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GENETICS

GENETICS
• The study of heredity
• A discipline of biology that studies
genes and the passing of
characteristics from one generation to
the next
HEREDITY
• The sum of all biological processes by
which particular characteristics are
transmitted from parents to their
offspring
VARIATION
• Any difference between cells, individual
organisms, or groups of organisms of any
species caused either by genetic differences
or by the effect of environmental factors on
the expression of the genetic potentials
HISTORY OF
GENETICS
ARISTOTLE & HIPPOCRATES

• Put forth a few theories regarding how parental


characters are passed to the next generation
MENDEL’S EXPERIMENT
• Pisum Sativum (green pea plant)
• - a green pea plant gave rise to a
similar green pea plant
7 PAIRS OF CONTRASTING CHARACTERS
DIPLOID
• Two copies of each chromosome, one from
its father and one from its mother
• A form of one specific gene
• Depending on which alleles an
individual has received will
determine how their genes are
expressed
• Certain alleles can dominate
the expression of a particular
gene

GENETIC TRAITS
A.Dominant
– (always expressed)
B.Recessive
– (subordinate to dominant trait)
C.Intermediate
– (partially expressed)
D.Polygenic
– (due to multiple genes)
GENOTYPE | PHENOTYPE
• The genetic • The physical
combination of two appearance of the
alleles genotype
• Can also be
influenced by the
environment
GENETIC TESTING
• The sequencing of human DNA in order
to discover genetic differences, anomalies,
or mutations that may prove pathological.
CHROMOSOMES
• A threadlike
structure of nucleic
acids and protein
found in the nucleus
of most living cells,
carrying genetic
information in the
form of genes
LAWS OF
GENETICS
• Confirmed Mendelian laws of inheritance and the
hypothesis that genes are located on chromosome
QUIZ