72.34 38.26 24.40 12.83 8.14 4.20 2.66 1.97 0.47 0.11 0.13
2.600 NA NA NA NA 77.79 41.15 26.24 13.79 8.75 4.51 2.86 2.12 0.50 0.12 0.14
2.700 NA NA NA NA 83.42 44.12 28.14 14.79 9.38 4.84 3.07 2.27 0.54 0.13 0.15
2.800 NA NA NA NA 89.23 47.20 30.10 15.82 10.04 5.18 3.28 2.43 0.58 0.13 0.16
2.900 NA NA NA NA 95.23 50.37 32.12 16.88 10.71 5.53 3.50 2.59 0.61 0.14 0.17
3.000 NA NA NA NA NA 53.63 34.20 17.98 11.40 5.88 3.73 2.76 0.65 0.15 0.18
3.200 NA NA NA NA NA 60.44 38.54 20.26 12.85 6.63 4.20 3.11 0.74 0.17 0.21
3.400 NA NA NA NA NA 67.62 43.12 22.67 14.38 7.42 4.70 3.48 0.83 0.19 0.23
3.600 NA NA NA NA NA 75.17 47.94 25.20 15.98 8.25 5.22 3.87 0.92 0.21 0.26
3.800 NA NA NA NA NA 83.09 52.98 27.85 17.67 9.12 5.77 4.28 1.01 0.24 0.29
4.000 NA NA NA NA NA 91.37 58.26 30.62 19.43 10.02 6.35 4.70 1.12 0.26 0.31
4.200 NA NA NA NA NA NA 63.77 33.52 21.27 10.97 6.95 5.15 1.22 0.29 0.34
4.400 NA NA NA NA NA NA 69.51 36.54 23.18 11.96 7.57 5.61 1.33 0.31 0.37
4.600 NA NA NA NA NA NA 75.48 39.67 25.17 12.99 8.22 6.09 1.44 0.34 0.41
4.800 NA NA NA NA NA NA 81.66 42.92 27.23 14.05 8.90 6.59 1.56 0.37 0.44
5.000 NA NA NA NA NA NA 88.08 46.30 29.37 15.15 9.60 7.11 1.69 0.39 0.47
5.500 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 55.23 35.04 18.08 11.45 8.48 2.01 0.47 0.57
6.000 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 64.89 41.17 21.24 13.45 9.97 2.36 0.55 0.66
6.500 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 75.26 47.74 24.63 15.60 11.56 2.74 0.64 0.77
7.000 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 86.33 54.77 28.26 17.89 13.26 3.14 0.74 0.88
7.500 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 98.09 62.23 32.11 20.33 15.07 3.57 0.84 1.00
8.000 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 70.13 36.18 22.91 16.98 4.03 0.94 1.13
9.000 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 87.22 45.00 28.50 21.12 5.01 1.17 1.41
10.000 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 54.70 34.64 25.67 6.09 1.43 1.71
11.000 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 65.26 41.32 30.63 7.26 1.70 2.04

73
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

WHO's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, set up in Geneva, 1993, are the international
reference point for standard setting and drinking-water safety.
Element/ Symbol/ Normally found in fresh Health based guideline
substance formula water/surface water/ground by the WHO
water
Aluminium Al 0,2 mg/l
Ammonia NH4 < 0,2 mg/l (up to 0,3 mg/l in No guideline
anaerobic waters)
Antimony Sb < 4 μg/l 0.005 mg/l
Arsenic As 0,01 mg/l
Asbestos No guideline
Barium Ba 0,3 mg/l
Berillium Be < 1 μg/l No guideline
Boron B < 1 mg/l 0,3 mg/l
Cadmium Cd < 1 μg/l 0,003 mg/l
Chloride Cl 250 mg/l
Chromium Cr+3, Cr+6 < 2 μg/l 0,05 mg/l
Colour Not mentioned
Copper Cu 2 mg/l
Cyanide CN- 0,07 mg/l
Dissolved oxygen O2 No guideline
Fluoride F < 1,5 mg/l (up to 10) 1,5 mg/l
Hardness mg/l CaCO3 No guideline
Hydrogen sulfide H2S No guideline
Iron Fe 0,5 - 50 mg/l No guideline
Lead Pb 0,01 mg/l
Manganese Mn 0,5 mg/l
Mercury Hg < 0,5 μg/l 0,001 mg/l
Molybdenum Mb < 0,01 mg/l 0,07 mg/l
Nickel Ni < 0,02 mg/l 0,02 mg/l
Nitrate and nitrite NO3, NO2 50 mg/l total nitrogen
Turbidity Not mentioned
pH No guideline
Selenium Se < < 0,01 mg/l 0,01 mg/l
Silver Ag 5 – 50 μg/l No guideline
Sodium Na < 20 mg/l 200 mg/l
Sulfate SO4 500 mg/l
Inorganic tin Sn No guideline
TDS No guideline
Uranium U 1,4 mg/l
Zinc Zn 3 mg/l

