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,?Q'QJ'3' lfi.lCl. " ~:1\.' WCl. • ~'~" "~~l UJ~l Q,~~ UJ11" if~~'~'lS~'Ul~'ffit11~'1'~4cJJ' ~~a.r~cJJ~·'Q~.·~~yS ~ '~l;l~'~~'l'W'l;l'l = a.~~.rz:.JQ. ·rs1·l.J~ 1

~%~·a;~·l~·~~·a;~~·r5'Yl'..J~ 1 ~~':Jlf1'l~'L11~~'~~~'~'Bl' l.J.~ ·l:JX5~.r')S ~a.S ~,~~'i ~·l~~rl.J~~·~4,;J·z:j~~,~~~·~~·:qril:J9f r::_'

.~~ ''j~'~~ll

26

/

~.~.z;]. Q.~~r!,J· "1 t:..=! "1 "1~qr~qr1t:: ·~t=:~~~ ~'Q.~
am was ,c:_~ ~%"1.i;'ll
,
i ! I I
~if ,il' I
is was 'll~~'!J' 'll~~'i6''ll
iN~' cr~' I I I;
are were '1 c:_=lj-, r; · ~r;'~~
~.:z:..' ~.:z:..' 1l1~~'l.J'
I I I! "f~'~~aJ'as"1~~l am, is, are, was, were Q,~'~;J4l~~t::.=!"1'~' ~ ~.~ ~~'~!rf ~ .~~~ 1 'l~ ;2\'0; 1

~'~'z:]l
Ct" "1~"1.~~ ;Jc:.'~~ 1
I
t I am We are
wiij(l_' ~~. CijUJ(l_' w"'-'
" ~
\ ~. fQ~l ",i, fQ~l
You are Yoti are
UlCl..· W~: G.!a.' 1.f,Jx,,'
'~" Q. """ Q.
~,'x"c_' l.11 61'~r;'af l.~1
He is They are
~A' ~~. ~a: 1.f,Jx,,'
Q 27

ff~' l.'l(1i) rr"·~ l.il
She is
4Q.· ~~.
'j6"t:.. ~'l(iF); ~~'~'~6IQJ~r~r~~~l '~S~,~~·Erqr6~.·~r;:~~·1 rsl·x..r;:·~ ~~,~·~·a;~~1· you (CS'3') ~~·r.J·~~'~·S~·~~~U!"ll

a.~~·f.ll

I was
~~'d: V~·
~. nr", 1 we were

~ClJa. · ~;z;.~

~.~ nr"'l

you were

you were

~'3' 9J~'

B"~~' X.,1

'SS' 9;1~'

ai'~"'~ l.,1

he was

they were

~a.. '2J~'

rrz:;.~~ l.;,1'

~q. 9f~'

rr~' X.'1()i-)

she was

~a.. if~'

rr~: X_'1 1 (~)

~t:,'~'~~QJ'~'l:;]r;~ 1 ,5~·UJ~·Qr~~·c:t.14J·~~·s"%qrwas, were 28

• 0,

,)"'1 ~4.I.tr~~q~· is, am, areq-Q4.I'{1TIl]~f~'qS'~·~~·~"~~' ~~'ara.~·~~-q'S·~QJ·~"l '~~'~·~4iJ·~·~4.lQrq·'i~·UJ~1

1.

He is

a

monk ..

,

..

jS"t:.. ~i' ~~' 9:rQ'

,ca' lit~, lfj' &tt:.'T1'

(fft:. '9J'Q'~i 1 (q~4J:i'~'~·r . .rtQ~ ·q~~'CJ~~·Q·;Z_i1>

2.

