Frequency Hopping Network Implementation and Planning

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Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide

HISTORY
Version 0.0.1 0.0.2 Date 21 Sep, 1998 24 Sep, 1998 Author MaSa JRy Comments The first draft Modifications: The whole document restructured, Chapter 2.3: PC and DTX gains, Chapter 7.2: RXQual distribution, Table 9: Ho Threshold Interference. Added: Figure 5-32, Figure 5-33, Figure 7-45, Figure 746, Figure 7-50, Table 10, Table 11, Table 12. Added: History , Chapter 2.1.6, Chapter 3.6, Chapter 3.9.1, Chapter 3.9.6, Chapter 3.9.7, Chapter 3.9.8, Chapter 5.1, Chapter 5.2, Chapter 5.6.2, Chapter 6.3, Chapter 7.1, Chapter 7.2, Chapter 7.9. The first accepted version

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23 Oct, 1998

JRy

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Date Oct 23, 1998

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Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................5 1.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF FREQUENCY HOPPING.......................................................................................5 1.2 FREQUENCY HOPPING MODES.................................................................................................................6 1.3 CELL ALLOCATION................................................................................................................................8 1.4 MOBILE ALLOCATION............................................................................................................................8 1.5 HOPPING SEQUENCE NUMBER.................................................................................................................9 1.6 MOBILE ALLOCATION INDEX OFFSET.......................................................................................................9 1.7 MAIO STEP .....................................................................................................................................10 2. THEORETICAL PERFORMANCE OF FREQUENCY HOPPING........................................11 2.1 FREQUENCY DIVERSITY........................................................................................................................11 2.1.1 Coherence Bandwidth.............................................................................................................11 2.1.2 Effect of Interleaving ..............................................................................................................13 2.1.3 Cyclic vs. Random Hopping Sequences ..................................................................................14 2.1.4 Simulated Frequency Diversity Gains.....................................................................................14 2.1.5 Effect in Cell Coverage Area...................................................................................................16 2.1.6 Effect of Mobile Speed.............................................................................................................16 2.2 INTERFERENCE DIVERSITY.....................................................................................................................16 2.3 EFFECT OF POWER CONTROL AND DTX................................................................................................18 3. NOKIA’S SUPPORT FOR FREQUENCY HOPPING IN GSM...............................................20 3.1 BSS LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION..............................................................................................................20 3.2 THE 2ND GENERATION BASE STATION...................................................................................................20 3.3 TALK FAMILY BASE STATION...............................................................................................................21 3.4 PRIMESITE.........................................................................................................................................22 3.5 BASE STATION CONTROLLER................................................................................................................23 3.6 NPS/X.............................................................................................................................................23 3.7 MAXIMUM CONFIGURATIONS.................................................................................................................23 3.8 RADIO NETWORK FAULT MANAGEMENT.................................................................................................24 3.8.1 The 2nd Generation Base Station............................................................................................25 3.8.2 Talk Family Base Stations and PrimeSite...............................................................................25 3.9 RESTRICTIONS ON THE USAGE OF FH.....................................................................................................25 3.9.1 DL Power Control with BB FH...............................................................................................25 3.9.2 Downlink DTX.........................................................................................................................26 3.9.3 Extended Range Cell (DE34/DF34/DG35).............................................................................26 3.9.4 MS Speed Detection.................................................................................................................26 3.9.5 Half Rate..................................................................................................................................26 3.9.6 Frequency Sharing..................................................................................................................26 3.9.7 RTC Combiner.........................................................................................................................26 3.9.8 NPS/X......................................................................................................................................26 4. SELECTING THE RIGHT HOPPING STRATEGY.................................................................27 5. FREQUENCY PLANNING OF FREQUENCY HOPPING NETWORKS..............................29 5.1 NETWORK PLANNING PROCEDURE..........................................................................................................29 5.2 FREQUENCY PLANNING PROCEDURE WITH NPS/X...................................................................................30 Version 1.0.0 Date Oct 23, 1998 Page 3/84

Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 5.3 FREQUENCY REUSE ON FREQUENCY HOPPING NETWORK...........................................................................33 5.3.1 Effective Reuse.........................................................................................................................34 5.3.2 Frequency Allocation Reuse (RF FH only).............................................................................34 5.4 LOAD ON NETWORKS UTILISING FRACTIONAL LOADING (RF FH ONLY).....................................................35 5.4.1 Frequency Load.......................................................................................................................35 5.4.2 Hard Blocking Load................................................................................................................36 5.4.3 Fractional Load.......................................................................................................................37 5.5 TRUNKING EFFECT AND EFFECTIVE REUSE..............................................................................................38 5.6 FREQUENCY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES...................................................................................................40 5.6.1 BCCH Allocation.....................................................................................................................40 5.6.2 Selecting the Effective Reuse (BB FH)....................................................................................43 5.6.3 Selecting the Frequency Allocation Reuse and the Frequency Load (RF FH).......................44 5.6.4 Frequency Sharing by Using MAIO Management (RF FH only)...........................................46 5.6.5 Frequency Sharing in the Single MA-list Scheme (RF FH only)............................................50 6. RADIO NETWORK PARAMETERS..........................................................................................52 6.1 PARAMETERS FOR MA-LIST DEFINITIONS IN BSC...................................................................................52 6.2 BTS LEVEL FH RELATED PARAMETERS................................................................................................54 6.3 POWER CONTROL................................................................................................................................56 6.4 HANDOVER.........................................................................................................................................58 6.5 DTX................................................................................................................................................59 6.5.1 Uplink DTX..............................................................................................................................59 6.5.2 Downlink DTX.........................................................................................................................59 7. OPTIMISATION............................................................................................................................60 7.1 TOOLS FOR NETWORK MONITORING.......................................................................................................60 7.2 KPIS FOR HOPPING NETWORK..............................................................................................................60 7.3 RXQUAL IN FH NETWORKS.............................................................................................................61 7.4 IDLE CHANNEL INTERFERENCE MEASUREMENT........................................................................................69 7.5 CYCLIC AND RANDOM HOPPING SEQUENCES...........................................................................................70 7.6 INTRACELL HANDOVER.........................................................................................................................73 7.7 POWER CONTROL................................................................................................................................73 7.7.1 Downlink Power Control with BB Hopping............................................................................73 7.8 HANDOVER CONTROL..........................................................................................................................73 7.9 HSN PLANNING WITH RANDOM HOPPING..............................................................................................74 8. PLANNING CASES.......................................................................................................................75 8.1 PLANNING CASE 1: SINGLE MA-LIST....................................................................................................75 8.1.1 Frequency Planning................................................................................................................75 8.1.2 MAIO Planning.......................................................................................................................76 8.2 PLANNING CASE 2: RF FH WITH FRACTIONAL LOADING (FAR 3 – 5).....................................................79 8.2.1 Defining the Frequency Band and the Number of Frequencies Needed in Each Cell............79 8.2.2 Frequency Allocation and Analysis.........................................................................................81 8.3 PLANNING CASE 3: RF FH WITH FREQUENCY SHARING...........................................................................82 8.3.1 Frequency Planning................................................................................................................82 8.3.2 MAIO Planning.......................................................................................................................83 8.3.3 Analysis....................................................................................................................................84

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frequency allocation procedure. Each time slot provides one physical channel. It is also compatible with all the existing GSM mobile phones. Version 1. 1998 Page 5/84 . All these factors make frequency hopping a very tempting capacity enhancement solution. how to choose the right frequency hopping strategy. Each burst lasts about 577 µ s. since the frequency hopping support has been required by the GSM specifications from the beginning. Downtilting Micro-Cell Pico-Cell / Indoor Cell Size PC DTX FH Smart Antennas IUO IFH Channel-Bandwidth Spectrum Reuse-Factor (C/I) Effective Network Planning CAPACITY GAIN Figure 1-1. Also some practical planning examples are presented. Solutions to enhance network capacity. When frequency hopping is used. one carrier frequency is divided into eight time slots. Frequency hopping can co-exist with most of the other capacity enhancement features and in many cases it significantly boosts the effect of those features. parameters related to FH. the carrier frequency is allowed to change more than once during a bit duration.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 1.0 Date Oct 23. Half-Rate Networks Dual-Band-/ Dual-ModeNetworks Antennas Down Ant. The communication between the mobile and the base station occurs in bursts inside the assigned time slot. how the frequency hopping is implemented in Nokia’s network elements. This means that for each connection the change of the frequency may happen between every burst.0.1 General Description of Frequency Hopping Frequency hopping can be briefly defined as a sequential change of carrier frequency on the radio link between the mobile and the base station. In Fast Frequency Hopping (FFH). INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document is to explain the theory behind the frequency hopping (FH). the carrier frequency may be changed between each consecutive TDMA frame. Frequency hopping is one of the standardised capacity enhancement features in GSM system. but this is not implemented in GSM. This is called Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH). which can be assigned to one link between a mobile and a base station. 1. In GSM. because more than one bit is transmitted using the same frequency. It offers a significant capacity gain without any costly infrastructure requirements. how to analyse the quality of the network and the optimisation process.

Basic functionality of frequency hopping.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide At first. The first group doesn’t hop and it includes only the BCCH time slot. The number of frequencies to hop over is determined by the number of TRXs. This leads to three different hopping groups. Because the first time slot of the BCCH TRX is not allowed to hop. Time slots 1. the frequency hopping was used in military applications in order to improve the secrecy and to make the system more robust against jamming. the frequency hopping also provides some additional benefits such as frequency diversity and interference diversity.7 of all TRXs hop over (f1.2 Frequency Hopping Modes The requirement that the BCCH TRX must transmit continuously in all the time slots sets strict limitations on how the frequency hopping can be realised in a cell.f3.f4). This is illustrated in Figure 1-3.0.0 Date Oct 23.. The third group includes time slots one through seven from every TRX. Frequency hopping is generated by switching consecutive bursts in each time slot through different TRXs according to the assigned hopping sequence.f2. Call is transmitted through several frequencies in order to • average the interference (interference diversity) • minimise the impact of fading (frequency diversity) Frequency F1 F2 F3 Time Figure 1-2.-4 hop over f2. Version 1.f4. The current solutions are Baseband Frequency Hopping (BB FH) and Synthesised Frequency Hopping (RF FH). The second group consists of the first time slots of the non-BCCH TRXs. it must be excluded from the hopping sequence. The basic principle of frequency hopping is presented in Figure 1-2. RTSL 0 TRX-1 B TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f1 f2 f3 B = BCCH timeslot.f3. 1. In the baseband frequency hopping the TRXs operate at fixed frequencies. 1998 Page 6/84 . In cellular network.-3. It does not hop.. HSN2 f4 HSN1 Time slot 0 of TRX-2.

.4. MSC BSC TCSM F1 F2 F3 Time TRX-1 F1. . f2. Version 1. which is the maximum number of frequencies in the Mobile Allocation (MA) list covered in Section 1.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Figure 1-3. In synthesised hopping the number of the hopping frequencies can be anything between the number of hopping TRXs and 63. Synthesised hopping (RF FH). Synthesised hopping is illustrated in Figure 1-4. . F3 BCCH RF BB-FH is feasible with large configurations RF-FH is viable with smaller configurations RF-FH TRX-2 Dig. f1. fn TRX-2 . f1.fn) attached to the cell. The number of frequencies to hop over is limited to 63. F2.. The difference between BB and RF FH. . Figure 1-5. In the synthesised frequency hopping all the TRXs except the BCCH TRX change their frequency for every TDMA frame according to the hopping sequence. f2.0. Non-BCCH TRXs are hopping over the MA-list (f1. f3. 1998 Page 7/84 .. Thus the BCCH TRX doesn’t hop.0 Date Oct 23. The differences between BB and RF hopping are further illustrated in Figure 1-5. BB-FH TRX-1 F1(+ BCCH) F2 F3 RF Frequency MS does not see any difference TRX-3 Dig. TRX does not hop. TRX-1 B B = BCCH timeslot. fn HSN1 Figure 1-4. f3. The biggest limitation in baseband hopping is that the number of the hopping frequencies is the same as the number of TRXs.f3. However in synthesised hopping the BCCH TRX is left completely out of the hopping sequence..f2. Baseband hopping (BB FH).

0 Date Oct 23. In GSM 900 the CA list may include all the 124 available frequencies [GSM 04. ARFCN Max. number of frequencies in the CA list 124 124* * Practical limit is 64. The frequencies in the MA-list are required to be in increasing order because of the type of signaling used to transfer the MA-list. These signaling methods together with their limitations are presented in Table 2. the BCCH frequency is also included in the CA list.08] [J-STD 7]. If the network utilises the RF hopping. However. the MA-lists have to be generated for each cell by the network planner. The MA-list is a subset of the CA list. since the MA-list can only point to 64 frequencies that are included in the CA list as presented in the next section. Each of these methods has different limitations that limit the maximum frequency range and the maximum number of frequencies. CA signaling method 1024 range 512 range 256 range 128 range variable bit map Lowest ARFCN 0 selectable selectable selectable selectable Max. The cell allocation may be different for each cell. In GSM 1800 and GSM 1900 systems the frequency band is so large that the CA list cannot include all the frequencies available in a system. The CA list is always automatically generated and it includes the BCCH frequency and the frequencies that are defined for the MA-list. Table 2. 1998 Page 8/84 . Different signalling methods for transmitting the CA list in GSM 1800/1900. In Nokia implementation the variable bit map and the 512 range signaling methods are available. However. Table 1. CA signaling Lowest method ARFCN bit map 0 0 Max. Version 1. In these systems the “bit map 0” method is not available.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 1. because the MA-list can only point to 64 frequencies.3 Cell Allocation The Cell Allocation (CA) is a list of all the frequencies allocated to a cell. ARFCN range Max. 1.08].0. but five other methods can be used [DCS 04. The MA-list is automatically generated if the baseband hopping is used. so the practical maximum number of frequencies in the MA-list is 63. the practical limit is 64. number of range frequencies in the CA list 1024 16 (17 if ARFCN 0 is included in the CA list) 512 18 256 22 128 29 112 112* * Practical limit is 64. The MA-list is able to point to 64 of the frequencies defined in the CA list. because the MA-list can only point to 64 frequencies.4 Mobile Allocation The MA is a list of hopping frequencies transmitted to a mobile every time it is assigned to a hopping physical channel. The only signaling method allowed in the GSM 900 systems to transmit the CA list is the “bit map 0” method presented in Table 1. The CA is transmitted regularly on the BCCH. The signalling method for transmitting the CA list in GSM 900 system. Usually it is also included in the signaling messages that command the mobile to start using a frequency hopping logical channel.

MAIO and HSN are transmitted to a mobile together with the MA-list. MAIO is added to MAI when the frequency to be used is determined from the MA-list. The HSN is a cell specific parameter. For the baseband hopping two HSNs exists.0 Date Oct 23.5 Hopping Sequence Number The Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) indicates which hopping sequence of the 64 available is selected. 1. Each hopping TRX is allocated a different MAIO. Example of the hopping sequence generation is presented in Figure 1-6.6 Mobile Allocation Index Offset When there is more than one TRX in the BTS using the same MA-list the Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) is used to ensure that each TRX uses always an unique frequency. In Nokia solution the MAIOoffset is a cell specific parameter defining the MAIOTRX for the first hopping TRX in a cell.63 are pseudo random sequences used in the random hopping while the HSN 0 is reserved for a sequential sequence used in the cyclic hopping. The hopping sequence determines the order in which the frequencies in the MA-list are to be used. Version 1..Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 1.N-1) = MAIOOFFSET . Example of the hopping sequence generation. The MAIOs for the other hopping TRXs are automatically allocated according to the MAIOstep -parameter introduced in the following section. 1998 Page 9/84 . For this TDMA frame the output from the algorithm is 1 FN & HSN GSM Hopping algorithm 1 1 + MAIOTRX TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 MAIOTRX 0 1 2 MAI(0. The hopping sequence algorithm takes DOCUMENTTYPE HSN and FN as an input and the output of the hopping sequence generation is a Mobile Allocation Index (MAI) which is a number ranging from 0 to the number of frequencies in the MA-list subtracted TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere by one. User definable These parameters are set automatically MA INDEX (MAI) 0 1 2 3 N-2 N-1 MA f1 f2 f3 f4 fN-1 fN TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 Figure 1-6.. All the time slots in RF hopping cell follow the HSN1 as presented in Figure 1-4. The zero TypeYourNameHere time slots in a BB hopping cell use the HSN1 and TypeDateHere time slots follow the HSN2 as the rest of the presented in Figure 1-3.0. The HSNs 1 .

Figure 1-7. Version 1. More examples can be found in Section 5.6. MAIO TRX ( n ) = MAIO offset + MAIO step ⋅ (n −1) (1. 1998 Page 10/84 .1).0.1) An example of the MAIO assignment is presented in Figure 1-7.4. Sector TRX # HSN MAIO offsetl MAIO MAIO step 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Non-hopping BCCH TRX 7 2 0 0 2 4 Non-hopping BCCH TRX 7 2 6 6 8 10 Non-hopping BCCH TRX 7 2 12 12 14 16 +MAIO step MAIO step indicates the difference between the MAIOs of successive TRXs in a cell. The MAIO for the first hopping TRXs in each cell is defined by the cell specific MAIOoffset parameter.0 Date Oct 23. Example of the use of the MAIO related parameters.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 1. MAIOs for the other hopping TRXs are assigned by adding the MAIOstep to the MAIO of the previous hopping TRX as presented in Equation (1.7 MAIO Step The MAIOstep is a Nokia specific parameter used in the MAIO allocation to the TRXs.

