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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC IAS Preparation

03.06.2019 (b) Type 2: Focused on high-quality


teaching across disciplines with
1. K. Kasturirangan Committee significant contribution to research;
submits the Draft National (c) Type 3: High-quality teaching
Education Policy focused on undergraduate education.
• The Committee led by the Chairman • A new apex body Rashtriya Shiksha
Dr. Kasturirangan submitted the Draft Ayog is proposed to enable an
National Educational Policy to the integrated implementation of all
Human Resource Development educational initiatives and to
Ministry to replace the extant National coordinate efforts between the Centre
Policy on Education, 1986 modified in and States.
1992. The National Research Foundation
• The National Research Foundation, an
• The Draft National Education Policy,
apex body is proposed for creating a
2019 is built on the foundational
strong research culture and building
pillars of Access, Equity, Quality,
research capacity across higher
Affordability and Accountability.
education.
Recommendations on School Education: • The four functions of Standard
• The Committee also recommends setting, Funding, Accreditation and
Extension of Right to Education Act Regulation to be separated and
2009 to cover children of ages 3 to 18 conducted by independent bodies:
which is right now six to fourteen. (a) National Higher Education
• It proposes a 5+3+3+4 curricular and Regulatory Authority as the only
pedagogical structure based on regulator for all higher education
cognitive and socio-emotional including professional education;
developmental stages of children: (b) Creation of accreditation eco-
(a) Foundational Stage (age 3-8 yrs): system led by revamped NAAC;
3 years of pre-primary plus Grades 1- (c) Professional Standard Setting
2; Bodies for each area of professional
(b) Preparatory Stage (8-11 years): education and
Grades 3-5; (d) UGC to transform to Higher
(c) Middle Stage (11-14 years): Education Grants Commission.
Grades 6-8; and Other recommendations:
(d) Secondary Stage (14-18 years): • The Committee has proposed to
Grades 9-12. rename MHRD as Ministry of
Education.
• Schools will be re-organized into
• The 4-year integrated stage-specific
school complexes.
B.Ed. the programme will eventually
• It also seeks to reduce the content be the minimum degree qualification
load in the school education for teachers.
curriculum. • The private and public institutions will
Recommendations on Higher Education: be treated on par and Education will
• A restructuring of higher education remain a ‘not for profit’ activity.
institutions with three types of higher • It also said about the continuation of
education institutions is proposed – three language formula in school.
(a) Type 1: Focused on world-class Topic- GS Paper 3 – Important Policy
research and high-quality teaching; Source- The Hindu

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2. Clarification on Three - language • The disease affects cattle, swine,


formula sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed
• Recently Government issues a ruminants.
clarification on three-language • It can spread when infected animals
formula, says 'no Hindi imposition' bring the virus into physical contact
after Draft National Education Policy with susceptible animals.
unveiled. • In rare cases, humans are also
Related Information susceptible.
Three - language formula Brucellosis
• The three-language formula for • It is a bacterial disease caused by
language learning was formulated in various Brucella species, which mainly
1968 by the Ministry of Education of infect cattle, swine, goats, sheep and
the Government of India in dogs.
consultation with the states. • The disease causes flu-like
• The formula as enunciated in the 1968 symptoms, including fever, weakness,
National Policy Resolution. and malaise and weight loss.
• It provided the study of "Hindi, Mode of Infection
English and modern Indian language • Humans generally acquire the disease
(preferably one of the southern through direct contact with infected
languages) in the Hindi speaking animals, by eating or drinking
states and Hindi, English and the contaminated animal products, or by
Regional language in the non-Hindi inhaling airborne agents.
speaking States". • The majority of cases are caused by
• Currently, the three language system ingesting unpasteurized milk or
is not followed in Tamil Nadu. cheese from infected goats or sheep.
Related Committee to Language • Person to person transmission is rare.
• Gujral: constituted in 1972 for the Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance
promotion of Urdu language. Source- The Hindu
• Ali Sardar Jafri: in 1990 to examine 4. Pension scheme for shopkeepers,
the implementation of the Gujral traders
committee recommendations. • Cabinet clears pension scheme for
Topic- GS Paper 1 – Art and Culture shopkeepers, traders which assure
Source- The Hindu minimum monthly pension of Rs
3. Cabinet clears special scheme for 3,000 to all shopkeepers, retail
control of foot and mouth disease for traders and self-employed persons
livestock after attaining the age of 60 years.
• Cabinet cleared special scheme for • This is being done as part of the
Control of Foot and Mouth Disease government’s efforts to offer
and Brucellosis. universal social security.
• The diseases of Foot and Mouth • All small shopkeepers and self-
Disease and Brucellosis are very employed persons as well as the retail
common amongst the livestock; cow- traders with GST turnover below Rs.
bulls, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs. 1.5 crore and age between 18-40
• The entire cost of the scheme is to be years, can enrol for this scheme.
borne out by the Central Government. • The scheme is based on self-
Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis declaration as no documents are
• It is a highly contagious viral disease required except Aadhaar and bank
of livestock. account.

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• Interested persons can enrol Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance


themselves through Common Service Source- AIR
Centres spread across the country. 7. ‘Forbidden’ planet discovered in
Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance Neptunian Desert
Source- AIR • Astronomers had discovered a rogue
5. Exotic Kappaphycus seaweed poses exoplanet NGTS-4b also known as
threat to coral reef ‘The Forbidden planet in with its own
• The invasive Kappaphycus alvarezii atmosphere in the Neptunian Desert.
seaweed, which smothers and kills • The “Forbidden Planet” orbits a star
coral reefs, has spread its wings to called NGTS-4, which is located about
coral reef areas in Valai island in the 920 light-years away from Earth.
Gulf of Mannar (GoM) and set to • This newly discovered exoplanet is
invade new coral colonies in the smaller than Neptune but three times
marine national park. the size of Earth.
Related Information • It also retains an atmosphere of gas.
Kappaphycus alvarezii Related Information
• It is a species of red algae. • The Neptunian Desert is broadly
• It is one of the most important defined as the region close to stars
commercial sources of carrageenans, where no Neptune-sized exoplanets
a family of gel-forming, viscosifying are found.
polysaccharides. • These areas receive strong irradiation
• It is very fast-growing, known to from the star.
double its biomass in 15 days. • Therefore, the planets do not retain
• This alga is an introduced species and their gaseous atmosphere as they
a noxious aquatic weed in Hawaii. evaporate leaving just a rocky core
Topic- GS Paper 3 – Environment Topic- GS Paper 3 – Science and
Source- Down to Earth Technology
6. Govt approves the extension of PM- Source- Science Daily
KISAN scheme to all farmers 8. Irula tribal community
• Government has approved the • The rock paintings in Karikiyoor at Kil
extension of Pradhan Mantri Kisan Kotagiri in the Nilgiri forests have
Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) to all the withstood the forces of nature for
farmers in the country. some 5,000 years, but in just the last
• Earlier the benefit of the scheme was few years, close to 40% of the
applicable to farmers having two paintings have been destroyed by
hectares of land. trekkers, tourists, and vandals.
Related Information • Govt. has done little to stop illegal
Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi tourism from defacing the 5,000-
• It has been launched in 2018 which year-old drawings at Karikiyoor.
will provide assured income support • Recently Irula tribal community Nilgiri
to the small and marginal farmers. tribals tense as trekkers trash
• Vulnerable landholding farmer priceless rock painting in Karikiyoor at
families, having cultivable land upto 2 Kil Kotagiri in the Nilgiri forests.
hectares, will be provided direct Related Information
income support at the rate of Rs 6,000 Irula people
per year. • Irula is a Dravidian ethnic group
• Income support will be transferred inhabiting the area of the Nilgiri
directly into the bank accounts of Mountains, in the states of Tamil Nadu
beneficiary farmers, in three equal and Kerala, India.
instalments of Rs 2,000 each.

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• They are scheduled tribe which • However, the revised draft retains the
belongs to the Dravidian family. recommendation to introduce a three-
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve language formula from Class 1
• The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is an onwards; it simply removes the clause
International Biosphere Reserve in stipulating the specific languages that
the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills students must choose.
ranges of South India. • The controversial sentence appeared
• It was declared a World Heritage Site in Section 4.5.9, titled ‘Flexibility in
by UNESCO in 2012. the choice of languages’.
• It includes the Aralam, Mudumalai, Original Draft
Mukurthi, Nagarhole, Bandipur and • In keeping with the principle of
Silent Valley national parks, as well as flexibility, students who wish to
the Wayanad and Sathyamangalam change one of the three languages
wildlife sanctuaries. they are studying may do so in Grade
• Tribal groups like the Todas, Kotas, 6, so long as the study of three
Irullas, Kurumbas, Paniyas, Adiyans, languages by students in the Hindi-
Edanadan Chettis, Allar, Malayan, speaking states would continue to
etc., are native to the reserve. include Hindi and English and one of
Topic- GS Paper 1 –Art and Culture the modern Indian languages from
Source- Indian Express other parts of India.
9. New Zealand 'wellbeing' budget
• While the study of languages by
• New Zealand is the first western
students in the non-Hindi-speaking
country to design its entire budget
states would include the regional
based on wellbeing priorities.
language, Hindi and English.
• The budget includes life expectancy,
education levels, air quality and "a Revised Draft
sense of belonging. • In keeping with the principle of
• There will be increased spending on flexibility, students who wish to
mental health, indigenous welfare and change one or more of the three
child poverty in a budget. languages they are studying may do
Related Information so in Grade 6 or Grade 7, so long as
• It is a second innovation step after the they are able to still demonstrate
Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan first proficiency in three languages (one
floated the idea of prioritising language at the literature level) in
happiness overgrowth in the early their modular Board Examinations
1970s and introduced a Gross sometime during secondary school.”
National Happiness Index in 2008. Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
Topic- GS Paper 3– Economics Source- The Hindu
Source-Live Mint 2. UdChalo’ Portal
• ‘UdChalo’ is a travel portal that caters
04.06.2019 for the personal travel of the military
and paramilitary forces personnel by
1. Mandatory Hindi goes out of draft aggregating defence fares and gets
education policy exclusive discounts.
• The clause recommending mandatory • The Army’s Paraplegic Rehabilitation
Hindi teaching in all schools was Centre has joined hands with UdChalo
dropped from the draft National with an aim to empower the disabled
Education Policy by the Union military veterans.
Government. Related Information

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Paraplegic Rehabilitation Centre Related Information


• It is a nodal agency which provides Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT)
specialized rehabilitation services for • It has been established for
a range of spinal cord injuries to the adjudication of disputes with respect
Armed Forces of India (Army, Navy & to recruitment and conditions of
Air Force). service of persons appointed to public
• These are the armed personal’s who services and posts in connection with
are medically boarded out i.e. retired the affairs of the Union or other local
from service due to Spinal Cord injury authorities within the territory of India
while serving the Nation. or under the control of Government of
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Defence India.
Source- The Hindu
• Part XIV-A of the constitution provides
3. Tiananmen Square Protests 1989
for the tribunals.
• Recently, China’s Minister has
defended the crackdown on the 1989 • The provision was added through the
Tiananmen Square protests in a rare 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.
public acknowledgement of events. • Article 323A and 323B provide for
Related Information Administrative Tribunals and
1989 Tiananmen Square protests Tribunals related to other matters
• The Tiananmen Square protests, respectively.
commonly known in mainland China • The Administrative Tribunals Act in
as the June Fourth Incident or Six 1985 enacted by the Parliament
four, were student-led authorises the central government to
demonstrations in Beijing in mid- establish a central administrative
1989. tribunal and the state administrative
• These protests are commonly known tribunals.
in mainland China as the ‘June Fourth
• The CAT exercises jurisdiction over all
Incident’ or ‘Six four’ or '89
service matters concerning the
Democracy Movement’.
following:
• The protests were forcibly suppressed
(a) a member of any All-India Service
after the communist government
(b) a person appointed to any civil
declared martial law and sent in the
service of the Union or any civil post
military to occupy central parts of
under the union
Beijing.
(c) a civilian appointed to any defence
• Troops with assault rifles and tanks
services or a post connected with
fired at the demonstrators trying to
defence
block the military's advance towards
Tiananmen Square which results in • However, the members of the defence
several thousand students died in the forces, officers, the staff of the
massacre. Supreme Court and the secretarial
Topic- GS Paper 2 –International events staff of the Parliament are not covered
Source- The Hindu under the jurisdiction of CAT.
4. Central Administrative Tribunal can • The CAT comprises of a chairman,
exercise the same powers as HC vice- chairman and other members
• The Delhi High Court has held that the who are appointed by the President.
Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT), • The term of the service is 5 years or
which adjudicates service matters, until the age of 65 years for chairman
can exercise the same jurisdiction and and vice- chairmen and 62 years for
powers, as a High Court, in respect of members, whichever is earlier.
its contempt proceedings.

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• The chairman, vice-chairman or any • A new index to measure global gender


other member may address his equality, launched recently, ranks
resignation to the president in India at 95th among 129 countries.
between his term of office. • The SDG Gender Index comes close
• The appeal against the orders of a on the heels of the gender gap index
tribunal could be made in High Court of the World Economic Forum where
and not directly in Supreme Court. India was ranked 108th.
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance How the ranking works
Source- The Hindu • The SDG Gender Index has been
5. Government launches new ‘Jal developed by Equal Measures 2030, a
Shakti’ ministry joint effort of regional and global
• The Jal Shakti’ Ministry has been organisations including African
formed by merging the Ministry of Women’s Development and
Water Resources, River Development Communication Network, Asian-
and Ganga Rejuvenation and Ministry Pacific Resource and Research Centre
of Drinking Water and Sanitation. for Women, Bill and Melinda Gates
• The new ministry will encompass Foundation, and International
issues ranging from providing clean Women’s Health Coalition.
drinking water, international and • It accounts for 14 out of 17 SDGs
inter-states water disputes, to the (sustainable development goals) that
Namami Gange project aimed at cover aspects such as poverty, health,
cleaning Gang and its tributaries, and education, literacy, political
sub-tributaries. representation and equality at the
Related Information workplace.
Ministry of Water Resources • A score of 100 reflects the
• The Ministry of Water Resources achievement of gender equality in
(formerly Water Resources, River relation to the targets set for each
Development and Ganga indicator.
Rejuvenation) is the apex body for • The ranking found that the world is far
formulation and administration of from achieving gender equality with
rules and regulations relating to the 1.4 billion girls and women living in
development and regulation of the countries that get a “very poor”
water resources in India. grade.
Ministry of Drinking Water and • The global average score of the 129
Sanitation countries — which represent 95% of
• It was formed under Ministry of Rural the world’s girls and women — is 65.7
Development, for focused attention out of 100 (“poor” in the index.
on drinking water and sanitation. Key findings for India
• The Ministry of Drinking Water and • India’s highest goal scores are on
Sanitation is the nodal department for health (79.9), hunger & nutrition
the overall policy, planning, funding (76.2), and energy (71.8).
and coordination of programmes of • Its lowest goal scores are on
drinking water and sanitation in the partnerships (18.3, in the bottom 10
country. countries worldwide), industry,
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance infrastructure and innovation (38.1),
Source- AIR and climate (43.4).
6. New gender equality index, India is Topic- GS Paper 2 –Economic
95th in 129 countries Development
Source- Indian Express

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7. Indian Navy steps up anti-piracy • The project is implemented by the


patrol National Crime Records Bureau.
• In an expansion of its Mission Based Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
Deployments (MBD) in the Indian Source- The Hindu
Ocean Region (IOR), the Navy 9. Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca:
deployed its P-8I long-range maritime Mexico highest civilian award for
surveillance aircraft for anti-piracy foreigners
sorties from Salalah in Oman to patrol • Former President Pratibha Patil was
the Gulf of Aden. bestowed on the highest civilian
• Under the MBD concept, the Navy award of Mexico for foreigners know
maintains a ship at every choke point as ‘Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca'
in the IOR at any point of time. (Order of the Aztec Eagle).’
Mission-Based Deployments • Pratibha Patil helped to strengthened
• In addition to the anti-piracy humanitarian relations with Mexico is
deployment, the IN ships were also given this honour.
Mission Deployed for Operation Related Information
‘GULFDEP’ in the Gulf of Oman and Order of the Aztec Eagle
Persian Gulf and Operation ‘MALDEP’ • It is given by the office of the foreign
in the Andaman Sea and approaches minister on the instructions of a
to the Malacca Strait. Council established for this purpose
Related Information headed by the President.
About P-8I Aircraft • Pratibha Patil is the first Indian
• The P-8I is a long-range anti- woman and second Indian after Dr
submarine warfare, anti-surface Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan to receive
warfare, intelligence, surveillance and such an award.
reconnaissance aircraft capable of • Earlier Dr. Nelson Mandela, Queen
broad-area, maritime and littoral Elizabeth II (2nd), Bill Gates were
operations. honoured with this award".
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Defence Topic- Important for State PCS –Awards
Source-PIB and Prizes
8. Crime Criminal Tracking Network Source- Indian Express
System (CCTNS) project
• The Maharashtra government has 05.06.2019
decided to upgrade the entire Crime
Criminal Tracking Network System 1. Centre’s New Drugs and Clinical
(CCTNS) project, following complaints Trials Rule, 2019.
of glitches in the system. • Several critically ill patients have been
Related Information forced to line up at the Delhi High
About the Project Court after they suddenly stopped
• The project was unveiled in getting medication following the
September 2015 under Indian implementation of the Centre’s New
government for creating a Drugs.
comprehensive and integrated system Related Information
for effective policing through e- New Drugs and Clinical Trials Rule, 2019
Governance. • It is under the supervision of the
• The system includes nationwide Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
online tracking system by integrating • The new rules reduce the time for the
more than 14,000 police stations Drugs Controller General of India
across the country. (DCGI) to decide on a clinical trial
application from 180 days to 90 days

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for drugs developed outside India and 2. Scientists edit chicken genes to
to 30 days for “discovery, research make them resistant to bird flu
and manufacture” in India. • Scientists have used gene-editing
• The Ministry of Health and Family techniques to stop bird flu spreading
Welfare marked “stem cell-derived in chicken cells grown in a lab that
products” under the definition of “new could halt a human flu pandemic.
drugs”. • They use the gene editing technology,
• It also mandated that such known as CRISPR.
formulations be approved by the • It helps to remove a section of the
Central Drugs Standard Control birds’ DNA responsible for producing a
Organisation (CDSCO). protein called ANP32, on which all flu
• The new rules require clinics engaged viruses depend to infect a host.
in such “new drug” therapy to acquire • Cas9 (or "CRISPR-associated protein
a marketing licence. 9") is an enzyme that uses CRISPR
• Clinical trials are research studies that sequences as a guide to recognize and
explore whether a medical strategy, cleave specific strands of DNA that are
treatment or device is safe and complementary to the CRISPR
effective for humans. sequence.
• Before a drug is launched in the • Cas9 enzymes together with CRISPR
market, it has to be tested for its sequences form the basis of a
safety and efficacy. technology known as CRISPR-Cas9
Central drug Standard Control that can be used to edit genes within
Organisation (CDSCO) organisms.
• Central drug Standard Control Related Information
Organisation (CDSCO) regulates Bird Flu
clinical trials under Drugs and • Bird flu, also called avian influenza, is
Cosmetics Act, 1940. a viral infection that can infect not
• The Central Drugs Standard Control only birds but also humans and other
Organization (CDSCO) is the national animals. Most forms of the virus are
regulatory body for Indian restricted to birds.
pharmaceuticals and medical device. • H5N1 is the most common form of
• It functions under the Drugs and bird flu.
Cosmetics Act,1940. • It’s deadly to birds and can easily
• CDSCO comes under Directorate affect humans and other animals that
General of Health Services, Ministry of come in contact with a carrier.
Health & Family Welfare. • Currently, the virus isn’t known to
CDSCO is responsible for spread via human-to-human contact.
• Approval of New Drugs • H5N1 occurs naturally in wild
• Conduct of Clinical Trials waterfowl, but it can spread easily to
• Laying down the standards for Drugs domestic poultry.
• Control over the quality of imported • The disease is transmitted to humans
Drugs in the country and through contact with infected bird
• Coordination of the activities of State feces, nasal secretions, or secretions
Drug Control Organizations by from the mouth or eyes.
providing expert advice with a view to Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and
bring about uniformity in the Technology
enforcement of the Drugs and Source- The Hindu
Cosmetics Act. 3. Nilekani Recommendations to
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance boost digital transactions
Source- The Hindu

