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BARRIERS IN ACCESSING PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES FOR PERSONS

WITH DISABILITIES IN HYDERABAD, INDIA

Submitted to

KALOJI NARAYANA RAO UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES

In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF PUBICE HEALTH

2019

By

DR. LAKSHMI ARCHANA YARASANI

Under the guidance of

DR.SURESH KUMAR KAMALAKANNAN

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH HYDERABAD

PUBLIC HEALTH FOUNDATION OF INDIA


CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the research work embodied in this dissertation titled “BARRIERS IN
ACCESSING PUBLIC TRANSPORT SERVICES BY PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN
HYDERABAD, INDIA” is an original work done by DR.LAKSHMI ARCHANA YARASANI,
Registration number: 17511500012 (August 2017-August 2019), at Indian Institute of Public
Health Hyderabad (Public Health Foundation of India) in partial fulfillment of the Master of
Public Health degree. This dissertation work was undertaken and completed under the guidance
of DR.SURESH KUMAR KAMALAKANNAN, Associate professor IIPHH (PHFI). No part of
this work was used to for obtaining any other degree or publication or part thereof.

Dr. Lakshmi Archana Dr. Suresh Kumar Kamalakannan Dr. Jayaram


Yarasani Mentor, Associate Professor Senior Academic Registrar
MPH final year student IIPH- Hyderabad IIPH- Hyderabad
IIPH- Hyderabad

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Foremost I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my honourable guide Dr. Suresh Kumar

Kamalakannan, Associate Professor at Indian Institute of Public Health for his continuous support,

patience, motivation, and immense knowledge. His guidance helped me in all the time of research

and writing of this thesis. I could not have imagined having a better advisor and mentor for my

Master’s thesis. Without his guidance and persistent help this dissertation would not have been

possible. Thank you sir for helping me and make this endeavour a reality.

I take this opportunity to record my sincere thanks to all the faculty members of IIPH, Hyderabad for

their help and encouragement. My special thanks to my parents and my family who are always a

perpetual source of inspiration and encouragement.

I also place on record, my sense of gratitude to one and all who, directly or indirectly, have lent their

helping hand in this project.

Last but not the least let me not forget Almighty God for his benevolence and blessings bestowed

upon me.

Dr. Lakshmi Archana Yarasani

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO CONTENT PAGE NO.

1. INDEX
-
2. CERTIFICATE
1
3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
2
4. TABLE OF CONTENTS
3
5. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
4
6. ABSTRACT
5-6
7. INTRODUCTION
7-10
8. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
11
9. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
12
10. METHODS
13-20
11. RESULTS
21-53
12. DISCUSSION
54-58
13. CONCLUSION
59
14. REFERENCES
60-61
15. ANNEXURES
62-88

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AIC ACCESSIBLE INDIA CAMPAIGN

ICF INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONING,


DISABILITY AND HEALTH

JBS JUBILEE BUS STATION

MGBS MAHATMA GANDHI BUS STATION

NGO NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION

PWD PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

PWOD PERSONS WITHOUT DISABILTIES

RPWD RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

RTC ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION

UNCRPD UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF


PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

WHO WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

WHA WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY

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ABSTRACT

Background: Globally 15% of the population lives with some form of disability.PWD experience
difficulty in accessing health care services compared to persons without disabilities. Access to
transportation is considered a key barrier to access health. In general PWDs find it difficult to access
public transport facilities given its design and the non-inclusive user friendliness of it. This study aims to
assess the barriers in accessing public transport services for persons with disabilities in Hyderabad. The
findings of this study will provide useful insights on the issue and the potential strategies to address this
issue in Hyderabad and similar cities in India.

Objectives:

 To identify the availability of disabled friendly transport services in Hyderabad,

 To identify their preferred modes of transport in Hyderabad.

 To assess the barriers for Persons with Disabilities in accessing public transport services

Methods: The study follows cross sectional –mixed methods approach with Quantitative techniques
(observation check list) to assess the availability of disabled friendly services and Qualitative techniques
(semi-structured interviews) for assessing the barriers experienced by persons with disabilities in
accessing the transport services in Hyderabad city.

Results: Several barriers that were identified by persons with different kinds of disabilities (Physical,
visually and hearing disabled) are lack of information on accessing transport services and architectural
issues that impair persons with disabilities from accessing the transport. Results show a need for major
public investment in modifying the infrastructure of bus stops, railway stations and vehicles in order to
make them disabled friendly and the immediate implementation of accessible public transportation.

Conclusion: The transport facilities in Hyderabad are not matching to the standards for ensuring a
barrier free environment for persons with disabilities. There are numerous barriers in accessing public
transportation. It is the obligation of the State to provide transport services to its citizens and more
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specifically the service being accessible and inclusive for disabled. In order for transport systems to be
accessible to everyone, it is important to consider all the problems that persons with disability
experience along an entire transport system and, not just consider funding accessible of public transport
vehicles. There is a need for inter-sectoral coordination to strengthen the implementation of the existing
legislations and guidelines so as to ensure that the rights of the PWD are not undermined.

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INTRODUCTION

Disability is an umbrella term, encompassing impairments, activity limitations, and participation


restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a
difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a
problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations.1 Globally 15% of the population
lives with some form of disability and they experience difficulty in accessing health care services
compared to persons without disabilities (PWOD). Since comprehensive healthcare services are not
available at the doorsteps, Persons with Disabilities (PWD) have to travel to the health facility to access
health care. Though it is possible for PWOD to access transport services to travel and access, health
care, PWDs experience several barriers to access transport services to seek health care, let alone for their
general needs. Especially the public transport services. In general PWDs find it difficult to access public
transport facilities given its design, the non-inclusiveness and the absence of user- friendliness in it. In
addition, the severity of disability experienced adds to the burden.1

Definition of Disability

Disability is thus not just a health problem. It is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction
between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Overcoming the
difficulties faced by people with disabilities requires interventions to remove environmental and social
barriers.2

Figure 1: The international Classification of Functioning Disability and Health WHO.

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The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides standard language
and framework, collects and organizes information associated with disability and its functioning . This
classification is been recommended by WHO for use in the WHA in 2001. It brings in the conceptual
basis for measuring disability.

It focuses on multi-dimensional concept on disability that includes the focus on body function and
structure and impairments, activities and participation restrictions and the environmental factors which
affect these experiences.3

There is a dynamic interaction between the health conditions, personal and environmental factors giving
arise to bio psychosocial model which is the integration of social and medical models.3

Disability in India

The prevalence of disability in India according to Census 2011 is close to 2.1%.4 However, overall
prevalence of disability in Telangana State according to a recent study was estimated to be 12.2% which
is 600% higher than the current estimate..5 PWD in general are vulnerable to secondary conditions, age-
related conditions, co-morbid conditions due to age, diabetes, hypertension engaging in health risk
behaviours and therefore higher rates of poor quality of life and premature death.6

Access to Transport

Transportation is essential for active participation in the society. Even though many people in India face
lot of barriers in accessing transportation, these problems are unevenly experienced by some vulnerable
groups such as PWDs, especially those who are older, women, children and ill. To access health,
accessing transport becomes important. Many studies have shown the barriers to access transportation to
travel and access health for PWOD7. However there are not any to understand the issue of access to
transportation by PWDs.

Social exclusion might be a biggest challenge for these individuals. As persons with disabilities face a
lot of financial barriers they are less likely to opt private transportation which prevents them from
ensuring full participation in the community. PWD has to depend on their social network to overcome
these transportation barriers. So for ensuring full participation of PWD in the community it is of utmost
importance to understand social exclusion of disabled, especially from their access to transportation
perspective.8

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Individuals with disabilities, aged individuals and individuals who have lower socioeconomic status face
issues in accessing transportation a hence are to be considered as disadvantaged for access to
transportation. By default, PWD are socially excluded to participate because of lack of access to
transportation, they are less likely to be involved in administrative and political structures in their
community. They are not involved in transportation planning and other decision making process
regarding the services available to them, quality of the services they receive and their productive
opportunities. Hence there is a not much known on their needs.8 Nevertheless, this core deficits can be
overcome if there is sufficient evidence on the barriers to transportation for PWDs.

Public transport is the lifeline for the development in the country and hence it is integral of socio-
economic and political structure of the country and its citizens. Transport is highly essential for daily
chores and activities and therefore transport is rightly called the lifeline.9 Given the inaccessibility issues
in transportation for general public, PWDs are isolated from active and productive individual, family,
social and economic participation in the society.

“You have to think of transport as an equalizer, a catalyst that facilitates access to many other sectors,”
said Charlotte McClain-Nhlapo, the World Bank’s Global Advisor on Disability. 10

Being a signatory to UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD)., article 9

“State shall take appropriate measures to ensure to persons with disabilities access, on an equal basis
with others, to the physical environment, to transportation, to information and communications,
including information and communications technologies and systems, and to other facilities and services
open or provided to the public, both in urban and in rural areas”

Similarly, at a national level, Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and
Full Participation) Act, 1995 cast responsibility on the States, “to take measures to make public transport
accessible for PWDs and also make provision for auditory signals at red lights in public roads, curb cuts
and slopes in pavements, engraving on the surface at zebra crossings etc.”11

However, transport-related issues in India are substantial. Though there are transport advisory
committees to recommend the policies based on the needs of the disabled, structure was however
unsatisfactory for the disabled people. There is not any capacity building or sensitization programmes
for the drivers or personnel involved in transportation, especially those with PWDs within the system.
Inconsistencies in vehicle design example- retractable ramps, kneeling suspensions were absent. Other
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identified issue was the wheel chair users facing difficulty in entering and exiting buses, visually
impaired face difficulties in finding seats because of faulty layout structure and always have to depend
on another person to identify stops.12

Barriers in accessing transportation are the main reason for variation in employment rate between
disabled people and persons without disabilities. Most of disabled people who use public transport
services for various reasons are dissatisfied with it.12Thus transportation forms a core essential service to
empower PWDs.

Ability of disabled people to fully participate in the community is highly influenced by barriers in
accessing public transportation. Disabled people face significant challenges while using public
transportation. Some disability groups face severe problems while accessing public transport services
than other disability groups. Priority should be given to persons with disabilities who experience severe
problems while formulating of public policies.13

Therefore, this study aims to assess the barriers experienced by PWDs in accessing public transport
services in Hyderabad. The study is cross sectional in nature using mixed methods approach, the
findings of this study will provide valuable information for the policy makers to propose legislations and
guidelines and strengthen the implementation of the same so as to ensure that the rights of the PWD are
not undermined. It will also provide evidence on the existing infrastructural deficits and help in
strengthening laws and rules for improving accessibility and availability of transport services for PWDs
and ensure better implementation of the policies and programs in our country. It helps in understanding
the multiple perspectives regarding the barriers from different groups.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A similar study that has been conducted in the city of Ludhiana Punjab to assess the transport facility
for both the railways and the road ways concluded that the services offered were not so accessible for
disabled friendly. The most perceived access for disabled people included ramps , however the study
also concluded that access for the other disabled like hearing impaired , visually impaired were not
even close to the existent services offered for the locomotor impaired.14 The built environment was
not at friendly in the city of Ludhiana with respect to bus services. Lack of accessible signage in the
parking area, obstructions in the pathway, inadequate number of bus stops, occupation of reserved
PWD seats by other passengers were the issues faced by PWD according to this study. The study
insists on setting on time frameworks for completing the physical infrastructure.14

The authors of the above study have also assessed the disabled friendliness of the railway services in
Ludhiana. The results were however similar to that of the bus services. The service was far from
satisfactory for the disabled people. Lack of accessible signs on the parking ground, no pathway for
pedestrians, obstructions in walking path, toilets not easily identifiable, etc are the main issues for
persons with disability to access railway services .15 The study expressed concern on the
understanding the definition was accessibility was just restricted to slopes and recommended a
holistic perspective to be looked if the environment has to be barrier free. The study recommends
encouraging greater access to transport, including public transport modes to improve the livelihoods
of disabled people and their immediatefamilies.15

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AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The present study entitled -“Barriers in accessing public transport services for persons with
disabilities in Hyderabad, India” was conducted in Hyderabad with the following

AIM:

To identify the barriers for persons with disabilities in accessing public transport services in
Hyderabad.

