0 views

Uploaded by James Russell Abellar

- Lesson Plan - Teaching Poem
- Action Research State of the Art Burns
- Full-Time Kindergarten in Saskatchewan, part two: Findings (2006)
- INFLUENCE OF TEACHER’S SUBJECT MATTER KNOWLEDGE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF KISWAHILI LANGUAGE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KATHONZWENI SUB-COUNTY, KENYA
- Information Literacy Lesson Plan (CRCT)
- department syllabus
- Project Proposal (Outstanding Teacher)
- Impact Study
- vision statement
- Van Houten Tri-fold
- Language games.docx
- 1997 - Freire - Pedagogia de La Autonomia
- tws reflections
- Jrnl Week 3
- 12 bcp operation odyssey
- Taking badges to school A school based badge system and its impact.docx
- digital citizenship portfolio
- Midterm Math 30 2
- 201672 the Use of Think Pair Share Technique To
- Department of Education

You are on page 1of 51

Chapters

Theoretical Framework

Conceptual Framework

Research Hypothesis

Definition of Terms

Interest in Mathematics

Study Habits

Teaching Skills

Instructional Materials

Other factors

III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design

Research Instruments

Research Procedure

Model of Mastery Learning In Mathematics Among Grade 7 Students of Selected

MAT- MATHEMATICS

2020

Chapter I

A good educator prepares children to meet successfully with life in today’s society.

The quality of teaching and learning in mathematics is a major challenge for educators.

Mathematics has become part of our daily lives. It is all around us. It perceives life

at any age, in any circumstances. The values go beyond the classroom and the school.

In the New Book of Knowledge, “it is used in many ways from figuring out how much

designing bridges and airplanes, in controlling traffics and in keeping nuclear reactors

working. All of these require mathematics that was developed as someone mathematical

games.” With mathematics, one can create a set of consistent rules and regulations and

worldwide. It is a subject that has direct relationship with other subjects, particularly

essential tool that can be used to improve life. However, nowadays especially in a

classroom situation, one cannot deny the fact that mathematics is the most hated subject

particularly by high school students. Some researchers found out that the main reason of

students’ low proficiency in Mathematics is their attitude towards the subject which they

Teaching mathematics is not only concerned with the computational know- how of

the subject but is also concerned with the selection of the mathematical content and

one should use the teaching methods, strategies and pedagogic resources that are much

more fruitful in gaining adequate responses from the students. The good mastery of

Mastery Learning endorses the belief that all students can learn and achieve the

same level of content mastery when provided with the appropriate learning conditions

(including time) (Bloom, 1971). Mastery is defined in terms of a subject’s objectives and

referenced) tests. This level of performance is usually 75 or 80% of the marks available

for the „mastery‟ test. There is little or no delay between marking and feedback, and

students failing to meet the mastery level are provided with remedial activities before a

many times as required to demonstrate mastery, but practically, and in the current

implementation, three times). However, Mastery Learning is not a recent innovation, but

attitudes of the students and their poor mastery learning towards mathematics. Moreover,

it is necessary that teaching should become more creative and flexible to give students a

A number of teaching and learning methods have been developed and utilized to

teachers should incorporate motivational activities in their lessons and the use of

computer (ICT) in their class discussions to engage students and/or catch their attentions

(Balala, 2016).

In this study, the researcher would like to identify those factors that can affect the

B. Conceptual Framework of the Study

The paradigm in figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of this study. It shows

that there are two variables under study: the Independent variables (Factors) and the

Dependent Variables (Mastery Learning in Math) and these variables was identified using

models.