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• Nandan Nilekani committee, backdrop of stock market scams as


appointed by the RBI, had submitted also the failure of non-banking
its suggestions on promoting digital companies resulting in a huge
payments. financial loss to the public in 2003.
Recommendation of the committee • It is under the jurisdiction of the
• To encourage digital payments, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs,
committee has suggested a host of Government of India.
measures, including elimination of • The SFIO is involved in major fraud
charges, round-the-clock RTGS and probes and is the coordinating agency
NEFT facility, and duty-free import of with the Income Tax Department and
point-of-sales machines. the Central Bureau of Investigation.
• Merchant Discount Rates pricing • It is a multi-disciplinary organization
structure: 15 basis points (0.15 per having experts from the financial
cent) cut on the interchange rate on sector, capital market, accountancy,
card payments which is borne by the forensic audit, taxation, law,
merchants. information technology, company law,
• Removal of existing 18 %import duty customs and investigation.
on POS (point of sale) machines for a Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
period of three years. Source- The Hindu
• Reduce the goods and services tax on 5. Punjab and Haryana High Court
digital transactions so that the declares all animals in Haryana to
acceptance of digital payments can be be ‘legal persons’
improved among the customers. • The Punjab and Haryana High Court
• Payment systems must use machine- has accorded the status of “legal
driven, online dispute resolution person or entity” to animals in
systems to handle complaints. Haryana.
• There should be no convenience fee • It helps them to grant the
on payments made to government “corresponding rights, duties and
agencies by customers. liabilities of a living person”.
• The RBI and the government had to • The verdict comes nearly a year after
put in place an appropriate Uttarakhand High Court passed a
mechanism to monitor the digital similar order “to protect and promote
payment systems and make greater welfare of animals”.
aggregated information based on Related Information
blocks, and PIN code. • Uttarakhand High Court had also
Topic- GS Paper 3–Economics declared in 2017 the rivers Ganga and
Source- Indian Express Yamuna as living entities, a verdict
4. Serious Fraud Investigation Office that was later stayed by the Supreme
• The government’s financial fraud Court.
probe agency SFIO has recommended Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
necessary action against guilty Source-Live mint
auditors of IL&FS. 6. Quadrilateral Security Dialogue
Related Information (Quads) meets in Bangkok
Serious Fraud Investigation Office • The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue
• The Serious Fraud Investigation Office which is also known as Quad, is an
(SFIO) is a statutory corporate fraud informal strategic grouping consisting
investigating agency in India. of India, US, Australia and Japan
• It was formed on the recommendation recently met in Bangkok in Thailand.
of the Naresh Chandra Committee on Related Information
corporate governance and in the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue

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• The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue any country outside India for


(QSD, also known as the Quad) is an enforcing the provisions of this Code.
informal strategic dialogue between Related Information
the United States, Japan, Australia United Nations Commission on
and India that is maintained by talks International Trade Law
between member countries. • It is the core legal body of the United
• The Quad (or QSD) is committed to Nations system in the field of
preserving and promoting the rules- international trade law.
based order in the Indo-Pacific region. • The UNCITRAL Model Law envisages a
• The dialogue was initiated in 2007 by balance between liquidation and
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe of Japan, reorganization and provides a
with the support of Vice President Dick framework for resolution in four areas
Cheney of the US, Prime Minister John of cross border insolvency.
Howard of Australia and Prime • It has provided a valuable platform for
Minister Manmohan Singh of India. countries to compare, examine,
• The dialogue was paralleled by joint debate and adopt principles of
military exercises of an international commercial and trade
unprecedented scale, titled Exercise law appropriate to their
Malabar. circumstances.
• The diplomatic and military
• India is one of the members of
arrangement was widely viewed as a
UNCITRAL.
response to increased Chinese
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Economics
economic and military power, and the
Source- Economics Times
Chinese government responded to the
Quadrilateral dialogue by issuing 8. Oussudu Lake
formal diplomatic protests to its • Vulnerability assessment study
members. conducted in Oussudu Lake,
Topic- GS Paper 2 –International Puducherry had shown concern over
Organisation rising plastic pollution in water bodies.
Source- Indian Express • The report had highlighted that the
7. IBC amendments to usher in canals have become dumping grounds
cross-border insolvency for used plastic bags, thermocols,
resolution cups, plates, pipes and bottles.
• A panel led by the Ministry of About
Corporate Affairs had suggested • The Ousteri Lake also referred to as
adopting the United Nations Oussudu Lake is a man-made lake
Commission on International Trade situated about 10 km from
Laws on cross-border insolvency. Puducherry.
• The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, • Tamil Nadu government also
at present, does not effectively deal announced it as a ‘birds’ sanctuary, in
with cases involving cross-border 2015.
insolvency. • It is recognized as one of the
• The government is expected to amend important wetlands of Asia by the
Section 234 and Section 235 of the International Union for Conservation
IBC. of Nature and Natural Resources
• At present, Section 234 of the IBC (IUCN).
mentions that “the Central • Lake acts as the single largest
Government may enter into an catchment of fresh water in
agreement with the Government of Puducherry.

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• The vegetation of the lake (ranges 06.06.2019


from small herbs to trees) supports
migratory avifauna as well as native 1. PM to head the committee on
birds during summer and winter. economic growth and
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment Unemployment
Source- The Hindu
• To address the twin problems of
9. #selfiewithsapling campaign
sluggish economic growth and rising
• Union Environment Minister launched
unemployment, the government has
a people’s campaign
constituted two Cabinet committees
#SelfiewithSapling urging all to join
to be chaired by Prime Minister
and plant a sapling and post the selfie
Narendra Modi.
with the sapling on social media.
• The theme of World Environment Day Committee on Investment and Growth
2019 is “Air Pollution” • The five-member Committee on
Related Information Investment and Growth consists of
• World Environment Day 2019 urges Home Minister, Finance Minister,
governments, industries, Minister for Road Transport and
communities and individuals to come Highways and MSME and Railways
together to explore renewable energy, Minister.
green technologies and improve air • This committee will be a focussed
quality in cities and regions across the group to take measures to bring
world. investments and spur growth in the
Some Air Pollution Facts critical sectors including
• 92 Percent of people worldwide do not infrastructure, manufacturing and
breathe clean air. agriculture, as the economy is passing
• Air pollution costs the global economy through a highly volatile period.
$5 trillion every year in welfare costs. Committee on Employment and Skill
• Ground-level ozone pollution is Development
expected to reduce staple crop yields • The committee will prepare a road
by 26 Percent by 2030. map to bring the economy (GDP) back
India Steps toward to curb air Pollution on a growth trajectory which will be
• India has formulated and launched falling to 5.8% in the last quarter of
the National Clean Air Programme 2018-19, the lowest in the last five
(NCAP). years.
• This is a long term time-bound
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
national level strategy and tackles the
increasing pollution problem across Source- The Hindu
the country. 2. ‘Nal se Jal’ Scheme
• The objective of NCAP is a • The 'Nal se Jal’ Scheme has been
comprehensive plan for prevention, recently launched by Jal Shakti
control and abatement of air pollution Ministry.
besides augmenting the air quality • The scheme aims to provide piped
monitoring network. drinking water to every rural home by
• The tentative national level target is 2024.
the reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 • The scheme is based on the report of
concentration by 20% – 30% by UNICEF which revealed that 84% of
2024. rural homes have no access to piped
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment water, with more than 70% of the
Source- Times of India country’s water contaminated.

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• UNICEF study also showing that 4. Economic Census -2019


groundwater is 12.7 times less likely • The preparations for the 7th Economic
to be contaminated in ODF villages Census are underway under the Union
than non-ODF ones. Ministry of Statistics and Program
Related Information Implementation (MoSPI).
Jal Shakti Ministry • It is the seventh Economic Census
• The Jal Shakti’ Ministry has been (7th EC).
formed by merging the Ministry of • The first Economic Census was
Water Resources, River Development undertaken in 1977.
and Ganga Rejuvenation and Ministry • In the current Economic Census 2019,
of Drinking Water and Sanitation. MoSPI has partnered with CSC e-
• The new ministry will encompass Governance Services India Limited, a
issues ranging from providing clean Special Purpose Vehicle under the
drinking water, international and Ministry of Electronics and
inter-states water disputes, to the Information Technology as the
Namami Gange project aimed at implementing agency.
cleaning Gang and its tributaries, and Economic Census
sub-tributaries. • Economic Census is the complete
count of all establishment located
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
within the geographical boundary of
Source- The Hindu
India.
3. 2+2 meeting with Tokyo
• The Economic Census provides
• India’s External Affairs Minister and disaggregated information on various
his Japanese counterpart had held a operational and structural variables of
telephone conversation to discuss all establishments of the country.
maritime security in the Asia-Pacific • Economic Census also provides
region. valuable insight into geographical
• The two countries have decided to spread/clusters of economic activities,
hold their first 2+2 level dialogue this ownership pattern, persons engaged,
year ahead of Indian Prime Minister etc. of all economic establishments in
and Japan Prime Minister annual the country.
summit. Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
• The 2+2 meeting refers to a meeting Source-PIB
of foreign and defence ministers of 5. Hoolock Gibbon
both countries. • In an Arunachal Pradesh village, locals
• India has a 2+2 mechanism with the are planting a corridor of gibbon-
USA. friendly trees in a bid to conserve the
Related Information arboreal species in their natural
India-USA: 2+2 Dialogue habitat
• India and the US have already Related Information
established a new 2+2 ministerial About Hoolock gibbons
dialogue to enhance strategic • The hoolock gibbons are native to
coordination between them and eastern Bangladesh, Northeast India
maintaining peace and stability in the and Southwest China.
Indo-Pacific region. • Hoolock Gibbon is listed as
• The new dialogue format will replace vulnerable in IUCN Red list
the earlier India-US Strategic and • They are mainly concentrated in the
Commercial Dialogue. Mishmi Hills and are now commonly
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Defence known as Mishmi hills gibbons.
Source- The Hindu

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• The animal is protected in Mehao About Equator Prize


Wildlife Sanctuary located in Lower • The Equator Prize, organized by the
Dibang Valley district Equator Initiative within the United
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment Nations Development Programme.
Source-Live Mint • It is awarded biennially to recognize
6. Tamil Nadu Health System reform community efforts to reduce poverty
programme through the conservation and
• The central government, Tamil Nadu sustainable use of biodiversity.
and the World Bank have signed a Topic- GS Paper 3 –Important Prize
$287 million loan agreement for the Source- The Hindu
state's Health System Reform 8. China launches its first sea-based
Programme. space rocket
• The programme aims to improve the • China has conducted a pioneering
quality of health care, reduce the launch of a space rocket from a cargo
burden of non-communicable ship, becoming “the first nation” to
diseases (NCDs), and fill equity gaps fully own and operate a floating
in reproductive and child health launch platform.
services. • A Long March 11 rocket was launched
• Tamil Nadu ranks third among all from a ship in the Yellow Sea.
Indian States in the NITI Aayog • The launch vehicle successfully
Health Index which shows delivered five commercial satellites
improvement in the health outcomes. into Earth’s orbit as well as two
• The State’s maternal mortality rate scientific modules.
has declined from 90 deaths per • The satellites are expected to monitor
100,000 live births in 2005 to 62 winds on the ocean surface and to
deaths in 2015-16 while infant forecast typhoons and other extreme
mortality has declined from 30 deaths weather conditions.
per 1000 live births to 20 in the same Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and
period. Technology
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance Source- The Hindu
Source- TOI 9. Dolphins may have died due to
7. Equator Prize environmental conditions’
• United Nations Development • A team of scientists and researchers
Programme (UNDP) has announced has ascertained the causes behind the
six women from Deccan Development deaths of two dolphins which were
Society groups as the winner of recently stranded along the shore of
‘Equator Prize’ for 2019. the Mukka and Sasihitlu beach,
• The award sights DDS sangham Mangaluru, Karnataka.
women as ‘an outstanding example of • According to the team, the Dolphins
a local, nature-based solution to could have died due to various
climate change and sustainable environmental conditions such as
development’. extreme tidal fluxes, extreme weather
• The women of DDS have been condition, solar storms, human
selected for this award by her activities, illness or injury or pollution
relentlessly work for the past three (toxic effects of an oil spill).
decades to protect the environment Related Information
by following the traditional systems. Indian Dolphin
“Consume fresh food grown locally to • Dolphins are protected species as per
protect your health. the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act,
Related Information 1972.

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• The government has also declared • Cabinet Committee on Investment


Gangetic Dolphin as the national and Growth
aquatic animal. • Cabinet Committee on Employment
• They are listed as Endangered in the and Skill Development
IUCN Red List. Cabinet Committee on Investment and
• Recently for the conservation of Growth:
Gangetic Dolphin, Asia’s First Dolphin • The Cabinet Committee on
Research Centre has been set up on Investment will “identify key projects
the banks of River Ganga in Patna required to be implemented on a
University premises. time-bound basis”, involving
• India also has a sanctuary for the investments of Rs 1,000 crore or
conservation of Gangetic Dolphin more.
known as the Vikramshila Gangetic • It will prescribe time limits for giving
Dolphin Sanctuary, located in requisite approvals and clearances by
Bhagalpur District of Bihar. the ministries concerned in identified
Topic- GS Paper 3–Environment sectors.
Source- Indian Express Cabinet Committee on Employment and
Skill Development:
07.06.2019 • The Cabinet Committee on
Employment and Skill Development is
1. Reconstitution of Cabinet supposed to provide “direction to all
Committees- 2019 policies, programmes, schemes and
• The Union government released the initiatives for skill development.
composition of eight Cabinet • It aims to increase the employability
Committees, including two new ones of the workforce for effectively
— one on Investment, the other on meeting the emerging requirements
Employment and Skill Development. of the rapidly growing economy and
Related Information mapping the benefits of demographic
Cabinet Committees dividend”.
• The executive works under the Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
Government of India Transaction of Source-PIB
Business Rules, 1961. 2. Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs)
• These Rules emerge out of Article • Union Minister for Skill Development
77(3) of the Constitution. and Entrepreneurship has announced
• The Rules mandate the minister-in- that Fee for SC/ST candidates who
charge of a department (ministry) to have joined vocational training under
dispose of “all business allotted to a Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSS) has
department under” him or her. been waived off.
These include – • This decision was taken to further
• Appointments Committee of the strengthen the skill ecosystem
Cabinet benefiting those in the
• Cabinet Committee on underprivileged sections of society.
Accommodation Related Information
• Cabinet Committee on Economic JSSs
Affairs • It is established to provide vocational
• Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary training to non-literate, neo-literate,
Affairs as well as school dropouts by
• Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs identifying skills that would have a
• Cabinet Committee on Security market in the region of their
establishment.

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• Earlier, JSS was under the Ministry of Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance


Human Resources Development but it Source- The Hindu
has now been transferred to the 4. Russia willing to drop New START
Ministry of Skill Development & pact
Entrepreneurship. • Russia President Putin said
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance Washington showed no genuine
Source-PIB interest in conducting talks on
3. Autonomous Development extending the New START treaty,
Councils (ADCs) which caps the number of nuclear
• The 15th Finance Commission has warheads well below Cold War limits.
held a meeting with the Related Information
representatives of the Autonomous New START (Strategic Arms Reduction
District Councils (ADCs) of Treaty) Pact
Meghalaya. • It is a nuclear arms reduction treaty
• There are 3 ADCs in Meghalaya between the United States and the
namely the Khasi Hills ADC, Garo Hills Russian Federation with the formal
ADC and Jaintia Hills ADC. name of Measures for the Further
Related Information Reduction and Limitation of Strategic
Autonomous District Councils Offensive Arms.
• Autonomous District Councils in the • It was signed on 8 April 2010 in
tribal-dominated areas of North East Prague, and, after ratification,
are administrative bodies constituted entered into force on 5 February
in accordance with Sixth Schedule 2011.
Article 244 (2) & Article 275(1) of the • It is expected to last at least until
Indian Constitution. 2021.
• The 6th schedule of the Indian • New START replaced the Treaty of
Constitution provides for special Moscow (SORT), which was due to
arrangements for the administration expire in December 2012.
of tribal area in the four northeastern • Under terms of the treaty, the number
States- Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura of strategic nuclear missile launchers
and Mizoram. will be reduced by half.
• The term of the Autonomous District • A new inspection and verification
Councils is for five years from the date regime will be established, replacing
of their constitution. the SORT mechanism.
• The autonomous district council is • It does not limit the number of
governed by an Executive Committee. operationally inactive stockpiled
• The functions of ADCs under schedule nuclear warheads that remain in the
6 of the constitution includes high thousands in both the Russian
(a) Making laws on land and American inventories.
(b) Management of forests, except Topic- GS Paper 3 –Defence
reserved forests Source- The Hindu
(c) Appointment of traditional chiefs 5. RBI removed charges for RTGS and
and headmen NEFT transactions
(d) Making rules regulating the • RBI has removed the charges levied
inheritance of property, marriage, on RTGS and NEFT transactions to
divorce, the constitution of village boost digital payments.
courts and • At present, transactions done through
(e) To undertake development works RTGS system levy a minimum charge
like construction of roads, waterways for large-value (Rs 2 lakh and above)
etc. instantaneous fund transfers and

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NEFT System for other fund transfers • Gujarat Chief Minister launched
(below Rs 2 lakh). India’s first trading programme to
Related Information combat particulate air pollution on
Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) World Environment Day 2019, which
• RTGS systems are specialist funds has air pollution as its theme.
transfer systems where the transfer of • The programme is a market-based
money or securities takes place from system where the government sets a
one bank to any other bank on a "real cap on emissions and allows
time" and on a "gross" basis. industries to buy and sell permits to
• Settlement in "real time" means a stay below the cap.
payment transaction is not subjected • Being initiated in Surat by the Gujarat
to any waiting period, with Pollution Control Board (GPCB), the
transactions being settled as soon as emission trading scheme (ETS) was
they are processed. " designed with the help of a team of
• The gross settlement" means the researchers from the Energy Policy
transaction is settled on a one-to-one Institute at the University of Chicago
basis without bundling or netting with (EPIC), the Economic Growth Center
any other transaction. at Yale University and others from The
• The minimum amount to be remitted Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab
through RTGS is Rs 2 lakh. (J-PAL).
• There is no upper ceiling for RTGS • Under the cap and trade system, the
transactions. regulator first defines the total mass
• RTGS payments typically incur higher of pollution that can be put into the air
transaction costs and usually over a defined period by all factories
operated by a country's central bank. put together.
• Recently RBI extends RTGS transfer • Then, a set of permits is created, each
timings window for customer of which allows a certain amount of
transactions (initial cut-off) from 4.30 pollution, and the total is equal to the
pm to 6 pm. cap.
National Electronic Funds Transfer • These permits are the quantity that is
(NEFT) bought and sold.
• It is an electronic fund transfer • Each factory is allocated a share of
system introduced by the RBI in 2005. these permits (this could be equal or
• It has maintained by Institute for based on size or some other rule).
Development and Research in • After this, plants can trade permits
Banking Technology (IDRBT). with each other, just like any other
• NEFT enables bank customers in India commodity on the National
to transfer funds between any two Commodity and Derivatives Exchange
NEFT-enabled bank accounts on a Limited (NCDEX).
one-to-one basis( not on a real-time • Globally, cap-and-trade systems have
basis as in RTGS ) been used to reduce other forms of
• No settlements are made on the pollution, such as programmes that
second and fourth Saturday of the have successfully reduced sulphur
month, or on Sundays, or on public dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides
holidays. (NOx) in the United States. But the
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Banking System Gujarat programme is the first in the
Source- The Hindu world to regulate particulate air
6. Gujarat launches India’s first trading pollution.
programme to combat particulate air Related Information
pollution

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• Emissions trading (also known as cap machine did not record his or her vote
and trade) is a market-based correctly is allowed to cast a test vote.
approach to controlling pollution by • If the voter fails to prove the
providing economic incentives for mismatch, poll officials can initiate
achieving reductions in the emissions action against the complainant under
of pollutants. Section 177 of the Indian Penal Code,
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment which deals with giving false
Source- Down To Earth submission.
7. Indian Navy steams ahead with its go • Under the Section, a person can be
‘green’ plans in eco-friendly push punished with a jail term up to six
• Indian Navy has formulated a plan months, or fine to the tune of Rs
called as Indian Navy Environment 1,000 or both.
Conservation Roadmap (INECR). Topic- GS Paper 2 –Indian Polity
• Under the INECR, numerous policies Source- New Indian Express
aimed at reduction of energy 9. CII launches new Index "Fiscal
consumption and environment Performance Index" to measure fiscal
sustenance have been formulated and performance
disseminated to all ships, as well as • Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)
shore establishments. has launched a Fiscal Performance
• The roadmap aims for a reduction in Index (FPI) to assess state and
energy consumption and central budgets.
diversification of energy supply as the • The Index incorporates qualitative
key result areas. assessments of revenue expenditure,
• Indian Navy has pledged 1.5% of its capital expenditure, revenues, fiscal
works Budget towards Renewable prudence and the level of public debt
Energy generation. arrive at a more holistic picture of
• Solar photovoltaic (PV) projects have fiscal performance than the fiscal
been one of the focus areas of the deficit to GDP ratio.
Navy since the inception of the INECR. • A single criterion such as the ‘fiscal
• Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) projects deficit to GDP ratio’ does not tell us
consisting of both rooftop and land- anything about the quality of the
based solar panels are under Budget. Hence, the Government
execution at various shore should use multiple indicators to
establishments of the Navy under the measure the quality of Budgets at the
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Central and the State levels rather
Mission. than a single indicator.
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment • The CII has used this index to analyse
Source- The Hindu state and central budgets from 2004-
8. Election Commission may revisit 05 to 2016-17.
penal provision on a test vote Topic- GS Paper 3 –Economic
• The Election Commission of India may Development
revisit a rule that provides for Source- Economic Times
prosecution of an elector if a
complaint regarding malfunctioning of 10.06.2019
the EVM or VVPAT machine turns out
to be false. 1. All States, Union Territories can
• Under Rule 49MA of the Conduct of now set up Foreigners Tribunals
Election Rules, a voter who claims • The Ministry of Home Affairs has
that the EVM or the paper trail recently amended the Foreigners
(Tribunals) Order, 1964.

