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Table of Contents

Chapters

I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Background of the study

Theoretical Framework

Conceptual Framework

Statement of the Problem

Research Hypothesis

Scope and Limitation of the study

Significance of the study

Definition of Terms

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY

Interest in Mathematics

Study Habits

Teacher’s Personality Traits

Teaching Skills

Instructional Materials

Other factors
III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design

Subject of the Study

Research Instruments

Research Procedure

Statistical Treatment of Data


Model of Mastery Learning In Mathematics Among Grade 7 Students of Selected

Secondary Schools in the Municipality of Lambayong

James Russell S. Abellar

A MASTERS THESIS SUBMITTED TO

THE FACULTY OF THE COLLEGE OF GRADUATE STUDIES, SULTAN KUDARAT

STATE UNIVERSITY, ACCESS, EJC MONTILLA, TACURONG CITY

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE

MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS

MAT- MATHEMATICS
2020
Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

A. Background of the study

A good educator prepares children to meet successfully with life in today’s society.

The quality of teaching and learning in mathematics is a major challenge for educators.

Mathematics has become part of our daily lives. It is all around us. It perceives life

at any age, in any circumstances. The values go beyond the classroom and the school.

In the New Book of Knowledge, “it is used in many ways from figuring out how much

money we are spending or saving, in remembering phone numbers and addresses, in

designing bridges and airplanes, in controlling traffics and in keeping nuclear reactors

working. All of these require mathematics that was developed as someone mathematical

games.” With mathematics, one can create a set of consistent rules and regulations and

proceed by logical reasoning to invent and play a game.

Mathematics is one of the most important school subjects in the curriculum

worldwide. It is a subject that has direct relationship with other subjects, particularly

technical and sciences. Mathematics plays an important role in human life. It is an

essential tool that can be used to improve life. However, nowadays especially in a

classroom situation, one cannot deny the fact that mathematics is the most hated subject

particularly by high school students. Some researchers found out that the main reason of

students’ low proficiency in Mathematics is their attitude towards the subject which they

viewed and perceived as a boring and difficult one.


Teaching mathematics is not only concerned with the computational know- how of

the subject but is also concerned with the selection of the mathematical content and

communication leading to its understanding and application. So, in teaching mathematics,

one should use the teaching methods, strategies and pedagogic resources that are much

more fruitful in gaining adequate responses from the students. The good mastery of

learning strategies makes learning process more interesting and efficient.

Mastery Learning endorses the belief that all students can learn and achieve the

same level of content mastery when provided with the appropriate learning conditions

(including time) (Bloom, 1971). Mastery is defined in terms of a subject’s objectives and

achievement of a prescribed level of performance, or competency, in (criterion-

referenced) tests. This level of performance is usually 75 or 80% of the marks available

for the „mastery‟ test. There is little or no delay between marking and feedback, and

students failing to meet the mastery level are provided with remedial activities before a

second attempt at achieving mastery. The process may be repeated (theoretically, as

many times as required to demonstrate mastery, but practically, and in the current

implementation, three times). However, Mastery Learning is not a recent innovation, but

it is ideally suited to undergraduate mathematics education given its frequently

hierarchical structure. It is particularly suited in the case of under-preparedness as it has

the capacity to deal with individual learner differences.

As an educator, teachers need to recognize the different causes of negative

attitudes of the students and their poor mastery learning towards mathematics. Moreover,

it is necessary that teaching should become more creative and flexible to give students a

chance to demonstrate what they actually know.


A number of teaching and learning methods have been developed and utilized to

address students’ anxiety and poor mastery learning in Mathematics. Mathematics

teachers should incorporate motivational activities in their lessons and the use of

computer (ICT) in their class discussions to engage students and/or catch their attentions

(Balala, 2016).

In this study, the researcher would like to identify those factors that can affect the

Mastery of learning of the Grade 7 students using Multi- Regression Analysis.


B. Conceptual Framework of the Study

The paradigm in figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of this study. It shows

that there are two variables under study: the Independent variables (Factors) and the

Dependent Variables (Mastery Learning in Math) and these variables was identified using

models.

This study was to determine whether there are significant relationships among

factors and their mastery learning in mathematics.

The factors that can affect the mastery of learning of grade 7 in mathematics will

be determine using the multi-regression analysis. It is from these variables that the

conclusions and recommendations of this study will be derived.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

FACTORS
- Intellectual Interest - Family Support/ Financial Support
- Teaching Skills/ skills - Teacher’s Personality Traits
- Attitudes towards Math - Instructional Materials used by the teacher
- Household Cores - School Distance
- Class Size/Population - Attitude of the parents
- Sex and Age - Study Habits
- Parents Educational Background - School Facilities

DEPENDENT VARIABLES

Student’s Mastery of Learning in Math

Figure 1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY


The learner is the subject of schooling process. The teacher is accountable only in

so far as what the learner brings into the learning situations. The student himself affects

his performance academically.