He was a

monk

(Q'" ~i' ~'1l' 9J'Q'

~q. 9f~r ~. i".:.,'

F" ·9J'E.J'~i 1 (a_~ 4J'(5" c:. 'f~ ·Il'9J~E.J'~~·Q·i" '1 ~".~c:; 'il~ 'E.J'~ 'S' q~~'Q'~iP

J:

3. I

student

last

was a

~tQa..~,~. "f ~~S'r~'~' '7:i~~'

". ~~. ~~. lfQ'~'1l' fClj'~'

fillc:. ·c:.·it:l·~'1l'lll~ 1 = m~c:. ·t;:iq·~~~~~~l

4. I am a teacher now.

~~ca' ~&r '*.1' ~a·~x;,' ~~

". 1ll,,\' ~'1l'l~'~"l' l'(i'~')

i 'e;: 'i ~.~.,,\ ~~1 = ,'e:. 'i ~'IlJ~ ~~'1ll~1

year. filq x;, ,

aT-

af,,'~~~'5~'~q,~~~·~;q-,~~·d.J' "a!~~~~' ir;' "v'' ~~. t.l'a..~.'l]'~.~ ~.~ ~.g~ · ~.~a. '6') 't.j ~ '~. ~.~ '1;I'~~lS 'a;~"'t1:l ~ · "

29

..

I

c:z.~·~~~OJ~~lS~·U'J~~~~~~· am lr:,' was ·ii~~''lJ~~'~·qS· !TQ,J·~l·tJ~·~ 1

~".~ .~ ~ ·ltJ·t;.J~o, '~!lJ~~ ~

I am

lJIIil)a;· ~&I'

~. tq~.

I:.·arq$~~~ 1

eight years

~~J~' ~.o..~ ,~.

z:J~~' ~

(~.~~'~~~.~q~.)

old. ~OJ?' ~~'~r.fa;'

I was seven last year.

~tqQ: ~'iJ' ~a..~~. ,!!4:rr' tqo.~'

t:;' tQ~' q~~. f~ '&I' nr

h. 'Ill:. 'QfQ~~ 'Ul~ 1

He was in

class

two.

~a.. «2J~' ~"i' ~~~~. ~.

jic:.' l.~' ~"'QJ' ~~~'~r ~'4J'

(Ii" 'Q,~"i '9J'~~~'!,j~~u:r'l1'~ll 1 Q,~ ~~.q~ ~'l'.J~.~

He is in class three now.

,~. tAi:l' ~a;·~,~if· ~~~' ~q.

is"'''' ~,' ~". ci(a;'9:] , 'fJ~&I'lJ' ,.

"'iiI:, 'Q,~~ '~'~~cq'lJ ~ ·ur"1·~' 1

Perna was sick yesterday.
~i' 'f~. ~~. "'l~'il'f" ra.' 30

l.J1;' 1.1· ~'Q' ~.~.

l.Jl.·&l·F·~·~ 'z:r~'11 = l'.Jl·o.r~a. '~r~ '4~

She is better today.

~Q.' ~~. i!ja.·r~· ~,.,?~.

ji~: O\~~. sqr~' ~~". rr"~~··~"·S~·~·a.~~· = rrr_·~·~~·S~·~·5~·+l~

Yesterday was

D.!~·~·(7·r'a.· ~~.

F'~'~i' ~i'-'I'~" .~c. ~~i 1

a

31

holiday.

