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CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION

II. WHAT ARE SOFT DRINKS??

III. CONTENTS IN SOFT DRINKS

IV. MODERN MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF SOFT


DRINKS

V. CAFFEINE

VI. OVERDOSE OF CAFFEINE

VII. EFFECTS OF SOFT DRINKS

VIII. APPARATUS

IX. CHEMICALS REQUIRED

X. DETECTION OH pH

XI. TEST FOR CARBON DIOXIDE

XII. TEST FOR PHOSPHATE

XIII. TEST FOR ALCOHOL

XIV. RESULT

XV. CONCLUSION

XVI. BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION

The Era of soft drinks began in 1952 but the industrialisa-


tion in India marked its beginning by launching Limca and
Gold spot by Parley Group of companies. Since then the
beginning of soft drinks was highly profitable and luring
and many Multinational companies launched their brands in
India like “PEPSI” and “COKE”.
WHAT ARE SOFT DRINKS????
A soft drink is a drink that typically contains carbonated wa-
ter a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring. The sweetener
may be a sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, a substitute,
or some combination of these. Soft drinks may also contain
caffeine, colorings, preservatives, and other ingredients.

Soft drinks are called "soft" in contrast with "hard" alcoholic


drinks. Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink,
but the alcohol content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume
of the drink if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic.Fruit
punch, tea, and other such non-alcoholic drinks are technically
soft drinks by this definition, but are not generally referred to as
such.

Carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in water under great pressure to


form carbonic acid or so called carbonated water. They consist
primarily of carbonated water, sugar, and flavourings.These soft
drinks give a feeling of warmth, lightness and have a tangy taste
which is liked by everyone.Carbon dioxide is responsible for the
formation of froth on shaking the bottle.
CONTENTS IN A SOFT DRINK!!!

I. Water

II. Sugar or Sweeteners (Aspartame & Saccharin)

III. Carbon Dioxide

IV. Flavouring

V. Preservatives (Sulfur Dioxide & Benzoic acid)

VI. Addictive’s

VII. Acids (Citric acid & Phosphoric acid)


Modern manufacturing process of carbonat-
ed soft drinks:

• Water is important for every soft drink, therefore much care needs to
be taken for it to be cleaned from any impurities (organic matter,
suspended particles and bacteria) and stabilized to the desired pH
level. The removal of impurities is done through the series of pro-
cesses such as boiling, coagulation, filtration and chlorination.

• Most successful filtration process is done via sand. Water goes


through layer of sand and beads that catches foreign particles.

• Sterilization is most often done with chlorine that is later removed


with activated carbon filter (it also catches remaining organic matter
that was not caught by sand filter).

• The main ingredients of the soft drink are introduced to the water
tanks – sugar and flavor concentrates (which can be either in the
form of powder or syrup). To make resulting mix perfectly sterilised
(some bacteria could be present in sugar/flavour ingredients), water
tanks are either sterilised with ultraviolet radiation or flash Pasteuri-
zation (quick heating and cooling of water).

• During entire process of mixing, it is highly recommended if the liq-


uid is not allowed to absorb air. Because of that, some manufacturers
are mixing their ingredients inside chambers that are pressurised with
carbon dioxide.

• Finally at the very end of manufacture process, the water mixture is


carbonised. Carbonisation needs to be performed with exact cold
temperature of liquid.

• Packaging needs to be done very quickly, with containers that are


immediately sealed so that carbon pressure in liquid could be pre-
served.
EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE (C8H10N402)

Caffeine is an addictive drug that enhances the flavor of soft


drinks. It artificially stimulates the nervous system and in-
creases the heart rate. Excess caffeine consumption is linked to
cancers of bladder and stomach and raised Blood pressure.
80% of world’s population is consuming caffeinated drinks
each day. It has a lots of beneficial uses like it decrease the risk
of cancer but too much of anything is a risk.
OVERDOSE OF CAFFEINE

I. Frequent urination

II. Rapid heart beat

III. Irregular rhythm of heart beat

IV. Nausea

V. Vomiting(possibly with blood)

VI. Rapid Breathing


HARMFUL EFFECTS OF SOFT DRINKS

I. Obesity

II. Heart burn & Cell damage

III. Bladder cancer

IV. Tooth Decay

V. Dehydration

VI. Kidney failure

VII. Diabetes

VIII. Asthma
APPARATUS REQUIRED.

I. Test Tube

II. Test Tube Holder

III. Test Tube Stand

IV. Stop Watch

V. Beaker

VI. Burner

VII. pH Paper

VIII. Tripod Stand

IX. Wire Gauge

X. Water Bath
CHEMICALS REQUIRED.

I. Iodine Solution

II. Potassium Iodine

III. Sodium Hydroxide

IV. Lime Water

V. Concentrated Nitric Acid

VI. Ammonium Molybdate


DETECTION OF pH.