OBJECTIVES:

1. To identify the availability of disabled friendly public transport services for persons with

disabilities (PWD)

2. To identify the preferred modes of transport for persons with Disabilities.

3. To assess the barriers for persons with disabilities in accessing public transport services in

Hyderabad.

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METHODS

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study with mixed methods approach (Qualitative and Quantitative approach)

STUDY POPULATION:
Four groups of participants were included in the study. They are

1. Persons with physical disabilities irrespective of their age and gender and onset of disability.

 Locomotor disabled
 Hearing impaired
 Visually impaired

2. Care givers of persons with disabilities

 Family members
 Relatives

3. Public Transport Drivers

 RTC bus drivers


 Loco-pilots

4. Disability experts

Exclusion criteria:
Those unwilling to participate in the study were excluded from the study and those with severe
co-morbidities like intellectual and psychiatric conditions are also excluded from the study.

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STUDY SETTING:

The study was conducted in Hyderabad, Telangana. The study was conducted among the
community members who were approached with the help of NGOs namely Reddy’s foundation,
Ashray Akruti , IIPH which works in the field of disability. Disability experts were interviewed at
Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad. The government employees of road and railway
transport departments such as bus drivers and loco pilots were interviewed at their respective
workplaces such as bus stands and railway stations after gaining informed consent.

SAMPLE SIZE:

 11 persons with disabilities were interviewed among which 4 persons have locomotor
disability, 3 persons have hearing loss with speech impairment and 4 persons have visual
impairment.
 Six caregivers of persons with disabilities were interviewed Out of which 2 individuals
cared for persons with locomotor disabilities, 2 individuals cared for persons with
hearing impairment and 2 individuals cared for persons with visual impairment.
 Six Bus drivers were interviewed out of which 2 ride ordinary bus, 1 ride metro bus, 1
ride A/c bus, 1 ride state transport bus and 1 ride airport liner.
 Five Loco pilots were interviewed among which 1 drive Express train, 2 drive passenger
trains, 2 drive MMTS trains.
 Four Disability experts who work in the different fields of disability were interviewed.

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Table 1: Participants involved in the study:

Participants Number of people


interviewed

Persons with Locomotor disabled 4


disabilities
Hearing impaired 3

Visually impaired 4

Caregivers Caregivers to locomotor disabled 2

Caregivers to hearing impaired 2

Caregivers to visually impaired 2

Bus drivers Ordinary 2

Metro 1

A/c 1

Airport liner 1

State transport 1

Loco pilots Passenger 1

Express 2

MMTS 2

Disability Experts 4

Total 32

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SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:

Purposive and snowballing sampling technique was employed to identify and select the
participants in the study. Snow balling sampling was used because it was difficult to find
participants with different types of disabilities and to find those who were willing to answer the
interviews. As the study required a multidimensional approach, hence purposive sampling was
adopted to easily find disabled people and other participants.

DATA COLLECTION

Objective 1 is to identify the availability of disabled – friendly transport for persons with
disabilities.

An observation checklist was adapted from Access survey and Audit check list designed by the
Rehabilitation council of India and Samarthya National centre for promotion of barrier free
environment and modified according to our study environment. It has items in different domains
like Parking lot, Accessible route, Internal environment, Elevator, Reception , Ticket counter,
Accessible platform and key features that depict the disabled friendliness of the vehicle will be
used in a sample of buses(ordinary bus, metro bus, a/c bus, super deluxe, airport liner) and trains(
passenger , express, MMTS, metro) . It was Quantitative in nature.

The components used to measure the terms Parking lot, Accessible route, Internal environment,
Elevator, Reception /Ticket counter, Accessible toilet and platform are described in the table
below.

Table 2 : Description of the observation check list:

Term Description
1. Accessible parking bay for PWD
2. prominent signage as per international symbol of
Parking lot accessibility
3. Tactile floor guidance in the parking area

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1. Entrance of the bus stop path traffic free
2. Leveled non slippery surface
3. Level changes on floor
Accessible route 4. Tactile floor guidance in route
5. Width of the path >1200mm
6. Signage for entrance
7. Adequate illumination of path
1. Main entrance access
2. Signage for accessing entrance
Internal environment 3. Ramp availability
4. Hand rails on both sides of stairs/ramps
5. Entrance accessibility for wheel chair
1. Identifiability from entrance
2. Reservation of seats
3. Colour contrast
4. Leveled and non slippery surface
Reception/ticket 5. Space for wheel chair users
counter 6. Tactile floor guidance
7. Audio facility
8. Video display
9. Separate ticket counter
1. Lift availability
2. Signage for lift access
3. Step free access from main entrance to lift
Elevator / lift 4. Opening time lift
5. AV floor announcement in lift
6. Hand rails on side and rear walls.
1. Unisex accessible toilet
Accessible Toilet 2. Signage directing to toilets for PWD
1. Disabled friendly vehicle provision
2. Accessible lift in all platforms
3. Step free access to platforms
Platform 4. Floor surface non slippery(Steps)
5. Colour contrast
6. Tactile floor guidance
7. Av directing to individual platforms

The study is expected to provide information on the existing disabled friendly transport services
and the extent of its used by the PWD.

Objective 2 is to identify the preferred modes of transport for persons with disabilities.

A Qualitative approach using semi structured interview guide was utilized to identify the preferred

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modes of transport for persons with disabilities. This was expected to add details on their preferred
mode of transport and reasons for their choice.

Objective 3 is to assess the barriers for persons with disabilities in accessing public transport services
in Hyderabad.
A Qualitative approach using semi structured interview guide was utilized to assess the barriers for
persons with disabilities in accessing public transport services in Hyderabad. The principal
investigator has collected the data from the NGO’s that extensively works in the area of disability.
Semi structured interviews were conducted to assess the barriers for PWD in accessing public
transport services and to identify their preferred mode of transport. However the nature of interviews
was changed to in-depth , when it was required to explore to barriers and identify reasons for their
preferences. 32 interviews were conducted among different groups including disabled people,
caregivers, bus drivers, loco pilots and disability experts using interview guides during the study
process to follow the principle of maximum variation among each groups and we continued the
interviews until saturation was met in each of these groups.

The objective is expected to throw light on the physical infrastructural information attitudinal
financial and social barriers faced by the PWD and impact on their educational, financial and social
status .

A period of one month was utilized for data collection (March-15-2019 to April-15-2019).The
principal investigator has collected the data. Prior permission was obtained from the respective
organizations Indian Institute of Public Health, Reddy’s foundation, AshrayAkruti for conducting
the study. NGO’s provided the community setting for disabled people and their caregivers. The
government employees, disability experts were interviewed at their respective workplaces such as
transport departments and IIPHH. Informed consent was obtained from all participants.

OUTCOMES:

Primary outcome: Barriers (physical, infrastructural, attitudinal, social, financial and informational
barriers) faced by persons with disabilities were explored.

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Secondary outcome: Identify the disabled friendliness among different types of buses and trains in
Hyderabad, Telangana and disabled friendliness among internal and external environments of few bus
stands and railway stations.

DATA COLLECTION TOOL:

An observation checklist which has items in different domains like parking lot, accessible route,
internal environment, elevator, reception , ticket counter, accessible platform and key features that
depict the disabled friendliness of the vehicle was used in a sample of buses(Ordinary bus, Metro bus,
A/c bus, Super deluxe, Airport liner) trains(Express, Passenger, MMTS and Metro). Those vehicles
that have the facility were marked 1 and those that does not have the facility were marked 0.The same
also applied for the checklist on the environment that is the bus stop and the railway station.

Semi structured interview guide was utilized to assess the barriers in accessing public transport services
and to identify the preferred modes of transport among PWD in Hyderabad. The principal investigator
will be collecting the data from the NGO that extensively works in the area of disability. The data
collection was done through semi-structured interviews using Interview guide. The semi-structured
interview guide has both closed ended questions with some open ended questions for assessing the
barriers faced by the persons with disabilities. Each interview was conducted for a period of
approximately 15 – 30 minutes. Face to Face interviews were conducted with the participants in the
study. Interviews were conducted until saturation is reached. Interviews were audio-recorded to
preserve the information shared and to avoid inaccurate reporting.

The copy of the data collection tools such as observation check lists of road and railway transport as
well as interview guides of the disabled, caregivers, bus drivers, loco pilots and disability experts are
attached as Annexures.

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DATA ANALYSIS PLAN:

Quantitative analysis
All the data was entered in Microsoft Excel and the analysis was performed in the SPSS. The
observation checklist was utilized to identify the most disabled friendly vehicle within the buses and
the train. A proportional score was calculated based on the 0 and 1 scoring in the observation
checklist. Also disabled friendliness of the external environment i.e. the bus stand and the railway
station was calculated in a similar manner. Appropriate graphical representations along with the
pictures of availability of disabled friendly services were presented.

Qualitative analysis

The data was analyzed using Framework approach. The data-audio verbatim was first transcripted
into local language and then translated into English after familiarization with the audio recording.
Then codes were identified after reading first few transcripts and then those codes were used as a
template for other transcripts and then new codes if any were also identified .Codes were grouped
into categories or themes like Status of access to transport for PWD, Barriers to public transportation
with subthemes like physical barriers for accessing transport, social and attitudinal barriers hindering
access, financial impact, educational impact, Accessible India Campaign impacts etc.

For identifying the preferred modes of transport, the data was analyzed using Framework approach.
The data-audio verbatim will be first transcripted into local language and then translated into English
after familiarization with the audio recording. Then codes were identified after reading first few
transcripts and then those codes were used as a template for other transcripts and then new codes if
any were also identified .Codes were grouped into categories or themes like preferred mode of
transport, reasons for choices.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS:

The entire research study proposal was developed and submitted to the institutional ethics committee
at Indian Institute of public Health-Hyderabad, public health foundation of India and ethics
permission was obtained to conduct the study. Prior permission was obtained from the respective
NGOs namely Reddy’s foundation, Ashray Akruti and IIPH for conducting the study. Informed
consent was obtained from all the participants involved in the study.
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RESULTS

The study was to explore the different dimensions of the barriers to transport, hence the study population
includes, PWD , care takers, Disability experts and drivers . Among the disabled people , those who were
locomotor disabled, hearing impaired and visually impaired were taken into the study. This population
was further classified based on their socio economic status, occupation and employment status and
education, assistive mobility devices to access the intensity to which they would have been impaired
from accessing the transport. Attempt was also made to ensure if they had the disability certificate issued
by the government and also inquire into their preferred mode of transport. The care givers who were
interviewed were the relatives of some of the disabled participants. Their occupational status was
obtained. The bus drivers and locopilots who were also interviewed to provide their perspective on
transport access for disabled was asked for their experience and type of vehicle they drive to get a fair
idea if the disabled people board bus/train and also to understand which bus/train is boarded most
frequently. The occupational details of the disability experts were collected to understand their
perspectives of transport access and barriers for disabled.

