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Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on SuAC.

1
Systems and Control, University of Batna 2, Batna,
Algeria, May 7-9, 2017

Simulation and Control of Solar Wind Hybrid Renewable Power


System
Ahmed SAIDI*, Benachaiba CHELLALI

condition can make one type of RES more profitable than


Abstract— The sun and wind based generation are well-


thoroughly considered to be alternate source of green power other. For example, Photovoltaic (PV) system is ideal for
generation which can mitigate the power demand issues. This locations having more solar illumination levels and Wind
paper introduces a standalone hybrid power generation system power system is ideal for locations having better wind flow
consisting of solar and permanent magnet synchronous conditions [3].
generator (PMSG) wind power sources and a AC load. A
supervisory control unit, designed to execute maximum power For RES especially the variable speed wind energy
point tracking (MPPT), is introduced to maximize the conversion systems, Permanent Magnet Synchronous
simultaneous energy harvesting from overall power generation generator (PMSG) is gaining popularity. PMSG have a loss-
under different climatic conditions. Two contingencies are free rotor, and the power losses are confined to the stator
considered and categorized according to the power generation winding and stator core. A multi-pole PMSG connected to
from each energy source, and the load requirement. In PV power converter can be used as direct driven PMSG in
system Perturb & Observe (P&O) algorithm is used as control locations with low wind speed there by eliminating the
logic for the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) gearbox which adds weight, losses, cost and maintenance [4].
controller and Hill Climb Search (HCS) algorithm is used as A gearless construction of wind conversion system represents
MPPT control logic for the Wind power system in order to an efficient and reliable wind power conversion system. In a
maximizing the power generated. The Fuzzy logic control PV system, a solar cell alone can produce power of 1 to 2
scheme of the inverter is intended to keep the load voltage and watt [5]. The solar cell is modeled by two diode model [6].
frequency of the AC supply at constant level regardless of The solar cells are connected in series and parallel to form a
progress in natural conditions and burden. A Simulink model PV panel or module. The PV modules are connected in series
of the proposed Hybrid system with the MPPT controlled Boost and parallel to form a PV array in order to generate
converters and Voltage regulated Inverter for stand-alone
appropriate amount of power.
application is developed in MATLAB.
Thus a PV system consisting of PV array, Maximum
Keywords— Renewable energy ,Solar ,PMSG Wind, Fuzzy Power Point Tracking (MPPT) boost converters, and Wind
controller , P&O. power system consisting of wind turbine, PMSG, rectifier
I. INTRODUCTION and MPPT boost converter is integrated into Solar Wind
hybrid power system (SWHPS). The efficiency and reliability
Renewable energy sources (RES) such as Solar, Wind, of the SWHPS mainly depends upon the control strategy of
Geothermal, Tidal, Hydro etc. are inexhaustible by nature. the MPPT boost converter. The solar and wind power
The RES have been found promising towards building generation cannot operate at Maximum power point (MPP)
sustainable and ecofriendly power generation. Due to the without proper control logic in the MPPT boost converter. If
limitation of conventional resources of fossil fuels, it has the MPP is not tracked by the controller the power losses will
compelled the evolution of hybrid power system. Therefore, occur in the system and in spite of wind and solar power
new ways to balance the load demand is by integrating RES availability, the output voltage of the hybrid system will not
into the system. Hybrid system enables the incorporation of boost up to the required value [7]. The output voltage of the
renewable energy sources and transferals the dependency on PV and Wind power generation are quite low as compared
fossil fuels, while sustaining the balance between supply and with the desired operating level. So, this output voltage is
demand. The significant characteristic of hybrid power brought to desired operating value of 220V using Boost
system includes, system reliability, operational efficiency [1]. converter with MPPT controller at each source.
The hybrid power system enables to overcome the limitations
in wind and photovoltaic resources since their performance The control logic of the MPPT controlled boost converter
characteristics depends upon the unfavorable changes in for the Wind power generation and PV based generation are
environmental conditions. It is probable to endorse that selected on the basis of ease of implementation and
hybrid stand-alone electricity generation systems are usually robustness of the Hill Climb Search (HCS) and Perturb &
more reliable and less costly than systems that depend on a Observe (P&O) algorithm respectively.
single source of energy [2]. On other hand one environmental This paper deals with the simulation and control of
(PV/wind) hybrid systems including energy storage battery
connected to the AC load. Study of modeling and simulation
* Ahmed SAIDI is with the electrical engineering Department of Tahri on the entire PV/wind/battery hybrid system is carried out
Mohammed University (corresponding author to provide phone:
+213661661038; e-mail: ahmedsaidi@outlook.com). under Matlab/Simulink environment.
Benachaiba CHELLALI was with Tahri Mohammed University, (e-mail:
chellali99@yahoo.fr).