Teachers have a great influence in the students’ outlook of life. Teachers play the

key role in the students’ acquisitions of knowledge. However, both teacher and student

are partners in learning process.

Satisfaction with the faculty had the strongest influenced on the academic

performance of the students. With conducive setting of learning, the learners will be more

motivated to study.

Parental involvement has great impact to students’ academic achievement.

Parental involvement is generally referred to as parents’ participation in their children’s

education with the purpose of promoting their academic and social success.
C. Statement of the Problem

This study will determine the factors that can affect the mastery learning of

selected grade 7 students in the Municipality of Lambayong in mathematics.

Specifically, this study endeavored to answer the following questions:

1. How does the family and financial support of the parents affect the mastery of

learning of the students in Mathematics 7?

2. How does the age and sex affect the mastery of learning of the students in

Mathematics 7?

3. How does the study hour and arithmetic background affect the mastery learning

of the students in mathematics 7?

4. How does the medium of instructions used by the teacher affect the mastery

learning of the students in mathematics 7?

5. How does the instructional materials used by the teacher affects the mastery

of learning of the students in mathematics 7?

6. Is there any correlation of family Educational background in the mastery of

learning of the students?

7. Do teachers skills and personal traits as factors affecting students’ mastery of

learning differ across respondent’s educational status?

8. Is there a correlation between distance from home to school/ school population

and student’s mastery of learning in mathematics?

9. is there a correlation between school facilities and student’s mastery learning

in mathematics 7?
D. Hypotheses

The Researcher was guided by the following hypothesis:

1. There is no significant relationship between the factors and the mastery of

learning of grade 7 students in mathematics.

1.1 Intellectual Interest

1.2 Arithmetic Background

1.3 Daily Study Hour

1.4 Medium of Instructions

1.5 Family Support

1.6 Financial Support

1.7 School Distance/ Population

1.8 Sex and Age

1.9 Parents Educational Background

2.0 Teacher’s qualification/methods

2.1 School facilities

2.2 Instructional Materials


Significance of the Study

The subject which most frequent poor mastery of learning of the students is

mathematics. The role of the educational institution is to accomplish significant

achievement in the life of the students. It is expected that schools possess the background

necessary to interpret the changes taking place in the society.

School Administrator. This research may serve as the basis for school

administrators to plan and prepare guidelines for improving and understand the real

situations in their school which enable them to provide the teachers opportunities to

improve their teaching skills through trainings, workshops, seminars, peer tutoring, and

further studies and conferences that enrich the mastery of learning of the students

affected by the different factors.

Teachers. The outcomes of this study will give insights to the educators in carrying

out their mission to have a better performance. This will also serve as a guide for

educators in improving their field of work. Increasingly, this study will also motivate the

students as well as the teachers on how to face the challenges affecting the mastery of

learning in mathematics with the different factors.

Parents. Parents will know and realize how important the involvement of parents

for their children academic performances is.

Students. This study awakens and enlightens the students on the importance of

possessing numerical abilities that is emphasized in Mathematics subject and develop

their mastery of learning.


Moreover, this study is of utmost importance to the Grade 7 junior high school

students in dealing with solving mathematical problem. The results of this study will also

guide them in acquiring purposive knowledge and skills that are applicable to their daily

living. And we found out the main factors of poor mastery of learning in mathematics

among grade 7 junior high school students of Madanding National High School.

Researcher. The results of the study will serve as guide and basis on how to

improve the students’ performance in Mathematics and any other subjects.

Future Researchers. The study will provide them with information they need for

their future researches.

Finally, the results of this study will make educators better aware of their teaching

strategies and methods as expected from them and will contribute to a better and more

effective supervision and application of mathematical instruction. And propose the ways

of addressing the factors to improve the performance in mathematics.


Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study is firstly concerned with factors that can affect the mastery of learning

of grade 7 students in mathematics.

This study is focus only to the Grade 7 Students of Madanding National High

School with a purpose of finding out whether or not their factors affects the mastery of

learning in mathematics. The respondents of the study are the 3 sections of Grade 7

students for school year 2019 – 2020.

Figure 2. MAP OF LAMBAYONG


Definition of Terms

For better clarification and understanding of the terms related to this study, the

following terms are defined conceptually and operationally.

Mathematics Performance. This refers to the degree or capacity of students’

knowledge in Mathematics.

K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum. It is the curriculum program covers Kindergarten

and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High

School, and two years of Senior High School) to provide sufficient time for mastery of

concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary

education, middle level skills development, employment and entrepreneurship.

Instructional Materials. This refers to motivating techniques that teaching materials

or equipment used. It can high technology or simple materials that can use in learning

preference.