1. The parameters as defined in [Lee82] are d m = ∫ tE (t )dt 0 ∞ (2. THEORETICAL PERFORMANCE OF FREQUENCY HOPPING Frequency hopping is a powerful countermeasure in order to overcome the harmful effects introduced by the propagation channel and interference. the fading characteristics of these frequencies are different. If the separation between these frequencies is sufficient. Because of the multipath scattering. 2. Frequency hopping causes the consecutive bursts to be transmitted on different frequencies.1) ∆2 = ∫ t 2 E (t )dt − d m .0.1 Coherence Bandwidth Coherence bandwidth represents a bandwidth that is required between two frequencies in order to ensure that their fading characteristics are different enough to provide properly uncorrelated amplitudes and phases. Fluctuations of the received signal strength are especially harmful for the slow moving mobiles because they tend to stay in a fading dip much longer than the faster moving mobiles. 1998 Page 11/84 . For the fast moving mobiles. which is commonly used in base stations. The coherence bandwidth depends strongly on the mean delay spread of the environment. Thus the frequency diversity gain for the fast moving mobiles is not significant. 2 0 ∞ (2. The quality gain achieved by employing frequency hopping can be traded for capacity gain by tightening the frequency reuse in the network. the transmitted impulse signal spreads in time domain before it is received. 2.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 2.1 Frequency Diversity The fast fading is a significant problem especially in the downlink direction since the mobiles do not employ antenna diversity.2) where: • dm = mean excess delay time • t = excess delay time • E( ) = signal power density • ∆ = delay spread Version 1. because the spatial movement between the consecutive bursts is significant and the locations of the fading dips are relatively constant in most environments.0 Date Oct 23. A typical signal delay envelope of a transmitted impulse is presented in Figure 2-8. the consecutive bursts have different fading characteristics even without frequency hopping.

4 ) Version 1.5) = 1 .5 3 spread ∆.0. Mean delay spreads Type of environment Open area Suburban area Urban area Delay µ s < 0. the time separation of signals has to be taken into account.3 ) where • J0 ( ) = Bessel function of 0th order • β = 2π /λ . The delay spread is thus defined as the standard deviation of the mean delay time. The measurements indicate that the delay spread is highly dependent on the environment. 1 + ( ∆ω ) 2 ∆2 ( 2.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Delay spread 0 dB Power density ∆ E(t) 0 d Mean delay time t Delay time Figure 2-8.2 0. τ ) = 2 J 0 ( βvτ ) . λ = signal wavelength • v = velocity of the mobile • τ = time separation • ∆ = delay spread of the environment • ∆ ω = 2π *∆ f.3) assuming τ = 0 as BWC ( ρ = 0. 2π ⋅ ∆ ( 2. Table 3. Typical delay envelope. The coherence bandwidth is often defined as the frequency separation that yields an autocorrelation coefficient value of 0. ∆ f = frequency spacing Adequate coherence bandwidth. 1998 Page 12/84 . If the propagation environment is also time dependent.5. Typical values are presented in Table 3 [Lee89]. can be derived from Equation (2.5 or less [Pen95]. The autocorrelation coefficient based on the frequency and time separation can be written as follows [Lee82] ρ r ( ∆ω .0 Date Oct 23. where signal autocorrelation coefficient between bursts equals to 0.

0 0. Version 1. the frequency diversity gain of cyclic hopping doesn’t significantly improve if more than eight frequencies are used in a hopping sequence.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1500 1300 1400 frequency spacing (kHz) Figure 2-9.7 autocorrelation coefficient delay spread (µs) 0.1. In open environments the channel separation should be at least 800 kHz corresponding to four GSM carriers. Therefore. 1.4) can be fully applied only in an ideal case.2 0.4 0. and it is therefore only a theoretical model. 2.1.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Equation (2.5 0.2 Effect of Interleaving In GSM the speech frame is transmitted over eight consecutive bursts. the gain for data calls compared to speech calls might be bigger when more than 8 frequencies are used in a hopping sequence.1. Since the interleaving depth is eight. The signalling channels have an interleaving depth of four. the fading of successive bursts is uncorrelated due to spatial movement. it gives an idea about how the coherence bandwidth differs in different types of environments. If the mobile moves fast enough. In data calls. If these frequencies have sufficient separation the fading of successive bursts is uncorrelated as presented in Section 2. The interleaving is designed to spread these errors over longer time. 1998 Page 13/84 . However. the decoding performance is not significantly improved if consecutive bursts are exposed to the similar radio channel. It can be seen that in the urban environment even the adjacent channel having separation of 200 kHz appears to be adequately uncorrelated and in the suburban environment the channel separation of 400 kHz is adequate. Frequency hopping causes consecutive bursts to be transmitted on different frequencies.5 1 2 3 0.2 0. However.6 0.1 0.8 0.0 Date Oct 23. In Figure 2-9 the autocorrelation coefficient has been plotted for several different values of delay spread (∆ ) assuming τ = 0. The frequency diversity gain for the signalling channels is thus smaller.3 0. the interleaving length is 19. The autocorrelation coefficient as a function of carrier spacing.9 0.0. The fast fading causes bursty bit errors that degrade the efficiency of the convolutional coding.

3% TU3 RBER Cl 1b = 0.0 Date Oct 23. As the number of frequencies becomes larger the difference between the cyclic and the random mode becomes small.3% 6 ∆Eb/N0 (dB) 5 4 3 2 1 0 No hop 2 3 4 5 6 8 Infinite Number of carriers Figure 2-10. Frequency diversity gain of frequency hopping link against thermal noise compared to a non-hopping link. the optimum frequency diversity gain is possible to achieve only if the cyclic hopping is used. 1998 Page 14/84 .4 Simulated Frequency Diversity Gains 10 9 8 7 FLAT 3 FER = 3% TU3 FER = 3% FLAT3 RBER Cl 1b = 0. • In the cyclic mode the frequencies are changed sequentially from the lowest frequency to the highest as defined in the MA-list.1. Random Hopping Sequences Both cyclic and random hopping modes are available in GSM. Version 1.3 Cyclic vs. This means that the same frequency may be used for a couple of consecutive bursts and the frequencies are not used evenly in a short time scale. • In random mode the frequency to be used for each burst is selected from the MA-list by a predefined pseudo random sequence.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 2.0. Thus.1. 2.

The simulations show a very significant gain for FLAT3 channel compared to the TU3 channel. The frequency diversity gain of the SACCH / SDCCH against TCH for the cases of non hopping and ideal FH as a function of C/I. However.5dB 8dB In the non hopping mode. The results of this simulation represent a best possible case. According to the simulations. the presented gains are not achievable in uplink direction if a proper diversity reception (about 4 dB gain) method is already in use at base stations. because the fading on the used frequency channels is assumed uncorrelated and the cyclic hopping mode is used. In real life. the SACCH is more robust than the TCH/FS. with 2%FER.0 Date Oct 23. Version 1.2% 6 ∆C/Ic (dB) 5 4 3 2 1 0 No hop 2 3 4 5 6 8 Infinite Number of carriers Figure 2-11. Frequency diversity gain of frequency hopping link against co-channel interference compared to a non-hopping link. the frequencies are not necessarily uncorrelated as explained in Section 2.05 test conditions and TU3) are presented in the following: Table 4.2% TU3 FER = 3% TU3 RBER Cl 1b = 0.0. 1998 Page 15/84 . This happens because the TU3 channel includes several propagation paths having statistically independent fading conditions and it is thus providing path diversity that helps to achieve the performance targets even in the non-hopping case.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 9 8 7 FLAT 3 FER = 3% FLAT3 RBER Cl 1b = 0. in a high interference situation the SACCH channel might perform worse than TCH channel. No FH FH TCH/FS 15dB 8dB SACCH 11.1 and the random hopping is used to maximise the interference diversity gain. whereas in the FH mode they perform equal.1. the performance of the SACCH / SDCCH and TCH for the cases of non hopping and ideal FH as a function of C/I (according to 05. Also.

the frequency diversity gain for the fast moving mobiles is not significant. the non-hopping signalling channel (BCCH / SDCCH) has a better performance than a non-hopping TCH but a worse performance than a hopping TCH channel. the interference sources vary from burst to burst. but since the BCCH time slot doesn’t hop. This means that the interference situation in a network is also quite stable. Therefore. the cell coverage area could be increased. 2. the increased coverage area is relevant only for the ongoing calls that have been successfully established and are allocated a hopping TCH. Therefore. In RF FH case.2 Interference Diversity In a conventional non-hopping network. 1998 Page 16/84 .1.5 Effect in Cell Coverage Area In coverage limited cells the frequency hopping may increase the cell coverage area because of the frequency diversity gain. Thus. Version 1. This effect is illustrated in Figure 2-12. the speed of Power Control (PC) is slow. If this interference is strong enough it may lead to a corruption of several consecutive bursts. the frequency diversity gain should be considered as a quality gain in the cell border area rather than the gain increasing the cell service area. but by considering the performance of the BCCH time slot. the whole BCCH carrier is non-hopping. As a consequence. Some calls may experience very little interference and the other calls may be interfered severely. the probability of several consecutive corrupted bursts and erased frames decreases. the interference affecting each call in the network has a lower standard deviation around its mean value. When moving fast. the interference tends to get averaged over all the calls in the network. Another advantage of random frequency hopping is that the severely interfered bursts occur randomly. so that the same interference source affects several consecutive bursts.6 Effect of Mobile Speed As mentioned earlier. According to the simulations. Thus. the interference tends to be continuous.0. but not according to the full FH gain. The movement as itself causes the same gain which is lost from the frequency diversity gain. see Table 4. the fast moving mobiles get the same gain than the slow moving ones.0 Date Oct 23. Because of this. Also the Handover (HO) performance may be degraded with high speed. but the probability of finding an interference free channel decreases as the network load increases.1. each call is transmitted on a single fixed frequency. In a non-hopping network.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 2. Severe interference can be avoided by a handover. the gain just comes more or less from the moving as itself. 2. the fast moving mobiles might loose in PC gain. Therefore. The error correction measures used in GSM can not usually tolerate several corrupted bursts in a speech frame and thus these frames are likely to be erased causing significant deterioration in speech quality. In random hopping network. In GSM. the PC cannot follow anymore the slow fading dips so efficiently.

Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide No FH f1 f2 f3 Average C/I (dB) 30 25 Average C/I (dB) 20 15 10 5 0 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 FH f1 f2 f3 f1 f2 f3 f2 f1 f3 Ave DOCUMENTTYPE Call 1 Call 2 Call 3 TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere Call 1 Call 2 TypeYourNameHere Call 3 TypeDateHere Figure 2-12. This means that the interference margin used in the frequency planning can be reduced allowing the usage of tighter frequency reuse as illustrated in Figure 2-13. When the random frequency hopping is employed the deviation of interference level is decreased as illustrated in Figure 2-12. This means that the same frequency may be used in every 12th cell. the surrounding environment and the network topology. In practice the minimum reuse for a non-hopping macro cells is about 12. Field strenght Serving carrier worst interference average strongest interference interference margin average weakest interference no FH FH with improved quality FH with tighter frequency reuse Figure 2-13. The gain of frequency hopping. The sufficient distance between the cells using the same frequency depends on the minimum C/I ratio tolerated by the system. In order to use the available frequency spectrum efficiently. a large interference margin has to be included to guarantee sufficient quality for each user in the network. How big is the interference diversity gain is a subject for a further study.0. the frequencies are reused in a network. Version 1. 1998 Page 17/84 .0 Date Oct 23. Interference averaging between users in a random frequency hopping network. Because the interference levels for each user vary considerably.

DTX on PC on DTX on PC on.5. but this gain cannot be transferred effectively to increased capacity. Also the power control mechanism doesn’t function optimally because the interference sources are stable causing chain effects where the increase of transmission power of one transmitter causes worse quality in the interfered receiver.5 dB PC on DTX on PC on. Version 1. one mobile located in a coverage limited area may severely limit the possibility of several other transmitters to reduce their power. the system is more stable and chaining effects mentioned earlier do not occur frequently.0. but it is up to the network operator to decide whether to use them or not. for example.3 dB 3. TU 50km/h GAIN: 1. 1998 Page 18/84 . Thus. if one interferer increases its power.7 dB Reuse 3/9. which in turn causes the power increase in another transmitter and so on. Since the typical speech activity factor (also called DTX factor) is less than 0. The simulated gain of PC and DTX with FH. the power control works more efficiently because each user has many interference sources. which are designed to minimise the interfering transmission when possible. since the maximum interference experienced by each user is likely to remain the same. In a random hopping network the quality gain provided by both features can be efficiently exploited to capacity gain because the gain is more equally distributed among the users. Thus. Power control is used to optimise the transmitted signal strength so that the signal strength at the receiver is still adequate. In a non-hopping network these features provide some quality gain for some users. The simulated gain for power control and DTX with different mobile speeds can be seen in the following Figure 2-14. This means that. the effect on the quality of the connection is not seriously affected.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 2. Reuse 3/9. The both features can be individually activated for uplink and downlink.0 dB 2.4 dB 2. They are both mandatory features in the mobile terminals.3 Effect of Power Control and DTX Both the power control and the DTX are standard GSM features.0 Date Oct 23.3 dB 3. In a soft blocking limited network this means that the DTX can theoretically provide up to 100% capacity increase. Operators have been widely using both features in UL direction mainly in order to maximise the battery life in mobiles. In fact. DTX on C/I improvement Figure 2-14. it is probable that some other interferers are decreasing their powers at the same time. DTX effectively cuts the network load in half when it is used. Also. TU 3km/h GAIN: 1. DTX prevents unnecessary transmissions when there is no need to transfer information.

four of these TDMA frames are used for measurements.9.00 % 0.00 % Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Figure 2-15. The full quality sample of the same time period has probably only moderate quality deterioration because of the better averaging of BER over 100 bursts. The proportions of full and sub samples depend on the speech activity factor also known as the DTX factor.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide DTX has some effect on the RXQual distribution. 1998 Page 19/84 .48 seconds and consisting of 104 TDMA frames.00 % RxQ full RxQ sub 15. This means that the BER gets averaged much more effectively when DTX is not used yielding to a quality distribution where the proportion of moderate quality values is enhanced. meaning that more good and bad quality samples are experienced.00 % 5. 1/1 reuse 15 freqs 40.0 Date Oct 23. Normally the BER is averaged over the duration of one SACCH frame lasting 0. When there are periods of no speech activity.00 % 10.2. These differences should be taken into account when the RXQUAL distributions of networks utilising and not utilising DTX are compared.0. the BER is estimated over just the bursts carrying the silence descriptor frame and the SACCH. so that only 100 bursts are actually transmitted and received. Version 1.00 % 30.1 and 3. A couple of severely interfered bursts may cause very bad quality for the sub quality sample when they happen to occur in the set of 12 bursts over which the sub quality is determined. The differences between full and sub quality distributions are largest in frequency hopping networks utilising low frequency allocation reuse. In a real network utilising DTX the quality distribution is a mixture of full and sub quality samples.00 % 25. When DTX is in use and there is no speech activity.9.00 % 35. since in that kind of networks the interference situation may be very different from burst to burst. This includes only 12 bursts over which the BER is averaged (sub quality). The differences in the BER averaging processes cause significant differences in the RXQUAL distributions. However. The sub quality distribution is wider than the full quality distribution. The distribution of normal RXQual and subRXQual values in a frequency hopping network. The limitations in the usage of DL PC and DTX can be seen in Chapters 3. only the bursts transmitting the silence descriptor frame (SID-frame) and the SACCH are transmitted.00 % 20. The differences between full and sub quality distributions can be seen in Figure 2-15.

BSS BSC MS BTS Abis interface A interface NSS MSC BTS OMC Figure 3-16. In this chapter the frequency hopping support of different base station generations and the BSC are described. The receiver is responsible for the down conversion from the RF frequency band to baseband followed by A/D conversion and serialising I and Q signals and sending them to the demodulation part in the corresponding frame unit [Nok95]. Version 1. Also the current and upcoming frequency hopping support of Nokia’s radio network planning tool NPS/X is presented. Each carrier unit contains a transmitter and two receivers. The Network SubSystem (NSS) including the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) is not involved in it. 1998 Page 20/84 . The number of frame units and carrier units corresponds to the number of installed TRXs in the BTS. The main function of the transmitter is to convert the digital data from the frame unit into a modulated carrier signal. The fault management in the OMC of a frequency hopping network is identical to that of a non-hopping network. but their management in the OMC doesn’t differ from any other cell level parameter. 3. The primary network elements in GSM are presented in Figure 3-16. 3. The Operation and Maintenance Centre (OMC) is involved in managing the FH related parameters. the Frequency Hopping Unit (FQHU) and the Carrier Units (CU) [Nok96]. The primary network elements in GSM.1 BSS Level Implementation In GSM only the BSS is responsible of the implementation of frequency hopping.DOCUMENTTYPE Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere TypeYourNameHere TypeDateHere NOKIA’S SUPPORT FOR FREQUENCY HOPPING IN GSM 3.2 The 2nd Generation Base Station The second generation base station supports only baseband hopping. The support for frequency hopping is a standard feature of Nokia Base Station Sub-System (BSS). The main functional blocks in the second generation BTS considering frequency hopping are the Frame Units (FU). The frame unit performs all the control and the baseband functions for frames of up to 8 full rate or 16 half rate logical channels.0 Date Oct 23.0.

The multiplexing is done according to the hopping sequence. When diversity reception is used. This is sufficient as in three sector configuration the number of hopping groups used is nine (including the non-hopping zero time slots on the BCCH carriers). meaning that all the sectors under the same BTS must use either cyclic or random hopping sequences. all the sectors of a BTS use the same FQHU.0. The burst level operations cover all the operations done for a single burst. Baseband hopping implementation is slightly different compared to the implementation on the 2nd generation base station. If the diversity is not used. Version 1. With random hopping the hopping sequence numbers (1-63) can be selected freely for each hopping group. bit detection. These operations include interleaving/deinterleaving. In baseband hopping the FHDSP controls the information transfer between the EQDSP and the CHDSP realising the frequency hopping as illustrated in Figure 3-18. Both random and cyclic hopping modes are supported but not simultaneously. which is calculated in FQHU. The combiners used in the 2nd generation BTSs limit the minimum channel spacing to 600 kHz! 3. The FQHU can be duplicated for reliability or because of diversity reception. The FQHU is capable of supporting a maximum of 12 hopping groups at a time. block coding/decoding etc. the other FQHU is used for carrying the signal from the diversity receiver. The timing of sectors is derived from a common clock unit. which means that it is automatically taken into operation if the other FQHU fails. 1998 Page 21/84 . Functional units for frequency hopping in 2nd generation BTS. the other FQHU acts as a hot redundancy. Functionality inside one TRX is divided between burst level operations (EQDSP) and block level operations (CHDSP).and bit-synchronised enabling the use of synchronous handovers. Consequently.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The frequency hopping connects the frame units and the carrier units as illustrated in Figure 3-17. such as a speech block or a signaling block. such as ciphering/deciphering. so the different sectors are frame. FHDSP is a digital signal processor dedicated to controlling the frequency hopping operation. The hopping function is realised by multiplexing baseband digital bit streams between the frame units and the carrier units.3 Talk Family Base Station The Talk family base stations are capable of both baseband hopping and RF hopping. The baseband hopping interface resides between this logical division. The hopping unit is common for the BTS. The FBUS is a two-way parallel bus dedicated for this purpose and dimensioned to support a maximum of 12 TRXs. diversity combining etc. FU1 FU2 FU3 F Q H U CU1 CU2 CU3 FU12 CU12 Figure 3-17. The block level operations deal with blocks of information.0 Date Oct 23. equalisation. the hopping sequences are synchronised as well.