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• This amendment has empowered • Section 9 of the Act states that, where
district magistrates in all States and the nationality of a person is not
Union Territories to set up tribunals to evident as per preceding section 8,
decide whether a person staying the onus of proving whether a person
illegally in India is a foreigner or not. is a foreigner or not, shall lie upon
• It will help to detain and deport such person.
foreign nationals staying illegally Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
across the country. Source- The Hindu
• Earlier, the powers to constitute 2. IndSpaceEx: A space warfare exercise
tribunals were vested only with the • India is planning to conduct its first-
Centre. ever simulated space warfare exercise
Related Information named IndSpaceEx in July 2019.
Illegal Migrants (Determination by • The exercise will basically be a ‘table-
Tribunal) Act, 1983 top wargame’, with all stakeholders
• The Illegal Migrants (Determination from the military and scientific
community taking part in it.
by Tribunal) Act was an Act of the
• It helps to underline the seriousness
Parliament of India enacted in 1983
with which India is taking the need to
by the Union government.
counter likely threats to its space
• It was struck down by the Supreme
assets from countries like China.
Court of India in 2005 in Sarbananda
• IndSpaceEx will help us better grasp
Sonowal v. Union of India.
the strategic challenges in space that
• This act described the procedures to
need to be handled.
detect illegal immigrants (from
• India took the first step towards
Bangladesh) and expel them from
developing a credible counter-space
Assam.
capability under ‘Mission Shakti’.
• The Act was pushed through mainly Related Information
on the grounds that it provided special Mission Shakti
protections against undue • Mission Shakti is India’s test of an
harassment to the “minorities” anti-satellite weapon called ASATs.
affected by the Assam Agitation. • Anti-satellite weapons (ASATs) are
• It was applicable to the state of Assam created to destroy or incapacitate
only whereas, in other states, satellites placed in low earth orbit.
detection of foreigners is done under • It helps towards step securing India's
The Foreigners Act, 1946. safety, economic growth and
Foreigners Tribunals technological advancement.
• The tribunals are quasi-judicial • There are only four countries have
bodies, unique to Assam. ASAT capabilities, US, USSR, China
• It helps to determine if a person and now India.
staying illegally is a “foreigner” or not. Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science & technology
• When the ‘foreigner’ has been Source- Economics Times
apprehended by the police for staying 3. First Trains services opened in the
illegally, he or she is produced before Arctic
a local court under the Passport Act, • Russia has launched the first tourist
1920, or the Foreigners Act, 1946, train named Zarengold (means ‘The
with the punishment ranging three Tsar’s gold’ in German) to the Arctic
months to eight years in jail. region.
• The Foreigners Act, 1946 defines a • The train will travel through Russia’s
foreigner as a person who is not a Arctic region on to Norway and take
citizen of India. 11 days to complete the whole trip

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and allow passengers to discover Topic- GS Paper 3 –Economics


areas in Arctic region which are Source- The Hindu Business Line
difficult to access by other means. 5. E-Vidhan by Kerala government
• It set off from St. Petersburg station • The Kerala Legislative Assembly
with passengers aboard. recently announced an initiative to
Related Information digitize all its records and proceedings
• According to the U.S Geological under its ambitious project called E-
Survey, Arctic region holds oil and gas Vidhan.
reserves equivalent to 412 billion • It enables state legislature to go fully
barrels of oil and about 22% of the digital and completely paperless.
world’s undiscovered oil and gas. Related Information
• Russia hopes to become the top E-Vidhan
economic and military power in the • The e-Vidhan in State Legislatures
Arctic, foreseeing new trading routes and e-Sansad in Parliament are
as global warming breaks up glaciers. mission mode projects under Digital
Topic- GS Paper 1 –Geography India.
Source- The Hindu • The aim is to digitize and make their
4. e-from ACTIVE: For Weeding out functioning paperless which means
shell companies make both Parliament and state
• The Corporate Affairs Ministry (MCA) legislature documents, including
has ruled out any extension of the last speeches, committee reports,
date for filing the ACTIVE (INC 22A) questions and debates available on
form, which was primarily introduced the internet.
to weed out shell companies. • This will make their functioning
• E-form ACTIVE stands for Active transparent, responsive, productive,
Company Tagging Identities and more accountable and participative to
Verification. public.
• In case the ACTIVE form is not filed Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
before the deadline, the compliance Source- Indian Express
status for such companies would be 6. NPP first from North-East to get
marked as ‘ACTIVE Non- national party status
Compliant’ and directors of such • The Election Commission of India
ACTIVE non-compliant companies declared the National People’s Party
would be marked as ‘Director of led by Meghalaya Chief Minister
ACTIVE non-compliant company. Conrad K. Sangma as a national
Related Information party.
Shell Companies • The NPP is recognised as a State party
• Shell companies include multiple in Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur,
layers of companies that have been Meghalaya and Nagaland.
created for the purpose of diverting • Currently, there are 7 parties have
money or for money laundering. national party status in India which
• Most shell companies do not are:
manufacture any product or deal in 1. All India Trinamool Congress
any product or render any service. 2. BSP
They are mostly used to make 3. BJP
financial transactions. 4. INC
• Generally, these companies hold 5. CPI-M
assets only on paper & not in reality. 6. Nationalist Congress Party
• These companies conduct almost no 7. National People's Party (India)
economic activity. Related Information

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Conditions for Recognition as a National assembly of the state. This condition


Party was added in 2011.
• At present (2016), a party is Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
recognised as a national party if any Source- The Hindu
of the following conditions are fulfilled 7. NGT stays AP govt's Godavari-
1. If it secures six per cent of valid votes Penna interlinking projects
polled in any four or more states at a • The National Green Tribunal has
general election to the Lok Sabha or stayed the Andhra Pradesh
to the legislative assembly; and, in government's Godavari-Penna
addition, it wins four seats in the Lok interlinking projects due to lack of
Sabha from any state or states; or environmental clearance.
2. If it wins two per cent of seats in the Related Information
Lok Sabha at a general election; and About The Project
these candidates are elected from • The project will interlink the two
three states; or major rivers, Godavari and Penna to
3. If it is recognised as a state party in solve drinking water and irrigation
four states. problems in south coastal Andhra.
Conditions for Recognition as a State • Penna River flows through Anantapur,
Kadapa, Kurnool, Chittoor and Nellore
Party
districts. But the meagre water
At present (2016), a party is recognised as a
resources in the river are not able to
state party in a state if any of the following
cater to the needs of these districts.
conditions are fulfilled
• On the other hand, a major share of
1. If it secures six per cent of the valid
Godavari water flows into the sea
votes polled in the state at a general
during the monsoon season.
election to the legislative assembly of
Godavari River
the state concerned; and, in addition,
• The Godavari is India's second longest
it wins 2 seats in the assembly of the
river after the Ganga.
state concerned; or
• Its source is in Triambakeshwar,
2. If it secures six per cent of the valid Maharashtra.
votes polled in the state at a general • It flows from the states of
election to the Lok Sabha from the Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra
state concerned; and, in addition, it Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha and
wins 1 seat in the Lok Sabha from the ultimately emptying into the Bay of
state concerned; or Bengal.
3. If it wins three per cent of seats in the • In terms of length, catchment area
legislative assembly at a general and discharge, the Godavari is the
election to the legislative assembly of largest in peninsular India and had
the state concerned or 3 seats in the been dubbed as the Vridha Ganga.
assembly, whichever is more; or • The left bank tributaries which include
4. If it wins 1 seat in the Lok Sabha for the Purna, Pranhita, Indravati and
every 25 seats or any fraction thereof Sabari River covering nearly 59.7% of
allotted to the state at a general the total catchment area of the basin.
election to the Lok Sabha from the • The right bank tributaries Pravara,
state concerned; or Manjira, Manair together contributing
5. If it secures eight per cent of the total 16.1% of the basin.
valid votes polled in the state at a • Pranhita is the largest tributary
General Election to the Lok Sabha covering about 34% of its drainage
from the state or to the legislative basin.
Penna River

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• The Penna (also known as Pennar, • Stem cells are cells that can
Penner, Penneru or North Pinākinī) is differentiate into other types of cells,
a river of southern India. and can also divide in self-renewal to
• The Penna rises in Nandi Hills in produce more of the same type of
Chikballapur District of Karnataka stem cells.
state and runs north and east through • In mammals, there are two broad
the states of Karnataka and Andhra types of stem cells:
Pradesh to empty into the Bay of • Embryonic stem cells, which are
Bengal. isolated from the inner cell mass of
• Tributaries blastocysts in early embryonic
• Left Bank - Jayamangali, Kunderu, development.
Sagileru • Adult stem cells, which are found in
• Right Bank - Chitravati, Papagni, various tissues of fully developed
Cheyyeru mammals.
Topic- GS Paper 1 –Major Project Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and
(Geography) Technology
Source- AIR Source- Down to Earth
8. New injectable hydrogel may improve
stem cell uptake 11.06.2019
• Researchers from the Mohali-based
Institute of Nanoscience and 1. Pakistan faces FATF blacklist
Technology have devised a method to • The Joint Group of Asia Pacific Group
encapsulate adult stem cells, called (APG) has informed Pakistan that its
Mesenchymal Stem Cells, in an action plans on terrorist groups were
injectable hydrogel. inadequate after it was grey-listed by
• The use of stem cells in regenerative the Financial Action Task Force for
medicine remains a challenging task terror financing.
because of problems associated with • APG has said that Pakistan has time
the survival of transplanted cells. until September 2019 to either
• Stem cells, when transplanted on a comply with the demands made by
wound site, releases chemicals called FATF members or it could be
Paracrine factors which stimulate blacklisted.
other cells in the vicinity to initiate • The blacklisting will prevent
tissue regrowth. institutions like IMF from financially
About the Gel supporting Pakistan which is
• The injectable hydrogel has been anticipating a financial crisis.
derived from natural materials like • Pakistan was placed on FATF’s grey
cellulose and chitosan (found in list for terror financing in June 2018,
seashells) and it biodegrades in about on a proposal moved by the US, UK,
a month. Germany and France.
• The hydrogel was fabricated by Related Information
connecting an aldehyde group with an Asia Pacific Group
amino group, by employing a method • Asia Pacific Group is the FATF-style
called the Schiff base reaction. regional body for the Asia-Pacific
• “The hydrogel addresses the issue of region founded in 1997, Bangkok.
the long-term survival of adult stem • It is autonomous regional anti-money
cells in simulated cultures that mimic laundering body by unanimous
the actual body tissue. agreement among 13 original
Stem cell founding members.

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• Currently, it consists of 41 members Related Information


including India. G20 (Group of Twenty)
• It is focused on ensuring that its • It is an international forum for the
members effectively implement the governments and central bank
international standards against governors from 19 countries and the
money laundering, terrorist financing European Union.
and proliferation financing related to • The group accounts for 85% of world
weapons of mass destruction. GDP and two-thirds of the population.
Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
• They have no permanent staff of its
• It is an inter-governmental body
own and its chairmanship rotates
established in 1989 on the initiative of
annually between nations divided into
the G7.
regional groupings.
• FATF is the global watchdog on anti-
money laundering and combating • It aims to bring together systemically
financing terror. important industrialized and
• The FATF Secretariat is housed at the developing economies to discuss key
OECD headquarters in Paris. issues in the global economy.
Topic- GS Paper 2 – International Topic- GS Paper 3 – Economics
Organisation Source- Economics Times
Source- The Hindu 3. El Salvador recognises forests as
2. G20 Finance Ministers call for the living entities
creation of digital tax • El Salvador has recognised forests as
• The Finance Ministers of the G20 living entities.
member nations recently called for • Its citizens will now be required to
the creation of a digital tax for preserve forests.
multinational technology companies. • El Salvador has lost about 85 per cent
• It helps to close loopholes used by of its native forests since the 1960s,
global tech giants to reduce their while Earth has lost about 80 per cent
corporate taxes. of its native forests.
• Global technology firms such as
• Recognising forests as living entities
Facebook, Google, Amazon and
means humans live in harmony with
others face criticism for cutting their
forests and respect them as more
tax bills by booking profits in low-tax
than just property.
countries regardless of the location of
the end customer. Related Information
• The G20’s debate on changes to the How the tags of legal entities help
tax code is focused on two pillars -: forests?
o The first pillar was to divide up the • A tag of Legal entities helps the
rights to tax a company where its forests to have a right to be legally
goods or services are sold even if it protected from any kind of harm or
does not have a physical presence destruction.
in that country. • Cutting them without permission
o The second pillar was to decide on could entitle to human rights violation
a global minimum tax rate to for which they can take legal
prevent companies from finding a recourse.
way to book profits in low-tax or • Recently in 2017 India also became
offshore havens. the second country to recognise rivers
Ganga, the Yamuna as “living
• Britain and France have been among
entities”.
the most vocal proponents of
proposals to tax big tech companies.

23
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• New Zealand became the world's first • The appointee for the office is
to grant its third largest river, approved by Appointments
Whanganui, the same legal rights as a Committee of the Cabinet headed by
human being. Prime Minister, based on the
Topic- GS Paper 3 – Environment appointee's ability and the confidence
Source- Down to Earth of the Prime Minister.
4. India gets its first Dinosaur Museum • The Cabinet Secretary is the ex-officio
• India's first Dinosaur Museum cum head of the Civil Services Board, the
Park inaugurated at Raiyoli near Cabinet Secretariat, the Indian
Balasinor in Gujarat's Mahisagar Administrative Service (IAS), and all
district. civil services under the rules of
• The museum will exhibit remains of business of the government.
various dinosaurs and fossil records. • The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible
• It was the country's first such for the administration of the
museum and the world's third park. Transaction of Business Rules, 1961
• Raiyoli is known to be the third largest and the Allocation of Business Rules,
dinosaur fossil site in the world, and 1961 of the Government of India.
also the second largest dinosaur • It helps in facilitating a smooth
hatchery in the world, where transaction of business in
thousands of eggs had been found. ministries/departments of the
• This dinosaur museum was equipped Government.
with modern technology like 3D Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance
projection, virtual reality Source- The Hindu
presentations, interactive kiosks and 6. Antarashtriya Yoga Diwas Media
life-size dinosaur replicas. Samman (AYDMS)
Topic- GS Paper 3 – Environment • The Ministry of Information and
Source- Business Standards Broadcasting (I&B) has instituted its
5. Govt amends 60-year-old rule to grant first Antarashtriya Yoga Diwas Media
an extension to Cabinet Secy Samman.
• The Centre has amended a 60-year- • The aim of the award is to
old rule to grant a three-month acknowledge the positive role &
extension to Cabinet Secretary responsibility of media in
Pradeep Kumar Sinha. disseminating the outreach of Yoga in
• According to All India Services India and abroad.
(Death-Cum-Retirement-Benefits) • The award will be conferred to Media
Rules, 1958, the government can give Houses engaged in Print Media,
extension in service to a cabinet Electronic and (Television & Radio).
secretary provided the total tenure Categories:
does not exceed four years. The award would be given under the
• As per the modified rules notified the following categories:
central government may give an 1. Best Media Coverage of Yoga in
extension in service for a further Newspapers - Eleven Sammans will be
period not exceeding three months, conferred in 22 Indian languages and
beyond the period of four years to a English
cabinet secretary. 2. Best Media Coverage of Yoga in Radio
Related Information - Eleven Sammans will be conferred in
Cabinet Secretary of India 22 Indian languages and English
• The Cabinet Secretary is the top-most 3. Best Media Coverage of Yoga in
executive official and senior-most civil Television - Eleven Sammans will be
servant of the Government of India.

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conferred in 22 Indian languages and • It also proposes training programmes


English for government employees and
Note: launch of the Academy of Wellbeing
• International Yoga day is celebrated future generations.
on 21st June every year. Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance
• Yoga is one of the six orthodox Source- TOI
schools of Hindu philosophical
8. France invited India to attend the
traditions.
45th G7 Summit in Biarritz
Topic- GS Paper 1 – Art and Culture
Source-Live Mint • Prime Minister Narendra Modi has
7. National Strategy for Wellbeing accepted an invitation from French
2031’ adopted by the Cabinet of UAE President Emmanuel Macron to attend
• The Cabinet of United Arab Emirates the outreach session of the G7
adopted a 12-year strategy ‘National Summit in Biarritz, France as a special
Strategy for Wellbeing 2031’ during invitee.
its meeting at the Presidential Palace Related Information
in Abu Dhabi. G7 (Group of 7)
Highlights of the National Strategy for • It is a group of the seven most
Wellbeing 2031 advanced economies as per the
• The National Strategy for Wellbeing International Monetary Fund.
2031 aims to make the UAE a world • The seven countries are Canada, USA,
leader in quality of life through a UK, France, Germany, Japan and
number of strategic objectives and Italy.
initiatives.
• The EU is also represented in the G7.
• It also aims to promote an integrated
concept of wellbeing, thus supporting • These nations account for more than
the vision of the UAE Vision 2021 and 64% of the net global wealth.
the UAE Centennial 2071. • The requirements to be a member of
• The Strategy is based on a national the G7 are a high net national wealth
framework of three main levels - and a high HDI (Human Development
individuals, society and the country. Index).
• It includes 14 components and nine • G7 Summit 2018 (44th Summit)
strategic objectives, which include was held in Quebec, Canada.
enhancing people's wellbeing by Topic- GS Paper 2 – International
promoting healthy and active Organisation
lifestyles, promoting good mental Source- Indian Express
health and adopting positive thinking.
9. Study finds pathogens in wild snow
• The Strategy includes 90 supporting leopards
initiatives targeting more than 40 • A new study has detected zoonotic
priority areas. pathogens in the blood of wild snow
• One of the most important initiatives leopards.
is the development of the first • These zoonotic pathogens (bacteria)
'National Wellbeing Observatory' to include Coxiella burnetii, which causes
support the policymaking process. a disease known as Q fever in
• Along with the formation of a National humans.
Wellbeing Council to manage and • It can also infect livestock.
coordinate the national strategy, it • Researchers also detected pathogens
will monitor a number of indicators of from the Leptospira species, which
wellbeing in the UAE; submit regular
reports to the UAE Cabinet.