74
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products

Group Substance Formula Health


based
guideline by
the WHO
Disinfectants Chloramines NHnCl(3-n), 3 mg/l
where
n = 0,
1 or 2
Chlorine Cl2 5 mg/l
Chlorine dioxide ClO2 No guideline
Iodine I2 No guideline
-
Disinfectant by- Bromate Br O3 25 μg/l
products Chlorate Cl O3 -
No guideline
Chlorite Cl O2- 200 μg/l
Chlorophenols 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP) C6 H5 Cl O No guideline
2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) C6 H4 Cl2 O No guideline
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) C6 H3 Cl3 O 200 μg/l
Formaldehyde HCHO 900 μg/l
MX (3-Chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)- C5 H3 Cl3 O3 No guideline
furanone)
Trihalomethanes Bromoform C H Br3 100 μg/l
Dibromochloromethane CH Br2 Cl 100 μg/l
Bromodichloromethane CH Br Cl2 60 μg/l
Chloroform CH Cl3 200 μg/l
Chlorinated acetic Monochloroacetic acid C2 H3 Cl O2 No guideline
acids Dichloroacetic acid C2 H2 Cl2 O2 50 μg/l
Trichloroacetic acid C2 H Cl3 O2 100 μg/l
Chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde) C Cl3 CH(OH)2 10 μg/l
Chloroacetones C3 H5 O Cl No guideline
Halogenated Dichloroacetonitrile C2 H Cl2 N 90 μg/l
acetonitriles Dibromoacetonitrile C2 H Br2 N 100 μg/l
Bromochloroacetonitrile CH Cl2 CN No guideline
Trichloroacetonitrile C2 Cl3 N 1 μg/l
Cyanogen chloride Cl CN 70 μg/l
Chloropicrin C Cl3 NO2 No guideline

75
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

ABNEY LEVEL OBSERVATION BOOK (GWSS)


Project:___________________ Families/member: Page No._________________
District/Province: ___________________________________
Yield: ___________________ Instrument:______________
Tap Stands: Date :_____________________ Observed By:_____________
Others demands: Recorded By:_____________
Sloped Distance Vertical Angle Vertical Distance Reduced Level
Station (m) (d) (m) S SD (m) Remarks

76
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

Discharge Measurement Using Conductivity Meter

River

Date Salt Constant k mS/(mg/ml)


o
Time Water temp C

Weather Base level mS

Salt Used (M)

Time(sec)
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Sum

Water
Conductivity
in mS

Total
77
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

LEVEL OBSERVATION BOOK


Project:___________________ Page No._________________
Date :_____________________ Instrument:______________
Time:______________________ Observed By:_____________
Weather:___________________ Recorded By:_____________
Staff Distance/ Staff Reading Height Rise Fall Reduced Remarks
Stn Chainage Back Inter Fore of Inst Level

78
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

STADIA OBSERVATION BOOK


Project:________________ Page:___________
Time:___________________ Date:_________________________
Weather:________________ Instrument:___________________
Instrument Height:______ Observed By:__________________
Location:______________________________Recorded By:__________________
Inst Height Face Horiz. Vert. Stadia Readings Remarks
Stn of Inst Angle Angle Top Middle Bottom

79
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

PIPE DESIGN FORMAT


Project Name : Designed by : Date:
District name : Checked by : Date:
Source Name : Approved by : Date:

Reach Elevation Static HGL Design Pipe lenght head Desired Desired frictional Pipe Frictional head loss HGL Residual No of fittings
head
residual loss class & head
station 1 station 2 Station 1 Station 2 pressure head station 1 flow ground design available head head loss factor dia. factor partial station 2 station 2
(name) (name) (m) (m) (m) (m) ( l.p.s.) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (%) (%) (m) (m) (m)
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R
[L/I x [(O x I)
[Hx 1.1] [F - D] [J - K] 100%] /100] [F - P] [Q - D]

80
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

REFERENCES

1. Amar Nekhu & Edward A. Hillmann, Rural Gravity Flow Water System (Design Techniques and
Standard Structures), UNICEF & Govt. of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal (1996).