This study was to determine whether there are significant relationships among

The factors that can affect the mastery of learning of grade 7 in mathematics will

be determine using the multi-regression analysis. It is from these variables that the

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

FACTORS

- Intellectual Interest - Family Support/ Financial Support

- Teaching Skills/ skills - Teacher’s Personality Traits

- Attitudes towards Math - Instructional Materials used by the teacher

- Household Cores - School Distance

- Class Size/Population - Attitude of the parents

- Sex and Age - Study Habits

- Parents Educational Background - School Facilities

DEPENDENT VARIABLES

The learner is the subject of schooling process. The teacher is accountable only in

so far as what the learner brings into the learning situations. The student himself affects

Teachers have a great influence in the students’ outlook of life. Teachers play the

key role in the students’ acquisitions of knowledge. However, both teacher and student

Satisfaction with the faculty had the strongest influenced on the academic

performance of the students. With conducive setting of learning, the learners will be more

motivated to study.

education with the purpose of promoting their academic and social success.

C. Statement of the Problem

This study will determine the factors that can affect the mastery learning of

1. How does the family and financial support of the parents affect the mastery of

2. How does the age and sex affect the mastery of learning of the students in

Mathematics 7?

3. How does the study hour and arithmetic background affect the mastery learning

4. How does the medium of instructions used by the teacher affect the mastery

5. How does the instructional materials used by the teacher affects the mastery

in mathematics 7?

D. Hypotheses

Significance of the Study

The subject which most frequent poor mastery of learning of the students is

achievement in the life of the students. It is expected that schools possess the background

School Administrator. This research may serve as the basis for school

administrators to plan and prepare guidelines for improving and understand the real

situations in their school which enable them to provide the teachers opportunities to

improve their teaching skills through trainings, workshops, seminars, peer tutoring, and

further studies and conferences that enrich the mastery of learning of the students

Teachers. The outcomes of this study will give insights to the educators in carrying

out their mission to have a better performance. This will also serve as a guide for

educators in improving their field of work. Increasingly, this study will also motivate the

students as well as the teachers on how to face the challenges affecting the mastery of

Parents. Parents will know and realize how important the involvement of parents

Students. This study awakens and enlightens the students on the importance of

Moreover, this study is of utmost importance to the Grade 7 junior high school

students in dealing with solving mathematical problem. The results of this study will also

guide them in acquiring purposive knowledge and skills that are applicable to their daily

living. And we found out the main factors of poor mastery of learning in mathematics

among grade 7 junior high school students of Madanding National High School.

Researcher. The results of the study will serve as guide and basis on how to

Future Researchers. The study will provide them with information they need for

Finally, the results of this study will make educators better aware of their teaching

strategies and methods as expected from them and will contribute to a better and more

effective supervision and application of mathematical instruction. And propose the ways

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study is firstly concerned with factors that can affect the mastery of learning

This study is focus only to the Grade 7 Students of Madanding National High

School with a purpose of finding out whether or not their factors affects the mastery of

learning in mathematics. The respondents of the study are the 3 sections of Grade 7

Definition of Terms

For better clarification and understanding of the terms related to this study, the

knowledge in Mathematics.

and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High

School, and two years of Senior High School) to provide sufficient time for mastery of

concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary

or equipment used. It can high technology or simple materials that can use in learning

preference.

Interest. This refers to the amount of the students’ dislike or like of particular things.

Personality Traits. This refers to the good relationship of the mathematics teachers with the

students.

Factors - contributing to the performance of the learners.

determine which factors matter most, which factors can be ignored, and how these factors

dependent variable y(Target) and one or more independent variables denoted X(Inputs).

Strategy- refer to the structure, system, methods, techniques, procedures and processes

that a teacher uses during instruction. These are strategies the teacher employs to assist

student learning.

Reading Comprehension- is the ability to process text, understand its meaning, and to

II. Review of Related Literature

mathematics tests for the last decade has become a major challenge to Philippine

education. The Department of Education attributed this problem to students’ poor reading

figure 1 above. The causes of this problem are many and cut across all stakeholders in

education. In other words, the causes of poor performance in mathematics among junior

secondary school students emanates from the schools, students, teachers as well as in

the environment. But in the past many efforts were made to bring a lasting solution to this

problem.

