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Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-3 | Issue-4 , June 2019,
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Paper URL: https://www.ijtsrd.com/engineering/electrical-engineering/24026/compatibility-design-of-non-salient-pole-synchronous-generator/thant-zaw-oo

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Volume: 3 | Issue: 4 | May-Jun 2019 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 - 6470

Pole Synchronous Generator

Thant Zaw Oo1, Aye Myo Thant2

1Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Technological University, Kalay, Sagaing, Myanmar

2Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Technological University, Mandalay, Mandalay Region, Myanmar

Aye Myo Thant "Compatibility Design of This paper is focused design calculation of 30 MVA, 11 kV, 50 Hz, two pole (non-

Non-Salient Pole Synchronous salient poles) synchronous generator that use in gas turbine power plant. The

Generator" Published in International choices of specific loadings are magnetic loading and electric loading are

Journal of Trend in Scientific Research involved in that design calculation. The number of rotor slot selection main

and Development considered in order to avoid the undesirable effects of harmonics in the flux

(ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456- density wave forms. The rotors are cylindrical in shape having parallel slots on it

6470, Volume-3 | to place rotor windings. The design system is compatibility based on where

Issue-4, June 2019, specific magnetic loading or specific electric loading with synchronous generator

pp.991-994, URL: generate more electrical power and to get better performance. The relation

https://www.ijtsrd.c between specific loading and volume of the generator, short circuit ratio and air

om/papers/ijtsrd24 IJTSRD24026 gap length, comparison design data and efficiency due to load changing are

026.pdf mainly emphasized studying in this paper.

International Journal of Trend in Keywords: synchronous generator, reactive power, air gap length, load changing,

Scientific Research and Development non-salient pole

Journal. This is an Open Access article

distributed under 1. INTRODUCTION

the terms of the The electromagnetic induction states that electromotive force induced in the

Creative Commons armature coil if it is rotating in the uniform magnetic field. The E.M.F will also be

Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) generated if the field rotates and the conductor becomes stationary. The wave

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ shape of induces voltage always a sinusoidal curve.

by/4.0)

The rotor and stator are the rotating and the stationary part figure 2. The following parameters are advantages things

of the synchronous generator. They are the power generator that are forced to apply in gas turbine application.

components of the synchronous generator. The rotor has the A. smaller in diameter but having longer axial length.

field pole, and the stator consist the armature conductor. The B. cylindrical rotors are used in high speed electrical

relative motion between the rotor and the stator induces the machines, in this paper, 3000 rpm and number of pole

voltage between the conductors [1].the principle of are two pole are focused.

Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction are conducted C. noise of winding loss is less construction is robust.

in that operation. D. damper windings are not needed in that rotors.

E. this rotor synchronous generator is used in gas power

plants.

Figure1. Construction of Non-Salient Pole Synchronous

Generator 2. COMPATIBILITY DESIGN CONSIDERATION

The non salient-pole synchronous machines are designed to

These rotors are cylindrical in shape having parallel slots on achieve the following information’s regarding its various

it to place rotor windings. It is made up of solid steel in parts to supply these data to the manufacture. The main

@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD24026 | Volume – 3 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2019 Page: 191

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470

consideration facts are dimensions of stator frame, complete Average loss factor,

details of the stator winding, details of the rotor and its 2

m

winding and performance of the designed parts, in order to = 1 + ( αh c )4 (4)

9

justify the design of the above parts in order to lower cost,

small size and lower weight. The load varies in lagging or copper width in the slot

leading effect with the stability of field excitation in constant α = (5)

voltage. The figure (1) shows the field current required slot width

maintaining rated terminal voltage as the constant power

factor load is varied. The maximum apparent power load at a where, hc = depth of the strand or conductor

specific voltage and rated power factor (lagging) which they m = number of conductors in the slot depth

can carry continuously without overheating. The terminal Eddy current losses

voltage which related to field current at constant level = (Kdav– 1) copper losses in stator winding

operation is within less or more five percent. In order to Stray load losses for the alternator may be taken

maintain real power and voltage, the reactive power is

approximately 15 of the total copper losses and eddy

controlled with field winding heating.

current losses[5].

(0.8 to 0.85) exciter voltage

Vc= (6)

number of field coils

Length of the turn,

Lmt= (2L + 1.8 τ p + 0.25) m (7)

ρL mt (If Tf )

af = (8)

Vc

no load voltage and the armature reaction emf [5].

Eegp = Eo + Ear =Vt +Ra jXa (9)

Figure3. Characteristic form of SynchronousGenerator VT = Terminal voltage per phase,

Compound Curve [5] Ra = Armature resistance per phase,

Xa = Armature reactance per phase,

2.1. Mathematical Review

The equivalent circuit of the stator and the cylindrical rotor The armature reaction induced voltage per phase is given by:

of the non-salient pole of the synchronous generator relation

are shown in figure (4). The volume of the machine (D2L) is Ear = −jIaXm (10)

reduced, if designed for higher speed, thus decreasing the

size and the cost of the machine that express in equation (1) Where, Ia is the armature current per phase

derivation. If machine is designed at higher specific magnetic The no-load induced electromotive force

and electric loadings, output coefficient is larger, which Eo= Vt +jIaZs (11)

ultimately results into the reduction of size and cost of the

machine. The generation driven is shown in capability The synchronous impedance

diagram in figure (4) in which apparent power in generator Zs= Ra+ jXs (5)

operation with constant excitation; the electromagnetic

voltage induced from terminal voltage and reactance with

the concern of loss for lagging condtion while load condition

is running in stability limit with the power angle, δ and ɸ,

etc.