~·~·rQ.·l

9"1 Capital letter ~~~ffi~·Cl.S·~~l

~~.~ 1 ~S~ '~~'~'~f~'S'C5'c5~:~~ 'l:J~'ffi~'El~'~~l ~~'~Q' ~~~.Q.r sentence (~~'(1~'~') ~~~~~'~-Ur~l 1?:J~'~1 ~.g. Ql·l:.J~tQ~ 1 ~~p:.rW·S;l\ 'Qf"l'S'a; 'a)~ "lfl~~.q~t:J.~ ~l ~ ~Q.S· lT~'~~'l ~~·~~·t1.J·~f~·l:J;l\·qf,·s·a;·a)~·~",·tJQ.~~·~~·~~~· {~~~~~~ ·~'i~r~~~·CJ~~·Q.arq~~~·~Q~·~~ ~~~~~'ifl~'l~' qq·tQ~·Q,~·if~·~·~ .~.~ "rUl'i'~ ·UJ~··tI:l~·~~ ·~·~~·l1ff~·'·rtll~ 1

~~~'~1

am a

teacher.

-

f

~ata· ~cJr~' pa.~a;.x..'

Q t:::I.

~. tQ~. ~~. 1~'~~'

"'~~'ij)~'~~'fQa;l = t::'l~'~a;'fQa;l

W &. ch **

e are Lea . . ers.

" .g.ti)"l'

~ '~1~'if1'1'~a; 1

ii'a·C6x..·~·

II;

,~.~it\. (~".~~.)

..

~!j·IIJ~~·a."ifj~~~·~q~·~~1:t~ii~·IJ~~9·~!j'Q."Slitf~·ql &l~·~~·IJI:;.·~·q"c\i.~·~ofilii1· S~41·Q~~·~"clIl:;.;~"1~~~·~

....

iff~·~·Qfl·t.l·q~"'l lS~~~·~l·t1:t~·~~r.t.!fW~~·QJ,· I (~~~.) =~l ~~'l:J~'ar~~~'l~'l il~'~Z:::~'~~(Ql s= qQ,'il~'l ~£::tJ~~~~·Q6~·a.S·~,Q~·~~~a;-qr~ifqr5J~·Ul~·~'i·

qS'~~~''J'~~ 1 C)tJ~·~ 1

32

~"" ·il" "1

Kelsang

Tenpa Tenzin

Namdak Dargay Lhundup

~""~~"~"'1 Tibet

India China Japan America Russia

En land g ..

France

~"-l.t:l =s " "1 l::J ~ .. ~ 'l.J 1

z:Jfr"l·a.~~ 1 ~(JJ0c;~

l·~·~~l ~·~·~ql

(~·ZJ",·:a .) - qc;"
(~"l? our) ~.~~. - .
- ~-
•• l;I
(a;~'~') ~~ .
- S1~~'
('l.~a.·tJ~ ") - o..~a.·ZJ"l·
(~otiJQ. "~ . .".) - ~'il~~'''1'
(~.~) _. W"~'~'
';,JJ -...:J
(~"'ilJ~7') - l5a{~'
(~~"l'i).) - rq.~~.~. .l
, '5t:,"t.l"~Q. "ill

Tibetan (~"Qa. .~~.) - Ql·q·

Indian (~"l7'~~') - ~'Zfl~ "J"

Chinese (a;~a.~Q.~') - ~"il"

Japanese (Q.~Q. 'ZJ~'Q:4r) - Q,~ Q, "t.l"l'

American (~"tija..~.'l1"l') - ~·il·~·IT1·119f~:r.r

Russian (~"'fJ~') - ~.~.~.

33

.'

English (~~ '~'4')

French (~%..s, ~~ .)

= l5s,~' = ~%..a, ·ffi·

?if" '~'~~Q,J'l:;J'Q,'&l~ ~~~ .~~~.~t:. ·!.J~a.il·~:q;:l:;J·~J,J~·~·i1~l ~' ~ ~'l t:. '1 ~.~.~~~ ~~cJJ'~r~17~~ 1 .~" 'Q'~ .~~ ·~l·'1JCl.,,·itfz:J· fiJ~ lSJ'~~'~'~l'Q,J' Hindi ~~ ~CJ..) ~"'1 ~.~a..~~.~. (American English = ~\JJQ,'~ '1~' ~"'~'4') ~~:_a.~ ·q·U!~l

34

9~ A (~~,) l'" AN (~~') ~'~i'~l:.~1

a ,1:: an q~·~'4J~ifQ~~·a-lfl·!!;· "~lfl ~.£fl ~CIl" lfl~&J' l"~'i'lfl~Cf1'Ul"l ~i ~Ji '5 ; ''l''~~ 1 ~~ '~CTJ'~~'~'l'~ 'Ul~' q~'i~~'l5"~'~'l1' a,i, u, e,o. ~r::·~Z::~lfll2.fQJ·~'l~~~a.·

f~'~~' an c,~'il'Si'iiff~'lJ'~"'l ~'ll"'aS'~:iJ~: a ~;'f'r Si'tJ·t:Y~l 'Ct~'~J::~'~"'QJ' a i'" an !lq·iiff~·~~i:lil il:J~'~l

You are an Indian.

~S' If;i~' ~rf ~~?~U4~'

rs~' ~~. ~~. !J'~~"r

~.~ .~".~.~~ '£:I~CI}'~~ 1 = ~~':r..~'!'~;;i\ ·:a:.·~~1

He is an Am.erican.

,~. iI~'~~' ~'~'il.,~ '''1~' iic:: l.,' ~~. ~." '£:I' 1S"~~.~ 'CI~t;~'~I;H = rr~~'~'~'ITl~r~~ 1