2. Gravity Water Supply Design Notes and Formats, CARE International in Nepal, Kathmandu,
Nepal.

3. Gravity Water Supply Design Notes and Formats, Rural Area Development Program
(RADP/CIDA), Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

4. Gravity Water Supply Design Notes and Formats, United Mission to Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

5. Lane Brown, Understanding Gravity-Flow Pipelines, Water Flow, Air Locks and Siphons, Ministry
of Agriculture and Lands, British Columbia, Canada, 2006.

6. National Solidarity Program (NSP) Afghanistan, Technical Manuals on WatSan (2007).

7. Oasis Design, Slow Sand Filtration at www.oasisdesign.net, 2006.

8. P.N. Khanna (1996), Indian Practical Civil Engineer's Handbook, 15th Edition, Engineer's
Publishers, Post Box 725, New Delhi - 110001.

9. Provision of Drinking Water and System of Water Supply Scheme, National Solidarity
Programme, Kabul, Afghanistan (2007).

10. Pushpa Chitrakar (2007), Discharge Measurement and Engineering Surveying Tools,
UNHABITAT, Afghanistan, ISBN 978-969-9212-00-0.

11. Pushpa Chitrakar, Design of Sixteen Gravity Water Flow Systems, Jhimruk Hydro-electric and
Rural Electrification Project (JHEREP), Pyuthan, Nepal (1991).

12. Pushpa Chitrakar, Gravity Water Supply Pipe Network Design Spreadsheet, Rural Area
Development Program (RADP/CIDA), Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

13. Pushpa Chitrakar, Micro-hydropower Design Aids, Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative
Energy Promotion Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal (2003).

14. Pushpa Chitrakar, Mini-hydropower Design Aids, Small Hydropower Promotion Project/German
Technical Cooperation (SHPP/GTZ), Kathmandu, Nepal (2006). Download: www.entec.com.np.

15. Pushpa Chitrakar, Notes on Closed Traverse Surveying and Data Reduction (1991), Butwal
Power Company Limited, Nepal, 1991.

16. S K Garg, Water Supply Engineering, Khanna Publishers, Delhi, India (2007).

81
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

17. S. C. Rangwala, Fundamentals of Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering, Charotar Publishing
House, Mumbai, India (2001)

18. Standardization for Rural Water Supply System, Ministry of Housing and Physical Planning,
Department of Water Supply and Sewerage, Western Regional Directorate, Nepal.

19. Thomas D. Jordan, Jr., Handbook of Gravity Water System, UNICEF, Kathmandu, Nepal (1980).

20. Water Supply Technical Manual, Rural Assistance Program, CARE International in Afghanistan,
Kabul, Afghanistan (2006).

82
Gravity Water Supply System Design Tools (v 2008.06) UNHABITAT, Afghanistan

TYPICAL DRAWINGS

1. General Layout: Plan

2. Headworks General Layout: Plan

3. Weir: Plan and Sections

4. Sedimentation Tank: Plans and Sections

5. Slow Sand Filter Tank: Plans and Sections

6. 50m3 Reservoir Tank: Plan, Section and Details

7. 25m3 Reservoir Tank: Plan, Sections

8. 25m3 Reservoir Tank: Reinforcement Details

9. Pipe Networks System: Pipe Design

10. Pipe Networks System: Profile

11. Miscellaneous Details: Manhole, Tap-stand and Pipe Laying

12. Break Pressure Tank: With and Without Float Valves

13. Spring Intake: Plan and Section

14. Stream Intake with in-built Filter: Plan and Sections

83
4.10
1m min
4.10
d2
1m min
h
d2
.
0.30
0.75
1.00
0.20
0.30
1.00
500 min
Varies
0.20
0.30
0.20
W=
0.30
Varies
0.30
0.58
2.80
3.00
0.50
0.75 0.60
0.60 1.95
0.30 2.80
4.20
0.30
0.30
3.00
2.80
0.90
1.00
2.80
0.30 0.30
0.40 0.40
3.50
1.15 0.40 0.75
0.15 1.80
0.20
0.20
0.95 2.15
0.81
0.15
4.90
1.28 0.10
0.40
9.35
0.30 0.30 0.30 0.40 0.45
1.50 2.70 2.60 2.50 3.05
0.66
0.30
0.10
1.00
12.55
3.00
0.35
1.50
4.50
0.10 1.70 0.10
0.30
0.20
0.10 0.82 0.68
0.40
-
0.30 0.55
0.55
0.70
20,PN10, 11m

