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Systems and Control, University of Batna 2, Batna,

Algeria, May 7-9, 2017

System

Ahmed SAIDI*, Benachaiba CHELLALI

thoroughly considered to be alternate source of green power other. For example, Photovoltaic (PV) system is ideal for

generation which can mitigate the power demand issues. This locations having more solar illumination levels and Wind

paper introduces a standalone hybrid power generation system power system is ideal for locations having better wind flow

consisting of solar and permanent magnet synchronous conditions [3].

generator (PMSG) wind power sources and a AC load. A

supervisory control unit, designed to execute maximum power For RES especially the variable speed wind energy

point tracking (MPPT), is introduced to maximize the conversion systems, Permanent Magnet Synchronous

simultaneous energy harvesting from overall power generation generator (PMSG) is gaining popularity. PMSG have a loss-

under different climatic conditions. Two contingencies are free rotor, and the power losses are confined to the stator

considered and categorized according to the power generation winding and stator core. A multi-pole PMSG connected to

from each energy source, and the load requirement. In PV power converter can be used as direct driven PMSG in

system Perturb & Observe (P&O) algorithm is used as control locations with low wind speed there by eliminating the

logic for the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) gearbox which adds weight, losses, cost and maintenance [4].

controller and Hill Climb Search (HCS) algorithm is used as A gearless construction of wind conversion system represents

MPPT control logic for the Wind power system in order to an efficient and reliable wind power conversion system. In a

maximizing the power generated. The Fuzzy logic control PV system, a solar cell alone can produce power of 1 to 2

scheme of the inverter is intended to keep the load voltage and watt [5]. The solar cell is modeled by two diode model [6].

frequency of the AC supply at constant level regardless of The solar cells are connected in series and parallel to form a

progress in natural conditions and burden. A Simulink model PV panel or module. The PV modules are connected in series

of the proposed Hybrid system with the MPPT controlled Boost and parallel to form a PV array in order to generate

converters and Voltage regulated Inverter for stand-alone

appropriate amount of power.

application is developed in MATLAB.

Thus a PV system consisting of PV array, Maximum

Keywords— Renewable energy ,Solar ,PMSG Wind, Fuzzy Power Point Tracking (MPPT) boost converters, and Wind

controller , P&O. power system consisting of wind turbine, PMSG, rectifier

I. INTRODUCTION and MPPT boost converter is integrated into Solar Wind

hybrid power system (SWHPS). The efficiency and reliability

Renewable energy sources (RES) such as Solar, Wind, of the SWHPS mainly depends upon the control strategy of

Geothermal, Tidal, Hydro etc. are inexhaustible by nature. the MPPT boost converter. The solar and wind power

The RES have been found promising towards building generation cannot operate at Maximum power point (MPP)

sustainable and ecofriendly power generation. Due to the without proper control logic in the MPPT boost converter. If

limitation of conventional resources of fossil fuels, it has the MPP is not tracked by the controller the power losses will

compelled the evolution of hybrid power system. Therefore, occur in the system and in spite of wind and solar power

new ways to balance the load demand is by integrating RES availability, the output voltage of the hybrid system will not

into the system. Hybrid system enables the incorporation of boost up to the required value [7]. The output voltage of the

renewable energy sources and transferals the dependency on PV and Wind power generation are quite low as compared

fossil fuels, while sustaining the balance between supply and with the desired operating level. So, this output voltage is

demand. The significant characteristic of hybrid power brought to desired operating value of 220V using Boost

system includes, system reliability, operational efficiency [1]. converter with MPPT controller at each source.

The hybrid power system enables to overcome the limitations

in wind and photovoltaic resources since their performance The control logic of the MPPT controlled boost converter

characteristics depends upon the unfavorable changes in for the Wind power generation and PV based generation are

environmental conditions. It is probable to endorse that selected on the basis of ease of implementation and

hybrid stand-alone electricity generation systems are usually robustness of the Hill Climb Search (HCS) and Perturb &

more reliable and less costly than systems that depend on a Observe (P&O) algorithm respectively.

single source of energy [2]. On other hand one environmental This paper deals with the simulation and control of

(PV/wind) hybrid systems including energy storage battery

connected to the AC load. Study of modeling and simulation

* Ahmed SAIDI is with the electrical engineering Department of Tahri on the entire PV/wind/battery hybrid system is carried out

Mohammed University (corresponding author to provide phone:

+213661661038; e-mail: ahmedsaidi@outlook.com). under Matlab/Simulink environment.

