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Oladipupo Olayemi KAYODE


MAY, 2019


The human resource (personnel) is considered the most critical to any

organization’s survival in that it utilizes both financial and material resources
available to bring about organization’s desired goals. However, many organizations
in Nigeria have remained stagnant in their operations because of their inability or
refusal to equip their workforce with needed knowledge usually derived from job
training which would ordinarily put their employee in a position to work in line with
organizational goals and objectives in such a way that maximum productivity will be
realized. Achive, (2008, pp.6). Human resource management is also an integral part
of management of any establishment. Failure of any company to take human
resource issues will constitute a great problem. This work is aimed at looking at
likely problems in Nigerian organization as regard the effect of Job training and how
those problems wrongful placement of employees, inadequate job training, retraining
and developmental programmes and inadequate provision for staff advancement can
be solved. Ajileye, (2012, pp.160)

Moreover, job training is of growing importance to companies seeking to gain

an advantage among competitors. There is significant debate among professionals
and scholars as to the effect that job training has on both secretaries and
organizational goals. One school of thought argues that job training leads to an
increase in turnover while the other states that training is tool that can leads to higher
levels of secretaries retention. Beach, (2015, pp.202). Regardless of where one falls
within this debate, most professionals agree that secretaries training are a complex
human resource practice that can significantly impact a company’s success.
Dearden (2015, pp.5) believes that job training primarily focuses on teaching
organisational members how to perform their current jobs and helping them acquire
the knowledge and skills they need to be effective performers.

The term training has been defined in various ways by different authors.
Training refers to improving competencies needed today or very soon. Training is the
act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing the job
assigned to him. It is a short term process. The term training refers to the acquisition
of knowledge, skills and competencies as a result of vocational or practical skills and
knowledge that relates to specific useful competencies. Ajileye, (2012, pp.167).
Training is any attempt to improve current or future employee’s ability to
perform through learning. The purpose of training is to achieve a change in
behaviour of those trained. Training is also a learning process that involves the
acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules or changing of
attitudes and behaviour to enhance the performance of employees. It is activity
leading to skilled behaviour. Grip and Saverman, (2010, pp35).

According to Achive, (2008, pp.3), training is an organizational effort aimed

at helping an employee to acquire basic skills required for the sufficient execution of
the functions for which he was hired. Training generates expertise or skill needed to
perform a particular job or series of jobs. Also, Howell (2014, pp.11) is of the
opinion that training is a systematic process of altering the behaviour, knowledge and
motivation of employees in a direction to increase the effectiveness and
organizational goal achievement. Training involves a wide range of professional
activities for employees which contribute to their enhancement of work. It can be
visualized as the acquisition of techniques, skills, knowledge and experiences which
enables the individual to make effective contribution to the combined efforts of a
team in a productive process. On the other hand, re-training of employees involves
the renewal or updating of employee’s skills, knowledge, attitude, work habits and
competencies to enable them perform their assigned responsibilities creditably.
Amuno, (2009, pp.13).

Amuno, (2009, pp.17) posits that the major forms of job training for effectiveness
of Nigeria secretaries employees include the following:-
(i) In-service training made up of: (a) On-the-job and (b) Off-the-job

(ii) Formal training

I) In-service Training Programmes
These include job training programmes specifically organized for secretaries
who are already in employment. In-service training essentially takes two forms
namely: on-the-job training and off-the-job training. Clevreul, (2014, pp.17)
On-the-job Training: On-the-job training takes place at the work place and possibly
while at work. According to Akinwale, (2011, pp.14), on-the-job training takes place
at work location. Responsible for its implementation is primarily that of the
immediate superiors. On-the-job training is given to new secretaries by their
organization irrespective of their previous training and experience. Orientation or
induction training is given to these new employees to familiarize them with their
new work environment and the operations of the establishment.

Off-the-job Training: These take place outside the work environment and are
provided by established training institutions. They are necessary when some
employees require the acquisition of the type of knowledge, skills and attitudes
which are best provided through series of courses carried out of job environment.
Akinwale, (2011.pp.18).