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can be easily transmitted to humans powerful than any local system that
and cause life-threatening infections. can pull the monsoon winds moving
• Another pathogen detected was the northeast.
Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that • Thus by sucking all the moisture from
can infect all warm-blooded animals the monsoon winds towards itself the
and cause toxoplasmosis. northward progress, especially in
Related Information interior areas, would not be possible
Snow Leopard till the cyclone dissipates
• It is a large cat native to the mountain Different Cyclonic Alerts
ranges of Central and South Asia. • Yellow: Be Updated
• It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN • Orange: Be prepared
• Red: Take action
Red List.
• Green: No warning
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment and
Arabian Sea Cyclones
Biodiversity
• Arabian Sea cyclones are also
Source- Down to Earth
relatively weak compared to those
emerging in the Bay of Bengal.
12.06.2019 • In the last 120 years, just about 14%
of all cyclonic storms, and 23% of
1. Gujarat on alert as cyclonic storm severe cyclones, around India have
Vayu inches towards the coast occurred in the Arabian Sea.
• The India Meteorological Department • Gujarat coastline, where most of the
issued an orange alert over Cyclone cyclones emerging in the Arabian Sea
Vayu which is expected to reach the are headed, is not very densely
Gujarat coast. populated, ensures that the damage
• Cyclone Vayu, named by India. potential of the cyclones on the
• It is moving towards the North western coast is comparatively low.
(expected to hit Gujarat coast) and is HOW ARE CYCLONES NAMED?
expected to draw moisture away from • India falls under the southern region
the monsoon that in turn will delay the of the world.
arrival of monsoon. • A total of eight countries fall under
Related Information this group and they give names to
Conditions for cyclone formation: cyclones one by one.
• The countries involved are
1. Warm sea temperature of about 27
Bangladesh, India, Maldives,
Celsius
Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
2. Presence of Coriolis force
and Thailand.
3. Calm atmospheric conditions • These countries name cyclones one by
How does Cyclone affect monsoon? one, which are discussed in the
• Cyclones are sustained by very strong meeting of all countries and then later
low-pressure areas at their core. finalised.
• Winds in surrounding areas are forced Topic- GS Paper 1 –Geography of World
to rush towards these low-pressure and India
areas. Source- The Hindu
• Similar low-pressure areas, when 2. Defence Space Agency: New agency
they develop near or over land, are to develop space warfare weapon
instrumental in pulling the monsoon systems
winds over the country as well. • The government has approved the
• But right now, the low-pressure area setting up of a new agency called
at the centre of the cyclone is far more Defence Space Agency to enhance the

26
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capabilities of the armed forces to • It was proposed by a panel led by PNB


fight wars in space. chairman Sunil Mehta to help
Functions: consolidate stressed assets.
• It will help to develop sophisticated • Bad loans of up to ₹50 crore will be
weapon systems and technologies. managed at the bank level, with a
• The agency would be provided with a deadline of 90 days.
team of scientists which would be • For bad loans of ₹50-500 crore, banks
working in close coordination with the will enter an inter-creditor agreement,
tri-services integrated Defence staff authorizing the lead bank to
officers. implement a resolution plan in 180
• It would be providing the research days or refer the asset to NCLT.
and development support to the • For loans above ₹500 crore, the panel
Defence Space Agency (DSA) which recommended an independent AMC,
comprises members of the three supported by institutional funding
services. through the AIF.
• The DSA has been created “to help the Topic- GS Paper 3 – Indian Economy
country fight wars in the space”. Source- Economics times + Live mint
• The Defence Space Agency is being 4. Pro-tem Speaker
set up in Bengaluru. • Madhya Pradesh Member of
Topic- GS Paper 3 – Defence Parliament Virendra Kumar will be
Source- Indian Express selected as the Pro-tem Speaker for
3. Sashakt panel hails RBI circular the first session of the 17th Lok
making ICA mandatory Sabha.
• The Chairman of the Sashakt Related Information
Committee Sunil Mehta has said the Pro Tem Speaker
new RBI direction making the Inter- • It is provided by the Constitution, the
Creditor Agreement (ICA) framework Speaker of the last Lok Sabha vacates
mandatory is a move in the right his office immediately before the first
direction for resolution of non- meeting of the newly-elected Lok
performing assets (NPAs or bad Sabha.
loans). • Therefore, the President appoints a
• RBI recently issued revised guidelines member of the Lok Sabha as the
for resolution of -stressed assets - Speaker Pro Tem.
New Framework. • Usually, the seniormost member is
• The revised guidelines came after the selected for this.
Supreme Court had struck down the • The President himself administers the
earlier RBI circular of February 2018 oath to the Speaker Pro Tem.
is unconstitutional. • The Speaker Pro Tem has all the
• The circular mandated banks to powers of the Speaker.
complete resolution process for NPA • He presides over the first sitting of the
accounts over Rs 2,000 crore within newly-elected Lok Sabha.
180 days from the first date after • His main duty is to administer the
default, failing which such accounts oath to the new members and also
were to be referred for resolution enables the House to elect the new
under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Speaker.
Code (IBC), 2016. • When the new Speaker is elected by
Related Information the House, the office of the Speaker
Project Sashakt Pro Tem ceases to exist. Hence, this
office is a temporary office, existing
for a few days.

27
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Topic- GS Paper 2– Governance • The extradition of a fugitive depends


Source- The Hindu upon the
5. Action is needed to save West Africa’s treaties/conventions/arrangements
critically endangered chimpanzees entered into by India with other
• In 2016, the International Union for countries.
Conservation of Nature (IUCN) listed • India and Malaysia had signed an
the western African subspecies of extradition treaty in 2010
chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance
as “Critically Endangered”. Source- TOI
• It had previously been listed 7. Villagers turn to Valasa Devarlu: An
as “Endangered”. age-old ritual for rains
Related Information • Valasa Devarlu’, the age-old rural
Chimpanzee festival, has returned to a number of
• The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), villages in the western mandals of
also known as the common Chittoor district in the face of drought
chimpanzee, robust chimpanzee, is a conditions and only a few weeks left
species of great ape native to the for the sowing season to close.
forests and savannahs of tropical Related Information
Africa. Valasa Devarlu
• The chimpanzee and the closely • It is a traditional ritual, and some say
related bonobo (sometimes called the a festival, dating back to the reign of
"pygmy chimpanzee") are classified in Emperor Srikrishna Devarayalu.
the genus Pan. • This ritual is popular in about 50
• Evidence from fossils and DNA villages of Chittoor district (Andhra
sequencing shows that Pan is a sister Pradesh) bordering Karnataka.
taxon to the human lineage and are Topic- GS Paper 1– Art and Culture
humans' closest living relatives Source-Live Mint
Topic- GS Paper 3– Environment and 8. Campaign "CAPSULE" to fight
Biodiversity quacks in Kerala
Source- Down to Earth • CAPSULE (Campaign Against Pseudo
6. Malaysia has the right not to Science Using Law and Ethics) is an
extradite Zakir Naik initiative of the Kerala Sasthra Sahitya
• Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Parishad (KSSP)
Mohamad said the country reserved • The idea of CAPSULE was raised after
the right to disallow extradition of a group of social activists launched a
Zakir Naik to India if he was not going legal battle against a doctor in
to be accorded justice. Thiruvananthapuram who gave
• The Enforcement Directorate is advertisements in major newspapers
preparing to secure a non-bailable claiming to cure diabetes, cancer and
warrant against Naik on money thyroid diseases.
laundering charges. • CAPSULE is working in association
Related Information with organisations such as the Indian
• Extradition is the formal process of Medical Association and the Ayurveda
one state surrendering an individual Medical Association of India.
to another state for prosecution or Topic- GS Paper 2 – Social Issues
punishment for crimes committed in Source- The Hindu
the requesting country’s jurisdiction.
• In India, the extradition of a fugitive
(accused or convicted) is governed by
the Extradition Act, 1962.

28
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13.06.2019 Related Information


Bharat Stage
1. Hypersonic Technology • Bharat stage emission standards
Demonstrator Vehicle (BSES) are emission standards
• DRDO conducted the test of an instituted by the Government of India
indigenously developed Hypersonic to regulate the output of air pollutants
Technology Demonstrator Vehicle from internal combustion engines and
(HSTDV). Spark-ignition engines equipment,
Related Information including motor vehicles.
HSTDV • The standards and the timeline for
• The HSTDV is an unmanned scramjet implementation are set by the Central
demonstration aircraft for hypersonic Pollution Control Board under the
speed flight which is run by the Indian Ministry of Environment & Forests and
Defence Research and Development climate change.
Organisation. • The standards, based on European
• In scram-jet technology, fuel regulations were first introduced in
combustion takes place in a chamber 2000.
in the missile at supersonic speeds. • Bharat Stage IV emission norms have
Application of HSTDV been enforced for the entire country
• The project will have multiple civilian since April 2017.
applications. Bharat Stage VI
• It can be used for launching satellites • The Indian government has decided to
at low cost. skip BS-V and directly move to BS-VI
• It will also be available for long-range from April 2020.
cruise missiles of the future. • BS-VI fuel will bring down sulphur
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Defence by 5 times from the current BS-IV
Source- The Hindu levels—a whopping 80 percent
2. EducationUSA India: A New app to reduction and would make fuel
help students extremely clean.
• The U.S. Embassy has launched International Centre for Automotive
‘EducationUSA India’, a mobile Technology
application to provide Indian students • It is a leading world-class automotive
with “current, comprehensive and testing, certification and R&D service
accurate information about studying provider under the aegis of NATRiP
in the U.S.” (National Automotive Testing and
• The application will help the students R&D Infrastructure Project),
seeking admission to universities Government of India.
based in the U.S. and facilitated their Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
visa process. Source-PIB
Topic-GS Paper 3–Important Application 4. Reserve Bank sets up panel to
Source- The Hindu examine ATM charges, fees
3. ICAT Releases India’s 1st BS – VI
• RBI has constituted a committee,
Certificate in Two Wheeler Segment
headed by VG Kannan, Chief
• International Centre for Automotive
Executive, Indian Banks’ Association,
Technology released India’s first Type
to examine the entire gamut of ATM
Approval Certificate for Bharat Stage
charges and fees.
- VI (BS – VI) norms for the two-
• The committee will review the existing
wheeler segment.
structures and patterns of costs,
• This is India’s first certification in the
charges and interchange fees for ATM
two-wheeler segment for the BS – VI
transactions.
norms.

29
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• They also make recommendations on • These frogs are more commonly


the optimal charges and interchange known as "paddy frogs”.
fee structure and pattern. • Micryletta aishani is currently endemic
Related Information to Northeast India but it could very
Automated Teller Machine (ATM) well be present in neighbouring
• It is a computerized machine that regions of Bangladesh and Myanmar.
provides the customers of banks the • Apart from Assam, it is also present in
facility of accessing their accounts for Tripura and Manipur
dispensing cash and to carry out other Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment
financial & non-financial transactions Source- Indian Express
without the need to visit a bank 6. Phosphine is a safe and effective
branch. fumigant, claims study
• The fee structure determines the fee • According to a study by the Indian
consumers pay for using their ATM Council of Agricultural Research
cards at ATMs of other banks. (ICAR) scientists, Phosphine may be
as effective as the ozone-depleting
• Normally, the issuing bank allows a
methyl bromide (MB) in killing insect
certain number of ATM transactions
pests.
for free.
• It also used as quarantine fumigant at
Type of ATM
ports.
• White Label ATM - ATM Provided by
Phosphine
NBFC (Non-Banking Financial
• Phosphine, a fumigant in a gaseous
Company)
form, is normally produced using
• Green Label ATM - ATM Provided aluminium phosphate as substrate.
for Agricultural Transaction • It is 100 per cent effective against the
• Orange Label ATM - ATM Provided pests.
for Share Transactions Related Information
• Yellow Label ATM - ATM provided • India signed and ratified the Montreal
for E-commerce Protocol which was committed to
• Pink Label ATM - ATM for women phasing out Methyl Bromide and other
banking ozone-depleting substances (ODS) by
• Brown Label ATM- The ATM machine 2015.
is owned by a service provider but • But the Methyl Bromide fumigant is
cash management and connectivity to still used at Indian ports for treating
banking networks are provided by a cereals and pulses imported from
sponsor bank. other countries to quarantine insect
Topic-GS Paper 3 –Important Committee pests.
Source- Indian Express • The repeated use of Methyl Bromide
5. Micryletta aishani’: A new species of leaves residues in the grains whereas
From discover in Assam the Phosphine shows no residual
• A team of scientists from Delhi build-up in the grains.
University and the Wildlife Institute of Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and
India, in collaboration with Technology
researchers from Indonesia and the
Source- Down to Earth
US, have discovered a new species
Aishani from Northeast India, 7. Govt eyes reforms, to club 44
primarily Assam. labour laws into 4 codes
• It is a group of narrow-mouthed • The new legislation will club 44 labour
frogs that is primarily and widely laws into four codes on wages, social
distributed in Southeast Asia.

30
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security, industrial safety and welfare, • The proposed space station would
and industrial relations. weigh around 20 tonnes.
Related Information • It serves as a facility where
astronauts could stay for 15-20 days
• Labour is a subject in the concurrent
and would be placed in an orbit 400
list of the Constitution of India and
km above the earth.
both the centre and states can enact
• It also provides a small module for
laws on labour matters.
microgravity experiments.
• There are 44 central laws and more Related Information
than 150 state laws on labour. International Space Station (ISS)
• NSSO report showed that the • The ISS programme is a joint project
unemployment rate across the between five participating space
country stood at 6.1%, the highest agencies: NASA (United States),
since 1972-73. It also showed that Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan),
joblessness was higher in urban India ESA (Europe), and CSA (Canada).
(7.8%) than in rural India (5.3%). • It is a space station, or a habitable
• However, there is a stiff opposition artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit
from labour unions who alleges that about 400km.
Industries are already flouting labour • The ISS is the largest human-made
regulations and any dilution of the body in low Earth orbit and can often
existing laws will compromise be seen with the naked eye from Earth.
employee’s welfare. • The ISS serves as a microgravity and
space environment research
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
laboratory in which crew members
Source- TOI conduct experiments in biology,
8. Bancha, the first solar kitchen only human biology, physics, astronomy,
village in India meteorology, and other fields.
• Bancha in Betul district, Madhya • It circles the Earth in roughly 92
Pradesh is the first village in India to minutes and completes 15.5 orbits
have zero wooden stoves and almost per day.
no use for LPG cylinders with all its Topic-GS Paper 3–Science & Technology
houses relying on solar-powered Source- The Hindu
stoves to meet their cooking needs. 2. Global Peace Index 2019
• The Institute for Economics and Peace
Topic- Important for PCS Exams
recently released Global Peace Index
Source- Economic Times 2019 in which India's rank has slipped
five places to 141 among 163
countries.
14.06.2019
Highlights of the report
1. India will have its own space • Iceland remains the most peaceful
station country in the world, a position it has
• India plans to have its own space held since 2008.
station at a time frame for launch • It is joined at the top of the Global
would be 5-7 years after Gaganyaan. Peace Index (GPI) by New Zealand,
• Gaganyaan will be the first manned Austria, Portugal, and Denmark.
mission of India scheduled for August • Afghanistan is now the least peaceful
2022 which is launched by GSLV Mk- country in the world, replacing Syria.
III launch vehicle.
Indian Proposed Space Station

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• In South Asia, Bhutan topped the Source- The Hindu


index with 15th rank, followed by Sri 4. Cabinet approves “The Central
Lanka 72 Educational Institutions (Reservation in
• India together with the Philippines, Teachers’ Cadre) Bill, 2019
Japan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, • The Bill will replace The Central
Indonesia, Vietnam and Pakistan are Educational Institutions (Reservation
the nine countries with the highest in Teachers’ Cadre) Ordinance, 2019.
risk of multiple climate hazards. • The bill provides for a 200-point roster
• India has the seventh highest overall that defines college or university as
natural hazard score. the unit for faculty reservation rather
Institute of Economics and Peace than a department or subject.
• It is an international and independent • This bill was introduced after the
think tank dedicated to shifting the University Grants Commission (UGC)
world's focus to peace as a positive, had announced that a 13-point roster
achievable and tangible measure of would be followed.
human well-being and progress. • Accordingly, the individual
• It considers 23 indicators. department was considered as the
• The report covers 99.7 Percent of the base unit to calculate the number of
world's population. teaching posts to be reserved for SC
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Important Index and STs Candidates which was framed
Source-Live Mint after an order by the Allahabad High
3. China launches Internet ‘clean-up’ Court.
campaign • The Allahabad High Court had ruled
• China has launched a campaign to that the reservation for the SCs, STs
clean up its Internet. and OBCs for faculty positions in state
About the Campaign universities should be implemented in
• The campaign will punish and expose such a manner that each department
websites for “illegal and criminal of a university has to be considered as
actions”. a unit.
• It will also punish them for failing to • Prior to that Order, the reservation in
“fulfil their obligation” to take safety universities was implemented by 200-
measures or the theft of personal point roster which considered the
information. whole university as a single unit.
• Recently, Internet censorship • The order was seen as a major
researchers had found that China has setback as the department wise
blocked Wikipedia. reservation would have led to
• China had previously banned the declining in SC, ST representation.
Chinese language version of the site • Further, the bill will also ensure
as well as the pages for sensitive providing 10% reservations to
search terms such as Dalai Lama and Economically Weaker Sections (EWS).
the Tiananmen massacre.
• China has long been enforcing Related Information
mechanisms to deter criticism and • Recently, the central government had
spread of propaganda against the passed the 103rd Constitutional
government. Amendment Act.
• Reporters without Border’s 2019 • It provides for 10% reservation in
World Press Freedom Index ranks government jobs and educational
China at 177 on a list of 180 countries institutions for the economically
analysed. weaker section in the unreserved
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Social Security category.

32
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• It also provides for reservation in Constitution of India and English with


private unaided educational no posthumous conferral.
institutions. Topic- Important for PCS Exam
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance Source- The Hindu
Source- Indian Express 7. Central India gets its first Sikh
5. PM Kisan Pension Scheme: Farmers' museum in Raipur
contribution to be Rs 100 per month • A museum exhibiting Sikh culture and
• Farmers will have to contribute 100 tradition has opened in the heart of
rupees per month under the Pradhan the state's capital city Raipur,
Mantri Kisan Pension Yojana that Chhatisgarh.
seeks to provide a minimum fixed • The museum, Shri Guru Teg Bahadur
monthly pension of 3,000 rupees on Sikh Museum, located at Gurudwara
the attainment of 60 years. Gurusingh Sabha in Guru Nanak
• The central government will also Nagar.
contribute an equal amount to the Topic- Important for PCS Exam
pension fund to be managed by the Source-ANI
LIC, which will be responsible for the 8. India, US work towards signing 2
pension payout. more defence pacts
• The government approved a separate • INDIA AND the US are working
pension scheme for farmers with an towards signing two more defence
aim to cover 5 crore beneficiaries in pacts, the Industrial Security
the first three years. Annexure (ISA) and Basic Exchange
• The central government urged the and Cooperation Agreement for Geo-
states to start enrolling farmers in the spatial Cooperation (BECA) to further
age group of 18-40 years besides institutionalise defence cooperation
taking measures to create awareness between the two countries.
about the scheme. • An ISA, which is an Annexure to the
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance General Security Of Military
Source- AIR Information Agreement (GSOMIA)
6. 54th Jnanpith award between the two countries, will enable
• Amitav Ghosh has been honoured the US government and US defence
with 54th Jnanpith Award. companies to share classified
• The award was given for his information with Indian private
outstanding contribution in English. defence manufacturers.
• Amitav Ghosh is the first English • India and the US had the GSOMIA 17
writer to get this award. years ago, which allowed sharing of
• The notable work of Amitav Gosh is classified information from the US
‘The Glass Palace, Sea of Poppies, government and American defence
River of Smoke, Hungry Tide manufacturers with the Indian
Jnanpith Award government and government-owned
• The Jnanpith Award is an Indian defence firms but not with Indian
literary award presented annually by private companies.
the Bharatiya Jnanpith to an author • Signing the ISA is seen as a
for their outstanding contribution prerequisite for meaningful private
towards literature. sector participation in defence
• The award was instituted in 1961. production in India if it has to get
• It is bestowed only on Indian writers modern technological inputs from the
writing in Indian languages included US in a secure manner.
in the Eighth Schedule to the • The US has also shared a draft of
BECA, which will allow the exchange

33
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of geospatial information between Act, 1885 and the Prevention of


India and the US for both military and Money Laundering Act, 2002.
civilian use. • The Bill proposed amendments
• Getting accurate locations will allow provide for the establishment of the
Indian weapons systems and military Unique Identification Authority of
platforms to accurately hit their India Fund.
targets. India had responded with its • It also confers enhanced regulator-
observations leading to a fresh draft like power on the UIDAI to give
from the US, and further discussions directions as it may consider
on it are expected before a draft is necessary to any entity in the Aadhaar
finalised. ecosystem.
• BECA is the last of the three • The bill is in pursuance to the
foundational agreement and the only Supreme Court judgement in 2018
one remaining to be signed. which upheld that the Aadhaar is
• The two countries had signed the constitutionally valid but struck down
Logistics Exchange Memorandum of section 57 of the Aadhaar Act.
Agreement (LEMOA) in August 2016, • The SC had ruled that Aadhaar is
wherein both the militaries can mandatory for filing of income tax
provide logistics support to the other returns and allotment of Permanent
side from their bases. Account Number.
Communications Compatibility and Aadhaar Number
Security Agreement (COMCASA), • The Aadhaar number is a verifiable
amended to meet Indian twelve-digit unique identity number
requirements, was signed last issued by the Unique Identification
September at the 2+2 dialogue. Authority of India to the residents of
Topic- GS-2- International Relation India.
Source-Indian Express • It is linked with the resident’s
9. Cabinet nod for Aadhaar as ID demographic and biometric
proof at banks, telcos information.
• The Union Cabinet has approved a Bill • The Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of
to allow voluntary submission of Financial and Other Subsidies,
Aadhaar as identity proof for use by Benefits and Services) Act, 2016
private entities such as banks and provides legislative backing to the
telecom companies. project.
• The Aadhaar and Other Laws Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
(Amendment) Bill, 2019’, which will Source- Economics Time
replace an ordinance, also gives a
child an option to exit from Aadhaar 17.06.2019
on attaining 18 years of age.
• The Bill proposes deletion of section 1. India set to join heavyweight torpedo
57 of the Aadhaar Act that allows the club
use of Aadhaar by private entities, • Indian Navy has decided to induct the
while also providing for civil penalties indigenously developed heavyweight
for violation of Aadhaar. torpedo "Varunastra".
• The bill says that for the convenience • This will put India in a group of only
of the general public in the opening of eight countries that have the
bank accounts, it will allow the use of capability to manufacture
Aadhaar number for authentication on heavyweight torpedoes.
a voluntary basis as an acceptable
KYC document under the Telegraph

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• The weapon has been developed by • The BEPS Project identified 15 actions
the Naval Science and Technology to address base erosion and profit
Laboratory (NTSL), Visakhapatnam. shifting (BEPS) in a comprehensive
Varunastra manner.
• It is a ship-launched, electrically- Multilateral Instrument/Convention
propelled underwater weapon • It will enable India to modify its tax
equipped with one of the most treaties to curb revenue loss through
advanced automatic and remote- treaty abuse or BEPS strategies where
controlled guidance systems. companies park their profits in low-
• The weapon system uses its own tax jurisdictions.
intelligence in tracing the target. • It will ensure profits are taxed where
• Varunastra is considered to be 95% substantive economic activities are
indigenous. carried out and where value is
• It can be launched from ships and created.
submarines and also from ashore. • The US is not a signatory of this
• Varunastra can hit stealth submarines Multilateral Convention as it believes
underwater. that it has a robust tax treaty network
• The operational range is 40 km and it that prevents treaty abuse.
can carry a warhead weighing 250 kg. Topic- GS Paper 3 –Economics
Note: Source-Live mint
3. Scientists unravel the fungus responsible
• Torpedo is a self-propelled
for Sheath Blight disease in rice
underwater missile, launched from a
• A team of scientists has unravelled
submarine, surface vessel, or airplane
the two Indian strains of Rhizoctonia
and designed for exploding upon
solani (Fungus) that causes the
contact with the target.
dreaded Sheath Blight disease in rice.
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Defence • Rhizoctonia solani is a fungal
Source- The Hindu pathogen that causes the dreaded
2. Multilateral instrument to curb tax Sheath Blight disease in rice.
treaty abuse Related Information
• The Union Cabinet approved the Sheath Blight Diseases
ratification of the multilateral • Sheath Blight disease is a major issue
instrument (MLI) which helps in in rice cultivation.
preventing tax treaty abuse under the • It can cause up to a 60% reduction in
umbrella of the base erosion and rice yield.
profit shifting (BEPS) action plan. • It is difficult to breed disease-
• The Multilateral Instrument/ resistant rice varieties as there is a
Convention are an outcome of the lack of natural source of disease
OECD and G20 Project to tackle the resistance.
BEPS Project. • The scientists have identified several
Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) genes and gene families in the strain
• The BEPS Project objective is to tackle that might account for their disease
base erosion and profit shifting aggressiveness.
through tax planning strategies that • This genomic insight is expected to
exploit gaps and mismatches in tax help develop rice varieties resistant to
rules to artificially shift profits to low sheath blight disease.
or no-tax locations. Topic-GS Paper 3–Environment &
• It takes place where there is little or Biodiversity
no economic activity resulting in little Source- Down to Earth
or no overall corporate tax being paid.