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II. MODELING AND CONTROL OF HYBRID SYSTEM one item, the PV module, to produce higher voltage, current
and power, as shown in Fig. 3.
A. Photovoltaic Power System
Fig. 1 shows a simplified scheme of a standalone PV The equation of the I–V characteristic of the PV module
system with DC–DC buck converter. is obtained from Eq. (1) by including the equivalent module
series resistance, shunt resistance and the number of cells
This section is devoted to PV module modelling which is connected in series and in parallel.
a matrix of elementary cells that are the heart of PV systems.
𝑞(𝑉+𝐼.𝑅𝑠 ) (𝑉 + 𝐼. 𝑅𝑠 )
𝑎𝑁𝑠 𝐾𝑇
The modelling of PV systems starts from the model of the 𝐼 = 𝑁𝑝 (𝐼𝑃𝑉 − 𝐼𝑠 (𝑒 − 1)) −
𝑅𝑠ℎ
(2)
elementary PV cell that is derived from that of the P–N
junction [8].
Where Vt the PV cell thermal voltage in Eq. (1) is
substituted by that of the module thermal voltage given by
𝑁𝑠 𝐾𝑇
𝑉𝑡 = and Ns and Np are respectively the number of cells
𝑞
connected in series and in parallel forming the PV module.

The constant a expressing the degree of ideality of the


diode may be arbitrary chosen from the interval (1, 1.5) [10].
Figure 1. A PV system with a DC–DC buck converter.
The light generated current of PV cell depends linearly on the
irradiance and is also influenced by the temperature:
1) Ideal photovoltaic cell 𝐺
The PV cell combines the behavior of either voltage or 𝐼𝑃𝑉 = ( ) (𝐼𝑃𝑉𝑛 + 𝐾𝑖 (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑆𝑇𝐶 )) (3)
𝐺𝑆𝑇𝐶
current sources according to the operating point. This
behavior can be obtained by connecting a sunlight-sensitive Ipvn is the nominal light-generated current provided at
current source with a P–N junction of a semiconductor GSTC, TSTC which refer to the values at nominal or Standard
material being sensitive to sunlight and temperature. The dot- Test Conditions (1 kW/m2, 25°C). The nominal light-
line square in Fig. 2 shows the model of the ideal PV cell.
generated current is not available in the datasheet of the PV
The DC current generated by the PV cell is expressed as
follows panel but estimated as [10]:
𝑉 𝑅𝑠 + 𝑅𝑠ℎ
𝐼 = 𝐼𝑃𝑉,𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑙 − 𝐼𝑠,𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑙 (𝑒 𝑎𝑉𝑡 − 1) (1) 𝐼𝑃𝑉𝑛 = ( ) 𝐼𝑠𝑐𝑛 (4)
𝑅𝑠

The first term in Eq. (1), that is Ipv,cell, is proportional to The second term in Eq. (2) is the diode current that is
the irradiance intensity whereas the second term, the diode function of the voltage and current coefficients given by the
current, expresses the non-linear relationship between the PV
equation below:
cell current and voltage. A practical PV cell, shown in Fig. 2, 𝐼𝑠𝑐𝑛 + 𝐾𝐼 ∆𝑇
includes series and parallel resistances [9]. The series 𝐼𝑠 = 𝑉𝑜𝑐𝑛 +𝐾𝑉 ∆𝑇 (5)
resistance represents the contact resistance of the elements 𝑒 𝑎𝑉𝑡 −1
constituting the PV cell while the parallel resistance models
the leakage current of the P–N junction. Where Iscn is the nominal short-circuit current or the
This model is known as the single diode equivalent circuit maximum current available at the terminals of the practical
of the PV cell. The larger number of diodes the equivalent device at nominal conditions.
circuit contains, the more accurate is the modelling of the PV
cell behavior, however, at the expense of more computation
complexity. The single diode model shown in Fig. 2 is
adopted for this study, due to its simplicity.