II) Formal Training:

This is the training received in formal institutions such that span from primary
to tertiary institutions. According to Dearden, (2015, pp.8), formal schools are the
traditional places for acquiring knowledge and skills, for they provide the
atmosphere for structured learning which makes assimilation process easier. This is

so because of the concentration of teaching efforts, aid and feedback mechanism. He
went further to say that training in formal schools has the following advantages:
(i) The performance level of the study can be readily assessed through testing;

(ii) Ideas and concepts can be standardized;

(iii)It affords students from various background and experience a forum for
interaction; and

(iv) Resources are put together in one place for maximum utilization.
This type of training provided to secretaries depends on the training need of
the employee and objectives of the organization. In other words, an organization
provides training to its employees on the area he needs training and to achieve
organizational objectives. Grip and Saverman, (2010, pp.40)


The objectives of job training and development according to Lane, and
Robison, (2015, pp.4) is to:
 help yield operational results that will bring about meaningful changes in the
output of the organization,

 Develop, sharpen and thus change the employees’ attitude as well as

increasing their knowledge and skills.

 Changes in techniques and automation and the consequent effect they have on
the existing skills and jobs have necessitated the need for the continuous
training of the employees.
 The primary objectives of employees are to equip employees with the
necessary knowledge and skills at all levels for the successful attainment of
the desired goal of the organization. To be able to achieve this objective is for
the organization to design training programme for its staff. Effective training
to an employee will assist in providing the knowledge and appreciation of

techniques necessary to enable the trainee to do his job. According to Lane,
and Robison, (2015, pp.7) the objectives of training an employee is:
 To be better equipped to adjust to the changes in the nature of his work.

 To widen the trainee’s understanding of the society in which he lives and

develop him as a confident person,

 To afford the staff the opportunity of changing their schedules of duties and to
be able to perform equally well on them.
Equally, Grip and Saverman, (2010) noted that the purpose of industrial training
include the improvement of the present or future competence of the individual with a
view to improving the competence of the team, group or organization, thereby
serving a dual purpose. He went further to say that the rapid changes taking place in
the field of technology all over the world demand that employees must be trained to
catch up with the changes. Hence, Howell (2015, pp.20) opines that: the rate of
technological changes has accelerated so that employee can start at the age of sixteen
and remain in the same type of job until he retires. Indeed, it could be argued that we
have moved into the two or three skill society, where it is the accepted pattern to
have to change their type of employment. The overall aim of training and retraining
employees is to improve the efficiency of the work force and to increase the
productivity of the organization.



According to Lane, and Robison, (2015, pp.11) the effect of job training on
the effectiveness of secretaries in private organizations include:
 Job security: The fear of losing one’s job due to advancement of ICT will be
reduced because of the acquisition of vocational skills and job training skills

 Help with work related problem: The knowledge acquired through

vocational skills and job training help employees to tackle work related
problem easily.

 Better pay: As a result of additional knowledge acquired through vocational
skills and job training, Employees are opportune to receive better pay for it.
 Job satisfaction: Advancement of knowledge through vocational skills and

job training makes employees happy doing the job and continue to be relevant
in effective handling of the job assigned.

 Increased Productivity: Jackson & Schuler, (2013, pp.5) claimed that

vocational skills and job training assist employees in higher organization to

avoid the loss of productivity that usually comes with new ways of handling
new job position.
 Opportunity of realizing potentials: Employees additional training on

vocational skills and job training give them opportunities of development that
will bring about realizing more potentials and promotion in their organization.
 Improves efficiency and morale of employees: Employees development on

vocational skills and job training improves their efficiency and morale among
the co-workers in their organization.
 Encourage team work: Employees development on vocational skills and job

training give them more knowledge to relate well with other employees and
work as a team member.
 Develops supervisors and decrease the amount of supervision needed
 And leads to a reduction in scrap rate and improves machine utilization if it is

employee that works in manufacturing organization. Amuno, (2009, pp.9)

 A better service to customers and clients.

Source: Collins (2008, pp.3)

Achive, (2008, pp.7) claimed that the challenges facing vocational skills
development in Nigeria are as follows:

1. Failure to Adapt to the Changing Business Environment: Majority of those

who venture into MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises) do so because of
their need to make money and in almost all cases, such entrepreneurs lack relevant
and adequate information about the businesses they engage in. In the event where
problems arise, most of these business owners lack sufficient problem solving skills
and in the end they find it hard to survive. With the growth in the
telecommunications sector since the introduction of GSM in 2002, Nigeria has
become one of the fastest growing ICT market not only in Africa but also worldwide.
This presents a challenge to entrepreneurs who have not embraced technology, and
who are now finding it hard to remain relevant in the competitive business
environment. For existing and potential MSMEs to survive and be relevant, it must
adapt to the changing business environment and embrace technology. Beach, (2015,

2. Low Standard of Education: There is no gainsaying the fact that education is the
key to knowledge and that it plays a strong role in forming the burgeoning
entrepreneur. The world today is a global village and since an intending entrepreneur

must be conversant and in tune with events around and about him, education
becomes a critical factor in preparing and empowering the entrepreneur with the
qualities required of him.