She is English.

~'Q.' ,*:~. ~,,·Sl,~·

F'" l.,' ,~~t: ~c:"iS~~:~il

This is an orange.

~~. Iii~' ~~. iIr:r.." .}_.

a.~. ~i' ~"1' af~'~'

Q,~~af'~'~'~"1'~il = Cl.~·af·~·&l·~il

35

That is- an

il4'~' ~4J' l4q~'

ld'a,'~~i' ~"1i'

ld·a,~,·~~~~!~~,'q·~~ ,.

umbrella. l'4~~~a. 'CI,I'

~.~~~~.

= l4'a,~I'~~~~r~C;'1

I

am a

Tibetan.

~tija.. lJ.I&l' ~. a'QQ,'fla'

t.l "l

~. fij",' ~t11. Q~'lJ'

r;.=Qr; 'Q'?c\~ 'Ul~,l: =c. ~ll'lJ'UlI~'

He is Japanese.

~q. ~~. Q.~Q,'r.l~Q:~'

is""r::: ~~. q~Q.'Q""

is""c. 'Q.~ Q,'t:.l~ .~~,

:%",~.~~ .. ttl'. lr-·' n ~" ,·~~'·f', l·~''1-'1

1~"""c:t3 i'~ a -. ,an I -,'-.,I' , " ~I

I ' ' I

We are Tibetans.

'iSUlQ, • ~ ~ •

....,

~.ar- Ul~'

r;. ·g.Q1·Q·~~ 1

ia'z:Jd:fl~'~' 'lic;'Q'

you are also

Tibetans.

U!q'l4\I~' 1~1ll'~ f3·l.Ja:fl~,~I'

"'''' -,

f5~'~ ~r;' ~~. 1:Jr;'Q'

fS; 'x.,~ ·af~c.:q~ 'l;r~; 1

36

They are Americans.

~~. [f4:J\' ~'~a..~ "ir~'

rr"'~ ~'1' ~'~'Q'

ji"·i"~·~·~·1~·l.'11

These are ~a·~· ~~' Q,~.~ %.'1' a.~ .~~.~.~C) 1

apples. ~a.~QI'~'

q

J

37

9~ ~rar~~'cJJ~~'~'~~"Q,~' s {~'flI"~l s·arl:11·'·~'~· speak ~~qr) = ~i'a;'lfi'~l

I speak (""CQ~. ~Q~') ,= c;.~·~,·as·4fi·~·uri'

We speak (~a: ~tl~·) = c;.·i'"~·~i·as·~i·~·tG"ll

you speak (~~. il~~~) = ai·~c;.·~~·~;·as·4;·~~1

They speak {~a.. ~1.1l') = rr~'¥~'~;'a;'~~'~~l She speaks (4a.. ~ftJ~~) ::: rr~~4J'~lras'lfi'~~l

He speaks rr;a.: il~'t1~) = rr"~41'~;'='4i'~4Jl

Mr. Reagan is an American.

il~r~' ~'!f~' ~~. ~~. ~.~~.~.",~.

~'~~4J'. ~.~~. ~i' ~1.1l' ~~'Q'

~'t;Q4J'~'S1"l~'~'CJ'~~'~il

He speaks" American English.

,~. ~f()~~. t'fllQ,·~·1t1"l' ~"'Q}'~'

(ffz:.' ~i·a;·~')· ~·&la.·~·I11~· ~".a,.~.

1i" ~4J~·~a:·iS ~ '~i '~f~ ·~·t(i"1·~i 1

1ff.·.II1"'~'q~'II1"'''·S~Il~IIJ~~IIJ'Q.~· S~II1~~~ .... lff.l·q·s t'IIJ .. ". ~~~1~~~1

38

Mrs. Indira Gandhi is an Indian.

il'~~' ~~~.~. ~~~. ~:&. ~~. ~~?"UJ~' ~iJ.l·~r ~~~.~. ~~~'~l" ~~r~·~.2;.·lJ· ;IJ'~~~~'~'~~ ~ '.~·~~·q·~~·~ll

She speaks Hindi.

~. ~fQ~~' .~~ ~Q.'

rr~' ~l'a;'lfl'~'~~'~l' F~~~'!'~~'~l'l;J~~'~'q~~

Mrs. Thatcher is

~.~~. ~q:a;x.' ~~,

~&J'~r ~'a.'C5~' ~l' ~ltr~r~Q:a;·.2;.lS"l·~1~11

She speaks English.

~q' ~~~il' ~c:;, '3:1'1'

~~' ~l'C5'lfl' 15"1~'

fi~~~·ls"l~Q.·~l·Qfa; ·~·<l.5~

Mr. Nakasone is

&l4l'r~' a;''11'~' ~4l' ~''iQ~r a;~I1l'~' ~l' ~·~q41'a;''9'~ 'a.e:q'qa; ~~ 1 I

He speaks Japanese.

1;Q_' ~fi.l~~. a.~a.·tJ~a.·~·

English. ~~.~.~.

15a;~'

. ,

Japanese. ~~a.·G~~·~· q,~q'l:Ji'

39

J

~~:

::_. tll~·

::_:q~ -qUr~i

.a?.3JIL ! ~A'~'3 e H
.
. ~ ,~W .")$
, .~
·40 ~~\ No(~) QltTl~·il ~ 1 QJ~l,\J·clJ·~ ~ 1