For instance, Umameh, (2011) stated that events like the comparative Education

Study and Adaptation Centre (1976) that took care of the secondary level mathematics

syllabus, the Benin Conference (1977) and The National Critique Workshop at Onitsha

as well as recently The National Mathematics Centre, all did a lot in ending the problem

Research Center (CCRC), redesigned programs “may have the potential to improve the

outcomes of developmental math students” [Hodara, 2011, p.2]. She concluded that it is

difﬁcult to determine the effectiveness of new pedagogical practices because of the poor

internal validity of many studies. The results of these studies were inconclusive regarding

the determinants of students’ success. However, there was evidence suggesting that

students with learning disabilities and lower-achieving students might beneﬁt more than

test stress are very important for secondary school students since they are directly or

indirectly related to achievement (Hamid, Shahrill, Matzin, Mahalle, & Mundia, 2013).

They argued that, among their analyzed factors, the most important variables are

mathematics anxiety and test stress, and these two variables were found to have a

esteem and proactive coping have diverse effects on the students‟ academic

achievement. Buelow and Barnhart (2015) found that mathematics anxiety, worrying

about being successful, social concerns, test anxiety and physiological anxiety affected

Bono, 2013). According to results from different studies (Buelow & Barnhart, 2015; Hamid

et al., 2013; Núñez-Peña et al., 2013), a number of affective factors have relationships

with the mathematics achievement; these factors include mathematics anxiety, test

stress, worry about being successful, psychological anxiety, among several others.

(TIMSS) 1999, PISA 2003 and PISA 2006 studies, students‟ mathematics achievement

depends not only on affective factors such as student/family-related variables, but also

The research literature indicates positive effects of mastery learning on students,

especially in the areas of achievement, attitudes toward learning, and the retention of

content (Guskey & Pigott, 1988; Kulik, Kulik, & Bangert-Drowns, 1990; Anderson, 1994;

Trigg, 2013). Why then isn’t the use of Mastery Learning widespread? The answers lie in

its intensive resource use and the (usual) requirement to allow students to work at their

own pace.

Reference

Cueto, S., Guerrero, G., Leon, J., Zapata, M., & Freire, S. (2014). The relationship

mathematics in fourth grade in Peru. Oxford Review of Education, 40(1), 50–72. doi:

10.1080/03054985.2013.873525

K. Demir, D., & Kalender, Ġ. (2014). Teacher and school-related factors that promote

Skirbekk, V., Bordone, V., & Weber, D. (2014). A cross-country comparison of math

Verešová, M., & Malá, D. (2016). Attitude toward school and learning and academic

Nitra/Slovaki

Chapter III

Research Methodology

This chapter describes the methodology used for the descriptive, survey research

study. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors affects the mastery of

learning of the grade 7 students of Madanding National High School. First, the research

design section will define the type of research design, determination of sample, the

research instrument, and the procedures used for the study. Second, the data analysis

section will define all the variables used in the study, as well as describe the statistical

analysis process of the study. Finally, the validity section focuses on the reliability and

Research Design

study focuses on the present condition. The purpose is to find new truth, which may come

increased insights into factors, which are operating, the discovery of a new causal

relationship, a more accurate formulation of the problem to be solved and many others.

Since this study measured data that already exists and the number of respondents

is not large, the descriptive – correlation method of studies is best suited. As mentioned,

the student-related factors, the teacher-related factors and parent- related factors were

The respondents in this study were the seventy (70) grade 7 students of

Research Instrument

The main tool used in this study was a researcher – made questionnaire –

checklist. Set of questionnaire-checklist was constructed for the student respondents and

interest in Mathematics, their study habits and their teachers’ personality traits, teaching

Mathematics presented five(5) statements and the students’ study habits presented

ten(10) situations. These were given one set of five checkboxes each. The five

5 – Always

4 – Often

3 – Sometimes

2 – Rarely

1 – Never

materials used in teaching as rated by the students. Each statement was given one set