Benachaiba CHELLALI was with Tahri Mohammed University, (e-mail:

chellali99@yahoo.fr).

II. MODELING AND CONTROL OF HYBRID SYSTEM one item, the PV module, to produce higher voltage, current

and power, as shown in Fig. 3.

A. Photovoltaic Power System

Fig. 1 shows a simplified scheme of a standalone PV The equation of the I–V characteristic of the PV module

system with DC–DC buck converter. is obtained from Eq. (1) by including the equivalent module

series resistance, shunt resistance and the number of cells

This section is devoted to PV module modelling which is connected in series and in parallel.

a matrix of elementary cells that are the heart of PV systems.

𝑞(𝑉+𝐼.𝑅𝑠 ) (𝑉 + 𝐼. 𝑅𝑠 )

𝑎𝑁𝑠 𝐾𝑇

The modelling of PV systems starts from the model of the 𝐼 = 𝑁𝑝 (𝐼𝑃𝑉 − 𝐼𝑠 (𝑒 − 1)) −

𝑅𝑠ℎ

(2)

elementary PV cell that is derived from that of the P–N

junction [8].

Where Vt the PV cell thermal voltage in Eq. (1) is

substituted by that of the module thermal voltage given by

𝑁𝑠 𝐾𝑇

𝑉𝑡 = and Ns and Np are respectively the number of cells

𝑞

connected in series and in parallel forming the PV module.

diode may be arbitrary chosen from the interval (1, 1.5) [10].

Figure 1. A PV system with a DC–DC buck converter.

The light generated current of PV cell depends linearly on the

irradiance and is also influenced by the temperature:

1) Ideal photovoltaic cell 𝐺

The PV cell combines the behavior of either voltage or 𝐼𝑃𝑉 = ( ) (𝐼𝑃𝑉𝑛 + 𝐾𝑖 (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑆𝑇𝐶 )) (3)

𝐺𝑆𝑇𝐶

current sources according to the operating point. This

behavior can be obtained by connecting a sunlight-sensitive Ipvn is the nominal light-generated current provided at

current source with a P–N junction of a semiconductor GSTC, TSTC which refer to the values at nominal or Standard

material being sensitive to sunlight and temperature. The dot- Test Conditions (1 kW/m2, 25°C). The nominal light-

line square in Fig. 2 shows the model of the ideal PV cell.

generated current is not available in the datasheet of the PV

The DC current generated by the PV cell is expressed as

follows panel but estimated as [10]:

𝑉 𝑅𝑠 + 𝑅𝑠ℎ

𝐼 = 𝐼𝑃𝑉,𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝐼𝑠,𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑙 (𝑒 𝑎𝑉𝑡 − 1) (1) 𝐼𝑃𝑉𝑛 = ( ) 𝐼𝑠𝑐𝑛 (4)

𝑅𝑠

The first term in Eq. (1), that is Ipv,cell, is proportional to The second term in Eq. (2) is the diode current that is

the irradiance intensity whereas the second term, the diode function of the voltage and current coefficients given by the

current, expresses the non-linear relationship between the PV

equation below:

cell current and voltage. A practical PV cell, shown in Fig. 2, 𝐼𝑠𝑐𝑛 + 𝐾𝐼 ∆𝑇

includes series and parallel resistances [9]. The series 𝐼𝑠 = 𝑉𝑜𝑐𝑛 +𝐾𝑉 ∆𝑇 (5)

resistance represents the contact resistance of the elements 𝑒 𝑎𝑉𝑡 −1

constituting the PV cell while the parallel resistance models

the leakage current of the P–N junction. Where Iscn is the nominal short-circuit current or the

This model is known as the single diode equivalent circuit maximum current available at the terminals of the practical

of the PV cell. The larger number of diodes the equivalent device at nominal conditions.

circuit contains, the more accurate is the modelling of the PV

cell behavior, however, at the expense of more computation

complexity. The single diode model shown in Fig. 2 is

adopted for this study, due to its simplicity.