Interest. This refers to the amount of the students’ dislike or like of particular things.

Study Habits. This refers to usual form or action of a person in studying.

Teaching Skills. This refers to the skills of teachers in mathematics in terms of

teaching her/his lesson.

Personality Traits. This refers to the good relationship of the mathematics teachers with the

students.
Factors - contributing to the performance of the learners.

Regression Analysis- is a reliable method of identifying which variables have impact on

a topic of interest. The process of performing a regression allows you to confidently

determine which factors matter most, which factors can be ignored, and how these factors

influence each other.

Linear Regression- it is a linear model that establishes the relationship between a

dependent variable y(Target) and one or more independent variables denoted X(Inputs).

Strategy- refer to the structure, system, methods, techniques, procedures and processes

that a teacher uses during instruction. These are strategies the teacher employs to assist

student learning.

Reading Comprehension- is the ability to process text, understand its meaning, and to

integrate with what the reader already knows.


II. Review of Related Literature

The deteriorating performance of Filipino students in the national and international

mathematics tests for the last decade has become a major challenge to Philippine

education. The Department of Education attributed this problem to students’ poor reading

comprehension and poor performance in mathematics. It is evidently seen that there is

poor performance in mathematics among junior secondary school students as shown in

figure 1 above. The causes of this problem are many and cut across all stakeholders in

education. In other words, the causes of poor performance in mathematics among junior

secondary school students emanates from the schools, students, teachers as well as in

the environment. But in the past many efforts were made to bring a lasting solution to this

problem.

For instance, Umameh, (2011) stated that events like the comparative Education

Study and Adaptation Centre (1976) that took care of the secondary level mathematics

syllabus, the Benin Conference (1977) and The National Critique Workshop at Onitsha

as well as recently The National Mathematics Centre, all did a lot in ending the problem

of poor performance in mathematics.

According to M. Hodara, Senior Research Assistant at the Community College

Research Center (CCRC), redesigned programs “may have the potential to improve the

outcomes of developmental math students” [Hodara, 2011, p.2]. She concluded that it is

difficult to determine the effectiveness of new pedagogical practices because of the poor

internal validity of many studies. The results of these studies were inconclusive regarding

the determinants of students’ success. However, there was evidence suggesting that
students with learning disabilities and lower-achieving students might benefit more than

average students from redesigned mathematics programs [Hodara, 2011].

Many factors such as mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping and

test stress are very important for secondary school students since they are directly or

indirectly related to achievement (Hamid, Shahrill, Matzin, Mahalle, & Mundia, 2013).

They argued that, among their analyzed factors, the most important variables are

mathematics anxiety and test stress, and these two variables were found to have a

negative effect on students‟ mathematics achievement. As other factors such as self-

esteem and proactive coping have diverse effects on the students‟ academic

achievement. Buelow and Barnhart (2015) found that mathematics anxiety, worrying

about being successful, social concerns, test anxiety and physiological anxiety affected

the students‟ mathematics achievement. Mathematics anxiety also associated with

changes in attitudes towards school and mathematics (Núñez-Peña, Suárez-Pellicioni, &

Bono, 2013). According to results from different studies (Buelow & Barnhart, 2015; Hamid

et al., 2013; Núñez-Peña et al., 2013), a number of affective factors have relationships

with the mathematics achievement; these factors include mathematics anxiety, test

stress, worry about being successful, psychological anxiety, among several others.

According to data from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

(TIMSS) 1999, PISA 2003 and PISA 2006 studies, students‟ mathematics achievement

depends not only on affective factors such as student/family-related variables, but also

on reading and problem-solving skills.


The research literature indicates positive effects of mastery learning on students,

especially in the areas of achievement, attitudes toward learning, and the retention of

content (Guskey & Pigott, 1988; Kulik, Kulik, & Bangert-Drowns, 1990; Anderson, 1994;

Trigg, 2013). Why then isn’t the use of Mastery Learning widespread? The answers lie in

its intensive resource use and the (usual) requirement to allow students to work at their

own pace.
Reference

Akyuz, G. (2014). The Effects of Student and School Factors on Mathematics

Achievement in TIMSS 2011: TIMSS 2011 ‟ de Öğrenci ve Okul Faktörlerinin

Matematik BaĢarısına Etkisi. Egitim ve Bilim, 39(172), 150–162.

Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects of inequality, family and school on mathematics achievement:

country and student differences. Social Forces, 88(4), 1645–1676

Cueto, S., Guerrero, G., Leon, J., Zapata, M., & Freire, S. (2014). The relationship

between socioeconomic status at age one, opportunities to learn and achievement in

mathematics in fourth grade in Peru. Oxford Review of Education, 40(1), 50–72. doi:

10.1080/03054985.2013.873525

K. Demir, D., & Kalender, Ġ. (2014). Teacher and school-related factors that promote

achievement differences among students with lower socioeconomic status. The

Interntaitonal Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 5(3), 1–11.