The other combiner option for the Talk family base stations is the wide band Antenna Filter Equipment (AFE). the EQDSP of TRX1 is always connected to the CHDSP of TRX1. However. The minimum channel spacing when RTC is used is 600 kHz. Two synthesiser banks are used. EQDSP TRX3.0 Date Oct 23. With RF hopping the FBUS is also used. This means that all the sectors under the same Base Station Control Function (BCF) must use the same hopping method. This is because the RTC is based on tuneable cavities. 3. CHDSP TRX3.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide FHDSP TRX1.0. RF hopping and BB hopping cannot be used simultaneously. Delivery of channel numbers from FBUS to synthesisers is done by hardware. Baseband hopping implementation in the Talk family base stations. AFE supports both BB and RF hopping and there are no minimum channel spacing requirements. If Remote Tuned Combiners (RTC) are used. some sectors may be hopping while others remain non-hopping. Version 1. if any. EQDSP TRX2. which cannot be retuned dynamically according to the used hopping sequence.4 PrimeSite PrimeSite is a small highly integrated base station based on the Talk family technology. EQDSP TRX12. The used combiner type may also restrict the possibility of utilising RF hopping. CHDSP TRX12. The FBUS is then used for sending the RF channel number from the FHDSP to be used on the next time slot. For example. CHDSP F B U S TRX1. EQDSP Figure 3-18. so that the FBUS have been removed and the functions of FHDSP have been integrated to the CHDSP. It contains only one TRX and the hardware is reduced. CHDSP TRX2. 1998 Page 22/84 . The RF hopping can be implemented by connecting two or more PrimeSites together as a multiTRX configuration. while one is in use the other is being tuned to the frequency used in the next time slot. but the connections are always made one-to-one. In this case the first PrimeSite provides the BCCH carrier and is thus in a nonhopping mode. whereas the other connected PrimeSites are hopping according to the hopping sequence. the RF hopping cannot be used.

The PrimeSite is able to transmit the first time slot (RTSL 0) by using a different frequency than the other time slots. MAIO and HSN) needed to define a hopping logical channel. The logical channels may then be assigned on the frequency hopping physical channels.6 NPS/X NPS/X is an integrated software package for the cellular network planning developed by Nokia. ASSIGNMENT_COMMAND (Air) and HANDOVER_COMMAND (Air) messages.2. The other TRXs use the HSN1 for the RTSL 0s and HSN2 for the RTSLs 1-7 as described in Section 1. The frequency hopping management in the BSC is quite simple. This pseudo-BB hopping appears outwards similar to the pure BB-hopping. The basic requirement for the BSC is to handle the additional parameters (MA. 1998 Page 23/84 . The main principle is that the BSC is handling logical channels on the cells under its control. Pseudo-BB hopping is possible when two or more PrimeSites have been connected for a multi-TRX configuration. The number of frequencies in the pseudo-BB hopping equals the number of connected PrimeSites for RTSLs 1-7 and one less for the RTSL 0. maintained by the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) software. A dummy signal is sent on the BCCH frequency in the non-active TCH time slots. There are no hardware dependencies.1 and 5. In Abis and Air interface radio resource management signaling the frequency hopping is affecting the CHANNEL_ACTIVATION (Abis). 3. Table 5. See more details of the FH support and the planning and frequency allocation process in Chapters 5.5 Base Station Controller The BSC functionality related to frequency hopping is implemented by software. but they are provided by the base stations.0 Date Oct 23. The radio resource management doesn’t know about frequency hopping.7 Maximum Configurations Maximum BTS configurations are presented in Table 5.2. 3. 3. The parameters are stored in the BSS Radio Network Configuration Database (BSDATA) in the BSC. The hopping related parameters are attached later by the Abis interface program block. It allocates the logical channels as usual.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The BB hopping is also possible to arrange with the PrimeSites by using properties of RF hopping. IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT (Air).0. The pseudo-BB hopping is realised by transmitting the RTSL 0 on the BCCH TRX on one fixed frequency and the other time slots by using a frequency determined according to the hopping sequence. The parameters defining a frequency hopping channel are then attached to Abis and Air interface signaling messages. which reads the needed hopping related parameters from the database. Maximum BTS configurations in different BSS software releases. Version 1.

In addition to this. such as the carrier unit. the tranceiver. 1998 Page 24/84 . the frame unit. Only rule is that n*y must be less than or equal to 16.0 Date Oct 23.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide BSS 6 BTS type 2nd generation omni sectorised Talk family omni sectorised Prime Site sectorised BSS 7 2nd generation omni sectorised Talk family omni sectorised Prime Site sectorised BSS 8 2nd generation omni sectorised Talk family omni sectorised Prime Site sectorised Combiner type RTC (BB FH) 10 TRXs 4+4+4 TRXs RTC (BB FH) 6 TRXs 6+6+6 TRXs Standard (BB & RF FH) n*y TRXs 1) RTC (BB FH) 10 TRXs 4+4+4 TRXs RTC (BB FH) 6 TRXs 6+6+6 TRXs Standard (BB & RF FH) n*y TRXs 1) RTC (BB FH) 10 TRXs 4+4+4 TRXs RTC (BB FH) 12 TRXs 12+12+12 TRXs Standard (BB & RF FH) n*y TRXs 1) Antennas/cell (polarisation BCFs diversity used) 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 AFE (BB & RF FH) 4 TRXs 4+4+4 TRXs 1 1 1 1 Antennas/cell (polarisation BCFs diversity used) Combiner type 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 AFE (BB & RF FH) 12 TRXs 12+12+12 TRXs 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 AFE (BB & RF FH) 12 TRXs 12+12+12 TRXs 1 3 3 3 1 1 1) The amount of sectors is not limited. Max. even each TRX can be a sector of its own. The recovery actions are determined based on the type of the faulty functional block and they are based on the radio facilities configured to the faulty block.0. The recovery actions are executed if errors occur in the functional blocks of the BTS.8 Radio Network Fault Management The radio network configuration management in the BSC determines the recovery actions in abnormal situations in the BSS radio network. They can be freely divided into sectors of different sizes. Version 1. the recovery options are executed if the Dchannel of the Abis interface fails or if there are failures detected by the call control of the BSC in the connection with the radio channel allocation procedure. 16 TRXs per BCF are allowed. fault cancels and initialisations. functional blocks common to the whole cell or the functional blocks common to the whole BTS site. such as faults. 3.

In both cases the recovery procedure is similar. The BTS alarms the BSC. because of a lost LAPD-link to the TRX.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 3.0 Date Oct 23. 1998 Page 25/84 . for example.1 The 2nd Generation Base Station A frame unit fault may be either internal or external. there is a big difference in the sent / received power between the carriers.8. because all the carrier units are still functioning. 3. The BSC unblocks the TRXs that have functioning CUs and the new hopping parameters are transferred to the BTS. The BSC clears all the calls that are allocated to those A bis circuits corresponding to the faulty TRX. the recovery procedure is similar to the frame unit fault in the 2nd generation BTS as described in the previous section. 2. The BSC blocks all the TRXs of the cell for a while. it is recommended to restrict the PC range in DL direction to 10-15 dB with BB FH.9. 3. Therefore. The mobiles on the cell can still hop over all the frequencies originally allocated to that cell. The BTS alarms the BSC or the BSC detects a non-functional LAPD-link. The gain control of some mobiles cannot follow so big and sudden changes in the received power. by a FU hardware malfunction and the external fault could happen. 5. The internal fault could be caused. The calls on the other TRXs can proceed normally and the hopping parameters can be left untouched. The procedure is as follows: 1. Thus.2 Talk Family Base Stations and PrimeSite In a case of BB hopping the procedure is similar to the carrier unit fault in the 2nd generation BTS as described in the previous section.9 3. The BSC calculates new hopping parameters including a new MA-list in which the frequency of the faulty CU is removed. 2. In case of a carrier unit fault one tranceiver doesn’t work properly.1 Restrictions on the Usage of FH DL Power Control with BB FH In BB FH the BCCH carrier is involved in the hopping sequence. The BSC allows new traffic for the functioning TRXs.0. When the PC is used in the other than BCCH carrier. The BSC blocks the faulty frame unit in order not to allow new traffic for the A bis circuits corresponding to it. 4. one of the frequencies in the hopping sequence cannot be transmitted and/or received properly. for example. Version 1. 3. This causes clearing of all the ongoing calls on that cell. If the BTS is RF hopping. 3. The BCCH carrier is always sent in the downlink direction with the maximum power defined for the cell. Calls on the other TRXs proceed normally.8. In this case the procedure is as follows: 1.

3. the performance of frequency hopping may be reduced. especially on the frequency hopping networks utilising low frequency allocation reuse and fractional loading.2 Downlink DTX Baseband hopping combined with downlink DTX causes problems in the mobile stations.9. In a case of frequency hopping the speed information in the Measurement Result message from BTS to BSC is set to value 'non-valid' indicating that speed information is not available from that particular cell.9. the usage of cyclic hopping with even number of frequencies means that one half rate connection uses only half of the frequencies.6 Frequency Sharing The basic requirement in frequency sharing (1/1 reuse. Because the interleaving has a significant effect on the successful error correction of the speech frame.3 Extended Range Cell (DE34/DF34/DG35) Only RF hopping is supported. The TRXs serving the extended coverage area cannot hop.0.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 3.3 can make the channel allocation for a fractional loaded network. 1998 Page 26/84 . ETSI has approved a solution to solve the problem and it is implemented in Nokia BSS. because in the silent phase the dummy frames are sent on the BCCH frequency causing malfunction in the mobile stations. 3/3 reuse) is that the cells at one site have to be controlled by the same BCF. The solution is to use a special training sequence code in the dummy burst but it does not guarantee that all mobile station models of different manufacturers are working error free. and only for the TRXs serving the normal coverage area.9.9.2 and the older versions don’t support frequency allocation for a fractional loaded network (= more frequencies than TRXs). NPS/X 3. This problem doesn’t occur if random hopping sequences are used. 3. 3. Version 1. so that they are frame synchronised. With the current Nokia equipment this requirement limits the maximum TRX configuration to 12 TRXs per site. NPS/X 3. 3.8 NPS/X NPS/X 3.5 Half Rate The interleaving depth of the TCH/HS is four instead of eight as it is in TCH/FS. 3. The use of cyclic hopping with even number of hopping frequencies should be avoided in networks utilising half rate.0 Date Oct 23.9.7 RTC Combiner In the 2nd generation and Talk Family base stations.2 can estimate the quality of the fractional loaded frequency plan. 3.9.9. Since the half rate channel is transmitted on every other TDMA frame. the RTC combiners have the limitation of the minimum channel spacing of 600 kHz.4 MS Speed Detection The speed detection algorithm in the BTS works only for non-hopping channels.

Thus. because it always provides the maximum number of frequencies to hop over in every cell. To avoid this problem the maximum power reduction for DL PC in conjunction with BB hopping should be limited to 10 – 15 dB. Usually the best results can be achieved with a help of a frequency allocation tool. The mobile receivers cannot tolerate quick changes of field strength resulting to poor DL quality. In this scheme all the cells of one site share the same MA-list in a controlled manner so that interference between the cells of the same site can be avoided. but only if wide band combiners (AFE) are used. For NPS/X this support is available in version 3.0 Date Oct 23. The BTS hardware may severely restrict the possibilities. the application of a single MA-list may be the only sensible way to implement FH.0. The maximum TRX configurations which can be used with different hopping modes (combiners) and hopping schemes (maximum TRX amounts under the same BCF) can easily become also restricting factors. Equally important is that a good frequency plan minimising the interference can be produced. however. In BB hopping the DL PC causes dramatic changes in DL field strength as some of the bursts are transmitted by the full power BCCH TRX and the rest of the bursts by low power TRXs. The utilisation of RF hopping is preferable if downlink power control is used. In many cases this scheme may not provide the best possible gains. As in conventional network. the frequency allocation is not possible for fractionally loaded networks if the frequency allocation tool doesn’t support fractional loading. SELECTING THE RIGHT HOPPING STRATEGY The goal in the selection of the hopping strategy is to maximise the effectiveness of frequency hopping in order to achieve a maximum capacity and/or quality gain. In this single MA-list scheme all the frequencies are allocated to every cell so that the frequency allocation reuse is 1. about three times more antennas are required than with RTC combiner. However. The basic requirement for the maximum FH gain is to make sure that each cell has a sufficient number of frequencies in the hopping sequence. Frequency sharing makes it possible to have enough hopping frequencies in every cell without a need to utilise fractional loading. 1998 Page 27/84 . the frequency planning is possible with tools that don’t support fractional loading. The main factors affecting the decision of the frequency hopping strategy are presented in Figure 419. The Talk family (3rd gen) base stations support also RF hopping. The amount of antennas and antenna feeder cables can be a limiting factor. but the gain compared to a non-hopping network is still significant as verified in a trial that was conducted in a real network.3. Another possibility is to utilise frequency sharing arrangement.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 4. the successful implementation of RF hopping with fractional loading requires a good frequency plan that minimises the interference in the network. Second generation base stations are only capable of BB hopping. one special case of RF hopping with fractional loading that doesn’t require any frequency planning at all. Version 1. There is. This limitation is likely to reduce the achievable gain from DL PC. With AFE combiner. If the frequency band is extremely limited.

Flow chart for hopping strategy decision.0 Date Oct 23. BB FH used on the cells having more than 2 TRXs max 6 TRX / cell with RTC or 12 TRX with AFE No Maximum gain from DL PC required Yes Planning tool supports FH and fractional loading Yes RF FH with frequency sharing (no fractional loading) max 12 TRX / site! (under the same BCF) No Yes RF FH with frequency allocation reuse 3 ~ 5 max 12 TRX / cell RTC No Min TRX configuration No 2 TRX/cell 3 TRX/cell or more RF FH with frequency allocation reuse 1 (=single MA list scheme) max 12 TRX / site! (under the same BCF) <=12 TRXs/site configurations Yes Figure 4-19.0. only Combiner type / Amount of antennas AFE Easy planning preferred over maximum capacity Yes 2nd gen. Version 1. 1998 Page 28/84 .Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide BTS generation 3rd gen.

the planning of a baseband hopping network differs less than the planning of a RF hopping network from the planning of a conventional non-hopping network.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 5. However. In frequency planning point of view. The main difference is that the fractional loading is not possible when the baseband hopping is used. NPS/X versions before version 3. Version 1.2. frequency allocation and interference analysis. Large TRX configurations make baseband hopping feasible.2. It is beneficial to have this interference free BCCH frequency included in the hopping sequence. the RF hopping allows some new planning concepts like frequency sharing and the control over frequency allocation reuse while the effective reuse in the network remains the same. FREQUENCY PLANNING OF FREQUENCY HOPPING NETWORKS Frequency hopping requires some new considerations in the frequency planning process. In order to achieve a proper frequency hopping gain. it is possible to use the conventional frequency planning tools when planning the baseband hopping network. Network planning and monitoring process. lower C/I ratios and therefore smaller frequency reuse distances can be allowed in the baseband hopping network compared to a non-hopping network. The frequency planning of fractionally loaded networks requires special attention to the load control.2 don’t include any frequency hopping specific support. because of the interference and frequency diversity gains. NPS/X is an integrated software package for the cellular network planning developed by Nokia. Because of this. because it is likely to improve the quality of reception on the hopping logical channels. Available propagation models include Okumura-Hata.2 and 3.3 have some new functionalities to make the frequency planning and the quality analysis an easier task.0. 1998 Page 29/84 . This is especially important if the RF hopping with fractional loading is used. The BCCH frequencies have a high frequency reuse in order to guarantee a successful signaling and a fast decoding of the base station identification code. The suitable frequency allocation scheme have to be selected and the frequency load must be equalized to guarantee an equal quality distribution. Walfish-Ikegami and a ray-tracing model. Figure 5-20. New versions called NPS/X 3. When FH is used the RXQual distribution is not anymore comparable to the non-hopping network. If a tight frequency allocation scheme has been chosen then the estimation of the subjective speech quality can become a more challenging task compared to a non-hopping network. On the other hand. It provides the basic tools for coverage prediction. Juul-Nyholm.1 Network Planning Procedure The network planning and monitoring process for a baseband frequency hopping network is basically the same than for a non-hopping network.0 Date Oct 23. The propagation modeling is based on digital maps presenting both the terrain type information and the height data of the target area. The benefit of the baseband hopping is that the TCHs located on the BCCH TRX are included in the frequency hopping sequence. a minimum of three TRXs in a cell should be used with the baseband hopping [Tun97]. The ray-tracing model is specifically for microcell planning and it is available in NPS/X version 3. if the maximum capacity is wanted to get out from the network. see Chapter 5. 5. The planning of an RF hopping network can be a little more complex.