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4. Bihar govt launched Mukhyamantri in 2017 which is the third


Vridhajan Pension Yojna consecutive annual decline.
• Bihar Government has launched • The contraction was largely due to US
'Mukhya Mantri Vridha Pension Yojna" multinational enterprises (MNEs)
a universal old age pension scheme. withdrawing earnings from abroad
Mukhyamantri Vridhajan Pension Yojna making use of tax reforms introduced
(MVPY) by the US government in 2017.
• The scheme covers a person above • India, the Republic of Korea, the
the age of 60 (if they are not getting Philippines, and Turkey are focusing
any another pension from state or on information and technology zones,
central government), irrespective of while West Asia favours services and
their financial, family or caste status most of South-East Asia seeks to
will get a sum of Rs. 400/ month attract different types of
directly in their bank account. manufacturing."
• Each person above at the age of 80 or Findings in the Context of India
above will get a pension of Rs. 500/ • The sectors which received strong
month directly in their bank account. inflows include financial services,
• The scheme aims to cover an cross-border merger, manufacturing,
estimated 36 lakh senior citizens who communication and acquisition
were still not privy to any salary, activities.
pension or family pension. • The report ranks India at 10th
• The state cabinet had sanctioned a position amongst the top recipients of
sum of Rs 384 crore from Bihar FDI in 2018.
Contingency Fund for the payment of United Nations Conference on Trade and
the universal old age pension scheme Development (UNCTAD)
for the financial year 2019-20. • It was established in 1964 as a
• Bihar has become the first state in permanent intergovernmental body.
India to launch a universal old age • UNCTAD is the part of the United
pension scheme. Nations Secretariat dealing with
• In other states, old age pensions are trade, investment and development
provided only to members of either issues.
BPL family of 60 years and above, Other Reports of UNCTAD
SC/ST or widows or disabled persons. • Trade & Development Report
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Social Scheme • The Least Developed Countries Report
Source- TOI • Information and Economy Report
5. World Investment Report 2019 • The Technology & Innovation Report
• UNCTAD has released the World • Commodities & Development Report
investment report in which India gets Topic- GS Paper 3 –Important Report
$42-billion FDI inflows in 2018. Source- Economics Times
Highlights of the report 6. Outbreak of Acute Encephalitis
• Foreign Direct Investment inflows Syndrome (AES) in Bihar
have increased in South Asia by 3.5% • Recently the toll of children suffering
to $54 billion. from Acute Encephalitis Syndrome
• India attracted over 77% of the total (AES) in Muzaffarpur (Bihar) rose to
foreign direct investments that came 83.
to the South Asian region. Related Information
• However, the report says that the Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES)
global FDI flows have fallen by 13% in • It is characterized by an acute onset
2018 to $1.3 trillion from $1.5 trillion of fever and clinical neurological
manifestation that includes mental

36
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confusion, disorientation, delirium, or other beneficiaries cost would be


coma. borne by the State Government.
• It has been caused by several • Beneficiaries could avail the cashless
different viruses, bacteria, fungus, secondary care and tertiary treatment
parasites, spirochetes, chemical/ in empanelled public and private
toxins etc. hospitals of Punjab and Chandigarh.
• It predominantly affects the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana
population below 15 years. • It is a centrally sponsored scheme
• In India, AES outbreaks in the north which seeks to provide coverage of up
and eastern India have been linked to to ₹5 lakh (per family per year) for
children eating unripe litchi fruit on secondary and tertiary care
empty stomachs. hospitalisation.
• Unripe fruit contains the toxins Topic- GS Paper 2 –Health Scheme
hypoglycin A and Source- The Hindu Business line
methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG), 8. Novel selenium-graphene catalyst for
which cause vomiting if ingested in fuel cells
large quantities. • A multi-institutional team from India
• Hypoglycin A is a naturally occurring has developed a selenium-graphene–
amino acid found in the unripened based catalyst which is helpful in
litchi that causes severe vomiting commercial hydrogen fuel–based cars
(Jamaican vomiting sickness). which require good catalysts.
• Methylenecyclopropylglycine is a • The catalyst is more efficient, costs
poisonous compound found in litchi less and also remains stable for longer
seeds that causes a sudden drop in than the usual platinum-based
blood sugar, vomiting, altered mental catalysts.
states leading to lethargy, • Normally, fuel cells use expensive
unconsciousness, coma and death. platinum-like elements.
• Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is • These expensive metal-based
the major cause of AES in India technologies perform excellently for
(ranging from 5%-35%). initial few cycles, but then get
• Nipah virus, Zika viruses are also degraded in performance due to many
found as causative agents for AES. reasons.
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and • The oxygen reduction reaction is a key
Technology step in the functioning of the fuel cell.
Source- The Hindu • Graphene modified with selenium
7. Sarbat Sehat Bima Yojana atoms in very low amounts can
• The Punjab government will launch its perform like platinum in a
flagship universal health insurance demonstrated reaction.
scheme. Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and
• The scheme will provide an annual Technology
health cover of Rs. 5 lakh per family Source- The Hindu
and around 43.18 lakh families will be 9. Assam temple bids adieu to rare
covered under it. turtle hatchlings
• Out of 43.18 lakh families, there are • The Ugratara Temple of Assam
14.86 lakh Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya
organised a special darshan of 34
Yojana (PMJAY) families.
hatchlings of the black softshell
• The cost of the premium for families
freshwater turtle.
covered under PMJAY would be borne
Related Information
by the Union Government and the
Black softshell turtle
State Government in 60:40 ratio and

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• The black softshell turtle or Bostami cooperation amongst SCO member-


turtle is a species of freshwater turtle states.
found in India (Assam) and • The acronym of HEALTH stands for ‘H’
Bangladesh (Chittagong and Sylhet). in HEALTH stands for Healthcare
• They are listed as ‘Extinct in the Cooperation,’E’ for Economic
wild’ IUCN Red List. Cooperation, ’A’ for Alternate Energy,
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment ‘L’ for Literature and Culture, ’T’ for
Source- The Hindu Terrorism free society and ‘H’ for
10. Three horses test positive for Humanitarian Cooperation.
Glanders disease • Indian PM also said that India’s
• Uttar Pradesh government has been participation in projects such as the
International North-South Transport
euthanized three horses after a report
Corridor (INSTC), Ashgabat
by Hisar-based National Research
Agreement and in the development of
Centre on Euquines (NRCE) report
confirmed that they tested positive for Iran’s Chabahar port was a hallmark
of its commitment to linkages
Glanders disease.
between India and the region.
Related Information
Ashgabat Agreement
About Glanders Diseases
• The Ashgabat Agreement is a pact
• Glanders is an infectious disease that among Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan,
is caused by the bacterium Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, India
Burkholderia mallei. and Oman to build an international
• Glanders is primarily a disease transport and transit corridor that
affecting horses. facilitates transportation of goods
• It also affects donkeys and mules and between Central Asia and the Persian
can be naturally contracted by other Gulf.
mammals such as goats, dogs, and International North-South Transport Corridor
cats. • The INSTC is a 7,200-km multimode
• It spread to humans by direct contact network of ship, rail and road routes
with infected animals. for moving freight between India,
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and Iran, Afghanistan, Armenia,
Technology Azerbaijan, Russia, Central Asia and
Source- TOI Europe.
Topic-GS Paper 2–International Organisation
Source- The Hindu
18.06.2019 2. India to host UN meets on land
degradation in September
1. Shanghai Cooperation Organisation • India for the first time will host the
meet 14th session of the Conference of
• Indian Prime Minister has concluded Parties (COP-14) of the United
his two-day visit to attend the Nations Convention to Combat
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Desertification (UNCCD).
(SCO) summit in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
• Environment Ministry also launched a
• Indian PM has held successful bilateral
flagship project, part of a larger
with China, Russia, Afghanistan and
international initiative called the Bonn
Kyrgyzstan apart from addressing the
Challenge, to enhance India’s capacity
SCO summit.
for forest landscape restoration (FLR).
• He coined the acronym HEALTH
Related Information
during his address at the Summit,
Bonn Challenge
which is a template for strengthening

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• The Bonn Challenge is a global effort implementation framework for actions


to bring 150 million hectares of to tackle the issue of marine plastic
degraded and deforested land into waste on a global scale at the recent
restoration by 2020 and 350 million G20 Ministerial Meeting.
by 2030. • The new framework is aimed at
World Day to Combat Desertification and facilitating further concrete action on
Drought marine waste, though on a voluntary
• The World Day to Combat basis, after the G20 Hamburg Summit
Desertification and Drought (WDCD) in Germany adopted the “G20 action
is observed on 17th June every year. plan on marine litter” in 2017.
• UNCCD was established in 1994 and • Under the new framework, G20
the only legally binding international members are tasked with promoting a
agreement linking environment and comprehensive approach to prevent
development issues to the land and reduce plastic waste discharge to
agenda. the oceans through various measures
• This is one of the three major and international cooperation.
conventions of the United Nation
• Researchers estimate that more than
others two are the United Nations
8.3 billion tonnes of plastic have been
Framework Convention on Climate
produced since the early 1950s.
Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on
Biological Diversity (CBD). • About 60% of that plastic has ended
up in either a landfill or the natural
• The theme for this year is “Let’s
environment.
grow the future together”.
India’s Position to Combat India Step to tackle Plastic pollution
Desertification and Drought • India Pledges to Beat Plastic Pollution
• According to the report published by by 2022 on the 2018 World
the ISRO found that about 29% of Environment Day.
India’s land (in 2011-13) was • India can do it adopting five steps.
degraded, this being a 0.57% 1. Reusables in government offices
increase from 2003-05. 2. Fishing for plastic waste from water
• At the COP 24, India had committed bodies
to restoring 13 million hectares of
3. Crackdown on plastic usage
degraded and deforested land by the
year 2020 and an additional 8 million 4. Utilising plastic for road surfacing
hectares by 2030. 5. Upcycling plastic for better purposes
Plastic Waste Management
Note : (Amendment) Rules, 2018
• Goal 15 of the Sustainable • It recommends a central registration
Development Goals (SDG) calls for system for the registration of the
sustainable management of forests, producer, importer or brand owner.
combating desertification, halting and • It also recommends a national
reversing land degradation, halting registry for producers with presence
biodiversity loss. in more than two states, a state-level
registration for producers operating
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment
within one or two states.
Source- The Hindu • Rule related to explicit pricing of carry
3. G20 agrees to tackle ocean plastic bags has been removed.
waste Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment
• Group of 20 environment ministers Source- TOI
agreed to adopt a new 4. 'Operation Sunrise 2'

39
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• India and Myanmar have launched • Extra-neutral alcohol is a derivative


second phases of joint operations of sugarcane molasses and is not
called Operation Sunrise 2 along with alcoholic liquor for human
the Myanmar border targeting camps consumption but can be used as a raw
of insurgent groups operating in North material or input after processing and
East (Manipur, Nagaland and Assam). substantial dilution in the production
• The strategy is aimed at hitting of whisky, gin, country liquor.
militant groups that are impacting Related Information
both India and Myanmar. National Anti-profiteering Authority
• The first phase of this operation was (NAA)
launched in February 2019 when • It has been constituted under Section
several camps were destroyed in 171 of the Central Goods and Services
Myanmar close to the border, both in Tax Act, 2017.
the north and south closer to Mizoram • Its main function is to ensure that the
in India. reduction in the rate of tax or the
• Despite the joint operation by India benefit of the input tax credit is
and the Myanmar Army they also fight passed on to the recipient by way of
against the insurgent group, Arakan commensurate reduction in prices.
Army, the danger on the Kaladan • It is also responsible to examine and
transit project.
check such profiteering activities and
Related Information
recommend punitive actions including
Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport
the cancellation of licenses.
Project
• In the context of the GST, profiteering
• The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit
means that traders are not reducing
Transport Project is a project
the prices of the commodities when
connecting the eastern Indian seaport
the GST Council reduces the tax rates
of Kolkata with Sittwe seaport in
of commodities and services.
Rakhine State, Myanmar by sea.
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Economics
• In Myanmar, it will then link Sittwe
seaport to Paletwa in Chin State via Source- The Hindu
the Kaladan riverboat route, and then 6. Qualifying for Leader of the
from Paletwa by road to Mizoram Opposition
state in Northeast India. • The Member of Parliament took oath
• The Kaladan multi-modal transit after the result of 17th Lok Sabha but
transport project is viewed as India's there is uncertainty over the selection
gateway to Southeast Asia. of a formally recognised Opposition
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Defence party and the Leader of Opposition in
the 17th Lok Sabha.
Source- The Hindu
• There is no provision in the
5. GST Council may give a 1-year
Constitution or in the Lok Sabha Rules
extension to the anti-profiteering
of Procedure in regard to the
authority
recognition of the Leader of
• The GST Council is likely to extend till
Opposition.
November 30, 2020, the tenure of the
Leader of the Opposition
National Anti-profiteering Authority
• In each House of Parliament, there is
(NAA). the ‘Leader of the Opposition’.
• Besides, the Council will also discuss • The leader of the largest Opposition
a proposal to levy GST on extra- party having not less than one-tenth
neutral alcohol which is used for seats of the total strength of the
manufacturing alcoholic liquor for House is recognised as the leader of
human consumption.

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the Opposition in that House ((55 in • The new National Digital


the Lok Sabha, which is a 543- Communications Policy - 2018 has
member house). been formulated, in place of the
• The 10% condition for LoP has been existing National Telecom Policy-
incorporated in Direction 121(1) in 2012, to cater to the modern needs of
Parliament (Facilities) Act 1998. the digital communications sector of
• In a parliamentary system of India.
government, the leader of the Impact:
opposition has a significant role to • The NDCP-2018 envisions supporting
play. India's transition to a digitally
• As a member of the selection panel, empowered economy and society by
the Leader of the Opposition has a fulfilling the information and
crucial role in deciding key communications needs of citizens and
appointments such as CBI Director, enterprises by the establishment of a
Chief Vigilance Commissioner (CVC), ubiquitous, resilient and affordable
the anti-corruption ombudsman digital communications infrastructure
Lokpal, Chief information and services.
commissioner and the chairperson of Digital Communications Commission
the NHRC. (Erstwhile Telecom Commission)
• The leader of Opposition in the Lok • The Telecom Commission was set up
Sabha and the Rajya Sabha were by the Government of India in 1989
accorded statutory recognition in with administrative and financial
1977. powers of the Government of India to
• In USA Leader of Opposition is known deal with various aspects of
as the ‘minority leader’. Telecommunications.
• It was in 1969 that an official leader • The Government in October 2018, has
of the opposition was recognised for re-designated the 'Telecom
the first time. Commission' as the 'Digital
• They are also entitled to the salary, Communications Commission'.
allowances and other facilities • The Digital Communications
equivalent to that of a cabinet Commission consists of a Chairman,
minister. four full-time members, who are ex-
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance officio Secretaries to the Government
Source- Indian Express of India in the Department of
7. DoT panel approves the levy of Telecommunications.
penalty on Airtel, Vodafone, Idea Functions
• The Digital Communications • Formulating the policy of Department
Commission has given its approval for of Telecommunications for approval of
imposing a penalty on Bharti Airtel the Government;
and Vodafone Idea for denial of • Preparing the budget for the
interconnection to Reliance Jio when Department of Telecommunications
the latter had entered the market. for each financial year and getting it
Related Information approved by the Government
• In September 2018 Cabinet has • Implementation of the Government's
approved the National Digital policy in all matters concerning
Communications Policy-2018 (NDCP- telecommunication.
2018) and re-designation of the Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
Telecom Commission as the "Digital Source- The Hindu Business Line
Communications Commission”.

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19.06.2019 (h) Pichavaram Mangrove Forest


(Tamilnadu)- second largest mangrove
1. Heritage site status for Coringa forest in the world
mangroves likely Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment
• The A.P. government has begun the Source- The Hindu
process to get UNESCO’s World 2. World's Highest Operating Weather
Heritage Site status for Godavari Stations Installed On Mount Everest
Mangroves at Coringa Wildlife • The National Geographic Society has
Sanctuary, near Kakinada. announced the successful installation
• Godavari Mangroves is the second of the world's highest operating
largest mangroves in India. weather stations on Mount Everest.
Related Information • It will help to get real-time
Mangroves information about mountain
• Mangroves are shrubs or small trees conditions to researchers, climbers,
that grow in coastal saline or brackish and the public.
water. • The weather station will also record
• They are salt tolerant trees, also data on temperature, relative
called halophytes, and are adapted to humidity, barometric pressure, wind
harsh coastal conditions. speed, and wind direction.
• They contain a complex salt filtration • The analysis from these stations will
system and complex root system to also help to reveal how monsoon
cope with salt water immersion and patterns will change in India.
wave action. Topic- GS Paper 1 –Geography
• They are adapted to the low oxygen Source- Indian Express
(anoxic) conditions of waterlogged 3. Niti’s new road map: Only electric
mud. vehicles to be sold after 2030
• They produce pneumatophores (blind • The government's think tank NITI
roots) to overcome the respiration Aayog has proposed that only electric
problem in the anaerobic soil vehicles should be sold after 2030.
conditions. • Cabinet note, seeking to fix
• Mangroves occur worldwide in the responsibility for different ministries,
tropics and subtropics, mainly with the road transport and highways
between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. ministry, proposed to prepare a
• Mangroves exhibit Viviparity mode of framework to phase out the sale of
reproduction. i.e. seeds germinate in diesel and petrol vehicles by 2030.
the tree itself (before falling to the • Earlier, a panel headed by NITI Aayog
ground). CEO Amitabh Kant had suggested that
Mangroves in India only electric-powered three-wheelers
(a) Godavari-Krishna and two-wheelers with engine
(b) Sundarbans (West Bengal)- is considered capacity of up to 150 cc should be sold
as the largest mangrove forest in the from 2025.
world • The proposals are part of the plan to
(c) Islands in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, manufacture 50 Gigawatt hour (GWh)
Bay of Bengal batteries by 2030.
(d) Andaman and Nicobar Islands Related Information
(e) Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat • Recently, the Union Cabinet approved
(f) Bhitarkanika Mangroves the proposal for the implementation of
(g) Godavari-Krishna mangroves. ‘Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of
Electric Vehicles in India Phase II
(FAME India Phase II)’.