Skirbekk, V., Bordone, V., & Weber, D. (2014). A cross-country comparison of math

achievement at teen age and cognitive performance 40 years later. Demographic

Research, 31(1), 105–118. doi: 10.4054/DemRes.2014.31.4

Verešová, M., & Malá, D. (2016). Attitude toward school and learning and academic

achievement of adolescents. Paper presented at the 7th Interntaional Conference on

Education and Educational Psychology, Constantine the Philopher Univeristy in

Nitra/Slovaki
Chapter III

Research Methodology

This chapter describes the methodology used for the descriptive, survey research

study. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors affects the mastery of

learning of the grade 7 students of Madanding National High School. First, the research

design section will define the type of research design, determination of sample, the

research instrument, and the procedures used for the study. Second, the data analysis

section will define all the variables used in the study, as well as describe the statistical

analysis process of the study. Finally, the validity section focuses on the reliability and

validity of the instruments, as well as the research study as a whole

Research Design

This study determined the factors affecting mastery of learning in mathematics

among Grade 7 students of Madanding national High School. The descriptive –

correlation method was used in this study.

In descriptive method, Calmorin (1994) as cited by Bagayana (2006), wrote the

study focuses on the present condition. The purpose is to find new truth, which may come

in different forms such as increased quantity of knowledge, a new generalization, or

increased insights into factors, which are operating, the discovery of a new causal

relationship, a more accurate formulation of the problem to be solved and many others.

Since this study measured data that already exists and the number of respondents

is not large, the descriptive – correlation method of studies is best suited. As mentioned,
the student-related factors, the teacher-related factors and parent- related factors were

generated using researcher – made questionnaire.

Subject of the Study

The respondents in this study were the seventy (70) grade 7 students of

Madanding National High School Academic Year 2019-2020.

Research Instrument

The main tool used in this study was a researcher – made questionnaire –

checklist. Set of questionnaire-checklist was constructed for the student respondents and

teacher respondent. The questionnaire – checklist consisted of the students’ level of

interest in Mathematics, their study habits and their teachers’ personality traits, teaching

skills and instructional materials use in teaching as perceived by the students.

Part 1 on the questionnaire – checklist obtained the students’ level of interest in

Mathematics presented five(5) statements and the students’ study habits presented

ten(10) situations. These were given one set of five checkboxes each. The five

checkboxes were ranked as:

5 – Always

4 – Often

3 – Sometimes
2 – Rarely

1 – Never

Part 2 obtained teacher’s personality traits, teaching skills and instructional

materials used in teaching as rated by the students. Each statement was given one set

of five checkboxes. Again the five checkboxes were ranked as:

5 – Always

4 – Often

3 – Sometimes

2 – Rarely

1 – Never

Part 3 obtained family and financial support as answered by the students. Each statement

was given one set of five checkboxes. Again the five checkboxes were ranked as:

5 – Always

4 – Often

3 – Sometimes

2 – Rarely

1 – Never

The questionnaire – checklist was presented to the adviser and expert on

Mathematics for comments, corrections, and suggestions on the content.


Research Procedure

The original title proposed by the researcher was checked, revised and rechecked

by the researcher’s adviser and three (3) members of the panel to maintain conformity on

the subject of research. The questionnaire-checklist that aims to draw out proper

responses on the objectives of this study was constructed. This questionnaire – checklist

made by the researcher and was presented to, analyzed and checked by the research

adviser to ensure the validity of responses it would elicit.

Permit to conduct research and study was secured of letter requesting permission

to the office of the Schools Division Superintendent and to the principal Madanding

National High School.

Data gathered from answered questionnaires were checked, classified, tabulated

and analyzed according to the research design described in this chapter using Microsoft

Excel and prepared for final presentation to the experts of different fields of specialization.
Statistical Treatment of Data

Analysis Statistical Tools

1. The extent of student-related Weighted Mean

factors in terms of:

1.1 Interest

1.2 Study habits

2. The extent of teacher-related Weighted Mean

factors in terms of:

2.1 Personality Traits

2.2 Teaching Skills

2.3 Instructional Materials

3. The extent of parent- related

factors in terms of:


Weighted Mean
3.1 Family and Financial Support
Mean, median, mode, skewness and
4. The level of students’ Mastery
kurtosis.
learning.

5. Significant relationship between Pearson R, Spearman Rho,

students’ mastery learning and Regression

Independent variables (Factors)


Linear Regression Analysis: Factors Influencing Teachers and Teachers

Efficiency Among Mathematics Teachers of Madanding National High School.