Table 3 . Demographic details of disabled participants:

S.N0 Participant Age/Sex Education Employment Occupation Socio


code status economic
status
1 PWD 1 20/M Degree Unemployed Student Low
2 PWD 2 23/M B Tech Unemployed Student Middle
3 PWD 3 25/M Intermediate Unemployed Housewife Low
4 PWD 4 23/F Degree Unemployed Student Low
5 PWD 5 47/M Intermediate Employed Sports teacher Middle
6 PWD 6 25/M Degree Unemployed Student Low
7 PWD 7 25/M Degree Unemployed Student Low
8 PWD 8 50/M 10th class Employed Helper Middle
9 PWD 9 55/M 10th class Employed Helper Middle
10 PWD 10 52/F 10th class Employed Helper Middle
11 PWD 11 54/F 7th class Employed Helper Middle

Table 1 presents the age, gender distribution, educational qualification, employment status, occupation
and socio economic status of the disabled participants. Most of the participants were educated and they
belong to lower and middle social economic status groups. Around 54% of the participants were
employed with 46% being unemployed.

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Table 4 Category and preferred mode of transport of disabled participants:

S.No Participant Category Type of Assistive Disability Preferred


code device they use certified mode of
transport
1 PWD 1 Locomotor disabled Crutches Yes Public
2 PWD 2 Locomotor disabled Crutches Yes Private
3 PWD 3 Locomotor disabled Crutches Yes Public
4 PWD 4 Locomotor disabled None Yes Public
5 PWD 5 Hearing impaired Hearing aids Yes Own
6 PWD 6 Hearing impaired Hearing aids Yes Public
7 PWD 7 Hearing impaired Hearing aids Yes Public
8 PWD 8 Visually impaired White cane Yes Public
9 PWD 9 Visually impaired White cane Yes Public
10 PWD 10 Visually impaired White cane Yes Public
11 PWD 11 Visually impaired White cane Yes Public

Table 2 presents the category of disability, type of assistive devices the participants use, status of
their disability certification and their preferred mode of transport. It shows that almost all participants
are disability certified with usage of some kind of supporting aids. Most of them prefer public
transport services except two who prefer private and own transport.

Table 3: Demographic details of Caregivers

S.NO Participant code Age/Sex Employment status Occupation Relation


1 CGB1 28/F Unemployed Housewife Mother
2 CGB2 27/F Unemployed Housewife Mother
3 CGH1 48/F Employed Clerk Mother
4 CGH2 32/F Employed Teacher Mother
5 CGL1 28/F Unemployed Housewife Wife
6 CGL2 70/f Unemployed Housewife Mother

Table 3 illustrates the age, gender distribution, employment status, occupation of the caregivers and
their relation with their disabled family members. Around 66% of the caregivers were employed with
34% being unemployed. Most of them were mothers to the disabled individuals.

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Table 4: Demographic details of Bus drivers

S.NO Participant code Age/Sex Occupation Type of bus Work experience


1 BD1 38/M Bus Driver Ordinary 10 years
2 BD2 52/M Bus Driver Metro 22 years
3 BD3 45/M Bus Driver Ordinary 18 years
4 BD4 49/M Bus Driver A/C 20 years
5 BD5 59/M Bus Driver State transport 26 years
6 BD6 37/M Bus Driver Airport liner 18 years

Table 4 illustrates the age and gender distribution, work experience among bus drivers and the type of
buses they ride.

Table 5: Demographic details of Loco pilots

S.NO Participant code Age/Sex Occupation Type of Train Work Experience


1 LP1 49/M Loco pilot Passenger 25 years
2 LP2 47/M Loco pilot Express 25 years
3 LP3 41/M Loco pilot Express 5 years
4 LP4 48/M Loco pilot MMTS 24years
5 LP5 48/M Loco pilot MMTS 23 years

Table 5 illustrates the age and gender distribution, work experience of the loco pilots and the type of trains
they drive.

Table 6: Demographic details of Disability Experts

S.NO Participant code Age/Sex Occupation Place of work Work Experience


1 DE1 49/F Professor IIPH, Hyderabad 18 years
Department of
Research
2 DE2 30/F Disability, 16 years
Associate
IIPH, Hyderabad
3 DE3 55/F Deputy director IIPH, Hyderabad 32 Years
4 DE4 48/F Principal AshrayAkruti 16 years

Table 6 illustrates the age, gender distribution, occupation, place of work and work experience among
disability experts.

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Results from Quantitative Study:

1. Availability of disabled friendly transport services (Bus and train) for Persons with disability in Hyderabad.

ROAD TRANSPORT: An observation checklist was adapted from Access survey and Audit checklist
designed by the Rehabilitation Council of India and Samarthya National Center for Promotion of Barrier
Free Environment for Disabled Persons was modified according to our study. Using the observation
checklist, we arrived at identifying the most disabled friendly bus and also rated the bus stop environment as
access is a key not only to the vehicle but also to the areas where the vehicles are stationed. The Jubilee Bus
Station(JBS) and the Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (MGBS) were observed for the environment access for
persons with disability . A sample of Ordinary bus, metro bus, a/c bus, airport liner and State transport were
observed for their disabled friendliness.

Internal and external environment: Both JBS and MGBS bus stations in Hyderabad were observed. The
jubilee bus station does not have a parking lot that is disabled friendly in terms of reserved parking bays,
signage for PWD, or tactile floor guidance. The same is for the MGBS. Both the bus stations have traffic free
access to bus stand with adequate spacing and lighting. However the path is not leveled and minor level
changes are not supplemented with ramp. The entrances of both the bus stands are sufficiently wide to ensure
easy access for persons using mobility aids like wheel chairs. Though the ramps are available as alternative
to stairs at the entrance, there are no hand rails on both sides in JBS bus station. There is no accessible
signage to identify the entrance and there are no guiding blocks installed to direct the visually impaired into
the bus stand in both JBS and MGBS.

Picture 1 Ramp availability for Picture 2: Main Entrance to the


accessing the entrance of JBS ticket counter / platform in JBS

24
Picture 3 Entrance of JBS Bus Picture 4: Unleveled access to main
station with adequate lighting entrance from parking in JBS

There are no major differences in both the stations in terms of the ticket counter, reserved seats for PWD is
unavailable nevertheless there is separate ticket counter which is of accessible height for PWD. In terms of
information sharing, though there is a separate query counter, there is also a television display in JBS
however , it was just one television for the entire seating area and there is no video or television display
in MGBS. The audio display is also poor in both the bus stands. The floor of the platform even it is leveled
it is made of tiles and slippery in nature. The resting facilities are least disabled friendly in both the stations
and there are no separate disabled- friendly toilets. Though there is wheel chair provision, the station is not
of step free access for accessing the platform for a wheel chair too.

Picture 5: No separate reservation Picture 6: Provision of wheel


counter for disabled in MGBS 25
chairs for PWD in MGBS
Picture 7: No separate counter for Picture 8: No reserved seats for
PWD & no hand rails for support in disabled in waiting area in JBS
JBS

Picture 9, 10: Lack of step free access to the platform in MGBS & JBS
26
Picture 11: Lack of separate toilets for Picture 12: flooring of the platform
disabled in JBS is made up of tiles and slippery

It can be safely concluded from the above observation that the bus environment was not disabled
friendly in any of the observed places.

However when one looks at the different types of bus, the a/c bus and the airport liner are disabled
friendly. Self opened doors are particular for the a/c and airport liners. Low flooring also is a key
feature. Audio visual facility, retractable ramp facilities are also available only for those buses. Hand rail
is present in the entrance but not continuous till the seat for many buses. PWD seat is available in all
buses but some of the district transport buses have that facility. In most of the Ordinary, metro and
district and state transport buses the space for wheel chair is limited, there are no retractable ramps
instead of steps and no audio visual facilities. Very few metro buses have visual display and ramp
facility however in most of them they are not in working condition.

27
Picture 13: Even though the access / Picture 14: Availability of reserved
entrance to bus is wide, for wheel chair PWD seat in Metro bus
users it is difficult.(state transport bus)

Picture 15: Availability of space for Picture 16: Provision of self opened
wheel chair users in ordinary bus doors and retractable ramp in a/c bus

28
Picture 17: Though the access to bus is
disabled friendly, the internal environment
steps is not disabled friendly (airport liner)

29
Figure 2illustrates the disable friendliness of the bus station environment of Central Bus Stand(MGBS)
and Jubliee Bus Stand (JBS). Both rank in a similar fashion for parking ,accessibility , internal
environment and lavatory friendliness for disabled. However the JBS fares better in terms of being
disabled friendly in Reception and Platform.

Figure 3 shows that the A/c Bus and the Airport liner at the most disable friendly among the different
types of Public transport buses. The metro bus and Ordinary bus are only 20% disabled friendly while
the state transport buses are only 10% disable friendly.

30
RAILWAY TRANSPORT:

Using the observation checklist, we arrived at identifying the most disabled friendly railway service and
also rated the railway station environment as access is a key note only to the vehicle but also to the areas
where the vehicles are stationed. Secunderabad railway station, MGBS metro station and Begumpet
MMTS station were observed for the environment access for persons with disability. A sample of
express trains, passenger trains, Metro and MMTS trains were observed for their disabled friendliness.
The results are summarized in the table below.

In Secunderabad railway station, the parking lot is least disabled friendly. Though there is accessibility
in terms of wheel chair access, the floor level changes are not supplemented with proper leveling.
Signage remains a key issue. Tactile guidance is unavailable throughout the station. Audio visual facility
is available in reception and platforms. One of the key issues when it comes to station is switching
between platforms where there is only lift access for one of the platform. There are no provisions for the
other platforms .There is no audio or video announcement in the lift because there is only single floor.
Since the lift is operational from both the directions hence there no rear Handrails. Though there are
disabled friendly toilets, it is operational and available only in one platform .

Picture 18 : Availability of separate Picture 19: Video provision regarding


ticket/ reservation counter for PWD train numbers and timings
.

31
Picture 20: Step access to platform/ Picture 21: Path used by wheel chair
Lack of ramp as an alternative to users for crossing platforms
steps

Picture 22 : Lift facility in station only Picture 23: flooring of the platform is
in one platform picture however the made up of tiles and slippery
board visibility is limited

32
Picture 30, 31: signage on the door of disabled toilets. This facility is present only in one
platform. Inside view of the disabled toilet, latrine has a low seat and there are hand rails to
facilitate movement for locomotor disabled.

The disabled friendliness of the train is also rated similar to bus and it was found that in terms of
signage, though available in most places, in certain places it was beyond the scope of it being
visualized. Handrail present but not continuously to the seat. There is also no audio and video display
in the train. Separate reserved coaches with adequate space for wheel chairs are available for PWD in
both passenger and express trains. Disabled friendly toilet with low seating is available in disabled
coach.

Picture 32,33 : Disability coach and inside view of disabled compartment

33
Picture 34: steps to access the disabled coach in train which is not disabled- friendly.

The facility in terms of friendly parking in Metro station (MGBS) is redundant. The metro station has
traffic free access from parking to the entrance with adequate spacing and lighting. Signage is indeed
the key feature in metro station. Presence of guiding blocks throughout the station ensures easy access
for visually impaired. Separate ticket counter is not available for PWD. In terms of resting facilities, the
metro station has the maximum rank for disabled friendly toilets. Provision of lift with audio visual
facility and supportive handrails as an alternative to stairs allows barrier free movement for persons
with locomotor disabilities. Availability of audio visual facilities in the reception and platforms makes
it more disabled friendly.