20,PN10, 11m

16,PN10, 11m

16,PN10, 11m

300m 50,PN6, 101.4m


50,PN6, 330m 174m
Elevation (m)
0.924 63 PN6 2666.775 2666.775 Intake at Dokhani
0.924 180.00 50 PN6 2666.018 2658.63 Combination
1.575 2020.00 50 PN6 2630.00 2630.00 Reservoir tank at Jn00
1.350 330.00 50 PN6 2618.588 2586.19 Jn 01
1.125 191.40 50 PN6 2613.613 2589.85 Jn 02
0.900 244.20 50 PN6 2609.084 2586.76 Jn 03
0.675 96.80 50 PN6 2607.896 2584.34 Jn 04
0.450 392.70 40 PN6 2605.068 2585.67 Jn 05
0.225 313.50 32 PN6 2601.873 2582.70 Jn 06
0.225 218.00 25 PN10 2600.048 2582.70 Combination
757.00 2567.185 2551.84 Tap 07
1.30
1.45
1.00 0.15 0.15 0.98
0.15 0.10 0.10 0.12
0.85
0.05
0.40
0.50 0.70
0.20
0.20 0.80 min
1.30
1.45
0.30
1.10
1.00 0.15 0.15 1.10
0.15 0.10 0.10
1.30
1.45
1.00 0.15 0.15 1.10
0.15 0.10 0.10
Varies
0.20
0.05
0.40 0.50 0.35
0.20
0.15 0.80 0.40
0.35 L 0.35 0.10
A
12.00
6.00 6.00
0.60
1.00
1.00
0.60
2.00
1.45
0.05
2.00 0.50
0.50 1.00 0.50
0.50
United Nations Human Settlements Programme
(UNHABITAT), Afghanistan

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme, UN-HABITAT, established in 1978, is the lead agency
within the UN system for coordinating activities in the field of human settlement development.

The headquarter of UN-HABITAT is located in Nairobi, Kenya and it has its three regional offices as:

a. Regional Office for Asia and Pacific (ROAP) in Fukuoka, Japan

b. Regional Office for Latin and the Caribbean (ROLAC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

c. Regional Office for Africa and the Arab States (ROAAS) in Nairobi, Kenya.

UN-HABITAT, Afghanistan operates under the ROAP. It has more than 15 years of history of operation in
Afghanistan. Through conflicts and wars, it has been serving the people of Afghanistan without any
interruption. Through its programmes and projects, it has been serving and assisting more than seven
million rural and urban populations. It has implemented reconstruction, infrastructure development,
education and community empowerment projects and programmes with a total cost of about US$ 60
million. At present, UN-HABITAT, Afghanistan is staffed with about one thousand national staff and six
international staff in 48 districts of nine provinces and the main office in Kabul.

Within the national development frameworks and national priority programmes, UN-HABITAT is assisting
the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in translating its development efforts into tangible outputs, improving
the quality of livelihood of Afghan citizens. Its current activities include:

1. Strengthening of Policy Framework: UN-HABITAT provides inputs to the formulation of national


development policies, acts and regulations.

2. Project implementation: UN-HABITAT is engaged in implementing rural and urban community-based


infrastructure as well as human security sub-projects. To date, it has implemented more than 6000 such
sub-projects in Afghanistan.

3. Capacity building of stakeholders: UN-HABITAT is involved in developing indigenous capacity of


Afghan human resources towards sustainability. On-the-job training while implementing sub-projects,
seminars, workshops and forums for professionals and stakeholders of development perspective are
some of the methods used during capacity building.

4. Facilitating Grants: UN-HABITAT is successful in attracting major donors on implementing their


development grants efficiently and effectively. National Solidarity Program (NSP), Literacy and
Community Empowerment Programme (LCEP), Inter Communal Rural Development Project (IRDP),
Reintegration of Returnees and internally displaced people in Informal Settlements in Kabul (EC5), Human
Security Trust Fund (HSTF) and Youth Empowerment Programme (YEP) are the major programmes and
projects being facilitated by UN-HABITAT.

Contact Address:

UN-HABITAT, Afghanistan

House # 235, Street # 8,

Taimani, Kabul, Afghanistan

e-mail: unhabitat@unhabitat-afg.org