Since the BCCH time slot doesn’t hop.0.3 Frequency Planning Frequency Planning PlanEdit PlanEdit CDW CDW Parameter Planning Parameter Planning 5. The quality prediction tool in NPS/X 3. since the frequency hopping doesn’t affect the propagation.2 Frequency Planning Procedure with NPS/X NPS/X versions before version 3. the increased coverage area must be dimensioned according to the performance of BCCH time slot instead of hopping TCHs. This window presents the distribution of predicted RXQUAL values in the work area. Due to the frequency diversity and interference diversity gains the hopping allows somewhat worse C/I ratios compared to a non-hopping network. see Chapter 2. the frequency diversity gain should be considered as a quality gain in the cell border area rather than a gain increasing the cell service area. higher interference levels can be tolerated. From the map overlay the areas potentially suffering from interference can be easily identified.0 Date Oct 23. In coverage limited cells the frequency hopping increases the cell coverage area because of the frequency diversity gain. a statistics window is also implemented. This can be taken into account when setting parameters for the frequency allocation tool leading to a tighter frequency plan.2 don’t include any frequency hopping specific support. Frequency hopping specific planning tool support is needed when RF hopping with fractional loading is used.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Capacity Planning Capacity Planning NPSX NPSX Netdim Netdim NDW NDW NMS/2000 NMS/2000 Monitoring Monitoring NDW NDW NPS/X 3.5. 1998 Page 30/84 . For the planning of baseband hopping networks the traditional frequency allocation and interference analysis tools are also sufficient. Fractional loading means that a cell is allocated with more frequencies than there are TRXs.1. To make the comparison between different plans easier. For this reason. When analysing the resulting plan.2 estimates the downlink RXQUAL for every pixel in the work area. the coverage planning phase is not different when planning frequency hopping networks compared to non-hopping networks. These values can be displayed in the digital map using different colours for particular RXQUAL levels. Version 1. However.3 NPS/X 3.

Figure 5-21.0 Date Oct 23. Note.0.08]. The calculations take the DTX factor and the load factor into account where appropriate. When the BER for the pixel is calculated it is converted to RXQUAL value according to the mapping specified in GSM specifications [GSM 05. The input parameters needed for the calculation are the frequencies allocated for the cells. Version 1. 1998 Page 31/84 .2. the DTX factor and the blocking probability for each cell. Both base band and RF hopping modes are supported.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The prediction is based on the C/I ratio that is calculated by using the field strengths of the serving carrier and the interfering carriers. Example output from the RXQUAL prediction tool. The corresponding Bit Error Ratio (BER) is determined from the calculated C/I ratio. that the frequency allocation for a fractional loaded network is not supported in NPS/X 3.

RXQUAL statistics window.3 will include a new frequency allocation tool.0. Version 1. or NPS/X can define them automatically by a certain criteria. NPS/X 3. 1998 Page 32/84 .0 Date Oct 23. Also the network simulator of NPS/X 3. In high interfered areas longer MA list lengths can be tried to average the interference. Also the MAIO Management can be taken into a use.3 includes a support for FH.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Figure 5-22. After the MA list length has been chosen the allocation algorithm tries to produce an optimal allocation. The MA list lengths can be defined manually in cell basis. which is capable of allocating frequencies utilising low frequency reuse and fractional loading.

Frequency allocation procedure. For a fractionally loaded RF hopping network. The advantage of RF hopping is that the frequency reuse distance can be set as low as wanted. somewhat lower reuse distances are allowed before the quality reaches the minimum acceptable limit. Version 1.3. 1998 Page 33/84 . These are effective reuse and frequency allocation reuse.3 Coverage data Coverage data Interference Interference Calibration Tool Calibration Tool Neighbour cell Neighbour cell measurements with measurements with GPA tool GPA tool Automatic interferer Automatic interferer generation for IUO generation for IUO Interference matrix Interference matrix generation generation Planning of other Planning of other parameters parameters Frequency Frequency Allocation Allocation Figure 5-23. This means that the used frequencies are only fractionally loaded as presented in Section 5. Because each TRX in a cell requires a unique frequency. as there are more frequencies available for each cell. They are presented in the following sections. However. because a RF hopping cell can use more frequencies than there are TRXs installed. when the reuse distance becomes small enough. two reuse figures have to be defined. 5.4.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Capacity Capacity estimation. This can be done. but because of frequency hopping gain.0 Date Oct 23. The BB hopping network has this same limit. there are more frequencies available for each cell.3 Frequency Reuse on Frequency Hopping Network Since the frequency band is always limited.0. As the reuse distance becomes smaller. cell basis cell basis Spectrum Spectrum and HW and HW constraints constraints Frequency Frequency requirements requirements Planning Planning concept concept decision decision NetDim / NPS/X Estimation of Estimation of needed number needed number of frequencies of frequencies OMC / CDW / NDW Quality Analysis Quality Analysis Automatic Automatic Parameter tuning Parameter tuning NPS/X 3. the frequencies have to be reused in the network. estimation. the capacity potential of a cell is increased. all the frequencies available for the cell cannot be utilised because of too severe interference in the cell border areas. For a conventional non-hopping network this is the practical frequency reuse limit.

the higher the capacity in terms of the number of TCHs provided by one frequency in the network.2 Frequency Allocation Reuse (RF FH only) Frequency allocation reuse indicates how closely the frequencies are actually reused in a network.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 5. ( 5. the frequency allocation reuse is the same as the effective reuse. Example of the reuse calculations for the fractionally loaded RF hopping network is presented in Figure 5-24. ( 5.2.1 Effective Reuse The effective reuse is essentially the same as the conventional frequency reuse distance.0 Date Oct 23.0.3.2 ) where: • FAR = frequency allocation reuse • NfreqsTOT = total number of used frequencies • Nfreqs/MA = average number of frequencies in MA-lists If the network doesn’t utilise fractional loading. it can be also used as a capacity index. it indicates the severity of a worst case C/I in the cell border. It is calculated as FAR = N freqsTOT N freqs / MA .1 ) where: • Reff = effective reuse • NfreqsTOT = total number of used frequencies • NTRXave = average number of TRXs in a cell Since the effective reuse takes the actual number of frequencies together with the number of TRXs into account. The smaller the effective reuse. 5. 1998 Page 34/84 .3. Version 1. provided that the TRXs can be loaded at least to the hard blocking limit as presented in Section 5. It is calculated as Reff = N freqsTOT N TRXave .4. Thus.

1998 Page 35/84 . the more infrequent the collisions must be in order to maintain a proper quality. Even a neighboring cell may be an interferer by sharing at least some of the frequencies.4.3 ) where: • Lfreq = frequency load • LHW = the busy hour average hard blocking load • Lfrac = fractional load Version 1. Example of reuse calculations. which should in most cases be equal to the hard blocking load that is presented in Section 5. the interference sources are very close.0. the collision probability has to be made low. Collision means that the serving cell and an interfering cell are transmitting at the same frequency at the same time so that the potential interference becomes reality. The frequency load describes the probability that a frequency channel is used for transmission at one cell at one time.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Frequency Allocation Reuse ≠ Effective Reuse Example: 3 3 1 1 2 Total # of freqs = 30 2 3 1 2 10 frequencies / cell 4 TRX¨s / cell FAR = 30/10 = 3 Eff. The frequency load can be written as L freq = LHW ⋅ L frac . 5.4. The collision probability depends on the load of the hopping frequencies called a frequency load. 5.4. The closer the interferers.2.3. ( 5.reuse = 30/4 =7. and the fractional load that is presented in Section 5.0 Date Oct 23. In order to guarantee an adequate quality. In that kind of situations the C/I is very low when the collisions occur. The frequency load is a product of two other loads: the average busy hour TCH occupancy.4 Load on Networks Utilising Fractional Loading (RF FH only) One of the most essential parameters of the fractionally loaded RF hopping network is the load. The load on the frequencies is the most important one since it determines the probability of collisions.1 Frequency Load When designing a network with low frequency allocation reuse.5 1/3 Effective Reuse = Total # of frequencies/ Number of TRXs per cell Frequency Allocation Reuse = Total # of frequencies / # of frequencies in MAL Figure 5-24.

T ∑ n! n =0 where: • B = hard blocking probability • T = offered traffic (Erl) • N = number of TCHs in the cell TCH ( 5.0. then the number of call attempts in a time interval is Poisson distributed.5 ) where: • L = hard blocking load • T = average number of used TCHs in the busy hour • N = total number of TCHs in the hopping TRXs HW hopTCH hopTCH Version 1. 1998 Page 36/84 . Currently soft blocking limited BB hopping networks should not be designed because of the lack of the gatekeeper algorithm. which prohibits the initialisation of new calls if the load in the network is about to exceed the load threshold at the soft blocking limit. the average busy hour TCH occupancy may not exceed the threshold defined by the offered traffic at the desired blocking probability and the number of TCHs. then the hard blocking probability (that is also known as the grade of service) can be calculated by using the Erlang B formula T N TCH N TCH ! B = N TCH n .Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Each frequency allocation reuse corresponds to a different C/I at the cell border.2 Hard Blocking Load Hard blocking means that all the available traffic channels in the cell are in use and all the new call attempts fail because of the lack of available traffic channels. ( 5. The hard blocking load is calculated as L HW = ThopTCH N hopTCH . When determining the hard blocking load.4. If the call attempts are Poisson distributed and the length of the calls is exponentially distributed.0 Date Oct 23. If it is assumed that the call attempts occur randomly.4 ) In order not to exceed the predefined hard blocking probability. thus requiring a different maximum allowed frequency load in order to keep the collision probability low enough. That’s because the BCCH TRX is nonhopping in RF hopping cell and the calculation of the loads is only relevant in soft blocking limited network. only the non-BCCH TRXs should be considered as illustrated in Figure 5-25. 5.

a higher figure should be used.4. By utilising fractional loading.6 ) where: • Lfrac = fractional load • NTRX = number of TRXs in a cell • Nfreqs/cell = number of frequencies allocated to a cell (MA-list length) Version 1. there are times when the TCH occupancy is over the busy hour average LHW. can be used as the maximum TCH occupancy. since the BCCH frequencies are planned separately 75 % 25 % TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4 BCCH TCH TCH TCH SDCCH SDCCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH f1 f2.f3.0. However this happens randomly and since the LHW limit is an average there is about an equal time in which the load is less than the LHW.f2 f4. N freqs / cell ( 5. In reality. The average busy hour TCH load. Fractional load can be calculated as L frac = N TRX . as defined in Equation (5. If the offered traffic is Poisson distributed. This is only possible for RF hopping TRXs.3 Fractional Load Fractional loading means that the cell has been allocated more frequencies than there are TRXs as illustrated in Figure 5-26. In an environment where the offered traffic is known not to be randomly generated.0 Date Oct 23. The fractional loading is very useful when the number of TRXs is low.f4. the frequency allocation can be quite safely dimensioned by using the LHW as the maximum TCH occupancy.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Load on the BCCH TRX not considered.5).f2.f3 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH Active slots Empty slots Figure 5-25. 5.f4 f3. 1998 Page 37/84 . it is possible to provide enough frequencies to hop over (to get FH gain) to even a cell with just one hopping TRX. Hard blocking load of 75% on RF hopping TRXs.

For a hard blocking limited network this is a real gain since the network is able to serve more traffic with the same grade of service and the same effective reuse. In a soft blocking limited network the fractional load is used to tune the frequency load down to a desired level. The effective reuse can be rewritten as Reff = N freqsTOT N TRX = N freqsTOT N freqs / MA ⋅ N freqs / MA N TRX = FAR .0 Date Oct 23. As the hard blocking load increases. 5. it is characteristic that the hard blocking load providing the same blocking probability increases as the number of traffic channels increases as presented in Figure 5-27.0. f3. However. f6 f2. the fractional load must be decreased in order to keep the frequency load and thus the collision probability acceptable. This has a direct effect on the effective reuse. The effective reuse doesn’t take the trunking efficiency into account. for a soft blocking limited network utilising fractional loading the trunking effect doesn’t provide any gain. Fractional load of 0. which is determined by the used frequency allocation reuse. L frac ( 5. f6 Active slots Empty slots Frac.7) shows the fixed relation between the effective and frequency allocation reuses and the fractional load. f5. f5. The required increase in the effective reuse in a soft blocking limited network as the trunking efficiency increases is presented in Figure 5-28. Decreasing the fractional load is done by adding more frequencies than TRXs to the cells.6 Figure 5-26. 1998 Page 38/84 . Version 1.6. f4. the number of frequencies required to handle a certain amount of traffic stays constant. It should be noted that although the effective reuse increases. f3.7 ) Equation (5. f4. This is called trunking effect. f3.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4 BCCH f1 f2. f5. f4. f6 f2. load = 3/5 = 0.5 Trunking Effect and Effective Reuse For Poisson distributed call attempts.

2% Hard blocking prob.0 Date Oct 23. Freq.5% (trialed)) FAR 3.0 % 20.0 % 10.0 % TCH occupancy at the hard blocking limit 70.0 % 80. Freq. Freq. Freq.65 (1% Blocking.0 % Hard blocking prob.0 % Hard blocking prob. Freq.5% (trialed)) FAR 1 (1% Blocking.load 30% (simulated)) 6 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 TRX's/cell 8 9 10 11 Figure 5-28.load 30% (trialed)) FAR 3 (2% Blocking.0 % 60.0 % 30. Freq. Version 1.0 % 19 22 28 31 34 43 55 58 67 79 82 88 91 94 Number of TCH's 100 12 1 4 7 10 13 16 25 37 40 46 49 52 61 64 70 73 76 85 97 Figure 5-27.load 7.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 100.65 (2% Blocking. 1998 Page 39/84 .load 30% (trialed)) FAR 3.load 7. 5% 50. Increase of required effective reuse on a soft blocking limited network due to the better trunking efficiency on bigger cell configurations. 1% 40.0 % 0.0.load 30% (simulated)) FAR 3 (1% Blocking. 12 11 10 effective reuse 9 8 7 FAR 1 (2% Blocking. Average busy hour TCH occupancy at the hard blocking limit.0 % 90.

Also. The uplink performance as a function of served traffic is presented in Figure 5-29. all the frequencies in the hopping sequence have been used several times. The ACA algorithm was then used to select the TCH frequencies for each cell.6 Frequency Allocation Strategies When preparing for a frequency allocation. the signal powers were averaged over a period of 0.1 BCCH Allocation The BCCH carriers are special in a sense that the transmission to the downlink direction is constant and always active on them. the fast fading can be assumed to have been removed by averaging. The cells had 3. The BCCH frequencies were not changed during this procedure. because the continuous transmission on the BCCH TRXs is only employed in downlink direction. The common band strategy is better when the uplink is considered. The more uniform reuse provided by the common band strategy is more effective. For the dedicated band strategy 12 frequencies were dedicated to the BCCH TRXs and the remaining 15 frequencies were used as TCH frequencies. The mobiles were randomly generated and static. the uplink is not usually the limiting link in interference limited networks. 5. However. In the common band case. Both. The load measure was defined as the number of served users per cell using the time slot one. Thus. The system performance was measured by determining the 10 percent Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) value of the C/I ratio. since antenna diversity is normally utilised at base stations. In the simulation. The improvement is 1-2 dB. the used frequency band was 27 frequencies corresponding to 5. the average reuse is the same in both strategies. Both approaches have been simulated for frequency hopping network in [Kro97].4 MHz. In both cases three different TRX configurations were simulated. 4 or 5 TCH TRXs depending on the case. it must be decided whether to use a separate frequency band for the BCCH carriers or use a common band for both the BCCH and the normal TCH TRXs. 1998 Page 40/84 . In this simulation. so the results are easily comparable. The slow fading was assumed to be constant over the averaging period. Version 1. During this period. some decisions have to be made concerning the wanted frequency allocation reuse and the corresponding frequency load. The BCCH reuse of 12 forces the reuse on the TCH TRXs to be very tight. The simulated hopping mode was random BB hopping.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 5. Power control and DTX were used in the both directions. There are two basic approaches in the BCCH allocation.6. This is unnecessary in uplink direction since the load is about the same on the BCCH and TCH TRXs. It can be seen that the common band strategy performs better. The BCCH frequencies may be allocated from a separate dedicated frequency band or the frequencies for the BCCH TRXs and the TCH TRXs (TRXs not carrying the BCCH) may be allocated from one common band.48 seconds. In every case. The used interference limited network consisted of 108 cells in three sectorised configuration having a radius of 1 km. the co-channel and the adjacent channel interference were considered. Frequency diversity effect was not considered.0 Date Oct 23.0. which were allocated by using a slow Adaptive Channel Allocation (ACA) algorithm presented in [Alm96]. the BCCH frequencies were first allocated by using a reuse of 27.

Version 1.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The downlink performance on the TCH TRXs as a function of served traffic is presented in Figure 530. The downlink performance on the BCCH TRXs as a function of served traffic is presented in Figure 5-31. Because of the stable and easily predictable behavior on the BCCH frequencies in the downlink direction. The downlink performance on the BCCH TRXs is important. which are the dominating interference source. This indicates that the BCCH transmitters are the main interference source. The improvement is on the order of 1-5 dB depending on the traffic load. cannot utilise the PC or the DTX. the performance degrades rapidly. The degradation of the C/I ratio is quite slow as the traffic load increases in common bands case. 1998 Page 41/84 . the dedicated bands strategy is preferable. The dedicated bands strategy provides a very stable behavior as the traffic load doesn’t have any effect on the performance.0 Date Oct 23. This happens. because the BCCH frequencies. The common band strategy performs clearly better when the load is small. In the dedicated band case the C/I of the BCCH frequencies in the downlink direction is exclusively determined by the used frequency reuse on the BCCH TRXs. As the load increases on the interfering TCH TRXs. It was also shown in additional simulations that the performance gain from the power control and the DTX in the common band systems were smaller than in corresponding dedicated band systems.0. Figure 5-29. UL C/I at the 10 % level. because the call initialisation always starts on the BCCH frequency and the BCCH frequencies have to be clean enough to guarantee successful decoding of the cell identification for handover purposes. For a downlink direction the dedicated bands strategy is superior.

adjacent channel interference is avoided between BCCH frequencies.0. Thus. 1998 Page 42/84 . Still one. DL C/I at the 10 % level on the BCCH frequency.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Figure 5-30. TCH band causes adjacent channel interference for the BCCH frequencies and vice versa. Figure 5-31. not common used method is to use separate but not continuous band for the BCCH frequencies.0 Date Oct 23. every 4th frequency is allocated for BCCH. On the other hand. For example. but the interference might not be too significant. DL C/I at the 10 % level. Version 1.

we end up to reuse 9. the smaller reuse we can use.6. Different BCCH allocation strategies. BB FH is not recommended to be used. The following Figure 5-33 gives an estimation of an applicable reuse compared to the situation before implementing BB FH. 5. except for TCHs on the zero time slots. the fractional loading cannot be utilised and the number of hopping frequencies is always the same as the number of TRXs in a cell. 1998 Page 43/84 .2 Selecting the Effective Reuse (BB FH) With BB hopping.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide BCCH TCH BCCH + TCH Dedicated band Common band Dedicated mixed band BCCH TCH Figure 5-32. an estimation of the minimum effective reuse might be needed. RF FH or IUO might offer a better solution to increase the capacity. it is recommended to have at least three hopping frequencies as a minimum configuration. For example. in a BB hopping network the frequency allocation reuse always equals the effective reuse in the network. In that case. Since frequency and interference diversity gains significantly depend on the number of hopping frequencies. If the cell TRX configurations are smaller than that. which always have one hopping frequency less than the other TCHs. for example in tendering phase. if we have in the non-hopping network reuse 15.0 Date Oct 23. Thus. since the reuse is dependent on the number of hopping frequencies (=TRXs with BB FH).0. Version 1. Before making the actual frequency plan by using the frequency allocation tool like NPS/X. after implementing BB FH with 4 TRX average configuration per cell. The bigger is the TRX configuration.