Picture 35: access from parking not Picture 36: Ramp , handrails, signage , guiding
disabled friendly blocks are disabled friendly for accessing lift
from parking area

34
Picture 37: signage that is prominent to Picture 38: Video display regarding
ticket counter with guiding blocks train timings and routes

Picture 39: Availability of disabled Picture 40: wheel chair opening


friendly toilets with accessible signage available which is wide

Self opened doors, low floor of the train which is at the level of platform, audio visual facilities,
reserved PWD seats and adequate space for wheel chairs are the key features of metro train which
makes it more disabled friendly.

35
Picture 41 : Disabled seats occupied by Picture 42 : Self open doors with floor at the
normal passengers level of platform

The MMTS (Begumpet) again is not disabled friendly in terms of parking or reception counters or in
terms of accessible toilets or floor levelling. Separate ticket counter is not available for PWD. Signage
remains a key issue. Tactile guidance is unavailable throughout the station. Audio visual facility is
available in reception and platforms. There is no ramp facility as an alternative to stairs for changing
platforms. Lift is under construction. Major issue is changing platforms due to the lack of step free
access to the platforms. The floor of made up of tiles.

The disabled- friendliness of MMTS train is almost similar to passenger or express trains with lack of
self opened doors, lack of ramp and audio visual facilities. Separate reserved coaches with adequate
space for wheel chairs are available for PWD. Adequate space for wheel chairs is available inside the
disabled coach however the access to coach is not step free.

36
Picture 43: No separate ticket counter Picture 44: Video display regarding
for disabled. train numbers and timings

Picture 45: No separate parking lot for Picture 46: Disabled coach in MMTS
disabled train with handrail for support

37
Figure 4 illustrates the percentage of available facilities in different station environment. It is clear that the
parking environment in all the three stations is not disabled friendly. Access to the station however
remains the same among all three. The internal environment is most disabled friendly in Metro railway
station (83.3%) however the remaining two pegged at 66.6%. The reception counters was 77% disabled
friendly in Secunderabad and Metro station while the lift was 100% disabled friendly in metro station.
However MMTS did not have lift facilities. Toilets were again partly disabled friendly in Secunderabad
and completely disable friendly in metro station. The platforms were highly disable- friendly in metro
station (71.4%).

38
Figure 5 illustrates the most disable friendly railway service. From the graph below it is clear that
none of the services are 100% disable friendly. Metro services are far better in terms of their disable
friendliness (75%) than the other railway services passenger, express and MMTS ( 37.5%)

39
Qualitative findings:

Semi structured interviews were conducted to assess the barriers for PWD in accessing public
transport services and to identify their preferred mode of transport. Thirty two interviews were
conducted among different groups including disabled people, caregivers, bus drivers, loco pilots and
disability experts. We explored the areas where more details were required. Framework method for
Qualitative analysis was used to analyze the interviews. Some predefined themes were taken in
accordance with research objectives. After familiarization with interview transcripts few themes and
subthemes were emerged based on issues raised by the respondents themselves and views or
experiences that recur in the data. Coding was done to sort and organize the data under different
themes and subthemes.

Overall perceptions of the disabled, caregivers, bus drivers, loco pilots and disability experts
regarding barriers in accessing public transport services by disabled and their preferred modes of
transport are outlined below:

PREFERRED MODE OF TRANSPORT

Reasons for preferring public transport:

Affordability, accessibility ,convenience, concession in fare, frequency, location of bus stops close to
work place make bus as the most preferred transport than train and train as the preferred transport for
long journeys . Few of them mentioned that both bus and train are equally comfortable. However few
participants said that they don’t use train and they don’t travel on long journeys. Due to complexity in
infrastructural pattern, lack of concession and escort needs for metro, people don’t use metro train
besides other reasons include stop time of the train& lift issues. Expenditure woes prevent all of them
from opting for private transportation.

“Public transport is not costly and government is providing free pass. So I use it.” (52 years old,
Female, Visually impaired-3)

“Buses are more frequent. No need of reservation, if it is private, we have to reserve and be there
on time. There is no timings for public transport so public transport is convenient.” (25 years old,
Male, Locomotor disabled-3)

“The metro station is not convenient. I have to walk long, there is traffic. Train will stop for less
time, I don’t know when the door opens and using the lift is also an issue. “(55 years old, Male,
Visually impaired-2) 40
Most drivers said that bus is the most accessible for PWD as they can get down wherever they want,
however availability of snacks and restroom facilities make train journeys better according to the loco
pilots.

“The metro station is not convenient. I have to walk long, there is traffic. Train will stop for less
time, I don’t know when the door opens and using the lift is also an issue. “(55 years old, Male,
Visually impaired-2)

“Bus is comfortable than train because they can reach on time and wherever they want they can
stop. It will be convenient for passengers.” (59 years old, Male, Bus driver-4 State transport bus)

“Train is safest compared to bus due to facilities like berths to relax, toilet and drinking water
facilities” (41 years old, Male, Loco pilot-3 Express train)

Reasons for preferring private transport:

Disabled mentioned that affordability and convenience are the reasons for preferring private
transport. One of them said that private transport is preferred due to the convenience of door to
door dropping facility by cabs or autos and having issues with the steps in getting into bus and rush
of the buses. One of them prefers own transport as he is having bike.

“I have already bike with me and transport expenses with bike are affordable so I prefer using it.”
(47 years old, Male, Hearing impaired-1)

STATUS OF ACCESS TO TRANSPORT FOR PWD

There are multiple levels of inaccessibility in public transport services, i.e. there are issues in
respect to various parameters like physical accessibility, infrastructural accessibility, informational
accessibility etc. which shows a need for major public investment in physical infrastructure.
Almost all participants felt that the transport facilities are substandard.

“I’ll be taking the support of the rods (hand rails) because I am unable to stand properly due to
shaking of bus. At the bus entrance sometimes there will be no rods. When driver applies brake, we
will fell down. If there is a ramp it will be help4f1ul.” (20 years old, Male, Locomotor disabled- 3)
“Platforms are low in height and usable height platforms are not available and the hand rails are
not supportive enough to help them access coach”( 47 years old, Male, Loco pilot-2, express train)

There are issues with the existing policies as well as their implementation. So it needs immediate
implementation and enforcement of recent policies like Accessible India Campaign as well as
modification of existing policies as per the needs of the disabled. The experts felt that intersectoral
coordination helps in enhancing the prospects of making the transportation accessible and claimed
that AIC if properly implemented would do the best to ensure barrier free access.

“The stop duration for the train is only for 1 minute. So in that minute, they find it difficult to board
or alight along with other normal people, hence it is difficult for them to access”. (41 years old,
Male, Loco pilot -3, express train)

“Implementation of Accessible India Campaign is zero or very little and in terms of enforcement and
regulation it is even worse”. (49 years old, Female, Disability expert-1 PHFI)

Experts suggest multidimensional approach to improve access with the focus on enhancing
improvement physically, infrastructural wise, informational, communication and societal dimensions
with the need to raise awareness among public and disability sensitization sessions for the drivers.

“Access would be that if I want to go somewhere as person with disability I should be able to go
without thinking twice about how will I cross the road, how will I get into transport, how will I get
off.”(49 years old, Female, Disability expert-1)

BARRIERS TO TRANSPORTATION FOR DISABLED

Barriers to public transportation

Physical Barriers: Almost all the disabled participants mentioned that they face numerous problems
in accessing bus and railway transport services. They face difficulty in crossing road as well as near
signals due to traffic, so they require some kind of assistance. Not just crossing the roads, location of
the bus stops, step to access the bus stop, waiting at the bus stop is again an issue for them. They also
face problem while getting in and out of the bus, because of rush, people’s impatience to wait, drivers

42
non insistence on them boarding first and more importantly the waiting period at the stop which is not
enough for them to board and the steps available to board the bus are too high and makes it difficult
for them to access.

“Walking itself is difficult for me. I cannot use slippers, the tar and other road waste pricks my legs
and I am unsure where I would fall on the road”. (23 years old, Male, Locomotor disabled-2)

“The steps in bus can be altered a bit so that access to the bus can be made easier.” (23 years old,
Female, Locomotor disabled-4)

Issues faced when accessing train services include waiting period for purchasing tickets, the lack of
disabled friendliness of the railway station in terms of ramps and handrails if not available, people
would have to choose steps to access platforms and trains. Lack of lift provision to all platforms is
again an issue.

“Changing platforms in railway station is very difficult .we will have to use the staircase. If it is not
made of concrete my legs would slide inside the spaces and I find it very difficult to climb.” (23
years old, Male, Locomotor disabled-2)

For accessing the metro trains visually impaired have issues with usage of token, usage of lift without
lift operator as they don’t know the position of buttons to operate the lift and timed door openings that
makes them feel that they cannot travel independently. Besides the different types of transport are not
interlinked wherein if they board the metro train, when the alight, they end up travelling an extra mile
to reach their destination.

“I don’t know when the door opens. I have to ask help of some people, sometimes they might be
there, and sometimes they won’t. If I have to use the lift in my office I will because I know all
buttons and operations but there in railway station, I’m not familiar with the lift location or lift
buttons. So using metro train is an issue for us” (55 years old, Male, visually impaired-2)

Caregivers feel that they face difficulty while crossing the road and while getting in and out the bus,
while changing platforms because they have to support the disabled people along with the luggage.

43
“They can’t cross alone, signal will be there. Some other side vehicles will come. I have to drag
them and cross. They don’t know which vehicle is coming from which direction and hence I drag
them while I cross the road. I am teaching them how to cross. Now they have learnt a little. In the
initial phases it was very difficult.”(27 years old, Female, Care giver visually impaired-2)

The bus drivers pointed out the lack of ramp facilities that makes it difficult for disabled to board the
bus apart from the other issues like variation in facilities among the different types of buses, space
availability for wheel chair in terms of disable friendly and accessible transport. Ramp facilities, low
floor and space for the wheel chairs are available only in a/c and airport liner buses They mentioned
that there is no signage for visually impaired in any of the buses and drivers they said that the
conductor would guide visually impaired to seats and make them sit.

“There is no space for wheel chair in the front door buses they should keep it near engine or
behind my driver seat " (38 year old, Male, Bus driver -1 ordinary bus)

“Ramp is not there but handrails are there to take support, they have to get in with those only. If
they find it difficult conductor will assist while boarding and alighting” (52 years old, Male, Bus
driver-2, Metro bus)

The loco pilots said that the non-availability of ramps, the length of the hand rails, platform height
and switching platforms were the key issues faced by PWD. They also said that assistance is
compulsory for visually impaired to access the train.

“Platform height has to be increased, hand rails should be at the length of alighting steps instead of
being above the steps to ensure grip. Ramp if provided it would be better.”(49 years old, Male,
Locopilot -1 passenger train)

Disability experts pointed out the Height differences to access transport, non availability of ramps and
hand rails, lack of space for wheel chairs in buses, non availability of separate ticket counters, and
lack of signage and disabled friendly parking are core issues that hinder.

44
“There has to be some kind of ramp or separate path for persons with disability to access
different platforms in railway stations” (30 years old, Female, Disability expert-2) .

Recommended Solutions:

 Designated parking lots with adequate signage for disabled


 Footpaths with tactile floor guidance
 Provision of ramps and Handrails to access transport services like bus and train
 Provision of separate ticket counter for PWD
 Provision of lift facility to all platforms in railway stations.