James Russell S. Abellar

A MASTERS THESIS SUBMITTED TO

THE FACULTY OF THE COLLEGE OF GRADUATE STUDIES, SULTAN KUDARAT

STATE UNIVERSITY, ACCESS, EJC MONTILLA, TACURONG CITY

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE

MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS

Chapter I
Introduction

A. Background of the study

The literature claims that the teachers are vital in uplifting education at primary and

secondary levels (Wong, 2003; Harris & Sass, 2008). In this modern era, the teacher

effectiveness has been given increased importance across different nations (Lowrie &

Jorgensen, 2015), as effective teachers are able to enhance the performance of their

students compared to the poor teachers (Hanushek & Wobmann, 2007). Consequently,

teachers are entirely blamed for lower students’ performance without comprehending the

factors influencing teachers and teacher effectiveness. In fact, teacher effectiveness does

not depend only on the teachers.

Teacher education level and teacher experience, two main attributes of teacher

quality, have gained attention and have been the focus of many investigations. However,

results of existing meta-analytic reviews examining the relationship between student

achievement and both teacher education level and experience are in conflict, with some

suggesting a positive relationship and others suggesting no relationship (Goldhaber,

2004; Wenglinsky, 2002).

There are various factors influencing the teachers and their effectiveness. Some

of the key factors influencing the mathematics teachers are the teacher content

knowledge, teacher collaboration and teacher career satisfaction. Other environmental

factors influencing teachers are inadequate facilities and equipment, overcrowded

classroom, extra working hours and unhealthy relationship with colleagues and

administrators.
According to McKeachie (1979), teaching effectiveness generally is described as

the ‘degree to which one has facilitated student achievement of educational goals’ (p.

385). Although specific educational goals vary among courses and disciplines, the

apparent overall goal of teaching is student learning (Cohen, 1981; Marsh & Roche, 2000;

Murray, 2005; Svinicki & McKeachie, 2010). Hence, becoming a more effective teacher

means facilitating student learning. In his synthesis of 800 meta-analyses of the

effectiveness of various teaching strategies for student achievement, Hattie (2009)

identified clarity of course objectives as one of the three most important strategies for

student learning in higher education (effect size d = .75). Clear lesson objectives or

intended learning outcomes facilitate learning by guiding the teacher in what to teach and

helping students focus their learning activities on the relevant concepts and skills (Hattie,

2011; Svinicki & McKeachie, 2010). In order to be most effective, lesson objectives should

be challenging (Locke & Latham, 1990) and lecturers should support students to develop

appropriate strategies to attain them (Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006).

B. Conceptual Framework of the Study


The paradigm in figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of this study. It shows

that there are two variables under study: the independent variables (Factors Influencing

Teachers and Teachers Efficiency) and the Dependent Variables (Teaching Efficiency)

and these variables was identified using models.

This study was to determine whether there are significant relationships among

factors influencing the Teachers and Teaching Efficiency.

The factors that can influence the Teachers and Teaching Efficiency among

Mathematics Teachers will be determine using the multi-regression analysis. It is from

these variables that the conclusions and recommendations of this study will be derived.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

- Teacher career satisfaction


- Age
- Gender
- Years of Teaching Experience DEPENDENT VARIABLES
- Teaching Methods/Educational
Attainment Teaching Efficiency
- Work Loads
- Student Population
- Instructional Materials
- Student Behavior
- Family Background
- Monthly Salary

Figure 1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY

C. Statement of the Problem


This study will determine the factors that can affect the mastery learning of grade

7 students in mathematics.

Specifically, this study will answer the following questions:

1. Does the Teacher Career Satisfaction is the factor influencing the teacher and

teaching efficiency of the mathematics teacher?

2. Does the Age and Gender is the factor influencing the teacher and teaching

efficiency of the mathematics teacher?

3. Does the Student’s population and Student’s behavior is the factor influencing

the teacher and teaching efficiency of the mathematics teacher?

4. Is there any correlation of family background and teaching efficiency of the

mathematics teacher?

5. Do teachers qualifications and methods as factors influencing teaching

efficiency in teaching mathematics?

6. Do teachers workloads and instructional materials as factors influencing

teaching efficiency in teaching mathematics?

7. Do teachers Years of Teaching Experience/Educational Attainment as factors

influencing teaching efficiency in teaching mathematics?

D. Hypotheses
The following are the hypotheses of the study:

1. There is no significant relationship between the following factors influencing the

Teachers and Teaching Efficiency Among Mathematics Teachers of

Madanding National High School.

1.1 Teacher career satisfaction

1.2 Age

1.3 Gender

1.4 Years of Teaching Experience/Educational Attainment

1.5 Teaching Methods

1.6 Work Loads

1.7 Student Population

1.8 Instructional Materials

1.9 Student Behavior

2.1 Family Background

2.2 Monthly Salary

E. Significance of the Study


Teaching mathematics effectively depends on the content knowledge and

pedagogical methods employed by the teachers. To begin, the teachers must be well

versed with the mathematics content knowledge, as to ensure that correct mathematical

concepts are taught to the students. The mathematics teachers regarded mathematical

content knowledge at the level more significant than the broader mathematical context

(Mosvold & Fauskanger, 2014).