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• The scheme will be implemented over largest fish producing country in the
a period of three years with effect world as it accounts for 6.3 per cent
from 1st April 2019. of the global fish production.
• The FAME II is an expanded version of • The fisheries sector in the country is
FAME I, launched in 2015 which aimed growing at a rate of 7 per cent,
to support hybrid/electric vehicles sustaining 14.5 million fishermen.
market development and • There is a huge potential in
Manufacturing ecosystem. harnessing tuna and tuna-like species
• FAME scheme is under Ministry of in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone
Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises. (EEZ).
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance • 30 per cent of the Indian EEZ is
Source- Economics Times spread across the Andaman, Nicobar
and Lakshadweep Islands, but only 1
4. AWaRe: A tool for safer use of
per cent comprises the production of
antibiotics, curb resistance
tuna fish.
• WHO has launched a global campaign
Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC)
that urges countries to adopt its new
• It is an intergovernmental
online tool called "AWaRe".
organization that coordinates the
• The tool aimed at guiding policy-
regulation and management of tuna in
makers and health workers to use
the Indian Ocean.
antibiotics safely and more
• A multilateral treaty, the Agreement
effectively.
for the Establishment of the Indian
• It’s another objective is to limit drugs Ocean Tuna Commission was
that are at risk of resistance. approved by the Council of the Food
• The tool, known as ‘AWaRe’, classifies and Agriculture Organization of the
antibiotics into three groups: United Nations in November 1993.
(a) Access — antibiotics used to treat • The agreement entered into force on
the most common and serious 27 March 1996 after it had been
infections accepted by a tenth party.
(b) Watch — antibiotics available at all • The Agreement is open to any state
times in the healthcare system that has coasts within the Indian
(c) Reserve — antibiotics to be used Ocean region (or adjacent seas) as
sparingly or preserved and used only well as any state that fishes for tuna
as a last resort in the Indian Ocean region.
• The campaign aims to achieve a 60 • The agreement is also open to
per cent increase in the use of regional economic organizations.
antibiotics under the Access group • The IOTC is the successor to the Indo-
cheap, ‘narrow-spectrum’ drugs (that Pacific Tuna Development and
target a specific microorganism rather Management Programme, which was
than several) and also lower the risk established in 1982.
of resistance. • There are 31 members of IOTC.
• It also reduces the use of the Topic- GS Paper 2 –International
antibiotics most at risk of resistance Relations
from the Watch and Reserve groups. Source- Business Standards
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Health issues 6. Om Birla unanimously elected as
Source- Down To Earth Speaker of 17th Lok Sabha
5. India accounts for 6.3% of global fish Related Information
production Speaker of Lok Sabha
• According to the Fisheries
Department, India is the second

43
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• The Speaker is elected by the Lok Committee and the General Purpose
Sabha from amongst its members (as Committee.
soon as may be, after its first sitting). • His salaries and allowances are fixed
• The date of election of the Speaker is by Parliament and charged on the
fixed by the President. Consolidated Fund of -India and thus
Role, Powers and Functions are not subject to the annual vote of
• The Speaker is the head of the Lok Parliament.
Sabha and its representative. • He is placed at seventh rank, along
• He is the guardian of powers and with the Chief Justice of India which
privileges of the members, the House means he has a higher rank than all
as a whole and its committees. cabinet ministers, except the Prime
• The Speaker of the Lok Sabha derives Minister or Deputy Prime Minister.
his powers and duties from three Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
sources, that is, the Constitution of Source- AIR
India, the Rules of Procedure and 7. Piped water at every rural home by
Conduct of Business of Lok Sabha, 2024
and Parliamentary Conventions • The government announced to roll out
(residuary powers that are unwritten a new mission to ensure “Nal se Jal”
or unspecified in the Rules). (water from the tap) for each house in
• He presides over a joint sitting of the villages in the next five years i.e by
two Houses of Parliament when the 2024.
sitting is summoned by the President • Under the Jal Jeevan Mission, both
to settle a deadlock between the two ground and surface water will be used
Houses on a bill. to meet the requirement.
• He decides whether a bill is a money • The quality of water sources both
bill or not and his decision on this surface and ground sources is hardly
question is final. suited to drinking.
• He decides the questions of • According to NITI Aayog, nearly 70
disqualification of a member of the per cent of all of the country’s fresh
Lok Sabha, arising on the ground of water sources is contaminated.
defection under the provisions of the Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
Tenth Schedule. Source- The Hindu
• In 1992, the Supreme Court ruled that 8. Libra is Facebook’s cryptocurrency
the decision of the Speaker in this • Facebook has decided to launch a
regard is subject to judicial review. crypt currency called Libra.
• He acts as the ex-officio chairman of • The currency is designed not to be a
the Indian Parliamentary Group which speculative asset, like Bitcoin, but a
acts as a link between the Parliament form of digital money backed by a
of India and the various parliaments reserve of assets.
of the world. Related Information
• He also acts as the ex-officio chairman • The Marshall Islands has also decided
of the conference of presiding officers to launch “Sovereign” (SOV), a
of legislative bodies in the country. cryptocurrency which can be used as
• He appoints the chairman of all the a legal tender.
parliamentary committees of the Lok • In 2018, Venezuela launched Petro,
Sabha and supervises their becoming the first country to officially
functioning. launch its own cryptocurrency.
• He is the chairman of the Business
Crypto Currency
Advisory Committee, the Rules
• Cryptocurrency is an encrypted
decentralized digital currency

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transferred between peers and in cooperation with the Regional


confirmed in a public ledger via a Cooperation Agreement on
process known as mining. Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery
• Some important cryptocurrencies are against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP)
Bitcoins, Litecoin, Namecoin, Information Sharing Centre (ISC).
Swiftcoin, Bytecoin, Gridcoin • The aims of the workshop to deepen
• Cryptocurrency is not a legal tender in knowledge on issues related to piracy
India. and armed robbery.
• According to recent studies, it is found Related Information
that the use of Bitcoin, a popular ReCAAP
virtual currency emits over 22 • It is the first regional Government-to-
megatons of carbon dioxide Government agreement to deal with
annually. piracy and armed robbery at sea in
• The power consumption of hardware Asia.
behind the bitcoin network is about 46 • Presently, 20 countries are members
TWh (Terra Watts). of the ReCAAP.
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Economics • Information sharing, capacity building
Source- The Hindu and mutual legal assistance are the
9. SEBI allows futures on commodity three pillars of co-operation under the
indices ReCAAP agreement.
• SEBI has allowed exchanges with • An ISC has been established at
commodity derivatives segment to Singapore to collate and disseminate
launch futures contracts on the information among the
commodity indices. contracting parties and the maritime
Related Information community.
Futures contracts • India played an active role in the
• It is a standardized forward contract, setting up and functioning of
a legal agreement to buy or sell ReCAAPISC along with Japan and
something at a predetermined price at Singapore.
a specified time in the future, between Topic- GS Paper 3- Defence
parties not known to each other. Source- TOI
• The asset transacted is usually a 2. U.P. site expected to get ‘national
commodity or financial instrument. importance’ tag
• The predetermined price the parties • Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)
agree to buy and sell the asset for is has started the process of declaring
known as the forward price. The the site at Sadikpur Sinauli of national
specified time in the future which is importance.
when delivery and payment occur is
• It is the largest necropolis site of late
known as the delivery date.
Harappan age.
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Economics
• Earlier it was thought that there was
Source- The Hindu
no warrior class group during
Harappan age but after the
20.06.2019 excavation of this site, ASI found
chariots, swords and other objects
1. India to host international pointing to the presence of a warrior
workshop on piracy-related class around 4,000 years ago in Uttar
issues with ReCAAP Pradesh's Baghpat district.
• The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) will be
co-hosting an international workshop

45
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Other Important Harapan Site in Uttar • Pranahita River in itself is a confluence


Pradesh of various other smaller tributaries
• Sanauli in Baghpat District famous for like Wardha, Penganga and
burial site with 125 burials found. Wainganga Rivers.
• Sothi near Baraut Bagpat district Lift Irrigation
• Mandi Muzaffarnagar district • It is a method of irrigation in which
• Bargaon Saharanpur District water instead of being transported by
Topic- GS Paper 1- Art and Culture natural flow (as in gravity-fed canal
Source- The Hindu systems) requires external energy
3. First Water clinic for elephants through fuel based or electric power
opens in Mathura using pumps or other mechanical
• India has opened its first specialised means.
hydrotherapy treatment for elephants Topic- GS Paper 1-Geography
suffering from arthritis, joint pain and Source- The Hindu Business Line
foot ailments, near the Wildlife SOS’ 5. Bangladesh has emerged as the
Elephant Conservation and Care fastest growing economy among 45
Centre (ECCC) in Mathura. countries of the Asia-Pacific region
Related Information • Bangladesh has emerged as the
Elephant Conservation and Care Centre fastest growing economy among the
(ECCC) 45 countries of the Asia-Pacific region
• It is established by Wildlife SOS in according to the Asian Development
collaboration with Uttar Pradesh Bank (ADB).
Forest Department. • In the financial year, 2018-19
• It currently houses several rescued Bangladesh attained a growth rate of
elephants who were rescued from 7.9 % which is its fastest rate since
circuses and from cruel owners who 1974.
were in illegal possession of these • The bank predicted that the growth
elephants. will be 8% in the next financial year.
Topic- GS Paper 2- Governance Topic- GS Paper 3-Economy
Source- The Hindu
Source- AIR
4. Kaleshwaram, Bahubali of irrigation
6. 20th Meeting of the Financial Stability
plans, set to flow
and Development Council
• Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project is
• The 20th Meeting of the Financial
a multipurpose irrigation project on
Stability and Development Council
Godavari River in Kaleshwaram,
(FSDC) was held under the
Telangana.
Chairmanship of the Union Minister of
• The project was earlier known as the
Finance and Corporate Affairs.
Pranahita-Chevella Lift Irrigation
Related Information
Project. FSDC
Related Information • It is a super regulatory body for
Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project regulating the financial sector which is
• The project is at the confluence Point vital for bringing the healthy and
of Pranahita River and Godavari River efficient financial system in economy
i.e., at Kaleshwaram village in of the country set up in 2010.
Telangana. • Its mandate is to strengthen and
• It is Billed as ‘Bahubali’ of lift irrigation institutionalise mechanism of
projects in the world. maintaining financial stability,
financial sector development, and

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interregulatory coordination along • Bibek Debroy is the current


with with monitoring macro- chairman of the current EAC.
prudential regulation of the economy. Functions
• Union Finance Minister is chairman of • It submits periodic reports to PM
FSDC. related to macroeconomic
• Its members are heads of financial developments and issues which will
sector regulatory authorities (i.e, RBI, have implications of the economic
SEBI, IRDA, PFRDA), Finance policy.
Secretary and Secretary, Department
• Analyse any topics, issues assigned by
of Economic Aair; Secretary,
the PM and provide advice to them.
Department of Financial Services, and
Chief Economic Adviser. • Analyse macroeconomic issues having
Topic- GS Paper 2- Governance high importance and present the
Source- The Hindu views to PM and any other task which
7. EAC-PM releases a detailed analysis is assigned by Prime Minister.
on the robustness of India’s GDP Topic- GS Paper 2- Governance
estimation methodology Source- The Hindu
• The Economic Advisory Council to the 8. Cancer cell detection ‘dots’ developed
Prime Minister released a detailed from coal
note titled ‘GDP estimation in India- • A team of scientists in Assam has
Perspectives and Facts’. developed a chemical process that
• The note provides a clear rationale for turns ‘dirty’ coal into a biomedical
India’s switch to an improved GDP ‘dot’ to help detect cancer cells.
estimation methodology in January
• It has applied for a patent for their
2015.
chemical method of producing carbon
• The new methodology that uses 2011-
quantum dots (CQDs) from cheap,
12 as the base year includes two
abundant, low-quality and high-
major improvements,
sulphur coals.
a) Incorporation of MCA21 database,
and Related Information
b) Incorporation of the Carbon quantum dots
Recommendations of System of • CQDs are carbon-based
National Accounts (SNA), 2008. nanomaterials whose size is less than
10 nm, or nanometre.
Related Information • “Carbon-based non-materials are
Prime Minister’s Economic Advisory used as diagnostic tools for bio-
Council imaging, especially in detecting
• It is a non-constitutional and non- cancer cells, for chemical sensing and
statutory, non-permanent and in optoelectronics.
independent body. Topic-GS Paper 3-Science & Technology
Source- The Hindu
• The prime and sole aim to analyse all
critical issues, economic or otherwise,
referred to it by the prime minister 21.06.2019
and advising him thereon.
1. World Refugee Day: 20th June
• It advises the Prime Minister on
• It has been observed on 20th June
economic issues like inflation,
every year help to seeks to draw the
microfinance, export-import changes,
public’s attention to the millions of
GDP changes and industrial output.
refugees and internally displaced
persons worldwide.

47
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Related Information also infects animals like horses,


UN’s Refugee Convention sheep, cattle and goats.
• The Convention Relating to the Status • Humans, pigs and dogs are
of Refugees, also known as the 1951 comparatively less susceptible and
Refugee Convention, is a United only get infected if exposed to a
Nations multilateral treaty that copious amount of spores.
defines who a refugee is, and sets out • In 2001, these spores were used as
the rights of individuals who are agents of bioterrorism when letters
granted asylum & the responsibilities containing anthrax spores were sent
of nations that grant asylum. to some people in America, leading to
• India is not a party to the Refugee widespread panic.
Convention. • Spores of the bacterium that causes
• The cornerstone of the 1951 anthrax are present in soil and can
Convention is the principle of non- stay in latent form for years.
refoulement. • However, under favourable
• The Refugee Convention builds on environmental conditions, they
Article 14 of the 1948 Universal become active and start to infect.
Declaration of Human Rights, which Often, animals pick up spores while
recognizes the right of persons to grazing, following which spores
seek asylum from persecution in other germinate in their body and produce
countries. A refugee may enjoy rights toxins.
and benefits in a state in addition to Topic-GS Paper 3-Science & Technology
those provided for in the Convention. Source- Indian Express
• Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) 3. RBI panel on MSMEs suggests Rs 20
are people who have not crossed an lakh collateral-free loan under Mudra
international border but have moved • RBI expert committee on MSMEs has
to a different region than the one they recommended doubling the cap on
call home within their own country. collateral-free loans to Rs 20 lakh
• The United Nations High from the current Rs 10 lakh.
Commissioner for Refugees, • This will be extended to borrowers
established in 1950 is mandated to falling under the Mudra scheme, self-
lead and coordinate international help groups, and MSMEs said a person
action to protect refugees and resolve privy to the development.
refugee problems worldwide • If the central bank approves the
Topic-GS Paper 3- Important Convention recommendation, the banking
Source- TOI regulator will have to amend its July
2. Indian scientists develop a more 1, 2010, circular that prescribes a
potent Anthrax vaccine maximum Rs 10 lakh for collateral-
• A group of Indian scientists have free loans.
developed a new vaccine against • The proposal is part of a report
anthrax. prepared by the eight-member RBI
• It is claimed to be superior over committee tasked with reviewing the
existing vaccines as it can generate an current framework for the MSME
immune response to anthrax toxin as sector.
well as its spores rather than the toxin • The panel, headed by former
alone. Securities and Exchange Board of
Related Information India chairman U K Sinha.
Anthrax • The committee is learnt to have
• It is a deadly human disease caused suggested various long-term solutions
by bacterium Bacillus anthracis that

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for the economic and financial • MUDRA stands for Micro-Units


sustainability of MSMEs. Development and Refinance Agency
• The report has also mentioned MUDRA Bank
mainstreaming the restructuring of • MUDRA Bank will be set up as a
stressed loans.
statutory body
Related Information
Definition of MSME (According to 2006) • It will regulate and refinance all MFI
(i) Manufacturing Units who lend to MSME engaged in small
• investment below Rs. 25 lakh were manufacturing, trade or services.
termed micro, • It will partner all state/regional level
those between Rs 25 lakh and Rs 5 coordinators to provide easy finance
crore termed small, and to even the remote investors.
from Rs 5 crore to Rs 10 crore • To address the three segments,
medium. MUDRA Bank has launched three loan
(ii) Service Units instruments:
• investment up to Rs 10 lakh for micro, (a) Shishu: covers loans up to Rs
Rs 10 lakh-2 crore for small, and 50,000/-
Rs 2 crore-5 crore for medium (b) Kishor: covers loans above Rs
enterprises. 50,000/- and up to Rs. 5 lakh
New Definition of MSME (c) Tarun: covers loans above Rs 5
• However, the proposed change under lakh and up to Rs 10 lakh
a new draft, as approved by the • It provides a loan at low rates to small
Cabinet but not yet accepted. entrepreneurs
• It is that annual turnover, rather than
Topic- GS Paper 3- Economy
investment size, should be the
criterion for such units. Source- Business Standard
• Under the draft, there would be no 4. Polavaram project will be completed
difference between a manufacturing in 2021’
and service unit. • Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister said
• Micro can be up to Rs 5 crore of that the Polavaram Multipurpose
turnover, small up to Rs 75 crore, and Project will be completed by June
medium up to Rs 250 crore of 2021 and not in 2020 as expected.
turnover should be considered. Related Information

Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY)


• It was launched in April 2015. Polavaram Project
• The loans are given to non-corporate, • Polavaram Project is an under
non-farm small and micro- construction multi-purpose National
enterprises. project on the Godavari River in the
West Godavari District and East
• The lending priority will be given to
Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh.
SC/ST enterprises
• The project has been accorded
• The loans are given by banks and non- national project status by the Union
banking financial companies as Government of India.
working capital and term loans for National Project of India
business enterprises in • Government of India has approved a
manufacturing, trading and services scheme of National Projects to be
and for agriculture activities. implemented during XI Plan (2007-
MUDRA 2012).

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• It's objective to expedite completion • These are including Comoros, Guinea-


of identified National Projects for the Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, the
benefit of the people. Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
• These projects will be provided Topic- GS Paper 3- Environment and
financial assistance by the Biodiversity
Government of India in the form of Source- Down to Earth
Central grant which will be 90% of the 6. Dispute resolution panel to be set up
estimated cost of such projects for for solar, wind projects implemented by
their completion in a time-bound SECI, NTPC
manner. • Ministry of New and Renewable
Criteria for selection of National Energy (MNRE) has decided to set up
Projects a three-member dispute resolution
(a) International projects where usage of committee (DRC) to look into disputes
water in India is required by a treaty or where beyond contractual agreements
planning and early completion of the project between solar or wind power
are necessary for the interest of the country. developers and Solar Energy
(b) Inter-State projects which are dragging Corporation of India (SECI) or state-
on due to non-resolution of Inter-State issues run power giant NTPC.
relating to sharing of costs, rehabilitation, • This mechanism will cover all those
aspects of power production etc., including projects that would be implemented
river interlinking projects. through or by SECI and NTPC.
(c) Intra-State projects with additional • Solar and wind power industries have
potential of more than 2, 00,000 hectare (ha) been demanding such a dispute
and with no dispute regarding sharing of resolution mechanism.
water and where hydrology is established. • The upper age for the DRC members
Topic- GS Paper 3- Infrastructure shall be 70 years, and its members
Source- The Hindu shall be chosen from the eminent
5. Climate change can trip small island persons located in Delhi-NCR to avoid
states enroute SDGs: UN expenditure on air travel and
• According to the United Nation’s accommodation.
report on World Population Prospects • The DRC will consider cases including
2019 many small island developing an appeal against decisions given by
states (SIDS) may fail to achieve SECI on the extension of time
several Sustainable Development requests based on terms of the
Goals by 2030 because of increasing contract and all requests of extension
population and climate change risks. of time not covered under the terms
Related Information of the contract.
Small Island developing states (SIDS) • It will examine all such cases referred
• SIDS are a group of small island to it, including the cases where the
countries that tend to share similar developer is not satisfied with the
sustainable development challenges, decision of SECI or NTPC and it
including small but growing decides to appeal after paying the
populations, limited resources, required fee.
remoteness, susceptibility to natural • The order said the recommendations
disasters, vulnerability to external of the DRC, along with the MNRE’s
shocks, excessive dependence on observations, will be placed before the
international trade, and fragile new and renewable energy minister
environments. for final decision.
• To arrive at any decision, the
Committee will be free to interact with

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the relevant parties of the case and • But the following dissolution of some
shall record their views. Legislative Assemblies in 1968 and
• No lawyer shall be permitted to 1969 and that of the Lok Sabha in
present the case before the DRC. December 1970, elections to State
Topic- GS Paper 2- Indian Polity Assemblies and Parliament have been
Source- Business Line held separately.
7. Sri Lanka successfully launches • The idea of reverting to simultaneous
its first satellite 'Ravana-1' into polls was mooted in the annual report
orbit of the Election Commission in 1983.
• Sri Lanka’s first satellite, ‘Ravana-1’, • The Law Commission’s Report also
was successfully launched into orbit referred to it in 1999.
from the International Space Station Positive Argument of Simultaneous
(ISS). Election
Related Information • It will reduce the enormous costs
Ravana-1 involved in separate elections
• This is a low orbit cube research • It will help ruling parties focus on
satellite. governance instead of being
• The lifespan of the satellite is constantly in election mode.
minimum one and a half years but is • Help to boost voter turnout
expected to be active for 5 years. • Also, help to free up security forces for
• Ravana 1 is expected to fulfil five deployment in their core areas.
missions which include: Arguments against the simultaneous
a) capturing of pictures of Sri Lanka polls
and surrounding regions, • National and state issues are different
b) Glue Mission: to find COTS and holding simultaneous elections is
alternative to expensive space glue likely to affect the judgment of voters
c) active attitude stabilization Earth • Since elections will be held once in five
Magnetic Field measurement, years, it will reduce the government’s
d) Provide ciphered short messages in accountability to the people
its beacon in the 437 MHz band and • When an election in a State is
e) Remote Data Collection. postponed until the synchronised
Topic- GS Paper 3- Science and phase, President’s rule will have to be
Technology imposed in the interim period in that
Source- The Hindu Business Line state will be a blow to democracy and
8. New Panel will study the ‘1 nation, 1 federalism.
poll’ issue Topic- GS Paper 2- Governance
• Prime Minister has said that a panel Source- The Hindu
will be formed to examine the issue of 9. United States-Mexico-Canada
‘One Country, One Election’. Agreement (USMCA)
• The panel will come up with the • Mexico became the first country to
suggestions in a time-bound manner. ratify the trade deal to replace NAFTA,
• One Country, One Election is the known as the United States-Mexico-
method of holding single elections for Canada Agreement, or USMCA.
both Lok Sabha and States instead of • The USMCA is essentially NAFTA 2.0,
separate and continuous elections. with a few updates.
Background of simultaneous elections in • The pact has been tweaked to include
India changes for automakers, stricter
• Simultaneous elections are not new to labour and environmental standards,
India; they were the norm until 1967. intellectual property protections, and
digital trade provisions.