Information Barriers:

Multiple barriers exist where the disabled people lack information regarding routes, stops. Lack of
audio announcements and video display make them dependant on copassengers or conductors. The
same is for the bus stand or the railway station. Lack of information regarding the disabled coach
position forces them to arrive early way before the train arrives so as to not to miss the train and make
them dependant on railway guards. None of them have any idea on sugamya bharat abhiyan or ideal
disabled friendly environment.

“There are issues due to lack of audio announcement in bus but they can’t specially set up for us. If
they provide we don’t need conductor help also.”(52 years old, Female, Visually impaired-3)

Bus drivers mentioned that facilities for audio visual primary are unavailable in all buses expect for
the higher end ones like a/c and airport liners. Most of the bus drivers have limited information
regarding the grievance mechanism for disabled.

“There is no audio and video display in metro buses, conductor will announce the stop name but
a/c will have those facilities.”(52 years old, Male, Bus driver -2 Metro bus)

The loco pilots feel that barriers also exist in the form of lack of Audio Visual display in train,
information about position of coach is not easily available and the passengers have to gain co-
passengers help to identify the stops or to know about facilities.

45
“There are no audio visual facilities in train; they can seek help from copassengers regarding their
stops.”(48 years old, Male, MMTS Loco pilot-4)

Disability experts mentioned that lack of auditory signals, scrolls in bus, lack of knowledge on sign
language among service providers, lack of intersectoral coordination in certifying people as disabled
and making them aware of their concessions are the main issues. They mentioned that mostly
informational access is available only for recent modes of transport like metro train.

“Very few that too only in certain recent modes of transport like metro have informational access but
otherwise the navigation is usually done by asking other people , will this go there like that and
somehow get out of the bus. So we have a long way it might take another one or two generations to
fix this.” (49 years old, Female, Disability expert-1 PHFI)

Recommended Solutions:

 Provision of Audio visual facilities in transport services.


 Provision of informational sign boards in both local language and English.

Social Barriers:

Disabled people feel that barriers exist in terms of attitude of bus drivers , conductors, ticket
collectors and co-passengers. General opinion among the participants was the bus drivers attitude was
arrogant and non receptive to the needs of them, No help was offered in terms of allowing them to
board first. And few didn’t allow them to board the bus despite it not being full .Also it was
mentioned that the drivers do not park the vehicles on noticing a disabled person waving hand for
boarding. They mentioned that ticket collector was strict with their rules of disability certificate

46
despite being the disability visible and he didn’t allow them to use the coach. Some felt that few
copassengers are arrogant and they won’t offer their reserved seats.

“While we enter the bus, though the bus isn’t full, the drivers tell that it is full and ask me not to get in
and go to another bus, since I am blind . In that case, I might have to wait for half an hour to one

“Once during my journey to Chennai , I took the ticket and boarded into the PWD coach in train.
However , the ticket collector came and asked me to show my pass which was not with me at that
time. He asked to board the general compartment, despite my disability being visible”.(23 years old,
Male, Locomotor disabled-2)

The care givers are not confident on leaving the disabled wards alone while travelling or with the
neighbours fearing that they would not they could not communicate properly.

“He feels shy that everybody will look at him , he has the feeling that he doesn’t have legs. Only if it is
me and kids , we will use bus, if he is also coming, then we use scooty , we can’t leave him alone travel
by scooty” (28 years old, Female, Caregiver locomotor impaired-1)

Disability experts feel that indeed discrimination exists for people in the social aspects apart from the
difficulty in accessing.

“There is some discrimination definitely apart from that participation restriction and activity
limitation.”( 30 years old, Female, Disability expert-2)

Recommended Solutions:

 Government has to increase awareness among service providers and general public about the
needs of disabled.

47
Communication Barriers:

Since hearing impairment has tremendous effect on speech, the interviewees felt it difficult to
communicate for tickets so they would have to message or write and show or for that matter they even
are hesitant to ask for a seat to their co –passengers.

“I can’t talk. they cannot understand. For everything I write and show them. Usually the conductors
are in a hurry to issue the tickets and ask me for the stop, since I cannot speak and hear , I cannot
communicate, before I could write the message and show for the tickets, the conductors will get
irritated.”(47 years old, Male, Hearing impaired-1)

“I have to stand and go in bus. I always stand , Because I am not able to communicate for my seat
and I will also be hesitant to ask the same.”(25 years old, Male, Hearing impaired-2)

However most of the bus drivers mentioned that they would understand the signs that they ask for and
they told that if they are educated, they write and show. All of them admitted that they haven’t
received any training for sign language.

“They don’t offer training we will only see their signs and try to understand a little and respond to
them”(59 years old, Male, Bus driver-State transport bus)

Loco pilots said that though there are barriers in terms of communicating for hearing and speech
impaired if they are uneducated. However most of them felt that hearing impaired don’t have
problems if they can write .

“They have issues communicating , if they can write , they can write and show someone and ask their
concern”(48 years old, Male, Loco pilot-5 MMTS train)

“They have problems while enquiring about their destination”(48 years old, Male, Loco pilot-4
MMTS train)
48
Disability experts feel lack of signage makes hearing and visually impaired depend on their escort for
communication during travel.

Recommended Solution :

 Provision of accessible signage throughout the transport facilities.

Financial Barriers:

All disabled participants expressed concern on the free pass that is provided on account of their
disability is not applicable to all types of buses and is only applicable to ordinary buses in city
transport. Concession issue was pointed out and felt that providing concession for metro train would
enhance access. Most of them felt that transportation adds to the expenditure because of interstate
policy issues as people from Andhrapradesh are not eligible to get pass in Telangana.

“Bus pass is applicable only for ordinary buses. It is not applicable for metro or a/c buses. If they
provide it will be useful.”(20 years old, Male, Locomotor disabled-1)

“We don’t have concession in metro train so I don’t use much.” (47 years old, Male, Hearing
impaired-1)

All care givers feel that a pass in metro train would ease their daily challenges in transportation. They
felt that eligibility cut off criteria hampers them from accessing even a bus pass or train pass.

“If they provide pass for metro trains that will be useful.”(28 years old, Female, Caregiver visually
impaired-1)

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Bus drivers and Loco pilots said that disability concession is the only financial help RTC and railways
could do.

“Disability concession pass is the only financial provision provided for PWD from the RTC”(45 years
old, Male, Bus driver -2 ordinary bus)

Recommended Solutions:

 Provision of bus passes which is applicable to all types of buses irrespective of their local
address proof.
 Providing concession passes for metro trains.

Policy level barriers:

Disabled people feel that interstate policy for making pass inaccessible for other states was cited as an
issue for not obtaining bus pass .On considering railway services , the issues mentioned were the stop
timing of the train was less than a minute and which is not adequate enough to board where disabled
people find it difficult to board and also expressed that they had issue with other normal people
occupy the reserved coach for disabled people due to lack of proper monitoring by railway officials
and the criterion cut off for labeling a person disabled which makes them un eligible for some
supporting aids as well as disability pension.

“Trains not even 1 minute .it stops only for 30 seconds, I’m afraid of getting down without friends
support , else if they stop in big stations where the halt duration is long I can get down myself.”(25
years old, Male, Locomotor disabled-2)

“No I don’t have disability pass in buses. I’m from Andhra. Here in Telangana they won’t give bus
pass for Andhra people.” (23 years old, Female, Locomotor disabled-4)

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Loco pilots said that issue is associated with the stop timing of the train where most people could not
board train irrespective of it being comfortable and they mentioned that monitoring of the reserved
coaches is the responsibility of railway guards.

“The stop duration for the train is only for 1 minute. So in that minute, they find it difficult to
board or alight along with other normal people, hence it is difficult for them to access” (47 years
old, Male, Locopilot-2 Express train)

Disability experts feel that the composite score is indeed essential to classify disabled ,however at
the end it is important to see if the disabled person is really benefitted out of the policy that is
framed.

Recommended Solution:

Allocation of specific duties to the transport officials such as monitoring the disabled coach and
support the disabled while accessing the train by providing adequate signage for information
regarding the coach position.

Educational barriers:

All disabled participants felt that the disability has hindered their education, access to transportation
movement and progress in life. One person felt that indeed disability has increased their
transportation expenditure cost, however education have helped them access services better. Only one
female interviewee felt that disability was a boon that helped them earn education in her village.

“Because of my disability I am not able to walk properly .For the purpose of education , most
of my investments went into travelling. To get skill training here in Hyderabad , I almost spent
10000 for transport.” (23 years old, Female, Locomotor disabled-4)

Recommended Solution:

 Government has to take necessary measures to promote special schools as well as inclusive
schools for the disabled.

51
Barriers to private transportation:

Financial barriers:

All disabled participants acknowledged that if they miss the bus or train which they have to board,
they have to use private transportation in emergency or due to crowd and that use adds to their
financial woes.

“If we use government bus, we don’t have to spend , if we go by auto I have to spend so based on
the need only we will go else we don’t use .” (55 years old, Male, Visually impaired- 2)

Physical barriers:

The physical barriers in non state organized buses were the location of the stops that make them travel
an extra mile to reach their destination. Some complained that the use of private transport like autos
will not stop in destination making them travel an extra mile.

“Autos will drop somewhere and we have to change 2-3 autos to reach our place, if it is bus we can
go directly to our stop”(23 years old, Female, Locomotor disabled-4)

PERCEPTION OF DISABILITY:

Most disabled participants acknowledged their disability, retained their individuality and said that
they would not ask the help often and would speak and do for themselves however hearing impaired
said that they do not make others feel that they are hearing impaired and they have a hesitation to
approach others identifying themselves as disabled. One of the locomotor impaired people perceived
himself like normal individual and said that he would footboard which even normal people should not
do.

Most of the bus drivers and loco pilots perceived disability or referred the disabled services for
locomotor ones rather than blind or hearing impaired and none of them have been sensitized during
their training.

52
“we don’t offer our luggage to anyone even if we carry it .As we don’t know who is good , who is
bad I will carry my own luggage”(55 years old, Male, Visually impaired-2)

“If the bus is crowded I will footboard and go” (25 years old, Male, Locomotor disabled-3)

GENDER AND DISABILITY

There existed a gender bias where most female interviewees claimed that bus drivers on seeing them

stop the bus and wait till they board, however this was not the same for men.

“The co-passengers will wait and board the bus after me. They help me with my luggage while
boarding. Before I ask they will offer help. They take my bag, while getting into the bus and give the
bag after I get down.” (23 years old, Female, Locomotor disabled-4)

53
DISCUSSION

PWDs face a lot of issues in accessing public transport services. It is their right to travel and use public
transport with dignity. Barrier free environment is the one which allows the persons with disabilities to
move independently and safely. Growth of the economy is dependent on the provision of accessible
transportation because it improves access to education and employment opportunities which in turns
improves economy . Inaccessible transportation restricts their mobility, freedom of movement and active
participation.

Based on this study it was observed that there were no parking spaces allotted for pwd and there was no
signage to direct to the parking lot in majority of bus stands and railway stations . Most of the bus stands
and railway stations has sufficiently wide entrance with availability of ramps and handrails either on one
side or both sides as an alternative to stairs however there is no provision of ramps to go to the other
platforms in railway stations. Entry point of the steps were not differentiated with different colour or
texture to ensure easy access for visually impaired. Separate ticket counter is not available except in
Secunderabad railway station. Guiding blocks were not available to direct the visually impaired except
metro stations.