5 – Always

4 – Often

3 – Sometimes

2 – Rarely

1 – Never

Part 3 obtained family and financial support as answered by the students. Each statement

was given one set of five checkboxes. Again the five checkboxes were ranked as:

5 – Always

4 – Often

3 – Sometimes

2 – Rarely

1 – Never

Research Procedure

The original title proposed by the researcher was checked, revised and rechecked

by the researcher’s adviser and three (3) members of the panel to maintain conformity on

the subject of research. The questionnaire-checklist that aims to draw out proper

responses on the objectives of this study was constructed. This questionnaire – checklist

made by the researcher and was presented to, analyzed and checked by the research

Permit to conduct research and study was secured of letter requesting permission

to the office of the Schools Division Superintendent and to the principal Madanding

and analyzed according to the research design described in this chapter using Microsoft

Excel and prepared for final presentation to the experts of different fields of specialization.

Statistical Treatment of Data

1.1 Interest

Weighted Mean

3.1 Family and Financial Support

Mean, median, mode, skewness and

4. The level of students’ Mastery

kurtosis.

learning.

Linear Regression Analysis: Factors Influencing Teachers and Teachers

Chapter I

Introduction

The literature claims that the teachers are vital in uplifting education at primary and

secondary levels (Wong, 2003; Harris & Sass, 2008). In this modern era, the teacher

effectiveness has been given increased importance across different nations (Lowrie &

Jorgensen, 2015), as effective teachers are able to enhance the performance of their

students compared to the poor teachers (Hanushek & Wobmann, 2007). Consequently,

teachers are entirely blamed for lower students’ performance without comprehending the

factors influencing teachers and teacher effectiveness. In fact, teacher effectiveness does

Teacher education level and teacher experience, two main attributes of teacher

quality, have gained attention and have been the focus of many investigations. However,

achievement and both teacher education level and experience are in conflict, with some

There are various factors influencing the teachers and their effectiveness. Some

of the key factors influencing the mathematics teachers are the teacher content

classroom, extra working hours and unhealthy relationship with colleagues and

administrators.

According to McKeachie (1979), teaching effectiveness generally is described as

the ‘degree to which one has facilitated student achievement of educational goals’ (p.

385). Although specific educational goals vary among courses and disciplines, the

apparent overall goal of teaching is student learning (Cohen, 1981; Marsh & Roche, 2000;

Murray, 2005; Svinicki & McKeachie, 2010). Hence, becoming a more effective teacher

identified clarity of course objectives as one of the three most important strategies for

student learning in higher education (effect size d = .75). Clear lesson objectives or

intended learning outcomes facilitate learning by guiding the teacher in what to teach and

helping students focus their learning activities on the relevant concepts and skills (Hattie,

2011; Svinicki & McKeachie, 2010). In order to be most effective, lesson objectives should

be challenging (Locke & Latham, 1990) and lecturers should support students to develop

The paradigm in figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of this study. It shows

that there are two variables under study: the independent variables (Factors Influencing

Teachers and Teachers Efficiency) and the Dependent Variables (Teaching Efficiency)

This study was to determine whether there are significant relationships among

The factors that can influence the Teachers and Teaching Efficiency among

these variables that the conclusions and recommendations of this study will be derived.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

- Age

- Gender

- Years of Teaching Experience DEPENDENT VARIABLES

- Teaching Methods/Educational

Attainment Teaching Efficiency

- Work Loads

- Student Population

- Instructional Materials

- Student Behavior

- Family Background

- Monthly Salary

This study will determine the factors that can affect the mastery learning of grade

7 students in mathematics.

1. Does the Teacher Career Satisfaction is the factor influencing the teacher and

2. Does the Age and Gender is the factor influencing the teacher and teaching

3. Does the Student’s population and Student’s behavior is the factor influencing

mathematics teacher?