A PV module can be modeled as a current source that is

dependent on the solar irradiance and temperature. The

complex relationship between the temperature and irradiation

Figure 2. Equivalent circuit of an ideal and practical PV cell. results in a non-linear current–voltage characteristics. A

typical I–V and P–V curve for the variations of irradiance

2) PV module modelling and temperature is shown in Fig. 4 (a) and (b), respectively.

Commercially photovoltaic devices are available as sets As can be observed, the MPP is not a fixed point; it fluctuates

of series and/or parallel-connected PV cells combined into continuously as the temperature or the irradiance does. Due

to this dynamics, the controller needs to track the MPP by

updating the duty cycle of the converter at every control

sample. A quicker response from the controller (to match the

MPP) will result in better extraction of the PV energy and

vice versa [11].

wind speeds

There are three types of battery models reported in the

literature, specifically: experimental, electrochemical and

electric circuit-based. Experimental and electrochemical

models are not well suited to represent cell dynamics for the

purpose of state-of-charge (SOC) estimations of battery

packs. However, electric circuit-based models can be useful

to represent electrical characteristics of batteries. The

simplest electric model consists of an ideal voltage source in

Figure 4. Solar cell characteristics voltage-current characteristics and

voltage-power characteristics series with an internal resistance.

In this work, a generic battery model suitable for dynamic

B. Wind turbine power system simulation presented in [14] is considered. This model

Depending on the aerodynamic characteristics, the wind assumes that the battery is composed of a controlled-voltage

power captured by the wind turbine can be expressed source and a series resistance, as shown in Fig.6. This

1 generic battery model considers the SOC as the only state

𝑝= 𝐶 (𝜆, 𝛽)𝜌𝜋𝑅2 𝑉 3 (6)

2 𝑝 variable [15].

Where 𝐶𝑝 (𝜆, 𝛽) is the wind turbine power coefficient

which is a function of 𝜆 and 𝛽, 𝜌 is the air density, R is the

radius of wind turbine blade, V is the wind speed, 𝛽 is the

blade pitch angle, and 𝜆 is the tip speed ratio:

𝑤𝑅

𝜆= (7)

𝑉 Figure 6. A generic battery model.

Where w is the wind turbine rotational speed. There exits

an optimal tip speed ratio 𝜆𝑜𝑝𝑡 that can maximize Cp and P. The controlled voltage source is given by the following

Then, the maximum wind power Pmax captured by wind expression [16]:

turbine can be described as 𝑉𝑃 𝑄𝑏

1 𝐶𝑝,𝑚𝑎𝑥 3 𝐸 = 𝐸𝑜 − + 𝐴̃ 𝑒𝑥𝑝(−𝐵𝑡 ∫ 𝑖𝑏 𝑑𝑡 ) (9)

𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜌𝜋𝑅5 3 𝑤 (8) 𝑄𝑏 − ∫ 𝑖𝑏 𝑑𝑡

2 𝜆𝑜𝑝𝑡 Where Eo is the constant voltage of battery (V), Vp is the

The output mechanical power versus rotational speed polarization voltage (V), Qb is the battery capacity (AH), ib

characteristic of wind turbine for different wind speeds is is the battery current (A), A is exponential zone amplitude

shown in Fig. 1, in which the dotted line shows the (V), B{ is exponential zone time constant inverse (AK') [16].

maximum power points for different wind turbine rotational

speed w and different wind speed V. Each P–w curve is

characterized by a unique turbine s peed corresponding to the

maximum power point for that wind velocity. The peak

power points in the P–w curves correspond to dP / dw = 0

[12].

The mechanical power generated by turbine speed under

different wind speeds and the target optimum power is

shown in Fig.5. The objective of any MPPT controller is to

keep the operating of the turbine on this curve [13].

Figure 7. Typical discharge characteristics of NiCd battery.

III. SYSTEM CONTROL of the power electronic switch in boost converter which

controls the operation of wind power generation at MPP.

C. Voltage regulated inverter design

The inverter plays a key role in the hybrid power

generation. The load voltage, frequency is controlled and

maintained constant using inverter in stand-alone operation.