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Topic- GS-2- International Organisation asking passengers to sacrifice the


Source- NewYork Times subsidy on train tickets.
• The campaign is intended to reduce
24.06.2019 passenger subsidy on Indian
Railways.
1. Operation Bandar, the code name • According to Indian Railways, it
of Balakot strike recovers only 53% of the cost
• According to the defence source the incurred from the passenger; the
air strike by the Indian Air Force on a remaining 47 per cent is given as
terrorist training camp in Balakot, subsidy to the passengers.
Pakistan, was code-named ‘Operation
Note:
Bandar’.
• Operation Zafran is the code-named • The government had launched "Give
used by Army when increasing It Up" campaign in 2015 to motivate
defences along the border to address LPG users who can afford to pay the
a possible Pakistan retaliation to an market price for LPG to voluntarily
air strike. surrender their LPG subsidy.
Related Information Topic- GS Paper 2- Governance
• On February 26th2019, India Source- TOI
conducted cross-border airstrike to 4. J&K ‘back to the village’ outreach
destroy a terrorist camp run by the programme
Jaish-e-Mohammed in Balakot.
• Jammu and Kashmir government
• Balakot is a town located in Pakistan’s
launched ‘back to the Village’
Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province.
Programme’ help to reach out to the
• India had termed the airstrike an
people at the grassroots level through
“intelligence-led, non-military, pre-
a programme named ‘Back to the
emptive” operation.
Village’.
Topic- GS Paper 3- Defence
Source- The Hindu Business Line • The programme is primarily aimed at
2. Bihar bans tree-felling energizing the panchayats and
• The Government of Bihar banned directing development efforts in rural
felling of trees, citing increasing areas through community
pollution as well as a fatal heatwave. participation and to create in the rural
• The order was passed under the masses an earnest desire for a decent
Forest Conservation Act. standard of living.
• Trees on private land, however, can • The programme will involve the
be felled in the absence of a tree- people of the state and government
protection Act in Bihar. officials in a joint effort to deliver the
mission of equitable development
• Bihar has been able to increase its
across all our rural areas.
green cover from seven to 15 per cent
Topic- GS Paper 2- Governance
under the Green Mission.
Source- The Hindu
Topic- GS Paper 2- Governance 5. India scraps Israel anti-tank missile deal
Source- Down to Earth • India has scrapped a $500-million
3. Railways plan a 'Give It Up' for train deal with Israel for the purchase of
ticket subsidy Spike anti-tank missiles from defence
contractor Rafael Advanced Defense
• To increase the earning of railways,
Systems after indigenous developer
the Indian Railways is mulling
DRDO claimed that it could deliver an
implementing a "give it up" scheme
alternative within two years.

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• DRDO is going to develop a similar the market value has dropped by


missile at a lower price in partnership more than 50% in the past two
with VEM Technologies Ltd. decades.
Related Information • Washi paper is a Japanese hand-made
• India’s deal with Israel for 321 Spike paper made from the fibres of the
launchers and 8,356 missiles was Kozo or mulberry plant.
initially struck in October 2014 after • The fibres of the plant are much
the Defence Ministry selected Spike longer than materials used for paper
over the US-made FGM-148 Javelin. in the west such as wood and cotton.
• But it was scrapped in December 2017 • Washi has been included in the
in favour of DRDO. UNESCO’s Representative List of the
• It was “reauthorized” in January 2018 Intangible Cultural Heritage of
following Israeli Prime Minister Humanity.
Benjamin Netanyahu’s visit to India Related Information
and Rafael opened a production UNESCO’s List of Intangible Cultural
facility in India with local partner Heritage
Kalyani Group. • The UNESCO’s coveted list is made up
• DRDO also offered to deliver of those intangible heritage elements
thousands of indigenous MPATGM that help demonstrate the diversity of
(Man-portable anti-tank guided cultural heritage and raise awareness
missile) by 2021. about its importance.
Topic- GS Paper-3- Defence • The list was established in 2008 when
Source- Indian Express Convention for Safeguarding of the
6. UAE launches UN-developed anti- Intangible Cultural Heritage came into
money laundering platform effect.
• The UAE has become the first country • It includes important intangible
in the Gulf to launch a new reporting cultural heritage worldwide.
platform developed by the United • It has two parts:
Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to 1. Representative List of Intangible
curb organised crimes. Cultural Heritage of Humanity
• The UAE’s Financial Intelligence Unit 2. List of Intangible Cultural Heritage
launched the new anti-money in Need of Urgent Safeguarding.
laundering platform 'goAML', which Topic- GS Paper 1- Art and Culture
has been open for registration since Source- The Hindu
May 2019. 8. Normalized difference vegetation
• All financial entities and Designated index (NDVI)
Non-Financial Businesses or • A field study by researchers from
Professions have to register on this Bengaluru shows that Normalized
system. difference vegetation index remotely
• The platform will help the FIU prevent which estimates the density of
money laundering, financing of vegetation does not yield a reliable
terrorism and other illicit financial estimate of food abundance for
activities. elephants in tropical forests.
Topic- GS Paper-3- Indian Economy • The researchers show that this index
Source- Indian Express has a negative correlation with
7. Japan’s ‘washi’ paper torn by modern graminoids (grassy food – grasses,
life; struggles to attract customers sedges and rushes – preferentially
• The UNESCO Intangible Cultural consumed by elephants) in tropical
Heritage status, washi paper is forests.
struggling to attract consumers and Related Information

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• NDVI quantifies vegetation by • As of now, there are only two


measuring the difference between countries in the blacklist — Iran and
near-infrared (which vegetation North Korea — and seven on the grey
strongly reflects) and red light (which list, including Pakistan, Sri Lanka,
vegetation absorbs). Syria and Yemen
• NDVI always ranges from -1 to +1. • Pakistan has been under the FATF’s
• It does not show a distinct boundary scanner since June 2018 when it was
for each type of land cover. put on the greylist for terror financing
Topic- GS Paper 3- Environment and money laundering risks after an
Source- TOI assessment of its financial system and
9. Scientists decode the genome of law enforcement mechanism.
‘miracle plant’ FATF
• Scientists from the University of Kerala • It is an inter-governmental body
have decoded the genetic make-up of established in 1989 on the initiative of
Arogyapacha (Trichopus zeylanicus). the G7.
• It is a highly potent medicinal plant • It is a “policy-making body” which
endemic to the Agastya hills in the works to generate the necessary
southern Western Ghats. political will to bring about national
Related Information legislative and regulatory reforms in
Arogyapacha various areas.
• This plant is traditionally used by the • The FATF Secretariat is housed at the
Kani tribal community to combat OECD headquarters in Paris.
fatigue. Objectives:
• The plants show anti-oxidant, • The objectives of the FATF are to set
aphrodisiac, anti-microbial, anti- standards and promote effective
inflammatory anti-tumour, anti-ulcer, implementation of legal, regulatory
hepatoprotective and anti-diabetic and operational measures for
properties. combating money laundering,
Topic-GS Paper 3-Environment & Biodiversity terrorist financing and other related
Source- The Hindu threats to the integrity of the
9. FATF warns Pakistan but keeps it off international financial system.
the blacklist Topic-GS Paper 3-International Organisation
• Pakistan has avoided being placed on Source- Indian Express
the Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
blacklist following support from China,
25.06.2019
Turkey and Malaysia.
• However, Pakistan continued to remain on
1. NASA’s Curiosity finds methane spike
a greylist given by the FATF.
on Mars
• The charter of FATF mandates that
• NASA Curiosity’s Sample Analysis at
support of at least three member
Mars (SAM) has detected the highest
states to avoid the blacklisting.
ever levels of methane in the course
• However, FATF has said that Pakistan
of its mission on Mars.
will be blacklisted if it fails to complete
• Scientists draw two information from
its action plan by October 2019.
the methane
• Once a country is blacklisted, FATF
1. The presence of Methane Gas could
calls on other countries to apply
point to the existence of microbial life.
enhanced due diligence and
2. The methane could also be produced
countermeasures, increasing the cost
as a result of interactions between
of doing business with the country and
rocks and water.
in some cases severing it all together.
Related Information

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NASA Curiosity Mission India-ASEAN FTA (free trade


• The Curiosity is the largest and most agreement) in 2010 and bilateral
capable rover ever sent to Mars which trade is valued at USD80 billion, but
is landed on Mars in August 2012. this is seen by economists as far short
• The purpose of the mission is to find of its true potential.
chemical and mineral evidence of past Related Information
habitable environments on Mars. RCEP
Topic-GS Paper 3–Science & Technology
• It is a proposed free trade agreement
Source- The Hindu
between the ten member states of the
2. India- Regional Economic
ASEAN and the 6 states with which
Comprehensive Partnership
ASEAN have existing free trade
• Government officials said it would be
agreements - Australia, China, India,
“premature” to suggest that India
Japan, South Korea and New Zealand.
could be cut out of the Regional
Comprehensive Economic Partnership • It is viewed as an alternative to the
(RCEP) if it doesn’t agree to join it by Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a
the year-end. proposed trade agreement which
• Although India is involved in the includes several Asian and American
negotiations, it has expressed nations but excludes China and India.
reservations for several reasons. • With the withdrawal of the US from
• In general, India is concerned that the TPP, the chances of success for
with RCEP in place, imports from RCEP RCEP have improved.
countries may grow even faster than • RCEP will cover trade in goods, trade
its exports to the bloc. in services, investment, economic and
• New Delhi is reluctant to cut tariffs technical co-operation, intellectual
and open its markets in the face of property, competition, dispute
strong opposition from it's farming as settlement and other issues.
well as steel and textiles industries.
• The dilemma facing India is
exacerbated by the fact that strategic Recent Developments
rival China is part of the agreement. • Trade ministers of 16 countries met in
• In particular, it is worried that Singapore recently to create the
decreasing tariffs for China would lead largest economic integration
to Chinese goods flooding the Indian agreement under RCEP.
market widening their trade deficit • India has made a case that it needs
which in 2018 stood at USD53 billion. 20 years as a “grace period” to
• India and China do not have an implement certain parts of the RCEP
existing free trade agreement. agreement, which is yet to be
• On the other hand, India would like to decided.
see better access for its professionals • India also emphasised on the
to the services sector in RCEP inclusion of services under goods in
countries included in the agreement. the economic agreement, which has
been accepted.
• The RCEP was first conceived as a
Topic- GS Paper 3 –International
traditional trade pact which cuts
Organisation
tariffs on tradable goods whereas
Source- The Hindu
India's strength is in the services
3. RBI unveils online portal for filing
sector.
grievances
• India is the sixth largest trading • RBI has launched a Complaint
partner of ASEAN having signed the Management System (CMS).

55
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• It is an online portal to facilitate bank freight rates for different lanes and
customer grievance redressal vehicles across the country.
processes. Why was it required?
• The portal can be accessed on RBI’s • The Indian road freight market size is
website and complaints can be lodged estimated at $150 billion-$160 billion,
against any of the entities regulated of which $130 billion-$140 billion is
by the central bank. full-truckload (FTL) market, but it has
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Economy been facing a growing challenge of
Source- Business Standard shortage of truck drivers.
4. Device to trap ocean plastic waste • Logistics account for nearly 14% of
relaunches India’s GDP and 70% of it comes from
• A floating device designed to catch road transportation.
plastic waste has been redeployed in • But, there is no pricing transparency
a second attempt to clean up an island and the working conditions of drivers
of trash swirling in the Pacific Ocean is deplorable. Nobody wants to be a
between California and Hawaii. truck driver anymore and the country
• The device, developed by the could face a 50% shortage of truck
Netherlands-based engineering NGO drivers by 2023.
Ocean Cleanup was first deployed in Topic- GS Paper 3 –Economic
2018 for the cleaning of Great Pacific
Development
Garbage Patch.
Source- Livemint
• However, during the first run, the
6. CJI writes to PM for removal of
device broke under constant waves
Allahabad High Court judge
and wind.
Great Pacific Garbage Patch • Chief Justice of India has written to
• The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, also Prime Minister to initiate a motion for
known as Pacific trash vortex is a gyre the removal of Allahabad High Court
of marine litter. judge, Justice S.N. Shukla, for his
guilty of misconduct.
• It is the largest accumulation of ocean
plastic in the world. • A three-judge committee, comprising
Chief Justices Indira Banerjee, S.K.
• It is located in the North Pacific
Agnihotri and P.K. Jaiswal of the
Subtropical Gyre, between Hawaii and
Madras, Sikkim and Madhya Pradesh
California.
High Courts formed in 2018 to inquire
• It covers an estimated surface area of
the complaint against Justice Shukla.
1.6 million square kilometres
Related Information
• The Great Pacific garbage patch
Procedure for the removal of High Court
formed gradually as a result of marine
Judges
litter gathered by rotating ocean
• A judge of a high court can be
currents called gyres. removed from his office by an order of
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Environment the President.
Source- TOI • The President can issue the removal
5. ‘National Freight Index’ for live order only after an address by the
freight rates Parliament has been presented to him
• In its bid to bring transparency in the in the same session for such removal.
road-freight marketplace, Gurgaon- • The address must be supported by a
based tech-enabled logistics start-up special majority of each House of
Rivigo has launched National Freight Parliament (i.e., a majority of the
Index (NFI) that will provide live total membership of that House and
majority of not less than two-thirds of

56
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the members of that House present Driving Licence for the whole of the
and voting). country.
• The grounds of removal are two— • It is under the flagship application
proved misbehaviour or incapacity. called SARATHI developed by NIC
Thus, a judge of a high court can be which has a common countrywide
removed in the same manner and on database of all driving license holders.
the same grounds as a judge of the SARATHI
Supreme Court. • The SARATHI application has the
• The Judges Enquiry Act (1968) feature to identify duplicate records
regulates the procedure relating to online in real time and access
the removal of a judge of a high court information about the challans if any.
by the process of impeachment: Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
(a) A removal motion signed by 100 Source- AIR
members (in the case of Lok Sabha) 8. Five countries had zero malaria
or 50 members (in the case of Rajya cases in 2018: WHO
Sabha) is to be given to the • According to the WHO E-2020
Speaker/Chairman. initiative: 2019 progress report, four
(b) The Speaker/Chairman may admit countries from Asia — China, Iran,
the motion or refuse to admit it. Malaysia, Timor-Leste and El
(c) If it is admitted, then the Salvador(Central America) reported
Speaker/Chairman is to constitute a no indigenous cases of malaria in
three-member committee to 2018.
investigate into the charges. Related Information
(d) The committee should consist of WHO Initiatives to Eliminate Malaria
(a) the chief justice or a judge of the • World Health Assembly approved a
Supreme Court, (b) chief justice of a Global Technical Strategy for Malaria
high court, and (c) a distinguished to eliminate malaria by 2030 in 2015.
jurist. • The strategy targeted 2020 to
(e) If the committee finds the judge to eliminate malaria in at least 10
be guilty of misbehaviour or suffering countries.
from an incapacity, the House can • In 2016, WHO launched E-2020
take up the consideration of the initiative to scale up efforts to
motion. eliminate malaria by 2020.
(f) After the motion is passed by each • The 21 countries were identified by
House of Parliament by special WHO in 2016 as having the potential
majority, an address is presented to to become malaria-free by 2020.
the president for removal of the India is not among the 21 countries
judge. under E-2020 initiative.
(g) Finally, the president passes an • Recently, the WHO declared Algeria as
order removing the judge. malaria-free which became the
Note: Till now no judge of a high court has second E-2020 country to achieve
been impeached so far. certification, after Paraguay.
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance • Uzbekistan and Argentina though not
Source- The Hindu E-2020 countries, were also awarded
7. Government to launch Universal the malaria-free certification in 2018
Smart Card Driving License and 2019, respectively.
• Road Transport and Highways Eligibility for Malaria Free Certification
Ministry have prescribed a common • Countries that have achieved at least
standard format and design of the 3 consecutive years of 0 local cases of
malaria are eligible to apply for the

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WHO certification of malaria • The Index ranks the States and Union
elimination. Territories based on 23 health-related
World Malaria report 2018 indicators.
• According to the World Malaria Report The indicator includes
2018, more than 200 million people 1. Neonatal mortality rate,
were affected by malaria in 2017. 2. Under-five mortality rate,
• India (4%) along with the Nigeria 3. Proportion of low birth weight among
Democratic Republic of the Congo, new-borns,
Mozambique, and Uganda accounted 4. Proportion of districts with functional
for nearly 50% of all malaria cases Cardiac Care Units,
worldwide. 5. Full immunisation coverage and
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Important Report proportion of specialist positions
Source- Down to Earth vacant at district hospitals.
9. Continental axis hypothesis Highlights of the Index
• It was first proposed by American • Kerala continued to top the list for the
geographer Jared Diamond in his best performing State in the health
popular 1997 book Guns, Germs, and sector whereas Uttar Pradesh retained
Steel. the worst performer tag among the 21
• This hypothesis is referred to as why larger states.
certain regions of the world • Among the UTs, Chandigarh is on the top.
throughout history experienced more • The report stated that only about half
economic development than others. the States and UTs shows an
• It states that regions of the earth that improvement in the overall score of
are spread across a large latitudinal between 2015-16 (base year) and
area, that is east-west, are more 2017-18 (reference year).
likely to witness greater development • The report added that among the
than regions that extend eight Empowered Action Group
longitudinally, that is north-south. States, only three States —
• This is because temperatures are Rajasthan, Jharkhand & Chhattisgarh
largely similar across latitudes, which — showed improvement in the overall
helps technology and ideas to spread performance.
among a larger population. • The eight socioeconomically backward
• It also results in more cultural states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh,
homogeneity. Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa,
• It is also known as “Continental Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and Uttar
orientation hypothesis. Pradesh, referred to as
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Economic Terms the Empowered Action Group
Source- The Hindu (EAG)
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Important Report
26.06.2019 Source-The Hindu
2. DRDO scientist develops a herbal
1. NITI Aayog’s Health Index drug to treat leucoderma
• NITI Aayog recently released its • DRDO has developed ‘lukoskin' for
second edition of State Health Index. the treatment of Leucoderma on
• The report ‘Healthy States, International Vitiligo Day 25 June.
Progressive India: Report on Rank of Vitiligo or Leucoderma
States and UTs’ has ranked in three • Leucoderma is a skin condition in
categories — larger States, smaller which white patches develop on the
States and Union Territories. skin due to lack of melanin (a pigment
in the skin).