Accessible toilet was not available in most of the observed places. Despite the lift being available in
Secunderabad and metro stations there were no lift operators to direct the visually impaired. Bus stands
have raised platform which makes the accessibility difficult for locomotor impaired. There were no
reserved seats allocated for pwd in bus stands or railway stations and the flooring was slippery in nature
except in metro stations. There was no video display or audio announcement provision regarding bus
routes and bus numbers in bus stands however there is only one TV provision for the entire JBS bus
stand . Information through signage was negli gible which makes the travel difficult for hearing and
visually impaired. Disabled friendly vehicle provision was not there except wheel chair provision which
needs assistance.

There was lot of inconsistencies among different types of buses based on their design. Self opened
doors, Provision of low floor, audio visual facility, space for wheel chair , signage to direct the visually
impaired and retractable ramps were not there in ordinary , metro and state/district transport buses.. For
trains there were issues with the gap between platform and train, steps to access the train , lack of audio
visual facility inside trains, lack of self opened doors.

54
As per the interviewees there are numerous problems faced in accessing bus and railway transport by
disabled people. The most common issue faced by locomotor impaired and visually impaired is problem
while crossing the road, where they require some kind of assistance. Not just crossing the roads, lack of
auditory signals, location of the bus stops, waiting at the bus stop is again an issue for them. They also
face problem while getting in and out of the bus, because of rush , lack of ramps , people’s impatience to
wait, drivers non insistence on them boarding first, lack of audio video provision. Since hearing
impairment has tremendous effect on speech, the interviewees felt it difficult to communicate for tickets
so they would have to message or write and show. It was mentioned that the drivers do not park the
vehicles on noticing the disabled person waving hand for boarding. The co-passengers however were
congenial offering their seats though some were arrogant and used the reserved seats. They also
expressed concern on the free pass that is provided on account of their disability is not applicable to all
types of buses and is only applicable to ordinary buses in city transport. Concession issue was pointed
out and felt that providing concession for metro train would enhance access.

Issues faced when accessing train services include waiting period for purchasing tickets, the lack of
disabled friendliness of the railway station in terms of ramps if not available , people would have to
choose steps and for a locomotor impaired if the steps is not made of concrete , there are chances of legs
slipping in space between steps. For visually impaired the problems largely prevail with the number of
platforms that leave them confused on their platform to board as well the their coach position, which
makes them depend on the guards or railway police to get into the train.

For accessing the metro trains visually impaired have issues with usage of token, the absence of a lift
operator impairs them from using it because they haven’t been exposed to this new environment before
for them to be familiar with the buttons to facilitate movement .Moreover there were issues with the
timed door openings that makes them feel that they cannot travel independently. Besides the different
types of transport are not interlinked wherein if they board the metro train, when the alight, they end up
travelling an extra mile to reach their destination.

Most of the candidates interviewed opted their choice as public transport with a preference for bus than
railways and they have also felt that this was due to affordability, accessibility and convenience .A few
who could afford used the private transport. Though there is some form discrimination prevalent in
accessing their seats or bus or train, it did not deter people from using it , Preference were also skewed
to women PWD candidates who board.

55
Some of the key recommendations related to the accessibility of transport infrastructure are as follows:

1. Designated parking spaces should be allocated for disabled people in all public places with visible
signage using international symbol of disability.

2. Pedestrian crossings should be raised and textured with different paving material to facilitate barrier
free movement and to make the crossing more perceivable.

3. Installation of audible light signals which beep when the signal turns green.

4. Entrances of bus stands, railway stations, buses and trains should be made sufficiently wide to
allow the independent mobility of pwd who use mobility devices like wheel chairs, crutches, or
walkers

5. Ramps and hand rails should be provided as an alternative to stairs in bus stands and railway
stations for easy access for locomotor impaired.

6. Floor should be finished with non slippery floor material.

7. Guiding blocks should be installed in all bus stands and railway stations to direct the visually
impaired.

8. Separate ticket counter facility should be provided in all bus stands and railway stations.

9. Disabled friendly vehicles should be provided in bus and railway stations for easy movement within
the bus stand and railway station and between the platforms.

10. Provision of audio announcement and video display in buses and trains to provide information
regarding the next stops.

11. Buses should have low floor and folding ramps has to be provided at the entrance of buses and
trains to allow free movement of mobility aid users.

This study has brought to light that there were numerous barriers faced by disabled in accessing public
transportation. Physical, informational, social, communicational, financial and educational are the
barriers that were elicited during the study. Therefore the results of the study would add evidence on the
existing transport facilities as well as infrastructural deficits and it helps in identifying the multiple
perspectives from different groups. The study highlights that there no adequate disabled friendly

56
transport services in Hyderabad and it shows the need for sensitization among service providers..The
views from the disabled themselves are very essential in order to understand things from their end than
to invest in improving services without understanding their need.

This study however is localized to Hyderabad city alone, further studies if conducted elsewhere in a
manner surveying the existing status of transport, the services offered by government for the disabled
people for transportation and the idea of barrier free access from the policy makers and PWD could
throw a light on the needs and the gaps present and where the government has to focus in order to make
accessible India campaign a success. This could implicate the need for further research in this area to
identify the cost effective ways of providing inclusive transportation and also help policy makers to
come with evidence based and rationale policies. Not just focussing on changing infrastructure , raising
awareness about the rights of disabled people must also be taken up so that they demand their needs in a
much louder manner. Models of transportation for PWD which were working in other developed
countries can be tried in India too. The appropriate governments and local authorities should formulate
policies accordingly for ensuring inclusive transportation for disabled. AIC can be effective if the
provisions enshrined and therein and implemented sincerely. The guidelines should be communicated
with the respective road and railway transport departments. for proper implementation. Pressure groups
and advocacy groups should work towards the implementation. We have also tried to give some
recommendations which can help other researchers and policy makers.

Strengths of the study:

1. Multiple perspectives from different groups were identified in the study.


2. There are no previous studies done in Hyderabad.
3. Because the study is first of its kind it will provide a foundation for further research in this area.
4. The methodology of this study is laid strong in terms of multiple methods I have used in order to
assess the barriers.

Implications for Research:


This is the first study conducted in Hyderabad so it could implicate the need for further research in this
area to identify the gaps present and to develop the cost effective ways of providing inclusive
transportation.

57
Implications for Policies:

This study provides rich evidence for policy makers to understand the infrastructural deficits so that they
can come up with evidence based and rationale policies.

Implications for future needs:

This study has highlighted the barriers from the perspective of disabled people therefore in the future
these needs has to be kept in mind while planning the modifications in transport infrastructure.

Limitations of the study:

1. The study shows the barriers faced only by disabled people in urban city of Hyderabad. It doesn’t take
into account of the rural outskirts where there could be negligible services available. So further research
in that area helps us to identify the available facilities in rural areas which helps the policy makers to
come up with evidence based policies.
2. Most of the disabled participants interviewed were males.
3. Due to the denial of permission to conduct study among metro loco pilots, I could not able to collect
evidence from the perspective of metro loco pilots. If I could have been done it would have elevated the
evidence to another level but that denial wouldn’t affect the quality of the study much because it was
substantiated using observation of metro train facilities.

58
CONCLUSION

The transport facilities of Hyderabad are not matching the standards for ensuring barrier free
environment for disabled. There are issues with crossing roads, lack of designated parking spaces,
location of bus stops, people’s impatience to wait while getting in and out, occupation of reserved seat
by other passengers, stopping time of trains, changing platforms, information about stops, lack of
accessible signage, lack of accessible toilets, concession not applicable to all modes of transport and
attitude of drivers, conductors, and ticket collectors and other transport employees. It is the obligation
of the State to provide transport services to its citizens and more specifically the service being
inclusive. In order for transport systems to be accessible to everyone, it is important to consider all the
problems that disabled people experience along an entire route, not simply consider the accessibility of
public transport vehicles. Not just the physical and infrastructural accessibility but the information for
service must also be available to truly realize the goal of barrier free environment for disabled people.
There is a need for intersectoral coordination to strengthen the implementation of the existing
legislations and guidelines so as to ensure that the rights of the PWD are not undermined. As public
transportation is the life line to access education, employment and health care, there is lot of necessity
to raise awareness among general public and sensitize the drivers and other transport employees to
respond to the needs of disabled. .

59
REFERENCES

1. What is disability?, Understanding disability, world report on disability 2011, World health

organization, The world bank[Internet]. Available from https://www.who.int/disabilities/world

report/2011/report.pdf.

2. Sen L, Haimanti Banerji B. Barriers to Accessible Transportation and Access in Urban India: A Case

Study of Kolkata. In10th International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled

People Japan Society of Civil Engineers Transportation Research Board 2004.

3. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health ,World Health organization

2001 [Internet].Available from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/icd/icf verview_finalforwho10sept.pdf

4. Disabled population, Census of India 2011, Office of the Registrar General & Census, Commissioner,

Ministry of Home Affairs,Government of India [Internet]. Available from: Censusindia.gov.in/

Census_And You/disabled_population.aspx.

5. International Centre for Evidence in Disability (ICED), The Telangana Disability Study, India

Summary Report, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) 2014 [available from

http://disabilitycentre.lshtm.ac.uk]

6. Disability and health fact sheet, World health organization [Internet].Available from

https://www.who.int › News › Fact sheets › Detail.

7. Bezyak JL, Sabella SA, Gattis RH. Public transportation: an investigation of barriers for people with

disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies. 2017 Jun;28(1):52-60.

8. Bascom G. Transportation Related Challenges for Person’s with Disabilities Social Participation

9. Kumar G, Amandeep K, Singh KK. Public Transport and urban mobility: Perception of

people on services of public transport in Bathinda city, Punjab, India.

60
10. For Persons with Disabilities, Accessible Transport Provides Pathways to Opportunity,

The World Bank [Internet] Available from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/ feature/

2015/12/03/for-persons-with-disabilities-accessible-transport-provides-pathways-to-

opportunity

11. Introduction, Accessible India Empowered India, Government of India [Internet]

Available from: http://disabilityaffairs.gov.in/upload/uploadfiles/files/Accessible%20

India%20 Campaign_ Brochure.pdf

12. Lubin A, Deka D. Role of public transportation as job access mode: Lessons from

Survey of people with disabilities in New Jersey. Transportation Research Record. 2012

Jan; 2277(1):90-7.

13. Bezyak JL, Sabella S, Hammel J, McDonald K, Jones RA, Barton D. Community

Participation and public transportation barriers experienced by people with disabilities.

Disability and rehabilitation.2019 Apr 16:1-9.

14. Sharma R, Sharma MK, Singh A. Evaluation of Disable Friendliness of Road Transport

Facility in Ludhiana City of Punjab (India). International Journal of Asian Social Science.

2015;5(2):73-85.

15. Sharma R,Kumar M, Singh A. Evaluation of disable friendliness of a railway transport

facility in Ludhiana city of Punjab, India. International Journal on Disability and Human

Development. 2013 Aug 1;12(3):333-9.

61
ANNEXURES

62
Participation Information sheet

Introduction:

I am Lakshmi Archana Yarasani. I am pursuing my Masters in public health from Indian Institute of
Public Health, Hyderabad. My research is on, “Barriers in accessing Public transport services by persons
with disabilities in Hyderabad, India” as a part of my dissertation work in the course. I am inviting you to
be a part of this research. You don’t have to decide today whether or not you will participate in the
research. You are encouraged to ask questions and get clarifications, if any while reading this sheet.