Figure 3. Equivalent circuit of PV module.

3) I–V and P–V characteristics


A PV module can be modeled as a current source that is
dependent on the solar irradiance and temperature. The
complex relationship between the temperature and irradiation
Figure 2. Equivalent circuit of an ideal and practical PV cell. results in a non-linear current–voltage characteristics. A
typical I–V and P–V curve for the variations of irradiance
2) PV module modelling and temperature is shown in Fig. 4 (a) and (b), respectively.
Commercially photovoltaic devices are available as sets As can be observed, the MPP is not a fixed point; it fluctuates
of series and/or parallel-connected PV cells combined into continuously as the temperature or the irradiance does. Due
to this dynamics, the controller needs to track the MPP by

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updating the duty cycle of the converter at every control
sample. A quicker response from the controller (to match the
MPP) will result in better extraction of the PV energy and
vice versa [11].

Figure 5. Mechanical power generated by turbine speed under different


wind speeds

C. Storage Power System


There are three types of battery models reported in the
literature, specifically: experimental, electrochemical and
electric circuit-based. Experimental and electrochemical
models are not well suited to represent cell dynamics for the
purpose of state-of-charge (SOC) estimations of battery
packs. However, electric circuit-based models can be useful
to represent electrical characteristics of batteries. The
simplest electric model consists of an ideal voltage source in
Figure 4. Solar cell characteristics voltage-current characteristics and
voltage-power characteristics series with an internal resistance.
In this work, a generic battery model suitable for dynamic
B. Wind turbine power system simulation presented in [14] is considered. This model
Depending on the aerodynamic characteristics, the wind assumes that the battery is composed of a controlled-voltage
power captured by the wind turbine can be expressed source and a series resistance, as shown in Fig.6. This
1 generic battery model considers the SOC as the only state
𝑝= 𝐶 (𝜆, 𝛽)𝜌𝜋𝑅2 𝑉 3 (6)
2 𝑝 variable [15].
Where 𝐶𝑝 (𝜆, 𝛽) is the wind turbine power coefficient
which is a function of 𝜆 and 𝛽, 𝜌 is the air density, R is the
radius of wind turbine blade, V is the wind speed, 𝛽 is the
blade pitch angle, and 𝜆 is the tip speed ratio:
𝑤𝑅
𝜆= (7)
𝑉 Figure 6. A generic battery model.
Where w is the wind turbine rotational speed. There exits
an optimal tip speed ratio 𝜆𝑜𝑝𝑡 that can maximize Cp and P. The controlled voltage source is given by the following
Then, the maximum wind power Pmax captured by wind expression [16]:
turbine can be described as 𝑉𝑃 𝑄𝑏
1 𝐶𝑝,𝑚𝑎𝑥 3 𝐸 = 𝐸𝑜 − + 𝐴̃ 𝑒𝑥𝑝(−𝐵𝑡 ∫ 𝑖𝑏 𝑑𝑡 ) (9)
𝑃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜌𝜋𝑅5 3 𝑤 (8) 𝑄𝑏 − ∫ 𝑖𝑏 𝑑𝑡
2 𝜆𝑜𝑝𝑡 Where Eo is the constant voltage of battery (V), Vp is the
The output mechanical power versus rotational speed polarization voltage (V), Qb is the battery capacity (AH), ib
characteristic of wind turbine for different wind speeds is is the battery current (A), A is exponential zone amplitude
shown in Fig. 1, in which the dotted line shows the (V), B{ is exponential zone time constant inverse (AK') [16].
maximum power points for different wind turbine rotational
speed w and different wind speed V. Each P–w curve is
characterized by a unique turbine s peed corresponding to the
maximum power point for that wind velocity. The peak
power points in the P–w curves correspond to dP / dw = 0
[12].
The mechanical power generated by turbine speed under
different wind speeds and the target optimum power is
shown in Fig.5. The objective of any MPPT controller is to
keep the operating of the turbine on this curve [13].
Figure 7. Typical discharge characteristics of NiCd battery.