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• It is neither contagious (i.e does not China, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam,


spread from getting in direct contact Cambodia and Malaysia.
with the affected person) nor life- • The species has a golden brown shell
threatening. and skin.
• Genetic conditions or stress-induced • India was known to be the home of
situations are more prone to the only the Asian Forest Tortoise
occurrence of disease. (Manouria emys) until the discovery
• Leucoderma patients are also of the Impressed Tortoise.
vulnerable to inflammation in the iris, • It is listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN
loss of hearing and sunburn. Red List.
• Vitiligo is not contagious and is not Topic-GS Paper 3–Environment & Biodiversity
life-threatening. Source-The Hindu
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and 5. Scientists identify a new biomarker
Technology for malaria
Source-Indian Express • Researchers from the National
3. Senna spectabilis: An Invasive Institute of Research in Tribal Health has
Species identified glutamate dehydrogenase a
• Recently a meeting has been held by new biomarker for malaria parasite.
National Tiger Conservation Authority • It helps to develop a more sensitive
and State government officials to diagnostic test for the disease.
discuss measures to mitigate man- Related Information
animal conflict and invasive species in Biomarker
Bandipur Wildlife Sanctuary. • A biomarker is a measurable indicator
Senna spectabilis of the severity or presence of some
• It is an invasive species of plant which disease state or some other
posed a major threat to the wildlife physiological state of an organism.
habitat in the Nilgiri Biosphere • Biomarker indicates a change in
Reserve. expression or state of a protein that
Characteristics of Invasive Alien Species correlates with the risk or progression
• It shows rapid reproduction and of a disease, or with the susceptibility
growth, of the disease to a given treatment.
• It also shows Phenotypic plasticity • It is characteristic by biological
(ability to adapt physiologically to new properties or molecules that can be
conditions) detected and -measured in parts of
• It has high dispersal ability, the body like the blood or tissue.
• Ability to survive on various food • Biomarkers can be specific cells,
types and in a wide range of molecules, or genes, gene products,
environmental conditions. enzymes, or hormones. Complex
Topic-GS Paper 3–Environment & Biodiversity organ functions or general
Source-The Hindu characteristic changes in biological
4. Impressive’ tortoise discovered in structures can also serve as
Arunachal biomarkers.
• A team of herpetologists found the Note:
Impressed Tortoise in Yazali area of • Currently, tests used for diagnosing
the Lower Subansiri district in malaria are based on a gene,
Arunachal Pradesh. Histidine-rich Protein 2 (HRP2),
Related Information replete with amino acid Histidine.
Impressed Tortoise Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and
• It occurs in mountainous forest areas Technology
in Southeast Asia in Burma, southern Source-Down to Earth

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6. NASA's first Astrobee robot • Children Of illiterate mothers have


"Bumble" starts flying in space higher chances of stunting, wasting
• A robot named "Bumble" became the and being under-weight
first Astrobee robot to fly under its Global Targets 2025
own power in space. • To improve maternally, infant and
• Astrobee is a free-flying robot system young child nutrition, WHO member
that will help researchers test new states have endorses global targets
technologies in zero gravity and for improving maternal, infant and
perform routine work alongside young child nutrition and are
astronauts aboard the International committed to monitoring progress.
Space Station. Stunting
• Robots that can operate on their own TARGET: 40% reduction in the number of
in space, such as Astrobee, can be children under-5 who are stunted
caretakers for NASA's lunar gateway
Anaemia
and will play a significant part in
TARGET: 50% reduction of anaemia in
NASA's future missions to explore the
women of reproductive age
Moon and Mars.
Low birth weight
• Bumble and a second Astrobee,
"Honey," launched to the space TARGET: 30% reduction in low birth weight
station in April 2019. A third robot Childhood overweight
named "Queen" is scheduled to launch TARGET: No increase in childhood overweight
in July 2019. Breastfeeding
Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and TARGET: Increase the rate of exclusive
Technology breastfeeding in the first 6 months up to at
Source-Space Daily least 50%
7. 31.4% of Indian children will be Wasting
stunted by 2022: report TARGET: Reduce and maintain childhood
• According to an analysis of the report wasting to less than 5%
prepared by the UN World Food Topic- GS Paper 3 –Important Report
Programme in collaboration with the Source-The Hindu
Ministry of Statistics and 8. Zero Chance: Australia cautions
Programme, almost one in three illegal immigrants
Indian children under five years will • Australian government is launching a
still be stunted by 2022. campaign ‘Zero Chance’ to raise
• Child stunting is a measure of chronic awareness among people trying to
malnutrition — has reduced at a rate enter the country illegally by boats.
of about 1% per year, the slowest • This campaign helps to put an
decline among emerging economies. exclusive restriction on the illegal
Highlights of the report migrants who came by boat.
• Poorest wealth quintile has the • For Refugees the Australian
highest stunting, wasting and Government came with the
underweight prevalence (51.4%, resettlement plan in which those who
24.2%.48.6%) as against highest wish to enter the country must apply
wealth quintile through refugee’s resettlement
(22.2%.17.9%.20.1%) programmes.
• Mothers having low BMI have a higher Topic- GS Paper 3 –International Affairs
prevalence of stunted, wasted and Source-The Hindu
underweight children 9. 1 crore houses by 2020: Under the
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana

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• The governments could be completed


the target of constructing of one crore 27.06.2019
house (Urban) by the end of 2020
which has been targeted by 2022 1. UNSC NON-PERMANENT SEAT
under the Pradhan Mantri Awas • India has won the unanimous support
Yojana. of all countries in the 55-member
Related Information Asia-Pacific Group at the United
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana Nations in support of its bid for a non-
• It was launched in 2015 with an permanent seat at the UN Security
objective to provide affordable Council (UNSC) for a two-year term in
housing to urban and rural poor. 2021-22.
• This scheme has two components viz. Related Information
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
(Urban) (PMAY-U) for the urban poor • It is one of the six principal organs of
and Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana the United Nations and is charged with
(Gramin) (PMAY-G or PMAY-R) for the the maintenance of international
rural poor. peace and security.
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Gramin • Its powers include the establishment
(Ministry of Rural Development) of peacekeeping operations, the
• It’s objective to help rural people establishment of international
below the poverty line (BPL) in sanctions, and the authorization of
construction of dwelling units and military action through Security
upgradation of existing unserviceable Council resolutions.
kutcha houses by providing assistance • It is the only UN body with the
in the form of a full grant. authority to issue binding resolutions
• Beneficiaries are chosen according to to member states.
data taken from the Socio-Economic • The Security Council consists of
Caste Census (SECC) of 2011. fifteen members.
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban • Russia, the United Kingdom, France,
(Ministry of Urban Affairs) China, and the United States—serve
• The Mission is being implemented as the body’s five permanent
during 2015- 2022 and will provide members.
central assistance to Urban Local • These permanent members can veto
Bodies (ULBs) and other any substantive Security Council
implementing agencies through resolution, including those on the
States/UTs. admission of new member states or
• All statutory towns as per Census candidates for Secretary-General.
2011 and towns notified subsequently
• The Security Council also has 10 non-
would be eligible for coverage under
permanent members, elected on a
the Mission.
regional basis to serve two-year
• It has the following provisions:
terms.
o In-situ Rehabilitation of
• The body’s presidency rotates
existing slum dwellers using
monthly among its members.
the land as a resource through
private participation Note:
o Credit Linked Subsidy • India has already held a non-
o Affordable Housing in permanent seat on the UNSC for
Partnership seven terms.
Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance Principal Organs of the UN:
Source-TOI • United Nations Secretariat

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• United Nations General Assembly Intervention areas:


• International Court of Justice • Water conservation and rainwater
• United Nations Security Council harvesting
• United Nations Economic and Social • Renovation of water bodies
Council • Renovation Of borewell recharge
• United Nations Trusteeship Council structures
Topic- GS Paper 2 – International • Watershed development
Organization • Intensive afforestation
Source- The Hindu • Progress would be monitored in real
2. Jal Shakti’ scheme: For water- time through mobile applications and
starved areas an online dashboard at
• The Centre is set to initiate the Jal indiawater.gov.in
Shakti Abhiyan to ramp up Topic- GS Paper 2 – Important Scheme
rainwater harvesting and Source- The Hindu
conservation efforts in 255 water- 3. Council of Europe restores
stressed districts from July 1. Russia′s voting rights
• The campaign seems to follow the • The Parliamentary Assembly of the
model of last year’s Gram Swaraj Council of Europe has voted in favour
Abhiyan, where central officials of restoring Russia's voting rights, five
monitored the implementation of years after they were revoked over its
seven flagship development schemes illegal annexation of the Crimean
in 117 aspirational districts across the Peninsula.
country. • The move paves the way for Russia to
• The campaign will run from July 1 to participate in the election of a new
September 15 in States receiving secretary general for the pan-
rainfall during the south-west European rights body.
monsoon, while States receiving • Russia was denied its voting rights
rainfall in the retreating or north-east after Russia’s annexation of the
monsoon will be covered from October Crimea in 2014.
1 to November 30.
• The Jal Shakti Abhiyan would aim to Related Information
accelerate water harvesting, Council of Europe
conservation and borewell recharge • It is Europe’s oldest political body
activities. which aims to uphold human rights,
JAL SHAKTI ABHIYAN (JSA) democracy and the rule of law across
• It is a time-bound, mission-mode the continent.
water conservation and irrigation • The council was founded in 1949 and
efficiency campaign for water security it has 47 member states, 28 of which
in rural India. are members of the European Union.
• The JSA will run from July 1 to • The Council of Europe is distinct from
September 15, 2019 the European Union.
• During this time, officers, • The council oversees and enforces
groundwater experts and scientists rulings made by the European Court
will work together with State and of Human Rights which considers
district officials in the country's water- cases brought by individuals and
stressed districts for water groups against the signatories to the
conservation, resource management convention.
and irrigation efficiency • The Council of Europe is also an
official United Nations Observer.

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Topic- GS Paper 2 –International • There is an adequate safeguard in the


Relation scheme to ensure proper utilization of
Source- AIR funds, such as:-
4. CYBER COORDINATION CENTRE o No advance payment is
(CyCord) released to any agency.
• Minister of State for Home Affairs o Registration of the NGO on
informed the Rajya Sabha about the Darpan Portal.
Cyber Coordination Centre (CyCord)
o The scheme is administered
portal.
through a Project Management
Related Information
Unit (PMU) for scrutiny of
Cyber Coordination Centre
proposals
• The portal was launched by Prime
Minister of India in December 2018 at Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance
DGPs/IGPs Conference. Source-PIB
• The primary objective of the Cyber 6. Lunar Evacuation System
Coordination Centre is to provide a • It is a device used in the preparations
platform to the Law Enforcement for NASA’s 2024 Moon mission.
Agencies and other stakeholders. • Lunar Evacuation System Assembly
• It helps to collaborate and coordinate (LESA) developed by the European
their efforts to resolve cybercrime, Space Agency (ESA).
and for other cyber-related issues like
• It is a pyramid-like structure whose
sharing case studies/research
purpose is to rescue an astronaut
findings, experience sharing,
should he or she suffer an injury on
formulation of research problems,
the lunar surface.
finding solutions to complex cyber
issues, etc. • Astronauts could not carry their fallen
Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance crewmate over their shoulder while
Source-PIB wearing a heavy extravehicular
5. NGOs for promotion of road safety activity suit.
• Ministry of Road Transport and • LESA can be operated by a single
Highways has launched a scheme for astronaut to rescue a fallen colleague.
grant of financial assistance to NGOs • It enables an astronaut to lift their
for administering “Road Safety crewmate onto a mobile stretcher in
Advocacy” in the last financial year less than 10 minutes, before carrying
2017-18. them to the safety of a nearby
• Under this Scheme, proposals for road pressurised lander.
safety advocacy programmes through Topic- GS Paper 3 –Science and
203 different Non-Governmental Technology
Organisations (NGOs) / Trusts / Source- Indian Express
Cooperative Societies have been 7. Motion of Thanks
sanctioned in the financial year 2017- • Under Article 87 of the constitution,
18. President of India specially addresses
both Houses of Parliament together at
• Financial assistance for a road safety
the beginning of the first session after
programme is Rs. five lakh.
each general election and the first
• The scheme does not provide for any session of every fiscal year.
advance payment and financial • In this address, the president outlines
assistance is reimbursement only the policies and programmes of the
after the successful completion of the government in the preceding year and
programme. the ensuing year.

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• At the end of the discussion, the 28.06.2019


motion is put to vote.
• This motion must be passed in the 1. Govt sets up a working group to
House; otherwise, it amounts to the revise the current series of WPI
defeat of the government. • The government set up an 18-
• This inaugural speech of the president member working group for the
is an occasion available to the revision of the current series of
members of Parliament to raise Wholesale Price Index under Ramesh
discussions and debates to examine Chand as its Chairman (a member of
and criticise the government and NITI Aayog).
administration for its lapses and • The Office of Economic Adviser,
failures. Department for Promotion of Industry
• Notices of amendments to the Motion & Internal Trade will be the nodal
of Thanks can be given only after the office for the Working Group.
President has delivered the Address. Needs for revision of WPI
Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance • The current series of Wholesale Price
Source-PIB Index (WPI) with 2011-12 as the base
8. State divide in unemployment: year was introduced in May 2017.
Nagaland tops the list • Since 2011-12, significant structural
• Nagaland has the highest changes have taken place in the
unemployment rate among the states economy.
at 21.4%, and Meghalaya the lowest • The revision of the base year would
at 1.5%. help in presenting a more realistic
• The Periodic Labour Force Survey picture of the price situation and its
(PLFS) for 2017-18, other aspects of impact on people.
which have been reported earlier, Functions of the Working Group are
shows huge variations among the • To select the most appropriate Base
states. Year for the preparation of a new
• Besides Nagaland, states with high official series of Index Numbers of
unemployment are Goa and Manipur. WPI and Producer Price Index (PPI) in
• Chhattisgarh and Sikkim are among India.
those with the lowest rates. • To review the commodity basket of
• If Union Territories are included in the the current series of WPI.
comparison, Nagaland still tops the list • To review the existing system of price
while Dadra and Nagar Haveli replaces
collection in particular for the
Meghalaya with a low of 0.6%.
manufacturing sector.
• Country-wide, PLFS pegs the
Related Information
unemployment rate at 6.1%, with the
Wholesale Price Index
rate lower among females than males.
• It measures the change in the price of
• Among the states, Nagaland and
commodities traded in the wholesale
Meghalaya again take the top and
market.
bottom positions in both the female
• It is also known as headline
and the male lists.
inflation.
• Goa and Kerala are high in female
• Current base year- 2011-12.
unemployment (respectively 26.0%
• The index basket of the current series
and 23.3%).
has a total of 697 items (117 items for
Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance
Primary Articles, 16 items for Fuel &
Source-PIB
Power and 564 items for
Manufactured Products.)

64
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• Published by- Economic Advisor, Madeira, a volcanic Portuguese island


Ministry of Commerce & Industry. off northwest Africa.
Topic- GS Paper 3 – Important • After sampling rocks along the
Committee coastline, researchers found that by
Source- The Hindu 2019 the plasticrusts covered 9.46%
2. Surjit Bhalla Committee on Trade of the rocky surface.
and Policy • According to researchers, the
• High-Level Advisory Group (HLAG) potential impact of plasticrusts is still
headed by Dr. Surjit S. Bhalla has relatively unknown but had the
been constituted by the Department potential to affect the island’s
of Commerce. animals.
• It has made several recommendations Topic- GS Paper 3 – Environment
for boosting India’s share and Source- The Hindu
importance in global merchandise and 4. Beekeeping development
services trade. committee
• Among other things, the Report • Economic Advisory Council to the
identifies tax reforms also to boost Prime Minister had set up a
export and -investment channels for Beekeeping Development Committee
exports. under the Chairmanship of Professor
• The Committee has recommended Bibek Debroy.
“Elephant Bonds”. • The committee was constituted with
• Elephant Bonds will be a 25-year the objective of identifying ways of
sovereign bond in which people advancing beekeeping in India that
declaring undisclosed income will be can help in improving agricultural
bound to invest 50% which will be productivity, enhancing employment
utilised only for infrastructure generation, augmenting nutritional
projects. security and sustaining biodiversity.
• HLAG has also made Recommendation of the Committee
recommendations for reforms in • The committee has recommended
Financial Services Framework for that there is a need to recognise
making India a Preferred Destination honeybees as inputs to agriculture
for financial services. and consider landless beekeepers as
Topic- GS Paper 2 – Important farmers.
Committee • The report also recommended that
Source-PIB government should institutionalise
3. Plastic Crust– a new kind of sea the National Bee Board and rechristen
pollution it as the Honey and Pollinators Board
• Scientists from the Marine and of India under the Ministry of
Environmental Sciences Centre have Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
discovered a new type of plastic • The aim of such a board would be to
pollution which has been dubbed as engage in advancing beekeeping
“plasticrusts”. through multiple mechanisms such as
Related Information setting up of new integrated bee
Plasticrust development centres and
• It is a layer of polyethene, the world's strengthening the existing ones.
most widely used plastic encrusted • Further, the report said that national
onto ocean rocks. and regional infrastructure should be
• In 2016, researchers first observed developed for storage, processing and
blue and grey plastic patches on marketing of honey and other bee
products.

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• The report also suggested simplified collaborations and partnerships with


procedures and clear standards for different organizations to promote
ease of exporting honey and other bee tribal products.
products. • During the event, Tribes India and
• As per the Food and Agricultural Amazon Global Marketing will launch
Organization database, Indian ranked TRIBES India products globally
eighth in 2017-18 in the world in through the Amazon platform.
terms of honey production while China • With this collaboration, tribal products
stood first. will be available in the US and will help
Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance establish an export market with tribal
Source-Live Mint products.
5. Research on Proton Therapy Topic- GS Paper 2 –Indian Polity
• The Minister of State of Health and Source-PIB
Family Welfare has informed Rajya 7. Govt to launch ‘One Nation One
Sabha about the present status of Ration Card’
Research on Proton Therapy in India. • The central government is working on
Related Information a plan to launch a “One Nation One
Proton therapy Ration Card” scheme for beneficiaries,
• It is a type of Radiation therapy, which especially migrant workers, to access
is also called proton beam therapy. the Public Distribution System from
• It uses protons rather than x-rays to any PDS shop across the country.
treat cancer. • The scheme is aimed at providing
• A proton is a positively charged freedom to beneficiaries, as they will
particle. not be tied to one PDS shop, reduce
• At high energy, protons can destroy their dependence on shop owners and
cancer cells. curtail corruption.
• Like x-ray radiation, proton therapy is • The biggest beneficiaries will be
a type of external-beam radiation migrant workers who move to other
therapy. states to seek better job
• It painlessly delivers radiation opportunities.
through the skin from a machine Related Information
outside the body. • Integrated Management of PDS
• With proton therapy, there is less (IMPDS), under which beneficiaries
radiation dose outside of the tumour. can avail their share of food grain
• In regular radiation therapy, x-rays from any district, is operational in
continue to give radiation doses as Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana,
they leave the person’s body. Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala,
• This means that radiation damages Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Telangana
nearby healthy tissues, possibly and Tripura.
causing side effects. Topic- GS Paper 2 –Government
Topic- GS Paper 3 – Science and Schemes
Technology Source- Indian Express
Source-PIB 8. National mission on natural
6. Go Tribal campaign launched language translation
• The government will launch the Go • Ministry of Electronics and IT will
Tribal Campaign in New Delhi to launch Natural Language Translation
promote the use of tribal handicrafts which is based on the one of the key
and natural products. missions identified by the Prime
• Tribal Affairs Ministry said TRIFED has Minister’s Science, Technology and
organized this event to institutionalize

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Innovation Advisory Council (PM- • The objective is to facilitate the


STIAC). delivery of e-governance, e-health, e-
• The IT ministry is the lead agency for education, e-banking, Internet and
implementation of the mission along other services to rural India
with Ministry of Human Resource • Phase I of the BharatNet project was
Development and Department of completed in December 2017.
Science and Technology. • Phase II is under implementation and
• It aims to make science and a total of 2 lakh gram panchayats are
technology accessible to all by targeted to be completed by March
facilitating access to teaching and 2020.
researching material bilingually in Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
English and in one’s native Indian Source- Indian Express
language. 10. Digital Education under
Related Information PMGDISHA
PM- STIAC • Electronics and Information
• It is an overarching body with function Technology Minister Mr. Ravi Shankar
of assessing, creating and Prasad has said that around 2.22
implementing major scientific, crore villagers are given Digital
technology and innovation Education under Pradhan Mantri
interventions in India. Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan.
• It has identified nine national Related Information
missions to address major scientific Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital
challenges in India. Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA)
• These nine national missions are- • It is the scheme to make six crore
Natural Language Translation, persons in rural areas, across
Quantum Frontier, Artificial States/UTs, digitally literate, reaching
Intelligence, National Biodiversity to around 40% of rural households by
Mission, Electric Vehicles, BioScience covering one member from every
for Human Health, Waste To Wealth, eligible household by 31st March,
Deep Ocean Exploration, Agnii. 2019.
• It aims to facilitate collaboration to • The Scheme aims to bridge the digital
solve complex problems and to ensure divide, specifically targeting the rural
sustainable development. population including the marginalised
Topic- GS Paper 2 – Governance sections of society like Scheduled
Source- The Hindu Castes (SC) / Scheduled Tribes (ST),
9. Govt to provide broadband Minorities, Below Poverty Line (BPL),
connectivity under BharatNet women and differently-abled persons
project to all gram panchayats and minorities.
• Under BharatNet project, the last mile • Under it, people in a rural area will be
connectivity is to be provided at all the trained to operate a computer, tablet,
2.5 lakh gram panchayats in the smartphones, etc and how to access
country. the Internet, government services,
About the Project undertake digital payment, compose
• The BharatNet project is being funded e-mails, etc.
by the Universal Service Obligation Topic- GS Paper 2 –Governance
Fund (USOF). Source-PIB
• It was set up for improving telecom
services in rural and remote areas of
India.

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