Purpose of the research:

Globally 15% of the population lives with some form of disability.The prevalence of disability in India
according to Census 2011 is close to 2.1%. Overall prevalence of disability in Telangana State was
estimated to be 12.2%. It is not just access to health care but inaccessibility is experienced by persons with
disability.in many ways. The study aims to identify the barriers in accessing public transport by persons
with disability.

Participant Selection:

Persons with disability(locomotor, hearing and visually impaired ), their care takers , transport persons and
disability experts form the core group of the study Hence you have been asked to participate in the study
and your inputs would be of value to the study.

Description of the study procedure:

The study procedure will include Semi-Structured Interview in Telugu or English based on your
convienience by the researcher. It will have questions regarding the barriers faced in accessing public
transport by persons with disability. Interview will last for 20 to 30 minutes. Interview will be recorded for
the purpose of research only after your consent. The recordings will be strictly confidential.

Duration:

The research will be conducted in April 2019.You will be contacted only once during the study.

63
Benefits:

This study will help in understanding the barriers faced by persons with disability from different
perspectives like the disabled persons, care givers, disability experts , transport drivers. Hence this can be
used for tailoring policy decisions to enhance the facilitation for transport.

Risks:

There is no risk , discomfort and side effects involved for the participants since the consent and
confidentiality is maintained post study as well.

Confidentiality:

Your name , address and phone number will not be collected as a part of the study. Information collected
from any participants will not be shared with other participants . Only the research team will have access to
the data.

Sharing the results:

The results of the study will be written in a report and will not identify any individuals participating. The
findings will become available to the Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad. Also the results may be
published in a health journal

Right to refuse or withdraw:

The choice of your participation in this study is entirely voluntary. Choosing to participate in this study will
not have any repercussions. You may withdraw from the study at any point in time if you wish.

Whom to contact:

Dr.LakshmiArchanaYarasani
Master of Public health Student(M.P.H)
Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad
Kavuri Hills, Madhapur,
Hyderabad-500033

64
Informed consent form for Participants – English

Thank you for your interest to take part in this study. Before you agree to take part, the person organizing
the researching must explain the project to you. The information provided by you will be strictly
confidential and handled in accordance with the provisions of data protection.

The interviewee agrees as follows

 I have been informed about the project in detail and I have been made aware of the purpose of it. I am
willing to take part in the research study.
 I understand I can withdraw from the process at any time if I wish so.
 I understand that the interview will be recorded for research purpose.
 I understand that confidentiality and anonymity will be maintained and it will not be possible to
identify me from any publications.
 I understand that the information I have submitted will be published as a report and the findings will
be shared to us.
 I have had the opportunity to ask questions about it and those questions that were asked were answered
to my satisfaction.
o I consent voluntarily to be participant in this study.
o I consent for my interview to be recorded.

Name of the participant:

Signature of the participant:

Date:

I have accurately read out the informed sheet to the potential participant .I confirm that the participant was
given an opportunity to ask questions about the study and all questions asked by the participants have been
answered to the best of my ability. I confirm that the individual has not been forced into giving consent and
the consent has been given freely and voluntarily.

Name of the Researcher:


Signature of the Researcher:
Date:
65
Informed Consent form for participants – Telugu

భారతదాశా లాని హ ాదరాబాద్ లా ప్రజా రవాణా సావలనా ప ా దడా లా

దావయా గా లా ఎదురా క ా టా నన ఇబబ దులు .

అధాయయన పారదాశమా : హ ైదరైబైద్

పాలా గనావారాకా తాలాయజాసాన సమమత ా పాతరా :

అధైయయనై లై పైలై గనైలనై మీ ఆసకైై త ధైనయవైదమై లై . మైరై పైలై గనడైతుకైత

అoగైకరైoచై మై ై దై , పరైశైధైననై తురవహo


ై చై వైయకైై త మైకై పరైశైధైన ఉదైశైయై

వైవైరైై చైలి . మైరై అై దైై చైన సమైచైరై గైపయై గై ఉై ట ై దై మరైయై సమాచార రక్షణ

తుబ ధన లకు అనుగుణ గా తురవహ చబడుత ై ద.ై

మా ఖామా ఖ ా సమావాశా లా ఈ వాధాా గా అoగాకరాసాా ారా :

* నైకై వైయవైసథ గై రైై చి వైవైరై గై తైలియజైయడమ ైనదై . మరైయై దైతు ఉదైశైతుై గై రుై చి
తైలియజైయడై జరైగoై దై .
* నైనై కైైరుకై ై టై నైకై ఏ సమయై లైనైైనై ఈ పక
ైతయ నై ై చి వైనకైతి తైసై కైైవైచచతు అరధమై .
* పరైశైధైన ఉదైశైయై కైైసై వైయవైసథ బదపరుచై ట జరుగై త oదతు నైనై అరధై చైసై కై నైైనై .
* నై సమైచైరై , గైపయత మరైయై అనైమకతవై తురవహoై చనై ై రణల ను డి ననుై గురిైచడ
మరైయై ఏ పచ
సైధైయై కైైదై .
* నైనై సమరైైoచైన సమైచైరై ఒక ై రి చబడుత oదతు నేను అరధ చేసుకునాైను మరియు కనుగొని
తువైదైకలై పచ
విషయాలు మేము
తెలియపరుచుకు టాము .
* నేను ఈ గై రైై ైలనై అడగడైతుకైత అవైకైైశైై ఉై దై ైలక త స తృప్ై జవాబులు
పకైతయ చి పశ్ మరైయై అడైగైన పశ్ తగై ై
:
ఇవవ డ జరుగుత oది .
* నైనై ఈ అధైయనై లై పైలై గనడైతుకైత సవచఛoదై గై అoగైకరైసై ై నైైనై నై
తేద:ై
మై ఖైమై ఖీ సమైవైశైై భదపనైనై సమమతైసై ై నైైనై .

పాలొ గనే వారి ప్ైరు :

పాలొ గనేవారి స తక

66
రచాతుక త

67
Topic Interview guide for Disabled participants

Introduction script:

Thank you for agreeing to speak with me today. The interview should take about 20-30 minutes to
complete. Please remember that everything you shared with me will be kept confidential. None of your
information or information you share will be shared to anyone outside this study. Please know that are
no right or wrong answers to these question, I am only interested in your opinions. If you find any of
these topics difficult please let me know. If you wish to decline to answer, you may do so you do not
have to give an explanation for this. If you need to take a break at any time, please let me know .If you
have any questions please let me know, I will try and answer these at the end of interview. Before I
begin, do I have your permission to audio record our conversation? Do you have any questions before
we begin the interview?

PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

Demographic details: Date:

Unique ID: Age in years:

Education: Sex:

Employment status: Employed / unemployed

If employed

Occupation:

Disability certified : Yes/No

Socio economic status: Low/ Middle/Upper

Since how many years are you been working?

a)0-5 yrs b)5-10 yrs c)10-15 yrs d)>15 yrs

In which sector are you employed in?

Are you satisfied with your work or working environment?


68
If unemployed

a) student b)Homemaker

If Homemaker

What is the education?

Have you worked in the past?

a)yes b) no

If yes

Where did you work

How many years did you work previously?

Why did you stop working?

If unemployed

Have you ever worked in the past?

a)yes b)no

If yes

Where did you work?

How many years did you work previously?

Why did you stop working?

If no

Why didn’t you work?

Was there any barrier that prevented you from working?

What kind of disability have you been experiencing?

a) Locomotor b)visual c)hearing d)speech e) multiple disabilities f)others

69
PHYSICAL BARRIERS/ INFRASTRUCTURAL BARRIERS

If employed

1.How long do you travel everyday?

2.How do you travel to your work place?

a)public b)private c)own d)others

If private

a)Why are you choosing private transport?

If public

a)why are choosing public transport?

3. Do you experience any problems in the bus stand/Railway station?

a)yes b)no

If yes

a)What problems do you face?

4. Do you experience any problem in transportation?(during getting into the vehicle, while seating or
during getting down)

If unemployed

1.For what purposes do you go out of your house?

a)<5 times in a month b)5-10 times in a month

c)>10 times in a month

a)Why do you think there is no need to go out of your house?

3.Do you think any barriers are there on the way?

4. How far do you go from house?

5. How do you travel to those that you wish to visit?

70
a)public b)private c)own d)others

If private

a)Why are you choosing private transport?

If public

a)Why are you choosing public transport?

6. Do you experience any problems in the bus stand/railway station?

a)yes b)no

If yes

a) what problems do you face?

b) Do you experience any problems in transportation?(durin getting into the vehicle, while seating or
during getting down)

SOCIAL / ATTITUDINAL BARRIERS:

1. Do you seek help from family members /copassengers/ drivers/conductors?

a)Yes b) No

If yes

a) From whom do you seek help?

b) How do they help you?

If no

a)Why do you think they do not volunteer to help you?

2. Do you feel that they are showing any discrimination towards you?

3. If you express any concern regarding the travel, do the drivers/conductors/copassengers respond in a
positive way?

a)yes b)no

If yes

a) How do they respond?

If no

71
b) Why do you think they do so?

4. Do you get to sit in the places reserved for you?

5. Does your family members accompany you to your office or bus stop or railway station?

a)yes b)no

If yes

a)How often do they accompany you?

If no

a)Why don’t they accompany you?

FINANCIAL BARRIERS:

1.What kind of transport do you use mostly ?

a)Public b)private c)own d)others

If public

a) Is public transport affordable to you?

a)Yes b)No

b) Is it accessible or do you take it as it is affordable?

c).Does transportation adds to your financial woes?

d).Is your income enough for your average expenditure?

a)yes b)No

If private

a) Is private transport affordable to you?

a)yes b)No

b) Is it affordable or do you take it as it is accessible?

c) Does using private transportation adds to your financial woes?

d) Is your income enough for your average expenditure?

a)yes b)No

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INFORMATION BARRIERS:

1.What is your source of information regarding your route of transportation?

2.Do you go through same route daily?

a)yes b)No

3.Do you take the same bus daily?

a)yes b)No

If no

a)How do you get to know frequency or change in timing of buses?

4.Do you seek help from the conductor/driver?

a)yes b)no

5. Do you seek help from information counter?

a)yes b)no

6. Are you aware of any disable friendly or inclusive setups available in bus stops / railway station?

a)yes b)no

If yes

a)What are they?

7. Do you know about Sugamya bharat abhiyan?

a)yes b)no

8. Have you ever checked any website related to accessibility standards for transportation for PWD?

9.Do you know ideally what all are the services that should be available for transportation for PWD?

10.Are you aware that government is supposed to provide supporting aids for PWD?

11.Are you aware of any financial support that is provided by the government for transportation purpose?

12.Do you know that there are reserved seats for PWD in public buses?

13.Do you know that there is a special coach for disabled persons in railways?

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EDUCATIONAL IMPACT:

1. Did this disability affect your education?

2. Does your educational qualification help/hinder you to access services better?

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Topic Interview guide for Caregivers

Introduction script:

Thank you for agreeing to speak with me today. The interview should take about 20-30 minutes to
complete. Please remember that everything you shared with me will be kept confidential. None of your
information or information you share will be shared to anyone outside this study. Please know that are
no right or wrong answers to these question, I am only interested in your opinions. If you find any of
these topics difficult please let me know. If you wish to decline to answer, you may do so you do not
have to give an explanation for this. If you need to take a break at any time, please let me know .If you
have any questions please let me know, I will try and answer these at the end of interview. Before I
begin, do I have your permission to audio record our conversation? Do you have any questions before
we begin the interview.