D. Hypotheses

The following are the hypotheses of the study:

1.2 Age

1.3 Gender

Teaching mathematics effectively depends on the content knowledge and

pedagogical methods employed by the teachers. To begin, the teachers must be well

versed with the mathematics content knowledge, as to ensure that correct mathematical

concepts are taught to the students. The mathematics teachers regarded mathematical

content knowledge at the level more significant than the broader mathematical context

This research may serve as the basis for school administrators and as well as to

the teachers to be more effective or efficient the teaching pedagogy. Teachers can be

more creative by going beyond the instructional method of teaching, use student centered

The outcomes of this study will give insights to the Mathematics teachers in

carrying out their mission to have a better teaching pedagogy in spite of the factors and

challenges facing outside and inside the school premises. This will also serve as a guide

for educators in improving their field of work. Increasingly, this study will also motivate the

students as well as the teachers on how to face the challenges affecting the teaching

Teachers of Madanding National High School. And we found out the main factors

Finally, the results of this study will make educators better aware of their teaching

strategies and methods as expected from them and will contribute to a better and more

F. Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study is firstly concerned with factors influencing the Teachers and Teaching

This study is focus only to the Mathematics Teachers of Madanding National High

School with a purpose of finding out whether or not their f factors influencing the Teachers

School.

The respondents of the study are the Mathematics Teachers for school year 2019–

2020.

Definition of Terms

To make this study more understandable, the following terms are operationally

defined.

Regression Analysis- is a reliable method of identifying which variables have impact on

determine which factors matter most, which factors can be ignored, and how these factors

dependent variable y(Target) and one or more independent variables denoted X(Inputs).

Pedagogy- refers to the “interactions between teachers, students, and the learning

Teaching Efficiency- is the ability to process text, understand its meaning, and to

Teachers play a vital role in the implementation of the education plans at school

level. Teachers are the most influential factor in students’ learning process. Therefore,

teachers need to develop the three dimensions of learning skills – basic skills such as

reasoning and problem-solving; and effective skills such as self-esteem and self-image.

There are several pedagogical researches have shown that what teachers do in

the classroom is undoubtedly the key educational determinant in students’ learning and

achievement. It goes without saying that not all teaching practices are equal in this

respect. It is therefore important to identify and promote the most effective practices, that

is to say, practices which help to achieve desired learning outcomes in the most effective

way. Quality teaching is the use of selected pedagogical techniques to produce learning

viewed as two characteristics that are related to teacher quality. They may also be viewed

as important criteria in selecting teachers, serving as proxy variables for skill level or

expertise. Research on the impact of teaching experience and teacher education level on

student achievement has a long history, beginning in the 1960s, of both elementary- and

Reference

Akiri, A. A. (2014). Teachers ’ career satisfaction and students ’ academic performance

in Delta Public Secondary Schools. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 4(1),

267–272. http://doi.org/10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n1p267

Aydin, A., Uysal, S., & Sarier, Y. (2012). The effect of gender on job satisfaction of

teachers : A meta-analysis study. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 356–

362. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.122

Hanushek, E. A., & Wobmann, L. (2007). Education quality and economic growth.

Cooperative Learning: The Teacher's Role. In R. M. Gillies, A. Ashman & J. Terwel (Eds.),

Teacher's Role in Implementing Cooperative Learning in the Classroom (pp. 9-37). New

Kosgei, A., Mise, J. K., Odera, O., & Ayugi, M. E. (2013). Influence of teacher

teaching. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 9(3), 319-

328.

Mabekoje, S. O. (2009). Gender differences in job satisfaction among secondary school

99–108.

Murage, W. S., & Kibrra, W. L. (2014). Teachers related factors that influence secondary

school teachers job satisfaction levels in public secondary schools in Mombasa district,

practices, teachers' beliefs and attitudes Creating Effective Teaching and Learning

pp 61- 78.