The proposed voltage regulated inverter maintains the output

voltage and frequency constant irrespective of change in

wind speed, solar irradiation levels and load condition. The

rectified and boosted DC voltage from the PV, wind is

Figure 8. Block diagram of PV-Wind hybrid system applied as input to the inverter. The schematic diagram of

Voltage regulated inverter is shown in Fig. 11.

The block diagram of PV-wind hybrid power system is

shown in Fig. 8. The hybrid generations consist of

Photovoltaic based generation, Wind Power Generation,

Battery; Voltage regulated inverter and AC load. A

comprehensive mathematical analysis of the Hybrid

generation will be discussed in this section.

A. Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV array

Perturb and Observe (known as P&O) algorithm, shown

in Fig .9, is used in this paper for maximum power tracking Figure 11. Voltage Regulated inverter

of PV array. This method involves perturbation of the

Case 1 : PI voltage regulated inverter

voltage, V, and observing the change in power output, P. If

the perturbation in one direction increases the power output The important aspect of voltage regulated inverter is to

of the PV array, then the same direction of perturbation is maintain output voltage and frequency constant. In order to

continued. Otherwise, the direction of perturbation is achieve the task a discrete Phase Lock Loop (PLL) with

reversed. Thus, it is a continuous process of searching for the Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) is implemented to

voltage on power Vs voltage (P-V) curve, which increases generate control signal of the inverter. The block diagram of

the power output of the PV array. This method is well the control scheme is shown in Fig. 12. Where VLab, VLbc,

described in the literature [12], hence, not explained here in VLca are the live voltage of the load

detail.

Figure 9. Description of P&O algorithm for MPPT

Case 2 : fuzzy logic voltage regulated inverter

B. Hill Climb Search MPPT algorithm for wind turbine

In the Fuzzy Implementation of mamdani FLC is selected

The HCS algorithm for MPPT control logic and the inputs of the FLC are error and change in error. They

implementation for wind power generation system is shown are computed by considering inverter voltage line and have

in Fig. 10. been calculated as output. Fig. 13 indicated the sub-system

implementation of algorithm using FLC for voltage regulated

inverter from the solar wind generation system.

system Figure 13. Block diagram of FLC voltage regulated inverter

The inputs to the controller are voltage, current and speed The rules for the mamdani FLC implementation is

of PMSG. Using the speed and voltage samples the reference tabulated as shown in Table I.

current is calculated. It is compared with the current

measured and the error is utilized to compute the duty cycle Table I .RULE BASE FOR FLC IMPLEMENTATION

DE/ E NL NM NS Z PS PM PL

NL PL PL PL PL Z Z Z

NM PL PL PM PM Z Z Z

NS PL PM PS PS NM NS N

M

Z PL PL PS Z NS NM NL

PS NM PS PS NS NL NL NL

PL Z Z Z NL NL NL NL

Figure 14. Input membership function of error signal

Figure 15. Input membership function of change in error signal

Figure 23. Power generation of the hybrid system under varying wind

speed and irradiation

Case 2 : fuzzy logic voltage regulated inverter FLC voltage regulated inverter is more power efficiency

and reliable compared to the PI voltage regulated inverter, in

this context FLC improve the effect of the MPPT algorithm

in the power generation system of which sources solar and

wind power generation systems.

REFERENCES

[1] Natsheh, E.M.; Albarbar, A.; Yazdani, J., "Modeling and control for

smart grid integration of solar/wind energy conversion system," 2nd

IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative

Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe),pp.1-8, 5-7 Dec. 2011.

[2] Bagen; Billinton, R., "Evaluation of Different Operating Strategies in

Small Stand-Alone Power Systems," IEEE Transactions on Energy

Conversion, vol.20, no.3, pp. 654-660, Sept. 2005

Figure 24. Output voltage for inverter

[3] S. M. Shaahid and M. A. Elhadidy, “Opportunities for utilization of

stand-alone hybrid (photovoltaic + diesel + battery) power systems in

hot climates,” Renewable Energy, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1741–1753,

2003.

[4] Goel, P.K.; Singh, B.; Murthy, S.S.; Kishore, N., "Autonomous hybrid

system using PMSGs for hydro and wind power generation," 35th

Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics, 2009. IECON '09,

pp.255,260, 3-5 Nov. 2009.