1. making it possible to significantly decrease the frequency reuse distance. in a BB hopping network the frequency allocation reuse always equals the effective reuse in the network. The average channel utilisation is also known as frequency load as explained in Section 5. 1998 Page 44/84 . Thus.3 Selecting the Frequency Allocation Reuse and the Frequency Load (RF FH) If the RF hopping is used. If the cell TRX configurations are small. the frequency allocation reuse has a great impact on the required fractional load and thus. Since frequency and interference diversity gains significantly depend on the number of hopping frequencies. thus reducing the probability that interference will occur. except for TCHs on the zero time slots. Version 1.0. With BB hopping.4. the fractional loading cannot be utilised and the number of hopping frequencies is always the same as the number of TRXs in a cell. 5. it is important to ensure that each cell has enough hopping frequencies.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide MIN Effective Reuses with different TRX configurations in BB FH case 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Original reuse New reuse No FH 3 TRX 4 TRX 5 TRX 6 TRX Figure 5-33.0 Date Oct 23. Fractional loading reduces the average channel utilisation in the network. RF hopping with fractional loading makes it possible to still provide sufficient number of hopping frequencies to the cells even with small TRX configurations. on the number of frequencies allocated to each cell. which always have one hopping frequency less than the other TCHs. The relationship between the frequency allocation reuse distance and the corresponding maximum frequency load is illustrated in Figure 5-34. Effective reuse after implementing BB FH.6.

the network layout and the surrounding environment have a significant effect on the highest possible frequency load. This doesn’t necessarily apply to frequency allocation reuse of 1. Fractional loading means that the frequencies are not continuously used. Thus. Generally. A good approach is first to determine the number of frequencies to hop over in each cell. as the fractional load decreases. The relation between the effective reuse. Thus. it is recommended to use at least four frequencies in MA-lists.0. This is likely to require fractional loading. In practice. To maximise the frequency and interference diversity gains. since in that case the worst interferers are the closest neighbors. Highly irregular network layout makes it very difficult to find a good frequency allocation that minimises interference in all parts of the network. frequency load 8% 30% 40?% 70?% Figure 5-34. which allows the reuse of the same frequency closer. The recommended approach is to start with a low frequency load and then increase it gradually until the quality threshold is reached. especially if the TRX configurations in the cells are small. Version 1. This naturally reduces interference as the distant interferers are attenuated more. However. On the cell border the interference coming from the neighboring cell attenuates just as much as the signal from the serving cell regardless of the path loss slope. it is beneficial to avoid big differences in the frequency loads caused by each cell. If the frequency load across the network is kept relatively constant then the interference will be distributed more evenly in the network. it is not possible to obtain significant gain from increased path loss slope and it might not be possible to increase the frequency load. it might be necessary to restrict the maximum frequency load in order to keep interference acceptable. the frequency allocation reuse must be tightened to maintain the same effective reuse. In that case. 1998 Page 45/84 . in these cases somewhat higher frequency load may be possible. in dense propagation environments such as microcells. Because of this. fractional load and the frequency allocation reuse is presented in Equation (5.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 4 1 5 7 2 3 6 1 7 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 2 4 3 1 5 7 FAR 1 3 4 7 Worsening C/I at the cell border Increasing collision probability Max. the path loss slope is steeper.3). Relationship between frequency allocation reuse and maximum allowed frequency load in the network.0 Date Oct 23.

Thus. but it will be adjustable after the BSC software release S7. The cell level MAIOoffset parameter defines the MAIOs for the first TRXs in each cell. Version 1. MAIOOFFSET helps to avoid the interference between the cells inside the site.0.0 Date Oct 23.5 7.8 16.8 16. reuse scheme to give the best capacity gain.A.0 10. All the cells on a site share the same MA-list. Eff.4 14. The following Table contains an example of choosing the right F. In Nokia implementation the default MAIOstep is 1. Since less frequencies are needed per site. the frequency allocation reuse distance can be bigger.7 13. The principle of frequency sharing.A.0 7 4 5. Freq. the site can be allocated three times less frequencies and still the number of frequencies to hop over in a cell remains the same.5 3 7. As can be seen. 1998 Page 46/84 .5 6 3. MAIO STEP avoids the interference inside the cell.6 12 9 2.4 13.8 16.1 TCHs 21 25 25 25 25 23 22 21 20 Example: 21 frequencies F. reuse 1 21.7. MA-list: 3 6 3 2 1 6 9 9 3 3 3 2 1 3 6 6 3 2 1 9 9 TDMA frame n-1 TDMA frame n TDMA frame n+1 Figure 5-35.6 and 1.4 16.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Important is also to ensure that the effective reuse is not too low to ensure a good quality.1). The frequency sharing makes it possible for a cell to hop over all the frequencies allocated to that site as presented in Figure 5-35.or adjacent channel collisions. reuses 2-5.3 6. The minimum effective reuse and maximum frequency load values are still under further consideration.6.2 7. reuse MA list length Min. They might be too optimistic for some environments! Table 6. the best capacity is got with the F. so the fractional loading is not necessarily needed. The remaining TRXs are given MAIOs according to the Equation (3.A. in a case of a three sectorised site.0 8.5 2 10. The bigger reuse distance leads to less interference. load 8% 20% 30% 40% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% Traffic (Erl) 13.8 15. whereas.4 Frequency Sharing by Using MAIO Management (RF FH only) The MAIO management makes it possible to share the same MA-list between the cells of the same RF hopping site without co. This can be done by utilising the user definable MAIOoffset and MAIOstep parameters presented in Sections 1.5 8 2.5 7 3. Limits for the effective reuse and the frequency load values with different Max.5 8. 5.3 13 frequency allocation reuses.5 5 4.

Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide

However, there are some requirements that have to be fulfilled. First of all, the basic requirement is that the cells at one site have to be controlled by the same BCF, so that they are frame synchronised. With the current Nokia equipment this requirement limits the maximum TRX configuration to 12 TRXs per site. The number of frequencies (MA-list length) have to be at least equal (equal if fractional loading is not to be used) to the total number of TRXs in the site. If the MAIOstep parameter is more than one, even more frequencies are needed. The requirement can be formulated as follows
min N freqs
/ site

= N TRX

/ site

⋅M AIO

step

,

(5.8)

where: • min N = minimum number of frequencies needed for a site • N = total number of TRXs on a site • MAIOstep = the value of the MAIOstep parameter
freqs/site TRX/site

In Equation (5.8) it is assumed that the MAIO separation between the cells is equal to the used MAIOstep. In that case, the MAIOoffset parameters are allocated as follows
MAIO cell n = MAIO step ⋅ ∑ N TRX / cell i ,
i =1 n −1

(5.9)

where: • MAIOoffset n = MAIOoffset for the n th cell in a site • MAIOstep = the value of the MAIOstep parameter • N = number of TRXs in i th cell
TRX/cell i

If the number of frequencies is less than min. N , then co- or adjacent channel interference might occur. Example of this is presented in Figure 5-37. In a normal frequency sharing arrangement, the goal is to minimise the number of frequencies needed per site, so that the frequency allocation reuse distance can be kept high. For this reason, the MAIOstep should be normally 1. This should be taken into account in the frequency planning process, because an intracell adjacent channel interference should not be allowed. Since the frequencies have to be in the increasing order in the MA-list, the list may not contain adjacent channels if the MAIOstep is 1.
freqs

The cells at one site have to use the same HSN. Otherwise, co-channel interference between the cells will occur. However, the HSNs should be different in interfering sites in order to ensure the interference diversity. An example of a correct parameter assignment for frequency sharing is illustrated in Figure 5-36.

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Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide
INDEX NO: MA_LIST1: TDMA MAI 0 1 0 1 1 4 1 5 2 8 2 1 3 10 3 1 4 15 4 2 5 20 5 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

6 1

7 2

8 0

9 2

10 3

11 4

12 5

13 1

14 5

15 2

16 4

SECTOR MA-LIST HSN MAIO 1 1 3 0 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 3 3 4 5

TRX 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4

TDMA-FRAMES -> 0 1 2 3 bcch frequency 1... 4 20 4 4 8 1 8 8 bcch frequency 2 ... 10 4 10 10 bcch frequency 3 ... 15 8 15 15 20 10 20 20 1 15 1 1

4 8 10 15 20 1 4

5 10 15 20 1 4 8

6 4 8 10 15 20 1

7 8 10 15 20 1 4

8 1 4 8 10 15 20

9 8 10 15 20 1 4

10 10 15 20 1 4 8

11 15 20 1 4 8 10

12 20 1 4 8 10 15

13 4 8 10 15 20 1

14 20 1 4 8 10 15

15 8 10 15 20 1 4

16 15 20 1 4 8 10

Figure 5-36. Example of frequency sharing when MAIOstep is 1.
INDEX NO: MA_LIST1: TDMA MAI 0 1 0 1 1 4 1 1 2 8 2 1 3 10 3 1 4 15 4 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

5 3

6 3

7 4

8 0

9 2

10 3

11 0

12 1

13 1

14 1

15 4

16 4

SECTOR MA-LIST HSN MAIO 1 1 3 0 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 3 3 4 5

TRX 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4

TDMA-FRAMES -> 0 1 2 3 bcch frequency 1... 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 bcch frequency 2 ... 10 10 10 10 bcch frequency 3 ... 15 15 15 15 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4

4 8 10 15 1 4 8

5 10 15 1 4 8 10

6 10 15 1 4 8 10

7 15 1 4 8 10 15

8 1 4 8 10 15 1

9 8 10 15 1 4 8

10 10 15 1 4 8 10

11 1 4 8 10 15 1

12 4 8 10 15 1 4

13 4 8 10 15 1 4

14 4 8 10 15 1 4

15 15 1 4 8 10 15

16 15 1 4 8 10 15

Figure 5-37. Example of frequency sharing when the site is allocated with too few frequencies and co-channel interference between sectors exists. Since the cells on the same site share the same frequencies, all the hopping frequencies are transmitted in every cell on the same site. This has to be taken into account when the frequency planning is done. This can be modeled in NPS/X 3.2 or older by utilising power dividers so that the site has only one cell having as many TRXs as there are non-BCCH TRXs in all the sectors of the actual site. The cell is distributed to multiple antennas forming multiple sectors by using power dividers. Special care has to be taken to compensate the losses of power divider. In frequency allocation phase one common interference probability is determined for the entire site and the site is then allocated one common set of frequencies that form the MA-list. To avoid interference, the minimum channel separation has to be at least 1. Since each cell has its own BCCH, the BCCH allocation has to be done separately without the power divider arrangement. Simulation results of the performance of a network utilising frequency sharing have been presented in [Nie98]. In this simulation, the network utilising frequency sharing at a nominal reuse of 3/9 was compared to the RF hopping network using 1/3 frequency allocation reuse at 33 % frequency load. The reuse on the BCCH carriers was 4/12 in both cases. The served traffic was also the same in both cases. The simulated network consisted of 48 3-sectorised sites. Power control was utilised in DL direction, but the DTX was not activated. Downlink FER statistics reported by each mobile every 0.48 seconds from the non-BCCH carriers were collected for analysis. Mobile speeds of 3 km/h and 50 km/h were simulated.

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Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The resulting cumulative density functions of DL FER have been presented in Figure 5-38 and Figure 5-39. In both mobile speeds, the performance of the two simulated arrangements is very similar until the FER gets close to 10 %. For the mobile speed of 3 km/h the percentage of FER samples indicating FER above 15 % is 2 % for the frequency sharing case and 3 % for the 1/3 reuse case. For the mobile speed of 50 km/h, the corresponding values are about 1.1 % and 1.5%. The difference in favor of frequency sharing is clear, although not dramatic. However, as higher FER percentages are studied, the difference gets bigger. The effect of the mobile speed on the FER distribution can be clearly seen. As the speed increases to 50 km/h, the share of both the low FER percentages and the high FER percentages increases. The higher mobile speed provides better performance against fast fading. This increases the proportion of low FER. The higher speed also means that the changes caused by slow fading are faster and the ability of power control to compensate the fluctuations of signal strength is reduced. This along with the relatively slow handover algorithm causes the proportion of high FER to increase at the higher mobile speeds. However, the mobile speed doesn’t have significant effect on the relative performance of the network utilising frequency sharing. It may be concluded according to this simulation that the frequency sharing provides better quality compared to the 1/3 reuse case.
1 BCCH reuse 4/12, TCH reuse 1/3 BCCH reuse = 4/12, TCH reuse = 3/9 by using MAIO-management

0.1

CDF 0.01 0.001 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 FER 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Figure 5-38. CDF of DL FER for a mobile speed of 3 km/h.
1 BCCH reuse 4/12, TCH reuse 1/3 BCCH reuse = 4/12, TCH reuse = 3/9 by using MAIO-management

0.1

CDF 0.01 0.001 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 FER 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Figure 5-39. CDF of DL FER for a mobile speed of 50 km/h.

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Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 5.6.5 Frequency Sharing in the Single MA-list Scheme (RF FH only)

Frequency sharing can also be used to realise the usage of only one MA-list in the networks utilising sectorised base station configurations. In the single MA-list scheme all the cells use the same set of frequencies. If the cells in one site use the same MA-lists without the frequency sharing functionality, occasional co-channel collisions will happen between the cells of one site. When frequency sharing is used, it can be ensured that no unnecessary co- or adjacent channel collisions will occur provided that the cells on the same site use the same HSN. When the single MA-list scheme is employed, a continuous frequency band is usually allocated to the cells. In order to avoid intracell adjacent channel interference, the MAIOstep should be set to at least 2. Preferably, even bigger step should be used, especially if uplink power control is not in use. Because interference between the cells of the same site is much less likely to occur than intracell interference, a smaller channel separation can be used between the cells of the same site. Consequently, the number of needed frequencies is reduced. When this possibility is taken into account, the Equation (5.8) can be rewritten in more general form as follows
min N freqs / site = ( N TRX / site − N cell / site ) ⋅ MAIO step + N cell / site ⋅ S ,

(5.10)

where: • min N = minimum number of frequencies needed for a site • N = total number of TRXs on a site • MAIOstep = the value of the MAIOstep parameter • N = total number of cells in the site • S = MAIO separation between cells
freqs/site TRX/site cell/site

A good approach is to set the MAIOstep as high as possible. However, it should be checked that the requirement presented in Equation (5.10) is still fulfilled. An example of a good MAIO plan is presented in Figure 5-40. In this example, the MAIO separation between cells is 2 and the MAIOstep is set to its maximum value, which is 3 in this case. If a MAIO step of 4 would have been used instead, constant adjacent channel interference would have occurred between the second TRX of sector one and the fourth TRX of sector three as shown in Figure 5-41.
INDEX NO: MA_LIST1: TDMA MAI 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 6 3 4 3 2 4 5 4 2 5 6 5 11 6 7 6 4 7 8 7 0 8 9 8 8 9 10 9 9 10 11 10 3 11 12 11 12 12 13 12 8 13 14 13 8 14 15 14 10 15 16

15 6

16 8

SECTOR MA-LIST HSN MAIO 1 1 2 0 3 2 1 2 5 3 1 2 7 10 13

TRX 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4

TDMA-FRAMES -> 0 1 2 3 bcch frequency 1... 1 3 7 3 4 6 10 6 bcch frequency 2 ... 6 8 12 8 bcch frequency 3 ... 8 10 14 10 11 13 2 13 14 1 5 1

4 3 6 8 10 13 1

5 12 15 2 4 7 10

6 5 8 10 12 15 3

7 1 4 6 8 11 14

8 9 12 14 1 4 7

9 10 13 15 2 5 8

10 4 7 9 11 14 2

11 13 1 3 5 8 11

12 9 12 14 1 4 7

13 9 12 14 1 4 7

14 11 14 1 3 6 9

15 7 10 12 14 2 5

16 9 12 14 1 4 7

Figure 5-40. Example of frequency sharing when MA-list consists of consecutive frequencies and MAIOstep is set to 3.