This research may serve as the basis for school administrators and as well as to

the teachers to be more effective or efficient the teaching pedagogy. Teachers can be

more creative by going beyond the instructional method of teaching, use student centered

activities to motivate and enhance the students learning.

The outcomes of this study will give insights to the Mathematics teachers in

carrying out their mission to have a better teaching pedagogy in spite of the factors and

challenges facing outside and inside the school premises. This will also serve as a guide

for educators in improving their field of work. Increasingly, this study will also motivate the

students as well as the teachers on how to face the challenges affecting the teaching

efficiency with the different factors.

Moreover, this study is of utmost importance to the Public Secondary Mathematics

Teachers of Madanding National High School. And we found out the main factors

influencing the Teachers and Teaching Efficiency.

Finally, the results of this study will make educators better aware of their teaching

strategies and methods as expected from them and will contribute to a better and more

effective supervision and application of mathematical instruction.


F. Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study is firstly concerned with factors influencing the Teachers and Teaching

Efficiency Among Mathematics Teachers of Madanding National High School.

This study is focus only to the Mathematics Teachers of Madanding National High

School with a purpose of finding out whether or not their f factors influencing the Teachers

and Teaching Efficiency Among Mathematics Teachers of Madanding National High

School.

The respondents of the study are the Mathematics Teachers for school year 2019–

2020.

Definition of Terms

To make this study more understandable, the following terms are operationally

defined.
Regression Analysis- is a reliable method of identifying which variables have impact on

a topic of interest. The process of performing a regression allows you to confidently

determine which factors matter most, which factors can be ignored, and how these factors

influence each other.

Linear Regression- it is a linear model that establishes the relationship between a

dependent variable y(Target) and one or more independent variables denoted X(Inputs).

Pedagogy- refers to the “interactions between teachers, students, and the learning

environment and the learning tasks.

Teaching Efficiency- is the ability to process text, understand its meaning, and to

integrate with what the reader already knows.

II. Review of Related Literature

Teachers play a vital role in the implementation of the education plans at school

level. Teachers are the most influential factor in students’ learning process. Therefore,
teachers need to develop the three dimensions of learning skills – basic skills such as

reading, writing, mathematics and vocabulary; cognitive skills such as non-verbal

reasoning and problem-solving; and effective skills such as self-esteem and self-image.

There are several pedagogical researches have shown that what teachers do in

the classroom is undoubtedly the key educational determinant in students’ learning and

achievement. It goes without saying that not all teaching practices are equal in this

respect. It is therefore important to identify and promote the most effective practices, that

is to say, practices which help to achieve desired learning outcomes in the most effective

way. Quality teaching is the use of selected pedagogical techniques to produce learning

outcomes for students.

Furthermore, teacher experience and teacher education level have been

viewed as two characteristics that are related to teacher quality. They may also be viewed

as important criteria in selecting teachers, serving as proxy variables for skill level or

expertise. Research on the impact of teaching experience and teacher education level on

student achievement has a long history, beginning in the 1960s, of both elementary- and

secondary-education teachers (Hanushek, 1997).

Reference
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in Delta Public Secondary Schools. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 4(1),

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teachers : A meta-analysis study. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 356–

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Domino, J. (2009). Teachers' influences on students' attitudes towards mathematics.

Research & Teaching in Developmental Education, 26(1), 32-54.

Hanushek, E. A., & Wobmann, L. (2007). Education quality and economic growth.

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Challenges and Issues on the Integration of Spiral Progression Approach in

Teaching Mathematics Among Selected Secondary School of Lambayong

James Russell S. Abellar

A MASTERS THESIS SUBMITTED TO

THE FACULTY OF THE COLLEGE OF GRADUATE STUDIES, SULTAN KUDARAT

STATE UNIVERSITY, ACCESS, EJC MONTILLA, TACURONG CITY

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE

MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS


Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the study

Spiral Progression Revisited Spiral Progression approach in curriculum is derived

from Bruner’s Spiral curriculum model (Lucas, 2011). Bruner stressed that teaching

should teacher as that of translating information into a format appropriate to each child’s

current state of understanding. Davis (2007) added that Hilda Taba also influenced the

design of spiral curriculum that organized around concepts, skills, or values in horizontal

integration of learning. Based on the given arguments, the effectiveness of the curriculum

relies on the teacher’s knowledge about the curriculum, his/her teaching strategies and

mastery of the subject matter (Duze, 2012).