3. Getting venture capital to finance vocational skills in Nigeria is very difficult

because of the political and economic instability. Collins, (2008, pp.5)

4. The policies of the Nigerian government are a barrier to the success of large-scale
vocational skills success for many Nigerians. The government is plagued by
corruption and greed. The government systematically ignores laws that are already in
place to promote free enterprise.

5. Poor planning: Experts say individuals who have successfully managed major
events are aware of the fact that success mostly come as a result of careful,
systematic, strategic planning and hard work.

6. Poor product or service: The secretaries must understand the needs of his
customers and seek ways to meet these needs via the product or service which he
offers to the market. Collins, (2008, pp.9).

This seminar paper summarizes that job training of secretaries lead to
effective administration and better organizational performance. The training allows
indirect relationship among secretaries and other employees. Secretaries and other
employees’ development can be excelled when the training include such activities
like ideas, pre-education, post-education, and lively guidance familiarity
implemented on the performance of an organization. Vocational skills and job
training development can be successful through different training schemes and
productive to the efficiency administrative performance of the higher institution if
secretary’s professional interests are related to the training and development.
Secretaries who possesses intensive training approach attitude enables the higher
institution to speedily adjust the new distinctive organizational performance.

This seminar paper concludes that job training development is a tool that can
assist organizations in building a more committed and productive secretaries. By
helping to establish secretary investment, reciprocity, identification, and by limiting
alternative employment options, an effective job training program can lead to greater
commitment and less secretaries turnover resulting on an organization that is more
productive and professional. Although training can play a major role in this process,

tertiary institutions need to look at additional workforce strategies and practices that
can enhance commitment.

From the study, job training alone may offer many benefits, but a much
greater impact could be found when using vocational skills training strategies that
entail many different organizational commitment practices and policies. An effective
training program is one such organizational practice that can lead to greater secretary
commitment and a more stable workforce. Majority of secretaries believe that upon
training there is likelihood that they will receive a promotion. A number of them
would prefer internal training and external training if offered by the employer or if
the employer was willing to guarantee on loans for studies.

Therefore, this research work claimed that for any organization to maintain
higher productivity, the organization must engage in vocational skills training and re-
training of its workforce to meet technological changes taking place in the world of
work. This is to ensure improved performance on the job and boost the morale of
secretaries and other employees in Nigeria.


Based on the findings, this seminar paper recommended that:

i. There is need to develop and retrain secretaries in the higher institutions to

improve and boost their performance. Management of higher institutions
should be encouraged to send their secretaries to attend courses that are
relevant to the work they are doing.

ii. Again, there is need to introduce vocational skills training and development to
secretaries and other employees in higher institution in order to improve their
income per capita and their general living standards.

iii. On the government part, financial assistant and enabling environment should
be provided for the achievement of the training.


Achive, B (2008). Effect of training and manpower development on productivity

of workers. Journal of Business Performance. Pp1-10

Ajileye, J.A. (2012). Staff welfare scheme: A strategy for motivation in A.D
Yahaya and C.I. Akinyele (eds); New Trend in Personnel Management,
ASCON, Badagry- Lagos. P 160-180

Amuno, J.O.E. (2009). The effect of training on the on the job performance of
graduates of the centre for Management Development in Nigeria.
Unpublished P.hD Thesis, University of Ibadan. Pp12-19

Beach, D.S. (2015). Personnel: The management of people at work; New York:
Macmillan Publishing Company. 5th Edition.Pp201-209

Clevreul G, M,(2014). De-motivation in the nursing profession the causes working

nurse. Pp1-15

Collins, K. (2008). Effect of training and manpower development on productivity

of workers. Journal of Management. Pp3-15

Dearden, L, Reed, R and Reenen, J.V (2005). The impact of training on

productivity and wages: evidence from British panel data. Journal of Social
Science. Pp5-34

Grip, A.D and Saverman, J (2010). The effects of training on own and co-workers
productivity: Evidence fropm a field experiment; Journal of Management.

Howell Heather (2014): Motivating and Appreciating your Staff. Journal of
Management. Pp1-20

Jackson, V.S & Schuler, B.A (2013). Meaning of training and development. Journal
of Business Management. Pp5-15

Lane, S.T & Robison, K.C (2015). Meaning of training and development Journal of
Business Performance. Pp1.12