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0. a bigger MAIOstep can now be used while the number of required frequencies is still the same.... Example of too few frequencies compared to the size of the MAIOstep. 1998 Page 51/84 .. by using bigger MAIO step and by not defining the MAIOoffset parameters in increasing order.. 1 3 7 3 5 7 11 7 bcch frequency 2 . the used MAIOstep is 6 and the required MAIO separation between cells is 2. Example of customised MAIO allocation.. 3 5 9 5 9 11 15 11 bcch frequency 2 .. In this example. Often. 9 11 15 11 13 15 4 15 2 4 8 4 4 3 7 9 11 15 4 5 12 1 3 5 9 13 6 5 9 11 13 2 6 7 1 5 7 9 13 2 8 9 13 15 2 6 10 9 10 14 1 3 7 11 10 4 8 10 12 1 5 11 13 2 4 6 10 14 12 9 13 15 2 6 10 13 9 13 15 2 6 10 14 11 15 2 4 8 12 15 7 11 13 15 4 8 16 9 13 15 2 6 10 Figure 5-41.10) are not valid anymore.(7.. An example of this approach is presented in Figure 5-42.. 1 3 7 3 7 9 13 9 13 15 4 15 4 5 11 7 3 9 15 5 14 5 1 12 3 9 6 7 13 9 5 11 2 7 3 9 5 1 7 13 8 11 2 13 9 15 6 9 12 3 14 10 1 7 10 6 12 8 4 10 1 11 15 6 2 13 4 10 12 11 2 13 9 15 6 13 11 2 13 9 15 6 14 13 4 15 11 2 8 15 9 15 11 7 13 4 16 11 2 13 9 15 6 Figure 5-42. If this approach is used.. Version 1. Compared to the example in Figure 5-40.. the Equations (7.0 Date Oct 23. Instead. INDEX NO: MA_LIST1: TDMA MAI 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 6 3 4 3 2 4 5 4 2 5 6 5 11 6 7 6 4 7 8 7 0 8 9 8 8 9 10 9 9 10 11 10 3 11 12 11 12 12 13 12 8 13 14 13 8 14 15 14 10 15 16 15 6 16 8 SECTOR MA-LIST HSN MAIO 1 1 2 2 8 2 1 2 4 3 1 2 0 6 12 TRX 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 TDMA-FRAMES -> 0 1 2 3 bcch frequency 1.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide INDEX NO: MA_LIST1: TDMA MAI 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 6 3 4 3 2 4 5 4 2 5 6 5 11 6 7 6 4 7 8 7 0 8 9 8 8 9 10 9 9 10 11 10 3 11 12 11 12 12 13 12 8 13 14 13 8 14 15 14 10 15 16 15 6 16 8 SECTOR MA-LIST HSN MAIO 1 1 2 0 4 2 1 2 6 3 1 2 8 12 16 TRX 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 TDMA-FRAMES -> 0 1 2 3 bcch frequency 1. it is possible to achieve higher intracell frequency separations. 7 9 13 9 bcch frequency 3 .. 5 7 11 7 bcch frequency 3 .8) . each configuration should be evaluated case by case.

FH related BSS radio network parameters. BB FH only (0 . GSM1800 512 .63 (0 for cyclic hopping and 1. 975 . max.810) BTS BTS TRX MAIO step Identification of MA-list Frequency (FREQ) To define a BB-hopping cell the following parameters have to be set: • BTS hopping mode (HOP) = BB • Hopping sequence number 1 (HSN1) = 0. Relevant in RF FH only. 63 frequencies.62 • MAIO step = 0. 1998 Page 52/84 .128).. used with RF hopping BTS.62 (available in BSS7) • MA-list ID used by the BTS = 0. Sectors must be under the same BCF. GSM1900). (Available in BSS7) MA-list id number identifying the MA-list that is allocated to that BTS.63 (0 for cyclic hopping and 1. RADIO NETWORK PARAMETERS The BSS radio network parameters related to frequency hopping are presented in Table 7.124. GSM1800.885.63 for random sequences) • MAIO offset = 0. max. Allows the sharing of the same MA-list between multiple sectors of one BTS without intrasite collisions..Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 6. RF or N)..63). Hopping sequence number of the hopping group 2. Hopping sequence number of the hopping group 1. Assign a frequency to a TRX (GSM900 1 . Relevant in RF FH only. Defines the MAIO for the first TRX in the cell (0 . Object MA MA MA BTS BTS BTS BTS Parameter Frequency Identification of MA-list Type of MA-list BTS is hopping (HOP) Hopping sequence number 1 (HSN1) Hopping sequence number 2 (HSN2) MAIO offset Description MA-list.63 for random sequences) (in most cases HSN1 may equal HSN2) • Fixed frequencies for each TRX (FREQ) To define a RF-hopping cell the following parameters have to be set: • MA-list..128 Examples of MAIO offset and MAIO step definitions are presented in Chapter 8. For the time slots 1-7. The hopping mode of the BTS (BB.63 (0 for cyclic hopping and 1. 6. GSM1900 313 .62).1023. BCCH frequency must not be included in the list. Used with RF FH BTS.63 for random sequences) • Hopping sequence number 2 (HSN2) = 0. 63 frequencies) • BTS hopping mode (HOP) = RF • Hopping sequence number 1 (HSN1) = 0. Defines the step size that is used when the MAIO is calculated for the TRXs in the cell. Table 7. MA-list identification number in a BSC (1 ... MA-list ID and MA-list type must be defined in BSC (max. In BB FH for the 0 time slots except the BCCH time slot and in RF FH all the time slots of hopping TRXs (0 .. 63 frequencies per list.0 Date Oct 23.0.1 Parameters for MA-list Definitions in BSC Mobile Allocation Frequency List.63)... Frequency band of the MA-list (GSM900. Relevant in RF FH only. MA-list Description: Version 1.

.08 10.2.2.1023 (GSM) 512.. DCS.2.EBT.124 and 975..12.EBI. DCS or DCS19 band.02 6.128 EBE. frequency 1.0. if used in a RF hopping BTS BCCH frequency must not be included in the list. DCS 1800 (1).12.810 (DCS19) EBE. PCS 1900 MAL Parameter Window freq_band_in_use 0.2 before S4 Read only type of the mobile allocation frequency list GSM.124 and 975. Mobile Allocation Frequency List (MA) GSM 04.128 MAL Parameter Window object_instance String up to 10 characters 1:1 Frequency band of the list.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Object class: GSM reference: Option: Release: Modification: Restriction: MML name: MML range: MML default: MML command: NMS GUI name: NMS GUI range: NMS GUI dialog name: NMS DB name: NMS DB range: NMS DB mapping: MA-list ID Description: Object class: GSM reference: Option: Release: Modification: Restriction: MML name: MML range: MML default: MML command: NMS GUI name: NMS GUI range: NMS GUI dialog name: NMS DB name: NMS DB range: NMS DB mapping: Type of MA-list Description: Object class: GSM reference: Option: Release: Modification: Restriction: MML name: MML range: MML default: MML command: NMS GUI name: NMS GUI range: NMS GUI dialog name: NMS DB name: NMS DB range: NMS DB mapping: Mobile Allocation Frequency List (MA) GSM 04.1023 (GSM) 512.885 (DCS) 512. Mobile Allocation Frequency List (MA) GSM 04.2.EBI Frequency Band in Use GSM..EQA MAL ID 1.GSM 05. DCS 1800.2 before S4 Read only Identification of mobile allocation frequency list 1.810 (DCS19) MAL Parameter Window frequency 0. PCS 1900 (2) Version 1.2 before S4 When BTS is locked.02 6. 1998 Page 53/84 . DCS19 EBE.2..08 10..EBR.GSM 05..2.02 6.1023 1:1 Identification of a Mobile Allocation Frequency List in a BSC.0 Date Oct 23....5.885 (DCS) 512. The band is either GSM.5.12.EBI Frequencies 1.GSM 05.08 10..5.3 GSM (0).EBT..

EQO NMS GUI name: HSN-1 NMS GUI range: 0.GSM 05. BTS hopping mode (HOP) BB baseband hopping is used RF radio frequency hopping is used N hopping is not used EQC. BTS GSM 04.5. Parameter is only used with BB and RF hopping.GSM 05.08 10.02 6. 1998 Page 54/84 . RF BTS Parameter Window hopping_mode 0.0.2.08 10. See parameter BTS hopping mode.2. Baseband.02 6. Object class: BTS GSM reference: GSM 04.2. Object class: BTS GSM reference: GSM 04.5.5.5. RF and BB hopping cannot be active simultaneously at the same site (BCF)..2 Option: Release: before S4 Modification: When BTS is locked Restriction: Check that either cyclic or random hopping is used in the whole site (2nd gen BTS).2 Option: Release: before S4 Modification: When BTS is locked Version 1.2. MML name: hopping sequence number 1 (HSN1) MML range: 0 cyclic hopping 1.0 Date Oct 23.63 random hopping MML default: 0 MML command: EQC.EQE. Baseband (1)..2 BTS Level FH Related Parameters The hopping mode of the BTS.63 NMS DB mapping: 1:1 Hopping sequence number 2 Description: HSN2 is used in the frequency hopping sequence generation algorithm and it is located in the Frequency Hopping System 2 (time slots 1-7).63 NMS GUI dialog name: BTS Parameter Window NMS DB name: hsn NMS DB range: 0.2 Non-hopping (0).EQE.5 before S4 BTS site types DE21/DF12 and DE45/DF45: when BTS is locked BTS site type DE34/DF34: when BCF and BTS are locked BTS site type DE21/DF12 does not support RF hopping.5.08 10.EQO Hopping Mode Non-hopping.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 6.. RF (2) BTS hopping mode Description: Object class: GSM reference: Option: Release: Modification: Restriction: MML name: MML range: MML default: MML command: NMS GUI name: NMS GUI range: NMS GUI dialog name: NMS DB name: NMS DB range: NMS DB mapping: Hopping sequence number 1 Description: HSN1 is used in the frequency hopping sequence generation algorithm and it is located in the Frequency Hopping System 1 (time slots 0 except BCCH time slot).2..

S7 On-Line MAIO step (MS) 1.62 1 EQA.EQO.EFO MAIO Step 1. hopping sequence number 2 (HSN2) 0 cyclic hopping 1. Parameter is used only with BB hopping.0 Date Oct 23.62 0 EQA.. BTS No ref.62 BTS Parameter Window maio_offset 0.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Restriction: MML name: MML range: MML default: MML command: NMS GUI name: NMS GUI range: NMS GUI dialog name: NMS DB name: NMS DB range: NMS DB mapping: MAIO offset Description: Check that either cyclic or random hopping is used in the whole site (2nd gen BTS).63 random hopping 0 EQC...63 BTS Parameter Window hsn 0..62 BTS Parameter Window maio_step 0..EQO.EQO HSN-2 0. S6 The parameter can be modified only when the BTS is locked or not RF hopping. BTS No ref.EFO MAIO Offset 0.63 1:1 The parameter sets the MAIO offset which is the lowest MAIO in the cell. MAIO offset (MO) 0.0..62 1:1 The parameter sets the MAIO step. With MAIO offset it is possible to use the same MA frequency list for two or more sectors of the site without collisions.EQE.62 1:1 OPTIONAL (Flexible MAIO management) The parameter defines the mobile allocation frequency list Object class: GSM reference: Option: Release: Modification: Restriction: MML name: MML range: MML default: MML command: NMS GUI name: NMS GUI range: NMS GUI dialog name: NMS DB name: NMS DB range: NMS DB mapping: MAIO step Description: Object class: GSM Reference: Option: Release: Modification: Restriction: MML name: MML range: MML default: MML command: NMS GUI name: NMS GUI range: NMS GUI dialog name: NMS DB name: NMS DB range: NMS DB mapping: Note: MA-list used by BTS Description: Version 1... See parameter BTS hopping mode. 1998 Page 55/84 ..

.128 (the value 0 detaches the BTS from any mobile allocation frequency list) No MA-list attached EQA. See chapter Mobile Allocation Frequency List. Assigned ID(1.. Not Assigned (0) Object class: GSM reference: Option: Release: Modification: Restriction: MML name: MML range: MML default: MML command: NMS GUI name: NMS GUI range: NMS GUI dialog name: NMS DB name: NMS DB range: NMS DB mapping: 6..Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide to which the BTS will be attached.EQO Used Mobile Allocation Not Assigned.3 Power Control Table 8. Version 1.128 Assigned ID (1. Example PC parameters for RF FH network. 1998 Page 56/84 .0 Date Oct 23.128) BTS Parameter Window used_mobile_alloc_list_id 0. BTS No ref. Relevant when RF hopping is used. before S4 If BTS is RF hopping.0.128). then BTS must be locked mobile allocation frequency list (MAL) 0..

. . . .. ..2 % .. . ....... 1998 Page 57/84 .. ... ... ... ..... .Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide GROUP General EXPLANATION Enable BTS pow er control Min time interval betw een PC's Pow er increase step size Pow er decrease step size BS tx max pw r preattenuation optional ave UL signal quality (BER)< 0...... . .. ... ... . . ... .4 % optional BTS pow er range Averaging w indow s MS Pow er optimisation after HO Max attenuation Min attenuation Q3 NAME pow erCtrlEnabled pow erControlInterval pow erIncrStepsize pow erRedStepsize rfMaxPow erReduction pw rDecrLimitBand0 pw rDecrLimitBand1 pw rDecrLimitBand2 pw rDecrQualFactor msPw rOptLev bsTxPw rMin bsTxPw rMax pcAveragingLevDL w eighting pcAveragingLevUL w eighting pcAveragingQualDL w eighting pcAveragingQualUL w eighting Thresholds pcLow erThresholdsLevDL px nx pcLow erThresholdsLevUL px nx pcLow erThresholdsQualDL px nx pcLow erThresholdsQualUL px nx pcUpperThresholdsLevDL px nx pcUpperThresholdsLevUL px nx pcUpperThresholdsQualDL px nx pcUpperThresholdsQualUL px nx 0 0 0 0 0 -110 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -110 1 1 -110 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 -110 1 1 -110 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 Yes 0 RANGE / ....... . .. . .. ... ... 12 38 38 38 1 -47/ N 30 30 32 3 32 3 32 3 32 3 -47 32 32 -47 32 32 7 32 32 7 32 32 -47 32 32 -47 32 32 7 32 32 7 32 32 dBm dBm dBm dBm SACCH SACCH SACCH dBm dB dB SACCH No 31 sec dB dB dB dB dB dB UNIT Setting Yes 1 2 2 0 38 20 8 1 -79 30 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -101 1 1 -101 1 1 4 1 1 4 1 1 -47 1 1 -47 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Version 1.. / ..0.. .4 % ave UL signal quality (BER) > 0.. .. ....0.. ... .4 or 6 2 or 4 .... ... .... 2.. .2 % ave UL signal quality (BER) 0...... . ... ..0 Date Oct 23....... ..

32 SACCH . -47 -110 ....... Example HO parameters for FH network utilising aggressive power control. 32 SACCH ... 32 ... 63 SACCH / / / / / / No No No No No No Margins Enable HO margin for Lev and Qual enableHoMarginLevQual hoMarginPBGT hoMarginLev hoMarginQual Yes / No -24 ..0........ 3 ..0 Date Oct 23. 32 SACCH dBm Thresholds hoThresholdsLevDL px nx hoThresholdsLevUL px nx hoThresholdsQualDL px nx hoThresholdsQualUL px nx hoThresholdsInterferenceDL px nx hoThresholdsInterferenceUL px nx msDistanceHoThresholdParam -110 . 32 SACCH . 32 ....... Averaging adjacent cells Averaging Method Minimum Intervals Periodic Handovers HO types allowed ..Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 6. 32 SACCH . 32 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 .. 7 . 7 ... 7 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes 0 0 0 0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes / / / / No No No No sec sec No No No Yes 3 5 6 6 Yes Yes Yes No No Yes dB dB dB Yes 4 3 0 6 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 10 4 -95 1 1 dBm -95 1 1 5 3 4 5 3 4 dBm -85 1 1 dBm -85 1 1 TA 63 Table 9....... 1998 Page 58/84 ... -47 Version 1. 24 . 32 .. 63 -24 -24 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .. 30 . 32 .. 32 .. 32 ... 32 . .......... 32 .. 24 Averaging windows and weighting values hoAveragingLevDL weighting hoAveragingLevUL weighting hoAveragingQualDL weighting hoAveragingQualUL weighting msDistanceAveragingParam msSpeedAveraging . 32 .. -47 1 . ..... 63 -110 . 32 . 32 SACCH 1 8 0 ... 63 SACCH .. -47 -110 .. 32 SACCH ..... 3 3 3 ... 32 .. 30 ..4 GROUP Handover EXPLANATION Averaging window size for adj cells Number of zero results allowed Adj cells averaging: 6 best or 32 Q3 NAME averagingWindowSizeAdjCell numberOfZeroResults allAdjacentCellsAveraged enaFastAveCallSetup enaFastAveHo enaFastAvePC minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt minIntBetweenHoReq hoPeriodPBGT HoPeriodUmbrella enableIntraHoInterfUL enableIntraHoInterfDL enablePwrBudgetHandover enableUmbrellaHandover enableMSDistanceProcess enableSDCCHHandover RAN UNIT Setting GE .......

5 6.5.0 Date Oct 23.MS may use DTX .0.MS shall not use DTX.1 DTX Uplink DTX The status of the uplink DTX can be defined in miscellaneous BTS parameters in BSC.. The mode of the MS for using the discontinuous transmission (DTX) can be selected in DTX parameter as following: 0 1 2 . The current default value for the parameter is OFF. 32 . the usage of the DTX function is recommendable.2 Downlink DTX The status of the downlink DTX can be defined in BTS parameters of MSC. If the activation of the downlink DTX doesn’t cause any special harm for the functioning of the network.MS shall use DTX . etc… BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION BTS3 BSC NAME : LA NAME :LAREA3 CELL IDENTITY BTS ADMINISTRATIVE STATE ROUTING ZONE TARIFF AREA DOWNLINK DTX DISABLED BY MSC Version 1. 32 1 1 6.. where the default setting of the mobile chooses the uplink DTX mode. meaning that the mobile have to use DTX.. 1998 Page 59/84 .5. 6..Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide px nx 1 1 . The default for the parameter is 1. Only a few operators in the world use the value 0. This DTX parameter can receive one of the following values: ON OFF – Downlink DTX enabled by MSC – Downlink DTX disabled by MSC. Here is one example of BTS parameters in MSC including DTX function: DX 220 DX2x0-LAB 1990-11-1 10:28:56 NUMBER 00456 IS CREATED NUMBER LAC (CI) (RZ) (TA) (DTX) ::00004 :00003 :LOCKED ::000 :OFF .