The idea in spiral progression approach is to expose the learners into a wide

variety of concepts/topics and disciplines, until they mastered it by studying it over and

over again but with different deepening of complexity. In relation to secondary Math

curriculum, Sanchez (2014) explained that, Math is composed of five areas, namely

Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry, Patterns and Algebra Statistics

and Probability

In high school, the "spiral curriculum" not only requires good teachers who could

handle multiple disciplines, but also a different type of textbook. Students cannot have

four textbooks each year for example, for the Mathematics to cover all five areas of the

spiral curriculum: Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry,

Patterns and Algebra Statistics and Probability. Using four separate textbooks will not
define how each of these areas will be covered in each year of high school. In fact, one

of the materials in school that operationally defines what will be covered is the

textbook. Thus, without a textbook, the content of these science courses will be

unclear. The main features of Spiral Progression Approach are the following:

- Learners revisit a topic

- The complexity of the topic increases with each revisit.

- New knowledge being developed in each revisit has a relationship with

previously learned knowledge.

However, in new secondary math curriculum implemented last 2012, the concept

of those four major areas are being taught all at the same time. Each year students are

exposed to spiral progression approach, wherein the four areas are being taught per

grading period.

The Spiral Curriculum The concept of a spiral curriculum is one in which there is a

reiteration of concepts, subjects or themes throughout the course. Each time the concept

is repeated, more in-depth knowledge is presented so that each successive encounter of

the concept builds on the previous one. This method of learning was first described by

Taba in 1962 and popularized by Bruner in 1977 (Taba, 1962 & Bruner, 1977b). The spiral

method of learning information is intuitive and repetitive in nature. Many basic concepts

are taught in a spiral method. A process of repetition is established.


B. Conceptual Framework of the Study

The paradigm in figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of this study. It shows

that there are two variables under study: the independent variables (Challenges and

Issues) and the Dependent Variables (Spiral Progression Approach in Teaching

Mathematics) and these variables was identified using models.

This study was to determine whether there are significant relationships among

challenges and issues affects the Spiral Progression Approach in Teaching Mathematics.

The challenges and issues affects the Spiral Progression Approach in Teaching

Mathematics will be determine using the multi-regression analysis. It is from these

variables that the conclusions and recommendations of this study will be derived.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
DEPENDENT VARIABLES

- Age
- Gender
- Years of Teaching Experience
- Teaching Methods/Educational
Attainment Spiral Progression Approach in
- Work Loads Teaching Mathematics
- Student Population
- Instructional Materials
- Student Behavior
- Textbook

Figure 1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY


G. Statement of the Problem

This study will determine the challenges and issues in integration of spiral

progression approach in mathematics curriculum.

Specifically, this study will answer the following questions:

a. Does the Age and Gender is the factor influencing in integration of spiral

progression approach in mathematics curriculum?

b. Does the Student’s population and Student’s behavior is the factor influencing

in integration of spiral progression approach in mathematics curriculum?

c. Is there any correlation of family background in integration of spiral progression

approach in mathematics curriculum?

d. Do teachers qualifications and methods as factors influencing in integration of

spiral progression approach in mathematics curriculum?

e. Do teachers workloads and instructional materials as factors influencing in

integration of spiral progression approach in mathematics curriculum?

f. Do teachers Years of Teaching Experience/Educational Attainment as factors

influencing in integration of spiral progression approach in mathematics

curriculum.
H. Hypotheses

The following are the hypotheses of the study:

There is no significant relationship between the following challenges and issues in

integration of spiral progression approach in mathematics curriculum.

1.10 Age

1.11 Gender

1.12 Years of Teaching Experience/Educational Attainment

1.13 Teaching Methods/ Strategy

1.14 Work Loads

1.15 Student Population

1.16 Instructional Materials

1.17 Student Behavior

1.18 Content
Significance of the Study

Spiral progression approach is an approach or a way on how to implement the

spiral curriculum. After the mastery of the initial topic, the student “spirals upwards” as the

new knowledge is introduced in the next lesson, enabling him/her to reinforce what is

already learned. In the end, a rich breadth and depth of knowledge is achieved. With this

procedure, the previously learned concept is reviewed hence improving its retention. And

also the topic may be progressively elaborated when it is reintroduced leading to a

broadened understanding and transfer (Mantiza, 2013).

Teaching mathematics effectively depends on the content knowledge and

pedagogical methods employed by the teachers. To begin, the teachers must be well

versed with the mathematics content knowledge, as to ensure that correct mathematical

concepts are taught to the students. The mathematics teachers regarded mathematical

content knowledge at the level more significant than the broader mathematical context

(Mosvold & Fauskanger, 2014).

This research may serve as the basis for school administrators and as well as to

the teachers to be more effective using the Spiral Progression Approach in teaching.

Teachers can be more creative by going beyond the instructional method of teaching, use

student centered activities to motivate and enhance the students learning.