Challenges and Issues on the Integration of Spiral Progression Approach in

Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

from Bruner’s Spiral curriculum model (Lucas, 2011). Bruner stressed that teaching

should teacher as that of translating information into a format appropriate to each child’s

current state of understanding. Davis (2007) added that Hilda Taba also influenced the

design of spiral curriculum that organized around concepts, skills, or values in horizontal

integration of learning. Based on the given arguments, the effectiveness of the curriculum

relies on the teacher’s knowledge about the curriculum, his/her teaching strategies and

The idea in spiral progression approach is to expose the learners into a wide

variety of concepts/topics and disciplines, until they mastered it by studying it over and

over again but with different deepening of complexity. In relation to secondary Math

curriculum, Sanchez (2014) explained that, Math is composed of five areas, namely

Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry, Patterns and Algebra Statistics

and Probability

In high school, the "spiral curriculum" not only requires good teachers who could

handle multiple disciplines, but also a different type of textbook. Students cannot have

four textbooks each year for example, for the Mathematics to cover all five areas of the

Patterns and Algebra Statistics and Probability. Using four separate textbooks will not

define how each of these areas will be covered in each year of high school. In fact, one

of the materials in school that operationally defines what will be covered is the

textbook. Thus, without a textbook, the content of these science courses will be

unclear. The main features of Spiral Progression Approach are the following:

However, in new secondary math curriculum implemented last 2012, the concept

of those four major areas are being taught all at the same time. Each year students are

exposed to spiral progression approach, wherein the four areas are being taught per

grading period.

The Spiral Curriculum The concept of a spiral curriculum is one in which there is a

reiteration of concepts, subjects or themes throughout the course. Each time the concept

the concept builds on the previous one. This method of learning was first described by

Taba in 1962 and popularized by Bruner in 1977 (Taba, 1962 & Bruner, 1977b). The spiral

method of learning information is intuitive and repetitive in nature. Many basic concepts

B. Conceptual Framework of the Study

The paradigm in figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of this study. It shows

that there are two variables under study: the independent variables (Challenges and

This study was to determine whether there are significant relationships among

challenges and issues affects the Spiral Progression Approach in Teaching Mathematics.

The challenges and issues affects the Spiral Progression Approach in Teaching

variables that the conclusions and recommendations of this study will be derived.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

DEPENDENT VARIABLES

- Age

- Gender

- Years of Teaching Experience

- Teaching Methods/Educational

Attainment Spiral Progression Approach in

- Work Loads Teaching Mathematics

- Student Population

- Instructional Materials

- Student Behavior

- Textbook

G. Statement of the Problem

This study will determine the challenges and issues in integration of spiral

a. Does the Age and Gender is the factor influencing in integration of spiral

b. Does the Student’s population and Student’s behavior is the factor influencing

curriculum.

H. Hypotheses

1.10 Age

1.11 Gender

1.18 Content

Significance of the Study

spiral curriculum. After the mastery of the initial topic, the student “spirals upwards” as the

new knowledge is introduced in the next lesson, enabling him/her to reinforce what is

already learned. In the end, a rich breadth and depth of knowledge is achieved. With this

procedure, the previously learned concept is reviewed hence improving its retention. And

pedagogical methods employed by the teachers. To begin, the teachers must be well

versed with the mathematics content knowledge, as to ensure that correct mathematical

concepts are taught to the students. The mathematics teachers regarded mathematical

content knowledge at the level more significant than the broader mathematical context

This research may serve as the basis for school administrators and as well as to

the teachers to be more effective using the Spiral Progression Approach in teaching.

Teachers can be more creative by going beyond the instructional method of teaching, use

The outcomes of this study will give insights to the Mathematics teachers in spite

of challenges facing outside and inside the school premises. This will also serve as a

guide for educators in improving their field of work especially in Mathematics curriculum.

Moreover, this study is of utmost importance to the Public Secondary Mathematics

Finally, the results of this study will make educators better aware of their teaching

This study is firstly concerned with the Challenges and Issues in Integrating Spiral

Municipality of Lambayong.

Lambayong with a purpose of finding out the challenges and issues affecting the Spiral

The respondents of the study are the Selected Mathematics Teachers in the

Definition of Terms

To make this study more understandable, the following terms are operationally

defined.