• TIM / TOM monitoring SW can be used for indoor / outdoor drive tests • A special DL FER monitoring tool can be used internally.2 KPIs for Hopping Network The KPIs to analyse the performance and the quality of the network are basically the same than in the non-hopping network. since with FH the drop call rate tends to stay low eventhough the subjective speech quality were not anymore acceptable.1 OPTIMISATION Tools for Network Monitoring The following tools for example can be used for monitoring the quality and the traffic of the network: • Cell Doctor version 1.0. 1998 Page 60/84 . The tool extracts data in text format from the database. consisting of a Nokia 8110i with SW. Drop call rate doesn’t neither correlate directly to the quality. 7. KPIs for the uplink and the downlink RXQUAL distribution. New quality measures are under development and in testing phase to measure the subjective speech quality more accurately. Worse RXQUAL can be tolerated when FH is used. In the following Table. BSS related indicators Uplink quality distribution Downlink quality distribution Short term criteria 0…5.0 Date Oct 23. BSS and NSS related KPIs. These KPIs are more informational than Nokia’s official values! With FH. Only the RXQUAL and Drop Call Rate measures differ from the nonhopping case. a laptop with FMON and postprocessing SW • Ericsson TEMS monitoring tool can be used for the normal drive tests and DL FER monitoring 7. 95% Long term criteria 0…5. 95% 0…5.41 or later in NMS/2000.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 7. 98% Table 11. the criteria for the cumulative uplink and downlink quality distribution could be the following: Table 10. • NDW can be used for Quality / traffic monitoring. the normal BSS and NSS level KPIs are presented. It uses the database of NMS/2000. 98% 0…5. Version 1.18.

98 24h % 4. Call 90 95 24h SDCCH Blocking [%]. BH A-if VMS CGR Blocking [%]. The Frame Erasure Ratio (FER) is a ratio of discarded speech frames compared to all the received speech frames. 95 98 *Note. cell TCH 5 2 BH HO Blocking [%]. there are some differences in a way the RXQUAL distribution should be interpreted. BH PSTN CGR Blocking [%]. 24h Intra MSC HO Success Ratio [%] MSC HO Success Ratio Inter [%] Paging Success Ratio [%] Technically Successful Calls [%] CGR Availability [%] MSC PSTN CGR Availability [%] CGR Availability [%] A-if VMS CGR Availability [%] MSC CGR Blocking [%].1 0. cell TCH TBD TBD BH Access Grant Blocking [%]. per Network transmission Number of transmission alarms per node Customer complaints of NW problems complaints of Customer billing Criteria Eki Eki < 1/1000 subscriber/day < 1/1000 subscriber/year 7. 0… 0… 24h % TBD % TBD Average Interference Band. BH CGR Blocking [%].Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide BSS Related Indicators Short criteria term Long criteria term TCH Availability [%]. 95 97 24h Success Ratio [%]. BH VLR LU Success Ratio for Home Subscriber Intra [%] VLR LU Success Ratio for Roaming Subscriber Intra [%] VLR LU Success Ratio for Home Subscriber Inter [%] VLR LU Success Ratio for Roaming Subscriber Inter [%] Periodic LU Success Ratio [%] Home Subscriber LU Success ratio when visiting PLMN different Home Subscriber LU Success ratio when coming from different PLMN Home NSS Related Indicators Short criteria term 91 85 TBD TBD 100 100 100 100 1 1 1 1 97 97 96 90 97 TBD TBD Long criteria term 96 94 TBD TBD 100 100 100 100 0.0 Date Oct 23. 1998 Page 61/84 . exc.1 0. 24h Controlled Outgoing HO Success [%]. objects which are Locked by User are counted as non available and will reduce the availability value. 95 0… 4. cell 0 0 BH Drop Ratio [%].2 BH Call Blocking [%]. 95 % 4. BSC 93 97 24h Controlled Outgoing HO Success [%] . TCH 95 97 24h Setup Success Rate [%]. MSC 90 95 24h Cell HO Success [%].1 99 99 98 95 99 TBD TBD General Number of alarmsStatistics Element. Also. Intra 96 99 24h of BTSs Exceeding 5% Blocking in BH [%]. 24h 95 99* SDCCH Success Ratio [%].3 RXQUAL in FH Networks Frequency hopping causes some changes in the RXQUAL distribution. Ratio 24h SMS Success Rate. cell 0.5 0. Version 1. 98 Cumulative DL Quality distribution. 0… 4.0.1 0. A speech frame is generally discarded if after the decoding and error correction process any of the category 1a bits is found to be changed based on the three parity bits following them in a speech frame. TCH 5 3 24h Cumulative UL Quality distribution.

The RXQUAL doesn’t indicate how the bit errors were distributed in a speech frame. while in a non-hopping network it is probable that interference or low field strength will affect several consecutive bursts making it harder for the error correction to actually correct errors.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide he FER is a measure of how successfully the speech frame was received after the error correction process and it is thus a better indication of the subjective speech quality compared to the RXQUAL which gives an estimate of the link quality in terms of BER.0 Date Oct 23. The following table gives an idea of the correlation between RXQUAL and FER and between subjective speech quality and different FER classes. FER comparison according to the laboratory tests. Thus.4% 4 . Subjective quality.15% 15 .35% >35% good slightly degraded degraded useless good slightly degraded degraded useless The relation of downlink FER and RXQUAL was measured during a FH trial. it may be concluded that in the frequency hopping networks significant quality deterioration starts at RXQUAL class 6 while in non-hopping network this happens at RXQUAL class 5. One clear observation can be made. RXQUAL vs. The relation is clearly different in the hopping case compared to the non-hopping case. 1998 Page 62/84 . Version 1. the interference or low signal strength tend to occur randomly. in the non-hopping case there are significant amount of samples indicating deteriorated quality (FER>10%) in RXQUAL class 5 while in the hopping case the significant quality deterioration (FER>10%) happens in RXQUAL class 6. The bit error distribution affects the ability of the channel decoding to correct the errors. Table 12. This difference is a consequence of interference and frequency diversities that affect the frequency hopping network.0. The successful error correction leads to less erased frames and thus improves the FER. Because of these effects. The distributions of FER in each RXQUAL class are presented in Figure 7-43 and Figure 7-44. laboratory tests Steady quality/FER value (fast mobile or frequency hopping) RXqual 0-4 5 6 7 FER 0 .

00 % 80.00 % 90.00 % 60.0 Date Oct 23.00 % 50. Measured relation of FER and RXQUAL in a non-hopping case.00 % 60.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide DL FER / RXQUAL (No hopping) 100. DL FER / RXQUAL (ave 3.00 % 0.00 % 20.6 hopping carriers / cell) 100. 1998 Page 63/84 .00 % 0.00 % 20.00 % 40.00 % 10.00 % 40.00 % 90.00 % 80. Measured relation of FER and RXQUAL in frequency hopping case.00 % 30.00 % "0-1" "1-5" "5-10" "1015" Q0 "15100" Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 RXQUAL Q6 Q5 Q7 FER % Figure 7-44.00 % 70.00 % "0-1" "1-5" "5-10" "1015" Q0 "15100" Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 RXQUAL Q6 Q5 Q7 FER % Figure 7-43. Version 1.00 % 30.00 % 50.00 % 70.0.00 % 10.

the calls generating high RXQUAL samples tend to stay on.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide This improvement of FER means that the higher RXQUAL values may be allowed in a frequency hopping network. Version 1. the share of the RXQUAL classes 6 and 7 may increase after FH is switched on. but the improvement is more visible in the call success ratio. the less samples fall in quality class 0 and more samples fall in quality classes 1-6. at the same time the call success rate is significantly improved. in most cases the quality is actually improved. Thus. This may lead to increase in the share of RXQUAL 6-7. In the Figure 7-45. As can be seen from the figures. even if no other changes have been made. Typically. the RXQUAL thresholds affecting handover and power control decisions should be set higher in a network using frequency hopping network. RXQUAL thresholds are used in the handover and power control decisions. However. Instead. it is less likely that a call is dropped because of the radio link timeout.0 Date Oct 23. This may seem to be surprising since it is expected that frequency hopping improves the network quality. there are presented some trial results of a DL RXQUAL distribution with different frequency allocation reuse patterns. There’s bigger difference in downlink than in uplink direction. However.0. Because of the improvement in the relative reception performance on the RXQUAL classes 4-6. The improved tolerance against interference and low field strength in FH network means that it is less likely that the decoding of SACCH frames fails causing increment in the radio link timeout counter. the tighter the reuse becomes. 1998 Page 64/84 . In a frequency hopping network RXQUAL classes 0-5 are indicating good quality.

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0. 1998 Page 66/84 .0 Date Oct 23.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Version 1.

Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Version 1.0.0 Date Oct 23. 1998 Page 67/84 .

00 70.00 70.00 q0 No FH 1/3 pure 1/3 heuris tic 1/1 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 Qu ality C las s e s Figure 7-45. 1/3 fixed.00 80.0 Date Oct 23.00 30.00 90. 1/3 heuristic allocation) UL RXQUAL Distribution 100.00 0. 1/1.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide DL RXQUAL Distribution 100.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 Quality Classes No FH 1/3 pure 1/3 heuristic 1/1 Figure 7-46. 1/3 fixed.0.00 40.00 20. 1/1.00 80.00 20.00 Percentage (%) 60.00 10.00 50. 1/3 heuristic allocation) Version 1. DL RXQUAL distribution of a trial with different frequency allocation reuse patterns (no FH.00 0. 1998 Page 68/84 . UL RXQUAL distribution of a trial with different frequency allocation reuse patterns (no FH.00 10.00 Percentage (%) 60.00 90.

Version 1. If some of those frequencies are more interfered than others. normally the interferers are mobiles located in interfering cells. This is illustrated in Figure 7-47. These calls are likely to experience significantly worse quality. this means that the measured idle channel interference is likely to be the same for all the TRXs that use the same MA-list. because the interfering mobiles are only transmitting during the time slot that has been allocated to them. there might occur differences on the measured idle channel interference levels between the TRXs on the same time slot as explained in the following section. During the busy hours in a non-hopping case. When FH is not used. The frequency hopping has a significant effect on the idle channel interference measurement results. 7. the BSC selects the TRX and the time slot for the traffic channel based on the idle channel interference measurements. The frequency hopping tends to average the quality. In this case. while in the FH case the effect of interference is always present. Especially outside the busy hours. it is probable that time slots are always available on the TRXs having interference free carriers.0. The quality is averaged over the hopping sequence. This is likely to lead to worse quality outside the busy hours. there are probably differences in the measured idle channel interferences between different time slots in the cell. because interference free TRXs may be full. The frequency of the idle time slots changes according to the same sequence. This means that the interfered frequencies are always used as much as the interference free frequencies. However. so in the frequency hopping case all the calls experience average quality instead of some very high quality calls and some very low quality calls. If the cyclic hopping sequence is used. the averaging effect is even stronger. it may happen that after FH is switched on the quality of the calls suffers. If the interference is averaged over more than one SACCH frame. some of the calls have to be allocated to a TRX using interfered frequency. When the frequency hopping is used. Frequency hopping forces all the calls to use all the frequencies in the hopping sequence. Note! In BB FH and RF FH case the frequency specific RXQUAL cannot be measured anymore. This happens.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Frequency hopping forces each call to use all the frequencies in the hopping sequence. It is thus important to compare only busy hour statistics and to keep in mind that the interference problems may not show up outside the busy hours in the non-hopping case.4 Idle Channel Interference Measurement When a new call is established or a handover is performed. 1998 Page 69/84 . the calls tend to be allocated to the TRXs using interference free carriers (the TRX and the time slot are selected based on the UL idle channel interference measurement).0 Date Oct 23. In a case of the random hopping. the frequency of a hopping logical channel is changed about 217 times in a second.

Example of interference distribution in one cyclic hopping case.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Idle channel interference level Low TRX 1 RTSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TRX 2 f1.0. interference is always evenly spread on all the TRXs using the same MA-list as presented in Figure 7-49. If the random hopping sequences are used. Base station TDMA frames 6 frequencies 7 11 15 18 1 4 11 15 18 1 4 7 15 18 1 4 7 11 18 1 4 7 11 15 1 4 7 11 15 18 4 7 11 15 18 1 7 11 15 18 1 4 11 15 18 1 4 7 15 18 1 4 7 11 18 1 4 7 11 15 1 4 7 11 15 18 4 7 11 15 18 1 7 11 15 18 1 4 11 15 18 1 4 7 15 18 1 4 7 11 18 1 4 7 11 15 TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 TRX 5 TRX 6 1 4 7 11 15 18 4 7 11 15 18 1 Mobile 1 8 15 1 8 15 interference 1 8 15 1 8 15 1 8 15 3 frequencies 1 8 15 Figure 7-48. f2. 1998 Page 70/84 . f3 High TRX 3 Path loss to the interfered BTS Interfering mobiles using the same frequencies: f1. Idle channel interference in a case of the random RF hopping. 7.5 Cyclic and Random Hopping Sequences If the cyclic hopping mode is used. Version 1. The distribution of interference presented in this section is the same for both uplink and downlink directions.0 Date Oct 23. the interference caused by a mobile is not necessarily spread evenly on all the hopping TRXs as can be seen in Figure 7-48. f3 Timeslot # Figure 7-47. f2.

it is recommended that cyclic hopping sequences are not used in the areas where the network is interference limited. 1998 Page 71/84 .Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Base station TDMA frames TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 TRX 5 TRX 6 5 6 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 3 2 3 4 5 6 1 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 1 2 4 5 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 1 2 3 4 5 3 4 5 6 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 frequencies Mobile 3 5 1 1 2 1 4 2 6 interference 3 3 4 1 2 3 3 1 6 2 2 5 3 5 5 6 frequencies Figure 7-49. For this reason.0 Date Oct 23. The drawback of the cyclic hopping is that the interference coming from one interferer may affect only some of the TRXs as seen in Figure 7-48. Cyclic: • In the areas where the interference is NOT a problem (low traffic areas) Random: • In the areas where the interference is a problem (high traffic areas) Figure 7-50. Interference distribution when random hopping sequences are used. This limits the number of interferers and compromises the interference diversity.0. Guide to choose between cyclic and random hopping sequences. Version 1.

Thus. This enhances interference diversity. Interference from non-synchronised cell. which was presented in Section 2. Because of the TDMA principle. Version 1.1. Time division used in the GSM systems limits the interference diversity. the better interference is averaged and the better the interference diversity gain.0 Date Oct 23.6. 1998 Page 72/84 . The two extreme cases: 50 % and 100 % overlapping of bursts. the base stations that are located on different sites. The degree of overlapping in non-synchronised network is random but constant between any non-synchronised cell pair and it may be anything between 50 % and 100 % as presented in Figure 7-52. This means that the time slots may be partially overlapping each other as presented in Figure 7-51. are not usually synchronised.0. the interference from one interfering cell may consist two interference sources (mobiles) in uplink direction or two different power levels in downlink direction if downlink power control is used. The more different interferers the link has. However. RTSL 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 Serving cell Interfering cell 0 RTSL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure 7-51. The result of this is a beneficial effect called interference diversity.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Frequency hopping makes it possible to change the interference sources for each TDMA frame. Serving cell 50% 50% 100% Interfering cell Figure 7-52. the interference diversity is only possible among the mobiles that share the same time instant for transmission.

a fast and mainly RXQUAL driven power control is recommended. Power control is the most effective when the used TX power level is kept as low as possible while still maintaining an acceptable link quality. Version 1.0 Date Oct 23.1 Downlink Power Control with BB Hopping In the baseband hopping the BCCH TRX is included in the hopping sequence. significant gain can not be accomplished by intracell handover to another time slot. Consequently. the measurement averaging in BTS should be disabled and aggressive power control parameters should be used. the intracell handover to another time slot changes the interference sources and is feasible if the overall interference situation in the target time slot is better.8 Handover Control Since FH and an aggressive power control cause significant changes in the RXQUAL distribution. Normally. the RXQUAL thresholds have to be increased by 1 or 2 classes (RXQUAL 4 -> RXQUAL 5). 7. This is required. if the downlink power control is used. In order to avoid unnecessary intracell handovers.7. To achieve this. the RXQUAL thresholds triggering handovers have to be adjusted accordingly.0. 7. To avoid such problems. Example HO parameters are presented in Table 9. to ensure that the PC will become triggered before HO. Example PC parameters are presented in Table 8.7 Power Control Power control has been found to improve the quality in FH networks and thus. This means that occasionally some bursts are transmitted by the BCCH TRX using the time slots from 1 to 7. it is recommended to be used in both UL and DL directions.6 Intracell Handover The lack of synchronisation has a positive effect on the interference diversity. it is likely that there are no significantly better time slots available. Thus. 7. In order to make the PC as fast as possible.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 7. Normally the intracell handover is triggered by poor RXQUAL. the downlink signal level may fluctuate dramatically since the BCCH TRX is not using the power control. During busy hours when the traffic in the network is at the maximum.15 dB when downlink power control is used together with baseband hopping. An example of HO parameters for FH networks utilising aggressive power control are presented in Table 9. The GSM specifications require that the BCCH TRX must transmit continuously and always at the full power. the RXQUAL threshold for intracell handover should be set so high that the handover is not attempted before the quality of the call is seriously threatened. because the BCCH frequencies are used in the downlink level measurements of the neighboring cells by the mobiles. This may cause serious problems in the mobile receiver if the mobile is located close to the cell site. However. 1998 Page 73/84 . Also the HO speed should be fast enough but still slower than the PC speed. Because of this. the maximum base station power decrease (bsTxPowerMin) should be limited to 10 . interference is still averaged only between the mobiles sharing the same time instant for transmission.

Neighboring sites should use different HSNs. especially those sites. the frequency collisions can be avoided.9 HSN Planning with Random Hopping The HSN defines the used FH sequence. the same HSNs should be used in different cells inside the site.0. It ensures the collisions to happen randomly between the sites. In random hopping case. 1998 Page 74/84 . which use common frequencies.0 Date Oct 23. Version 1. Thus.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 7. if a common MA list is shared inside the site. The HSN value 0 means cyclic hopping and the values from 1 to 63 mean different random hopping sequences.