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III. SYSTEM CONTROL of the power electronic switch in boost converter which
controls the operation of wind power generation at MPP.
C. Voltage regulated inverter design
The inverter plays a key role in the hybrid power
generation. The load voltage, frequency is controlled and
maintained constant using inverter in stand-alone operation.
The proposed voltage regulated inverter maintains the output
voltage and frequency constant irrespective of change in
wind speed, solar irradiation levels and load condition. The
rectified and boosted DC voltage from the PV, wind is
Figure 8. Block diagram of PV-Wind hybrid system applied as input to the inverter. The schematic diagram of
Voltage regulated inverter is shown in Fig. 11.
The block diagram of PV-wind hybrid power system is
shown in Fig. 8. The hybrid generations consist of
Photovoltaic based generation, Wind Power Generation,
Battery; Voltage regulated inverter and AC load. A
comprehensive mathematical analysis of the Hybrid
generation will be discussed in this section.
A. Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm for PV array
Perturb and Observe (known as P&O) algorithm, shown
in Fig .9, is used in this paper for maximum power tracking Figure 11. Voltage Regulated inverter
of PV array. This method involves perturbation of the
Case 1 : PI voltage regulated inverter
voltage, V, and observing the change in power output, P. If
the perturbation in one direction increases the power output The important aspect of voltage regulated inverter is to
of the PV array, then the same direction of perturbation is maintain output voltage and frequency constant. In order to
continued. Otherwise, the direction of perturbation is achieve the task a discrete Phase Lock Loop (PLL) with
reversed. Thus, it is a continuous process of searching for the Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) is implemented to
voltage on power Vs voltage (P-V) curve, which increases generate control signal of the inverter. The block diagram of
the power output of the PV array. This method is well the control scheme is shown in Fig. 12. Where VLab, VLbc,
described in the literature [12], hence, not explained here in VLca are the live voltage of the load
detail.

Figure 12. Block diagram of PI voltage regulated inverter


Figure 9. Description of P&O algorithm for MPPT
Case 2 : fuzzy logic voltage regulated inverter
B. Hill Climb Search MPPT algorithm for wind turbine
In the Fuzzy Implementation of mamdani FLC is selected
The HCS algorithm for MPPT control logic and the inputs of the FLC are error and change in error. They
implementation for wind power generation system is shown are computed by considering inverter voltage line and have
in Fig. 10. been calculated as output. Fig. 13 indicated the sub-system
implementation of algorithm using FLC for voltage regulated
inverter from the solar wind generation system.

Figure 10. Sub-system implementation of MPPT control for Wind Power


system Figure 13. Block diagram of FLC voltage regulated inverter

The inputs to the controller are voltage, current and speed The rules for the mamdani FLC implementation is
of PMSG. Using the speed and voltage samples the reference tabulated as shown in Table I.
current is calculated. It is compared with the current
measured and the error is utilized to compute the duty cycle Table I .RULE BASE FOR FLC IMPLEMENTATION

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DE/ E NL NM NS Z PS PM PL
NL PL PL PL PL Z Z Z
NM PL PL PM PM Z Z Z
NS PL PM PS PS NM NS N
M
Z PL PL PS Z NS NM NL
PS NM PS PS NS NL NL NL

PM Z Z Z NM NM NL NL Figure 19. Wind speed changing level


PL Z Z Z NL NL NL NL

Figure 20. Output current wind


Figure 14. Input membership function of error signal

Figure 21. Output Voltage wind


Figure 15. Input membership function of change in error signal

Case 1 : PI voltage regulated inverter

Figure 16. Output membership function

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DIUSCUSION

Figure 22. Output voltage for inverter

Figure 17. PV changing irradiation level

Figure 23. Power generation of the hybrid system under varying wind
speed and irradiation

Figure 18. Output voltage for PV changing irradiation level

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Case 2 : fuzzy logic voltage regulated inverter FLC voltage regulated inverter is more power efficiency
and reliable compared to the PI voltage regulated inverter, in
this context FLC improve the effect of the MPPT algorithm
in the power generation system of which sources solar and
wind power generation systems.

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