Spiral Progression Approach is a technique often used in teaching where first the basic

facts of a subject are learned, without worrying about details. Then as learning

progresses, more and more details are introduced, while at the same time they are related

to the basics which are reemphasized many times to help enter them into long-term

memory.

Spiral Curriculum can be defined as a course of study in which students will see the

same topics throughout their school career, with each encounter increasing in complexity

Numbers and Number Sense can refer to "an intuitive understanding of numbers, their

Geometry the branch of mathematics concerned with the properties and relations of

Patterns and Algebra is a branch of mathematics that deals with general statements of

relations, utilizing letters and other symbols to represent specific sets of numbers and

Statistics and Probability two related but separate academic disciplines. Statistical

analysis often uses probability distributions, and the two topics are often studied together.

However, probability theory contains much that is mostly of mathematical interest and not

Regression Analysis- is a reliable method of identifying which variables have impact on

determine which factors matter most, which factors can be ignored, and how these factors

dependent variable y(Target) and one or more independent variables denoted X(Inputs).

The purpose of the study was to investigate the challenges and issues in

spiral curriculum. After the mastery of the initial topic, the student “spirals upwards” as the

new knowledge is introduced in the next lesson, enabling him/her to reinforce what is

already learned. In the end, a rich breadth and depth of knowledge is achieved. With this

procedure, the previously learned concept is reviewed hence improving its retention. And

In the old curriculum, learners were taught Science and Mathematics using the

learned comprehensively and with much depth. On the other hand, in the new

top of this, the spiral approach is followed, in lieu of the discipline-based approach utilized

The K-12 education program, serves a response to the urgent need to improve the

quality of Philippine basic education. The aim of this reform is to decongest and enhance

the curriculum so as to facilitate the mastery of basic competencies. This paper concludes

that the spiral approach by John Bruner can contribute to the achievement of this aim.

Integrated and seamless learning, as one of the salient features of the K to 12 Education

Program, is indeed not impossible because the new curricula of the subjects follow a

spiral progression where learning of skills, values, knowledge and attitudes increase in

"American schools follow a "spiral curriculum" in mathematics; that is, they spend

such a substantial proportion of time on review each year that only limited progress can

be made with new material…. American students who perform poorly in arithmetic are

subject to a special form of the spiral curriculum, which might be termed the circular

curriculum": they repeat arithmetic over and over until they stop studying math"

Bruner suggested that such a curriculum would be structured “around the great

issues, principles and values that a society deems worthy of the continual concern of its

members” (Emling, 1977, p.230). Second, each visitation increases depth of knowledge.

The prior concepts and subject content are enriched with new knowledge with each

visitation. Each recursive visitation has added knowledge and skills that increase learning

opportunities. These drive the student toward mastery of the subject matter. Third, all

knowledge and skills are tied back to the foundational basis, the knowledge of the student.

New knowledge and skills are linked directly to the learning of previous concepts and

Reference

Armstrong, J. R (1968). The Relative Effects of Two Forms of Spiral Curriculum

Organization and Two Modes of Presentation on Mathematical Learning. Ann Arbor, MI:

University of Michigan.

Bruner, J.S. (1960). The Process of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University

Press.

Press.

yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago: The University of

Chicago Press.

of the K to12 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) Effective School Year 2012-2013”

DepEd Order 32 s. 2012 “Implementing Rules and Regulation of the Republic Act

10157”

Harden, R.M., & Stamper, N. (1999). What is a spiral curriculum? Medical Teacher, 21,

(2),141 – 143.