21 frequencies are to be allocated to the hopping TRXs.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 8. The number of TRXs can be maximum 12 TRXs per site. 8. Also in some cases the differences in cell level traffic distributions may require that some frequencies are reserved to be used only in the highly loaded cells. In order to avoid interference between the cells of the same site.0. a MAIO plan is made for each site.1.1) as follows: Version 1. only RF hopping can be used. 8. Network layout and TRX configurations. Ho p p in g S ite A B C Ce ll 1 2 1 1 2 3 D 1 2 3 E F 1 2 1 2 3 G 1 2 T RX co u n t 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 T RX s 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 Ave ra g e h o p p in g T RX s/ce ll : 2. On the average there are 2.0 Date Oct 23. The effective reuse on the frequency hopping TRXs can be calculated by using Equation (5. Since fractional loading is required. The benefit in single MA-list implementation is that no frequency planning is required.4 hopping TRXs per cell in the example network. it must be checked that the used frequency band is sufficient to provide acceptable quality.1 Frequency Planning Although actual frequency plan is not needed. 1998 Page 75/84 .4 Figure 8-53.1 PLANNING CASES Planning Case 1: Single MA-list In this example a single MA-list implementation is planned for a small network consisting of 7 sites and 16 sectorised cells. The BCCH frequency plan is made separately and it is not considered here. because each cell has the same MA-list containing all the allocated frequencies.

Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Reff = 21 = 8 .5 % 14.5 % 14.7 23.0. By doing this. they are frame synchronised.5 % lo a d 2.6 % 10.5).6 % 10.3 % 14.4 % 69.1 % 74.6 % 10.7 23.5 % 14.7 23.4 Effective reuse of 8.9 % 6.6 % 2.1 % 61. 8. The load distribution in the network is calculated by using Equations (5.3 % 14.6 % 6. also the BCCH TRX is included in the traffic estimations.1 % Figure 8-54. The average frequency load in the network is 8.6 % 10.6 16.3 % 9. 1998 Page 76/84 .6 Nu m b e r o f tim e slo ts 16 24 32 32 32 24 24 32 16 24 32 32 24 32 32 24 HW lo a d 61.6 % 6.6 %.1. In order to keep the collision probability low enough.3 % 9.3).3 % 74.3 % 74. Load calculations.6 % 6. see Table 6. (5.6 % 10.6 23.3 % 4.3 % 69.7 23. If the maximum frequency load exceeded 13 % -14 %. The maximum frequency load is 10.6 23.4 % 69.4) and (5. the frequency load distribution in the network can be kept more even.1 % 69.6 % Ave ra g e fre q u e n cy lo a d : 8.1 % 74. T ra ffic a t S ite A B C Ce ll 1 2 1 1 2 3 D 1 2 3 E F 1 2 1 2 3 G 1 2 2% b lo ckin g 9. This means that the TDMA frame number is always the same in the sectors of one site.1 % 69. Cells causing high frequency loads tend to deteriorate the quality in the neighboring cells.6 23.1 %. This doesn’t exceed the average frequency load significantly.0 Date Oct 23.2 MAIO Planning Since all the cells of a sectorised site are usually controlled by the same BCF.8 2 . it might make sense to reserve some extra frequencies that would be used only on the highly loaded cells.7 16.6 % 6.1 % 74.3 % F ra ctio n a l F re q u e n cy lo a d 4.1 % 69. because it is only very slightly above the 8 % recommendation.8 % 9.7 9. it is recommended that the average frequency load caused by each cell in the network doesn’t exceed 8 %.8 16.3 % 9.3 % 14.6 % 10.1 % 74. This is acceptable.5 % 9.7 16.5 % 14.3 % 74.6 23.8 % 9. the synchronisation makes it possible avoid interference between the sectors of one site. To prevent intra site and intra cell interference the following requirements have to be fulfilled: Version 1.8 is reasonable for frequency hopping network and it can be expected that the network will have good quality. Since the hopping sequence is derived from the HSN and the TDMA frame number.7 16.9 % 6.6 % 10.6 % 10.8 16. Here.3 % 14.3 % 74.

MAIOoffset is used to control the channel separations between the sectors of the same site. The site to be investigated is the site with biggest TRX configurations that is in this case site C having 3 sectors and 8 hopping TRXs. Version 1.0 Date Oct 23. in order to avoid constant adjacent channel interference between the sectors of the same site. it can be seen that the frequency band of 21 carriers is just enough to allow the implementation of wanted channel separations even in the site with the biggest TRX configurations. However. the channel separation between the TRXs of the same cell should be at least 2. In order to avoid intra cell interference. The MAIO plan is now made for the Site C by using MAIOstep 3 and by selecting the MAIOoffset parameters for the sectors so that the channel (=MAIO) separation of 2 is realised between the sectors. Example MAIO plans are presented in the following pictures.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide • • • All the sectors of one site have to controlled by the same BCF All the sectors of one site have to use the same HSN MAIO planning have to be properly made In order to guarantee interference diversity. The minimum requirement for channel separation between sectors is 1.0. It is thus used to guarantee that intra cell interference doesn’t occur. At first it should be checked that proper channel separations are possible with allocated frequency band. Preferably the separation should be 3 or more. a separation of 2 is highly recommended. a different HSN should be used in the different sites located in the same area. MAIO planning should be done for each site. Equation (5. 1998 Page 77/84 . MAIOstep defines the channel separation between the TRXs of the same cell. Instead it defines the MAIO of the first hopping TRX of the cell. The HSN parameter has to be defined for each site and MAIOoffset and MAIOstep for each cell. MAIOoffseet doesn’t directly define the channel separation between the cells. min N freqs / site = ( N TRX / site − N cell / site ) ⋅ MAIOstep + N cell / site ⋅ S  (8 − 3) ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 2 = 21 → As a result.10) is used. However. In this case the goal is to have a minimum channel separation of 2 between the sectors and 3 between the TRXs of the same cell. These parameters and their functionality are presented in Section 1. especially if UL power control is not used. To check if that is possible with the current frequency band of 21 carriers.

Version 1. 1998 Page 78/84 .or adjacent channel interference between sectors Figure 8-55. Example MAIO plans.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide MAIO Offset determines the MAIO of the first hopping TRX in each sector MAI value for each TDMA frame is calculated by BTS and MS by using HSN and TDMA frame number Site C The sectors share the same HSN MAIOs for the rest of the hopping TRXs are determined by adding MAIO Step to the MAIO of the previous hopping TRX Transmitted frequencies for each TRX during each TDMA frame No co. Example of MAIO planning.0. Site D Site F Site G Figure 8-56.0 Date Oct 23.

Site Cell A B C D E F G 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 TRX count 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 HSN 2 2 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 4 4 3 3 3 1 1 MAIOoffset MAIOstep 0 8 0 0 8 16 0 8 16 0 8 0 8 13 0 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 If more TRXs are later added. The effective reuse on the frequency hopping TRXs can be calculated by using Equation (5. such as NPS/X 3. The frequency allocation can be done by utilising a frequency allocation tool that supports RF hopping with fractional loading.3. The goal is to achieve the highest capacity by employing very tight frequency reuse.1 Defining the Frequency Band and the Number of Frequencies Needed in Each Cell The BCCH frequency plan is made separately and it is not considered here.4 Version 1. 19 frequencies are to be allocated to the hopping TRXs. The target frequency allocation reuse is between 3 and 5.0.0 Date Oct 23. 1998 Page 79/84 .4 hopping TRXs per cell in the example network.2 Planning Case 2: RF FH with Fractional Loading (FAR 3 – 5) The network in this case is the same as in the first planning case. Low effective frequency reuse is possible because each cell has enough frequencies in the hopping sequence to provide good frequency hopping gain and the usage of frequencies can be planned so that the worst potential interferers do not use the same frequency.or adjacent channel interference between the TRXs of the site. meaning that the frequencies are repeated in every 3 to 5 cells. In order to end up with an effective reuse of 8. 8.2. it should me made sure that the MAIO plan for that site is still valid.1) as follows: Reff = 19 = 7 . On the average there are 2.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Table 13.9 2 . 8. This makes it possible to avoid interference between the strongest interferers. Failure to do so may lead to continuous co. Parameters for each cell in the example network. Also power control is to be used both in uplink and in downlink.

9 Ave ra g e fre q u e n cy lo a d : 34.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Effective reuse of 7.1 %) OK Figure 8-57. In the following figure.1 % 34.3 % 74.1 % 74.1 % 69. As a rule of thumb.9 is quite low.4 hopping TRXs per cell = 7.1 % 37.9 carriers per cell.1 % 74.1 % 61.0 % 50.8 16.6 % 37.9 OK OK Frequency allocation reuse = 19 frequencies / 4.8 16. the MA-list lengths were selected so that the frequency load caused by each cell falls between 30 % and 40 %.6 23.3 % 50.1 % 20.1 % 74. The resulting average MA-list length is 4.6 Nu m b e r o f tim e slo ts 16 24 32 32 32 24 24 32 16 24 32 32 24 32 32 24 HW lo a d 61. MA-list length definitions are made for the example network.5 % 34.9 FH freqs per cell = 3.0 % 50.3 % 74.7 23.6 % 34.9 4.3 % 69.1 % 37. the minimum length was 3 in order to guarantee sufficient FH gains.0 % 50. the minimum achievable reuse also depends very much on the environment and the network layout.7 23.3 % 74. see Table 6.0 % 50.0 % 50.3 % 74.1 % 69.0 % lo a d 20.1 % (max.0 % 50.1 % 37. Load and reuse calculations.7 16.1 % 74.9 Average frequency load 34.0 % 33. Ho p p in g S ite A B C Ce ll 1 2 1 1 2 3 D 1 2 3 E F 1 2 1 2 3 G 1 2 T RX co u n t 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 TRX s 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 T ra ffic a t 2% b lockin g 9.1 % 34. However.1 % 69.6 % 37. if the antennas in the urban environment are located too high so that the isolation between the interfering cells provided by the surrounding environment is not exploited.3 % 50.6 % 37. 37.1 % 34. However.0 % 50.5 % 34.0 % 50.0 % 50.4 % 69.0 Date Oct 23.7 16.7 23.6 % 37.3 % M A list le n g th 3 4 6 6 6 4 4 6 3 4 6 6 4 6 6 4 F ra ctio n a l F re q u e n cy lo a d 33.9 Version 1.1 % Effective reuse = 19 frequencies / 2.7 9. For example. Also the BCCH TRX is included in the traffic calculation.6 23.6 23.7 16.0 % 50.6 16.1 % 37. This is used as a basis when the number of frequencies to be allocated in each cell is defined.7 23.2) as follows: FAR = 19 = 3.0.6 23. but it can be expected that with implementation of frequency allocation reuse of 3 to 5 the network will have acceptable quality provided that the network model in the frequency allocation tool is accurate.4 % 69. The frequency allocation reuse can now be calculated by using Equation (5. In this example.6 % Ave ra g e M A list le n g th : 4. a higher effective reuse may have to be used in order to maintain good quality. the frequency load caused by each cell should range from 30 % to 50 % as the frequency allocation reuse ranges from 3 to 5.0 % 50. 1998 Page 80/84 .0 % 50.

With 17 carriers the frequency allocation reuse would reduce to 3. Actually.2. adjacent channel interference is prevented.3. The minimum channel separation between the frequencies in the MA-list should be at least one carrier in order to avoid intracell adjacent channel interference.47.9. The difference can be so significant.2 Frequency Allocation and Analysis Now. 1998 Page 81/84 .1 %. This would match the rule of thumb perfectly. The removal of the intra cell channel separation requirement makes it possible for the allocation tool to find a better allocation that minimises the interference more effectively. Preferably the separation of two should be used unless that requirement significantly degrades the allocation result (=increases the resulting value of the cost function).0 Date Oct 23.47. as we would now have a frequency load of 34. the allocation should be performed with help of an frequency allocation tool that supports fractional loading and is able to minimise the interference in the network such as NPS/X 3.0. Version 1. once the number of frequencies to be allocated for each cell is defined. The MAIOstep of 2 ensures that adjacent carriers are not used at the same time. The effective reuse with 17 carriers would be 7. that it might make sense to deliberately force the fractional load to 50 % or less so that the intracell separation requirement can be removed.1 % and frequency allocation reuse 3. it might even be possible to reduce the frequency band a little bit. then it is advantageous to allow consecutive frequencies in the MA-list and set the MAIOstep parameter to 2 in that cell.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The average frequency load is 34.1. In most cases this should provide low enough collision probability for a network having a frequency allocation reuse 3. 8. An example of how intra cell adjacent channel interference is avoided is presented in the following figure. However. Consecutive carriers allowed in the MA lists Fractional load in every sector is 50% or less (fractional load = MAL_length / Nb_TRX) MAIOstep is set to 2 No intra cell adjacent channel interference! Figure 8-58. Thus. Whether the quality will still be acceptable depends on the quality of the frequency plan as well as the network layout and surrounding environment. if the fractional load on a cell is 50 % or less. The allocation parameters can be similar as in the normal non-hopping case. Example of MAIO planning.

The frequency allocation can be now performed normally. Fractional loading is not utilised. the RXQUAL analysis tool is sensitive to the fractional loading! The lower the fractional load. Version 1.0. 1998 Page 82/84 . the better quality seem to be predicted even when it is likely that the quality in reality should be worse. It should be made sure that no power dividing losses are included since in the reality there are no power splitters. Because of this.2 and 3.2 or older) by creating one virtual cell for each site and by transmitting this cell through multiple directional antennas for example by using power divider feature in the planning tool. the tool is only suitable to analysing different frequency plans while the fractional loading (=MA-list lengths) remain the same. 8. Since fractional loading is used.3 Planning Case 3: RF FH with Frequency Sharing The network in this case is the same as in the first planning case. The interference diversity and fractional loading ensures that even if adjacent channel interference occurs. the channel separation should be set to at least 2. 8. all the cells in one area using the same frequency band should have a different HSN in order to maximise interference diversity. it won’t be continuous and thus its effect on the quality is reduced. It supports frequency hopping and fractional loading. Instead. As a result. it is now possible to create an interference matrix that describes how much the sites interfere each other.3. It should also be noted that the indicated RXQUAL doesn’t necessarily correspond to the actual measured RXQUAL but is still gives an indication of the overall quality of the frequency plan and the locations of the probable interference areas. downlink power control can also be fully utilised. more advanced analysis tool such as the RXQUAL analysis tool available in NPS/X 3. Since frequency sharing is not used in this case.3 should be used.1 Frequency Planning In this scheme all the sectors of the same site use a common MA-list. The frequency sharing arrangement makes it possible to use FH with sufficient number frequencies in the hopping sequence even with small TRX configurations without need to utilise fractional loading that requires special planning tool support. The benefit is that the frequency planning can be accomplished by using conventional frequency planning tools that don’t support fractional loading. The RXQUAL analysis tool is suitable for comparing different frequency allocations and for finding the locations of possible interference spots where the quality is likely to be the worst. Since this is RF hopping. Each of these virtual cells should have as many TRXs as there are hopping TRXs in all the sectors of that site. From the interference point of view the frequency sharing effectively combines all the sectors into one virtual cell that covers the combined coverage area of all the sectors in that site. each MA-list will have as many frequencies as there are hopping TRXs in all the sectors of each site. The BCCH frequencies are planned normally. since it is usually possible to get a sufficient number of frequencies in the hopping sequence even without it. However. The RXQUAL tool estimates the typical RXQUAL for every pixel on the digital map.0 Date Oct 23. Since fractional loading is not used. resulting in one common MA-list for each site. it is very difficult to analyze the frequency plan with conventional C/I analysis. This can be modeled in the planning tool (NPS/X 3. In order to avoid intracell interference.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Adjacent channels may be allowed between the sectors of the same site especially if all of them are not adjacent to each other.

3. 8. To prevent intra site and intra cell interference the following requirements have to be fulfilled: • • • All the sectors of one site have to controlled by the same BCF All the sectors of one site have to use the same HSN MAIO planning have to be properly made In order to guarantee interference diversity.2 MAIO Planning MAIO planning is needed in order to avoid mutual interference between the sectors of the same site.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 19 frequencies reserved for non-BCCH TRXs 19 frequencies reserved for non-BCCH TRXs H o p p in g Network layout: S ite A B C Ce ll 1 2 1 1 2 3 T RX co u n t 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 T RX s 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 Each cell has aasufficient number of hopping Each cell has sufficient number of hopping frequencies even without fractional loading frequencies even without fractional loading A 2 3 1 3 1 2 B C 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 D 3 E D 1 2 3 1 E F F G 1 1 2 1 2 3 G 1 2 The same MA list is shared among The same MA list is shared among all the sectors of one site all the sectors of one site Ave ra g e h o p p in g T RX s/ce ll : 2.4 hopping TRXs per cell == 7. MAIOStep should be set to 1 in every sector and MAIOOffset must be selected for each sector so that the MAIOs of the hopping TRXs in one site will be in consecutive order. 1998 Page 83/84 .9 Effective reuse 19 frequencies 2. there will be co-channel interference between those sectors unless MAIO planning is properly done. Since the sectors of the same site use the same MA-list. Network layout and the calculation of the needed MA-list lengths.4 hopping TRXs per cell 7. a different HSN should be used in the different sites located in the same area.0 Date Oct 23.9 OK OK MAIO planning needed MAIO planning needed Figure 8-59.4 Effective reuse ==19 frequencies / /2. MAIO planning is simple in this case. Version 1.0.

Example of MAIO planning. Alternative option is to use the RXQUAL analysis tool of NPS/X 3.3. conventional C/I analysis is possible. the same virtual cell with power dividers –setup that was used in the frequency allocation phase must be used in the analysis.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Frequencies for the MA list are planned with help of frequency planning tool. Minimum separation is 2. similar setup as in the C/I analysis has to be used. 1998 Page 84/84 .3 Analysis Since fractional loading is not used. MAIOStep is 1 The sectors share the same HSN MAIOoffset for each sector is set so that the MAIOs for TRXs are in consecutive order Figure 8-60.0 Date Oct 23.2. Version 1.0. 8. Since it is not possible to take the benefits of MAIO management into account (=no interference between the cells of the same site). However.

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