Demographic details: Date:

Unique ID: Age in years:

Education: Sex:

Employment status: Employed / Unemployed

If employed :

1) How do you cope up with your daily activities and go to work?

2) Do you feel that there has to be some palliative home based care support from the government side?

3)Does this affect the family time?

4) How do you help the persons with disabilities in their activities?

5) What mode of transport due you prefer?

a) Public b) Private c) Own

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6) What are the barriers faced by you and your family members while accessing public transportation?

If unemployed :

1)How long have you been taking care?

2)Is there any kind of social support ?

3)Do you feel that there has to be some palliative homebased care support from the govt side?

4)Does this affect the family time?

5) How do you help the persons with disabilities in their activities?

6) What mode of transport due you prefer?

a) Public b) Private c) Own

7) What are the barriers faced by you and your family members while accessing public transportation?

76
Topic Interview guide for Bus drivers

Introduction script:

Thank you for agreeing to speak with me today. The interview should take about 15-20 minutes to
complete. Please remember that everything you shared with me will be kept confidential. None of your
information or information you share will be shared to anyone outside this study. Please know that are
no right or wrong answers to these question, I am only interested in your opinions. If you find any of
these topics difficult please let me know. If you wish to decline to answer, you may do so you do not
have to give an explanation for this. If you need to take a break at any time, please let me know .If you
have any questions please let me know, I will try and answer these at the end of interview. Before I
begin, do I have your permission to audio record our conversation? Do you have any questions before
we begin the interview?

Demographic details: Date:

Unique ID: Age / Sex

Place of Work Work Experience

1. Do you have disability sensitization sessions as a part of staff induction programme?

a)yes b)No

2. Are the RTC staff trained to assist persons with disabilities?

a)Yes b)no

3. Are the RTC staff trained in basic Indian sign language?

a) yes b)No

4. If someone with disability boards your bus do you help them?

a) yes b)No

If yes

How do you help them?


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5. Do you think it is important for disabled persons to board the bus first or do you think it is better to
wait for the other passengers to board and then take them on board?

6. Do you speak to them for any special need while they are boarding into your bus?

a)yes b)No

7. Do you extend any help while they are getting down from the bus?
a) yes b)No

If yes

How do you help them?

8. Do you have folding ramps for access to the disabled people?

a) yes b)No

9. Is there any space for wheel chair in your bus?

a) yes b)No

10. If someone with wheel chair boards your bus , do you keep the wheel chair aside?

a) yes b)No

If No

Where do you keep?

11. Does your bus have audio visual display of routes and timings?

a) yes b)No

12. Is there any signage for blind people in your bus?

a) yes b)No

13. Do you have a provision for Braille signage in your bus?

a)yes b)No

14. Is there any procedure for a client with disability to lodge a complaint or make suggestions?
a)yes b)No

15. Do you check the accessibility equipment in the bus and maintain them regularly?

a)Yes b)No

78
Topic Interview guide for Loco pilots

Introduction script:

Thank you for agreeing to speak with me today. The interview should take about 20-30 minutes to
complete. Please remember that everything you shared with me will be kept confidential. None of
your information or information you share will be shared to anyone outside this study. Please
know that are no right or wrong answers to these question, I am only interested in your opinions. If
you find any of these topics difficult please let me know. If you wish to decline to answer, you
may do so you do not have to give an explanation for this. If you need to take a break at any time,
please let me know .If you have any questions please let me know, I will try and answer these at
the end of interview. Before I begin, do I have your permission to audio record our conversation?
Do you have any questions before we begin the interview?

DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS
UNIQUE ID DESIGNATION
AGE/SEX PLACE OF WORK
DATE OF INTERVIEW WORK EXPERIENCE

SNO QUESTIONS YES NO


1 Do you find disabled people boarding the train
If yes
Do you feel that they will find any difficulty to
get into the train
2 What kind of difficulties do you think they are facing?

3 Do you speak to them for any special need


while they are boarding into your train?
4 Do you have any ideas that help them access train better?
5 Do you think is it necessary to have a separate
coach reserved for disabled people?

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If yes
Do you think that their travel is easier by train or bus
If no
Why do you think people are not opting for that?
6 Do you have folding ramps for access into the
train for disabled people?

7 Is there any procedure for a client with disability


lodge a complaint or make suggestions?
8 Do you have disability sensitization sessions as
a part of staff induction programme?

80
Topic Interview guide for Disability Experts

Introduction script:

Thank you for agreeing to speak with me today. The interview should take about 15-20 minutes to
complete. Please remember that everything you shared with me will be kept confidential. None of
your information or information you share will be shared to anyone outside this study. Please know
that are no right or wrong answers to these question, I am only interested in your opinions. If you
find any of these topics difficult please let me know. If you wish to decline to answer, you may do
so you do not have to give an explanation for this. If you need to take a break at any time, please let
me know .If you have any questions please let me know, I will try and answer these at the end of
interview. Before I begin, do I have your permission to audio record our conversation? Do you have
any questions before we begin the interview?

DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS
UNIQUE ID QUALIFICATION
AGE/SEX AREA OF WORK
DATE OF INTERVIEW WORK EXPERIENCE

SNO QUESTIONS YES NO


1 Have you ever helped persons with disability in accessing
government schemes or support services?
If yes
Could you please explain about it?

2 Are you aware of Accessible India Campaign?


If yes
What do you know about Accessible India campaign

3 Do you think that policy is technically sound?

If yes
How?
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If no
How?
If don’t know
Why do you think you don’t have information about it?
4 According to you what is the role of disability experts in Accessible India Campaign?

5. According to you what are the barriers faced by disabled in accessing public transport
services? Can you explain in detail?
6 How can the public transport services made more inclusive?

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OBSERVATION CHECKLIST FOR ROAD TRANSPORT

S.NO ITEMS TO BE CHECKED YES NO REMARKS


PARKING LOT
Are there accessible parking bays reserved
1
for PWD

2 Does it have prominent visible signage as


per the international symbol of accessibility
3 Is there tactile floor guidance in the parking area
for independent mobility for persons
with blindness & low vision
ACCESSIBLE ROUTE
1 Is the path to the entrance of the bus stop
traffic free
2 Is the surface of the path leveled & non
Slippery
3 If there are level changes on the floor is it
supplemented with a kerb ramp
4 Is there tactile floor guidance for independent
mobility for persons with blindness & low vision
5 Is the width of the accessible path is more
than 1200 mm wide to ensure proper access
for wheel chair users
6 Is there accessible directional signage
directing to the accessible entrance
7 Is there adequate illumination on the path

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S.NO ITEMS TO BE CHECKED YES NO REMARKS
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
1 Is the main entrance accessible to PWD

2 Is there accessible signage to identify the


accessible entrance
3 Is there a ramp provided as an alternative
route to the stairs
4 Is there hand rails have been provided on
both sides of the stairs or ramp
5 Is there a difference in the floor finish identify
the visually impaired at the door entrance
6 Is the main entrance sufficiently wide to
ensure proper access to the wheel chair users

RECEPTION/ TICKET COUNTER


1 Is the reception counter identifiable from the
entrance
2 Are there separate seats reserved for PWD

3 Does the counter contrast in color with the


background wall and floor
4 Is the floor leveled & non slippery

5 Is there sufficient space for wheel chair users


6 Is there tactile floor guidance for independent
mobility for persons with
blindness & low vision
7 Does the bus stand/bus stop has audio signage
regarding information about bus
routes/numbers/timings
8 Does the bus stand has/bus stop has video
display regarding information about bus
routes/numbers/timings
9 Is there separate ticket counter for PWD

84
S.NO ITEMS TO BE CHECKED YES NO REMARKS
ACCESSIBLE TOILET
1 Is there an unisex accessible toilet for PWD
2 Is there signage directing to the toilets for PWD
PLATFORM
1 Is there disable- friendly vehicle provision for
PWD
2 Is there step free access to the platform
3 Is the floor surface of the steps non slippery
4 Is there color contrasting strip at the edge of the
steps
5 Is there tactile floor guidance for independent
mobility for persons with
blindness & low vision
6 Is there audio/video display regarding bus
routes and bus numbers in the platform

85
OBSERVATION CHECKLIST FOR RAILWAY TRANSPORT

S.NO ITEMS TO BE CHECKED YES NO REMARKS


PARKING LOT
Are there accessible parking bays reserved for
1
PWD

2 Does it have prominent visible signage as per the


international symbol of accessibility

3 Is there tactile floor guidance in the parking area


for independent mobility for persons with
blindness & low vision
ACCESSIBLE ROUTE
1 Is the path to the entrance of the bus stop traffic
Free
2 Is the surface of the path leveled & non slippery

3 If there are level changes on the floor is it


supplemented with a kerb ramp
4 Is there tactile floor guidance for independent
mobility for persons with
blindness & low vision
5 Is the width of the accessible path is more than
1200 mm wide to ensure proper access for
wheel chair users
6 Is there accessible directional signage directing
to the accessible entrance
7 Is there adequate illumination on the path

86
S.NO ITEMS TO BE CHECKED YES NO REMARKS
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
1 Is the main entrance accessible to PWD
2 Is there accessible signage to identify the
accessible entrance
3 Is there a ramp provided as an alternative
route to the stairs
4 Is there hand rails have been provided on
both sides of the stairs or ramp
5 Is there a difference in the floor finish
identify the visually impaired at the door
entrance
6 Is the main entrance sufficiently wide to
ensure proper access to the wheel chair users

RECEPTION/ TICKET COUNTER


1 Is the reception counter identifiable from the
entrance
2 Are there separate seats reserved for PWD
3 Does the counter contrast in color with the
background wall and floor
4 Is the floor leveled & non slippery
5 Is there sufficient space for wheel chair users
6 Is there tactile floor guidance for independent
mobility for persons with
blindness & low vision
7 Does the bus stand/bus stop has audio signage
regarding information about bus
routes/numbers/timings
8 Does the bus stand has/bus stop has video
display regarding information about bus
routes/numbers/timings
9 Is there separate ticket counter for PWD

87
S.NO ITEMS TO BE CHECKED YES NO REMARKS
ELEVATOR / LIFT
1 Is there lift available for PWD
2 Does the signage directing to the accessible
3 Is there step free access from main
entrance to the lift
4 Does the lift door have a minimum time
of 30sec for opening /closing
5 Is there visual and audio floor
announcement system in the lift
6 Are there handrails on both sidewalls and
real walls of the lift
ACCESSIBLE TOILET
1 Is there an unisex accessible toilet for PWD

2 Is there signage directing to the toilets for


PWD
PLATFORM
1 Is there disabled- friendly vehicle
provision for PWD
2 Do all the platforms have accessible lift

3 Is there step free access to the platform

4 Is the floor surface of the steps non


Slippery
5 Is there color contrasting strip at the edge
of the steps
6 Is there tactile floor guidance for
independent mobility for persons with
blindness & low vision
7 Is there audio/video display directing to
the individual platforms

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OBSERVATION CHECKLIST FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRAINS

S.NO ITEMS TO BE CHECKED TYPE OF FACILITY REMARKS


Passenger Express MMTS Metro
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
1 Do the train has separate coach for
disabled people
2 Do the trains have self opened door
3 Is the door in level with the
Platform
4 Do the train has foldable ramp installed
in the door way for mobility aid users
5 Is there provision for handrail from the
entrance to the seat
6 Is there sufficient space in the
coach for wheel chair users
7 Do the train has audio display
regarding the route and time
8 Do the train has video display
regarding the route and time

89