Janvier, C., (Ed.). (1987). Problems of representation in the teaching and learning of

- Lesson Plan - Teaching PoemUploaded byDinesweri Puspanadan
- Action Research State of the Art BurnsUploaded byjustteacher
- Full-Time Kindergarten in Saskatchewan, part two: Findings (2006)Uploaded bykidSKAN Director
- INFLUENCE OF TEACHER’S SUBJECT MATTER KNOWLEDGE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF KISWAHILI LANGUAGE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KATHONZWENI SUB-COUNTY, KENYAUploaded byAnonymous CwJeBCAXp
- Information Literacy Lesson Plan (CRCT)Uploaded bycqprice
- department syllabusUploaded byapi-323351956
- Project Proposal (Outstanding Teacher)Uploaded byLaylo Jaycee
- Impact StudyUploaded bytaniasoftan
- vision statementUploaded byapi-313204754
- Van Houten Tri-foldUploaded byNicole McConnell Van Houten
- Language games.docxUploaded byIegayanti Wulandari
- 1997 - Freire - Pedagogia de La AutonomiaUploaded byAmanda Riedemann
- tws reflectionsUploaded byapi-193663371
- Jrnl Week 3Uploaded byIzzul Irfan Hashim
- 12 bcp operation odysseyUploaded byapi-272673693
- Taking badges to school A school based badge system and its impact.docxUploaded bybianca
- digital citizenship portfolioUploaded byapi-453711937
- Midterm Math 30 2Uploaded byNaci John Trance
- 201672 the Use of Think Pair Share Technique ToUploaded bySeha Jumayyil
- Department of EducationUploaded byIno Choi
- mart01Uploaded byJerome Baker
- Task, quantum lesson study, and discussion.docxUploaded byIhsan Abdie
- UE ictimpactUploaded byextari
- ICT CONFIDENCE AND ANXIETY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHER’S IN THENI DISTRICTUploaded byAnonymous CwJeBCAXp
- rtl2 assessment 2Uploaded byapi-321785008
- Educational WebsiteUploaded byvaugne keith laus
- intasc standard 1Uploaded byapi-402221138
- Kafr Hemied School Visit Research FindingsUploaded bymbedair1906
- slide.pptxUploaded byAin Nurulain
- budget bondUploaded byapi-355520285

- Grids and Datum - Macau Special Administrative RegionUploaded bysevero97
- ch05Uploaded byRaf.Z
- Artificial Life and Computational Intelligence-ALCALCI 2106Uploaded byignaciomoya1771
- Domain Range Function Worksheet.docxUploaded byChristopher Hendricks
- asymptoteUploaded byborgesjn
- Physics_Grade_10__Physics_Ch4_Gravity_and_Mechanical_EnergyUploaded byapi-19999615
- RenameUploaded byShantanu Yadav
- Universal GravitationUploaded byGia Gavica
- Law of Variable ProportionsUploaded byTarang Doshi
- 445R_99 (1)Uploaded bytumballisto
- propriedades CSMUploaded byantonio_gerupig
- With AnswersUploaded byperwinsharma
- Unit 3: Noncalc Paper 3Uploaded byMissMiller
- Characteristics of gases.docxUploaded byVinod Kumar
- ASD vs LRFD ComparisonUploaded bypandiangv
- A PredictiveAlgorithmforControllingSpeed AndUploaded byAbdesslam Lokriti
- AbaqusUploaded byAzif Ali Moothantevileyil
- Confidence in the reasoning processUploaded byPriscila Borges
- Energy Flow in a Simple Circuit and Its InteractionUploaded by59Gudlar
- Pss ProgramsUploaded bydivya1587
- geometry syllabus 2018-2019Uploaded byapi-283114543
- Ssl SurveyUploaded byHassaan Khan
- Progressions Paper 1@Set 6(Revised)Uploaded byHayati Aini Ahmad
- THE GENERATIVE ENTERPRISEUploaded byGuaguancon
- Winitzki - No Distributional Limit for Delta Function of Complex ArgumentsUploaded bywinitzki
- ACCESIBILITY EPA 1998.pdfUploaded bysorfil
- 07452620Uploaded bySapna Yadav
- Real-time Feature-based Video Mosaicing at 500 FpsUploaded byAndy Maddocks
- Res Sim ExamUploaded byweldsv1
- information-02-00528.pdfUploaded byFisseha Abebe