[5] Foster, R., M. Ghassemi, and A. Cota, Solar energy: renewable energy

and the environment. 2010, Boca Raton: CRC Press.

[6] Salam, Z.; Ishaque, K.; Taheri, H., "An improved two-diode

photovoltaic (PV) model for PV system," 2010 Joint International

Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems

(PEDES) & 2010 Power India, pp.1,5, 20-23 Dec. 2010.

Figure 25. Power generation of the hybrid system under varying wind [7] Yuncong Jiang; Qahouq, J.A.A.; Orabi, M., "AC PV solar system

speed and irradiation distributed architecture with maximum power point tracking," IEEE

34th International Telecommunications Energy Conference

The PV power generation branch characteristics are (INTELEC), pp.1-5, Sept. 30 2012-Oct. 4 2012.

analyzed. Fig. 18 shows the voltage with MPPT controller [8] Paul C.-P. Chao • Wei-Dar Chen • Chih-Kuo Chang . Maximum

power tracking of a generic photovoltaic system via a fuzzy controller

under different irradiances. It verifies that the PV power and a two-stage DC–DC converter . 30 September 2011 / Accepted:

generation branch can readily perform the MPPT and achieve 23 April 2012 / Published online: 9 May 2012

the maximum output power at a given irradiance; fig 20, 21 [9] Villalva MG, Gazoli JR. Comprehensive approach to modeling and

shows the output current and voltage for the PMSG wind simulation of photovoltaic arrays. IEEE Trans Power Electron

system with HCS algorithm MPPT controller. 2009;24:1198–208.

[10] Faranda, R. and Leva, S. (2008) Energy Comparison of MPPT

It can be clearly observed that the MPPT controller plays Techniques for PV Systems. WSEAS Transactions on Power Systems,

a key role in the hybrid power system. In order to reduce the 3, 447-455.

[11] Zainal Salam, Jubaer Ahmed, Benny S. Merugu “The application of

losses and to improve the efficiency and performance of the soft computing methods for MPPT of PV system: A technological and

hybrid system a faster MPPT controller is required. status review ” ELSEVIER Applied Energy 107 (2013) 135–148

[12] Nur Atharah Kamarzamana, Chee Wei Tan, “A comprehensive review

in the first case with PI voltage regulated inverter the of maximum power point tracking algorithms for photovoltaic

output voltage is unstable With disturbance in frequency systems, ” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,vol.37,pp-

compared to the FLC voltage regulated inverter shows in fig 585-598,Sep 2014

23 and fig 25 . The power flow in the second case provide [13] Ridha BENADU', Brahim KHIARI' , Anis SELLAMI “ Predictive

the power efficiency and the advantage of fuzzy logic Current Control Strategy for a Three-Phase Grid Connected

PhotovoltaicWind Hybrid System” 978-1-4673-9768-1/16/$31.00

controller algorithm to control the inverter and the stability of ©2016 IEEE

system compared to the PI voltage regulated inverter. [14] Dong-Min Miao; Jian-Xin Shen, "Comparative study on permanent

magnet synchronous generator systems with various power conversion

V. CONCLUSION topologies," 2013 Fourth International Conference on Power

Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG), pp.1738-

Nature has provided ample opportunities to mankind to 1743, 13-17, May 2013.

make best use of its resources and still maintain its beauty. In [15] Salam, Z.; Ishaque, K.; Taheri, H., "An improved two-diode

this context, the proposed hybrid PV-wind system provides photovoltaic (PV) model for PV system," 2010 Joint International

an elegant integration of the wind turbine and solar PV to Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems

extract optimum energy from the two sources. It yields a (PEDES) & 2010 Power India, pp.1,5, 20-23 Dec. 2010.

compact converter system, while incurring reduced cost. [16] S.Saib, A.Gherbi “Simulation and Control of hybrid renewable energy

system connected to the grid” 978-1-4673-7172-8/15/$3l.00

The proposed scheme of wind–solar hybrid system ©2015IEEE

considerably improves the performance of the WECS in

terms of enhanced generation capability. The solar PV

augmentation of appropriate capacity with minimum battery

storage facility provides solution for power generation issues

during low wind speed situations.

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