The outcomes of this study will give insights to the Mathematics teachers in spite

of challenges facing outside and inside the school premises. This will also serve as a

guide for educators in improving their field of work especially in Mathematics curriculum.
Moreover, this study is of utmost importance to the Public Secondary Mathematics

Teachers in the Municipality of Lambayong.

Finally, the results of this study will make educators better aware of their teaching

strategies and methods through Spiral Progression Approach.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study is firstly concerned with the Challenges and Issues in Integrating Spiral

Progression Approach in Mathematics Curriculum. Among Secondary School of

Municipality of Lambayong.

This study is focus only to the Mathematics Teachers in the Municipality of

Lambayong with a purpose of finding out the challenges and issues affecting the Spiral

Progression Approach in Mathematics Curriculum.

The respondents of the study are the Selected Mathematics Teachers in the

Municipality of Lambayong for school year 2019– 2020.


Definition of Terms

To make this study more understandable, the following terms are operationally

defined.

Spiral Progression Approach is a technique often used in teaching where first the basic

facts of a subject are learned, without worrying about details. Then as learning

progresses, more and more details are introduced, while at the same time they are related

to the basics which are reemphasized many times to help enter them into long-term

memory.

Spiral Curriculum can be defined as a course of study in which students will see the

same topics throughout their school career, with each encounter increasing in complexity

and reinforcing previous learning.

Numbers and Number Sense can refer to "an intuitive understanding of numbers, their

magnitude, relationships, and how they are affected by operations"

Geometry the branch of mathematics concerned with the properties and relations of

points, lines, surfaces, solids, and higher dimensional analogs.

Patterns and Algebra is a branch of mathematics that deals with general statements of

relations, utilizing letters and other symbols to represent specific sets of numbers and

values and their relationships to one another.

Statistics and Probability two related but separate academic disciplines. Statistical

analysis often uses probability distributions, and the two topics are often studied together.

However, probability theory contains much that is mostly of mathematical interest and not

directly relevant to statistics.


Regression Analysis- is a reliable method of identifying which variables have impact on

a topic of interest. The process of performing a regression allows you to confidently

determine which factors matter most, which factors can be ignored, and how these factors

influence each other.

Linear Regression- it is a linear model that establishes the relationship between a

dependent variable y(Target) and one or more independent variables denoted X(Inputs).

II. Review of Related Literature


The purpose of the study was to investigate the challenges and issues in

integrating the spiral progression approach in mathematics curriculum.

Spiral progression approach is an approach or a way on how to implement the

spiral curriculum. After the mastery of the initial topic, the student “spirals upwards” as the

new knowledge is introduced in the next lesson, enabling him/her to reinforce what is

already learned. In the end, a rich breadth and depth of knowledge is achieved. With this

procedure, the previously learned concept is reviewed hence improving its retention. And

also the topic may be progressively elaborated when it is reintroduced leading to a

broadened understanding and transfer (Mantiza, 2013).

In the old curriculum, learners were taught Science and Mathematics using the

discipline-based approach. In the K to 6 Mathematics curriculum, the subject had to be

learned comprehensively and with much depth. On the other hand, in the new

Mathematics curriculum, there is a continuity of learning from K to Grade 10 (p. 37). On

top of this, the spiral approach is followed, in lieu of the discipline-based approach utilized

in the old curriculum.

The K-12 education program, serves a response to the urgent need to improve the

quality of Philippine basic education. The aim of this reform is to decongest and enhance

the curriculum so as to facilitate the mastery of basic competencies. This paper concludes

that the spiral approach by John Bruner can contribute to the achievement of this aim.

Integrated and seamless learning, as one of the salient features of the K to 12 Education

Program, is indeed not impossible because the new curricula of the subjects follow a
spiral progression where learning of skills, values, knowledge and attitudes increase in

both breadth and depth.

"American schools follow a "spiral curriculum" in mathematics; that is, they spend

such a substantial proportion of time on review each year that only limited progress can

be made with new material…. American students who perform poorly in arithmetic are

subject to a special form of the spiral curriculum, which might be termed the circular

curriculum": they repeat arithmetic over and over until they stop studying math"

(Gamoran, 2001, p. 138)"

Bruner suggested that such a curriculum would be structured “around the great

issues, principles and values that a society deems worthy of the continual concern of its

members” (Emling, 1977, p.230). Second, each visitation increases depth of knowledge.

The prior concepts and subject content are enriched with new knowledge with each

visitation. Each recursive visitation has added knowledge and skills that increase learning

opportunities. These drive the student toward mastery of the subject matter. Third, all

knowledge and skills are tied back to the foundational basis, the knowledge of the student.

New knowledge and skills are linked directly to the learning of previous concepts and

subject content of the previous spiral.

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