Experiment:
Small samples of soft drinks of different brands were taken in a
test tube and put on the pH paper.The change in the pH paper was
noticed and was compared with the standard pH scale.

OBSERVATION:

S.NO NAME OF THE COLOUR pH VALUE


DRINK CHANGE

COCA COLA PINK 2.5-3.5


1
SPRITE RED 3.29
2
LIMCA PINKISH 3.20
3
FANTA LIGHT ORANGE 2.73
4

INFERENCE:

Soft drinks are generally acidic because of the presence of citric


acid and phosphoric acid. pH values of soft drink of different
brands are different due to variation in amount of acidic contents.
TEST FOR CARBON DIOXIDE

EXPERIMENT:
As soon as the bottles were opened, one by one the sample was
passed through lime water. The lime water turns milky. Note down the
time taken for it to change lime water milky.

OBSERVATION:

S.NO NAME OF THE TIME TAKEN CONCLUSION


DRINK (SEC)

COCA COLA 26.5 CO2 IS PRESENT


1
SPRITE 21 CO2 IS PRESENT
2
LIMCA 35 CO2 IS PRESENT
3
FANTA 36 CO2 IS PRESENT
4

INFERENCE:
All the soft drinks contain dissolved carbon dioxide in water. The car-
bon dioxide dissolves in water to form carbonic acid, which in turn is re-
sponsible for its tangy taste.

REACTION:
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 —————> CaCO3 + H2O
TEST FOR PHOSPHATE

EXPERIMENT:
A sample of each soft drink was taken in a test tube and Ammonium
Molybdate followed by concentrated Nitric acid was added to it. The solu-
tion was heated. Appearance of canary-yellow ppt confirmed the presence
of phosphate ions in soft drinks.

OBSERVATION:

S.NO NAME OF THE OBSERVATION CONCLUSION


DRINK

COCA COLA CANARY-YELLOW PHOSPHATE IS PRE-


1 PPT SENT

SPRITE CANARY-YELLOW PHOSPHATE IS PRE-


2 PPT SENT

LIMCA CANARY-YELLOW PHOSPHATE IS PRE-


3 PPT SENT

FANTA CANARY-YELLOW PHOSPHATE IS PRE-


4 PPT SENT

INFERENCE:
All soft drink samples gave positive test for phosphate ions. Hence all the
cold drinks contain phosphate.
TEST FOR ALCOHOL

EXPERIMENT:
Samples of the soft drinks were taken in a test tube and Iodine is added
followed by addition of Potassium Iodide and Sodium Hydroxide solu-
tions. Then the test tubes were heated in hot water bath for 30 minutes.
Appearance of yellow coloured ppt confirmed the presence of alcohol in
soft drinks.

OBSERVATION:

S.NO NAME OF THE OBSERVATION CONCLUSION


DRINK

COCA COLA YELLOW PPT ALCOHOL IS


1 PRESENT

SPRITE YELLOW PPT ALCOHOL IS


2 PRESENT

LIMCA YELLOW PPT ALCOHOL IS


3 PRESENT

FANTA YELLOW PPT ALCOHOL IS


4 PRESENT

INFERENCE:
All samples gave a positive test for alcohol and hence alcohol is present
in soft drinks.

REACTION:
C2H5OH + 4I2 +6NaOH —————> CHI3 + HCOONa + 5NaI + 5H2O
RESULT

After conducting these tests, it was concluded that different


brands of soft drinks namely:
I. Coca Cola
II. Sprite
III. Limca
IV. Fanta

All contain Carbon Dioxide, Alcohol and Phosphate. All soft


drinks are acidic in nature. On comparing the pH of the soft
drinks its found that COCA COLA is the most acidic and LIMCA is
least acidic of all four brands.
It is also found that out of the four samples taken, SPRITE has
maximum amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in it and FANTA
has minimum amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in it.
CONCLUSION

Even though soft drinks have good effect also, the bad effects
are dominating in today’s world. So to save ourselves from all
the danger causing soft drinks let’s stop or avoid drinking soft
drinks and instead we drink lot of water which is beneficial.
YOU can still reverse the damage you have already caused to
your body, by taking the first step to learn what is beneficial
for you.
CHOOSE TO LIVE HEALTY…
BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. WWW.Wikipedia.com
II. WWW.slideshare.net
III. Experiments on soft drinks
IV. WWW.sci-toys.com