= External surface in cm2 x watts/cm2 (1)

= External periphery of the field coil x Height of the field coil

x watts/cm2 (2)

Q = (11×Bavqkw×10-3) D2Lns (3)

Where, Bav = Average flux density in the air gap, Tesla

Kw = Stator winding factor

Ns = Speed of the machine, rps

D= Internal diameter of stator, meter

Figure4. Capability Curve of Salient Pole Synchronous

L= Gross length of stator, meter

Generator

@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD24026 | Volume – 3 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2019 Page: 992

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470

3. RESULTS DATA OF CACULATION

The insulation system for low voltage machines presents no

particular difficulty, because insulation which is strong

enough mechanically is sufficient for electrical purposes.

However, the thickness of insulation required is quite large

for high voltage alternators, in order to prevent the

breakdown of insulation system [3].

Voltage (kV) 5 10 11 12 14 16

(Bitumen mica

2.6 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.6 5.1

folium insulation)

(Epoxy Novalak

2.1 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.8 4.2 Figure6. Short Circuit Ratio and Air Gap Length

mica-paper)

3.3. Efficiency due to Load Changing

3.1. The Relation of Specific Electric Loading and

Efficiency refers to very different inputs and outputs in

Voltage

different fields and industries. Efficiency is very often

In the design of synchronous generator, specific loading are

confused with effectiveness. Figure 4. represent the

very important for output equation, which is basic tool in

efficiency due to load changing. In this thesis, the generator

designing. So, the specific loadings are attentively chosen.

has been designed to get the maximum efficiency in 30 MVA

The specific loading is the average of the magnitude of the

rating. The following are the comparison between previous

radial flux density over the entire cylindrical surface of the

design data of 25.25 MVA synchronous generator[2] and

rotor. In order to calculate the diameter and length of rotor,

calculated design data of 30MVA synchronous generator.

mean flux density to get the optimal design. The following

Due to the choosing of larger specific loading in the design,

curve is obtained by using the output rating and output

the diameter and length of the generator are reduced to

coefficient equations and assuming the constant 0.67 Tesla

86cm and 196cm from 250 cm and 620 cm respectively.

of specific magnetic loading (Bav) to get the desired design.

Although the number of stator slots is 30 slots [2], now, it is

The relation between specific electric loadings and volume of

chosen 48 slots to reduce the reactance in this design. The

the generator is shown in Figure 4.2 and Table 4.3.

more space between the conductors for circulation of air, the

lower internal temperature and the better cooling system.

Moreover, the conductors in windings are stranded into

strands. The eddy current loss in one strand cannot share to

the other strand. So, the eddy current losses can be reduced.

Because of the reduction of the losses of the generator, the

efficiency is better from 89.6% in 25.25 MVA to 97.28% in

30 MVA. Therefore, this generator design is satisfactory not

only to produce bulk power, but also efficiency and size of

generator.

Gap Length

The air gap length in synchronous generator is an important

design parameter because its value greatly influences the

performance of the generator. However, it can be seen that

the value of air gap length is directly proportional to the

short circuit ratio. Short circuit ratio is an important factor of

the synchronous machine. It affects the operating

characteristics, physical size and cost of the machine. The

large variation in the terminal voltage with a change in load Figure7. Efficiency due to load changing

takes place for the lower value of the short circuit ration of a 4. CONCLUSIONS

synchronous generator. In this design, SCR is attentively To carry out the design for obtaining the above information,

chosen to get desired value of air gap length. The short the following factors are considerate and calculated. There

circuit ratio is directly proportional to the air gap reluctance are; detailed specifications, design equation based on which

or air gap length. Table 2 and Figure 3 show the relation the design is initiated, proper information for choosing

between short circuit ratio and air gap length. justified values of various design parameters, such as specific

magnetic loading, specific electric loading etc. and also

knowledge of available materials, magnetic, insulating,

conducting and their typical behavior, limiting values of

various performance parameters, such as iron losses,

@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD24026 | Volume – 3 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2019 Page: 993

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470

efficiency, short circuit current, etc are considered based [2] Caterpillar, “Generator System, Application and

load on 30MVA assume in gas turbine application in which Industrial Guide”, 2008

non salient pole type synchronous generator preferred for

[3] Smith, “Motors and Generators for Micro-hydropower,

large load.

Intermediate Technology Publications, London, 1994

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS [4] Yahaya Asizehi ENESI*, Adamu Murtala ZUNGERU, Isah

The author is deeply grateful to his teachers who are Agbogunde ADEMOH, “Analysis of Non-Salient Pole

working in Electrical Power Engineering Department, Synchronous Generator Using Phasor Diagrams”,

Technological University (Kalay) for their willingness to Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,

share of ideas and helpful suggestions on this paper writing. Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna,

Niger state, Nigeria, 2014.

6. REFERENCES

[5] B.R. Gupta Bandana Singhal, “Fundamental of Electric

[1] Tze Fun Chan, “Synchronous Machine, Polytechnic

Machines” Reversed Third Edition, 2010

University, Hong Kong, 2003

@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD24026 | Volume – 3 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2019 Page: 994

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