~~~r&!~l ClJ~~·il·Q,~ ~ ClJ~~·ar~·&1·~~ 1

Yes (~UJ~r~r) ~tTl~rSl~l QJ~~'~,)l '1J~~'~~1 OJ~.~·Q,~~ QJ~'~w~'~~l

Yes, thank you

~UJ(q'~' ~"1~'~ ~ {Q,,; 1

El"'~'3' ~~~rt.·;tl thank. you.

Elc:.·~~· ~~4J~~1

No,

~ O.J~~r~~·il~ 1

c:t.~ '~~~'~~Q,J'i6'~~' ~~~'~'l~~~~'~~~' ~~~ '!')'S~ '(rt\) ~ 1

41

'S~5~~.:;J:f~q~.r is, are, am, O.J'~~~~'Ja.·5~as~~~~~~cJJ~~a;~· ~c.J '~~l:f1'~~ ~.~~ .a;"1.~qf'''1~'~~Q. ~ ~ ~'ry"1~.~~. ? ~~'q~' ~·Sl~·~~~·q·~~l C)~~'~1

1. Are you a
~~' UJQ.' tJq'
"" Tibetan ? ~.qa..~o,'

UJo,' rs~'~I;,' ~~. ~l'q'

rs~ '~~ '~l'~'UJ~ ''J~l.

2. Yes, 'I1UJ~·~·

~

C'lIr'UJ~ •

I

am a

Tibetan .. 73·'J'iJ.·fl~ .

M\l'

3, No, I am not a
v-v- ,~ ~o..r W'
~a: lfIIlI.JQ,' ~.
CJ,J'~ll '" ~~'
.t:,' cl.l~ ,
'" - '"
Q,J~~'CJ,J~ 1 .t:. ''ll·'J·cl.l~ 1 Tibetan,

~.t.Ja. 'fl~' Ql't.J·

42

9:d NEGATIVE (~~.~.f7t~r) ::: ~~~.!1 '"E"'~·Rl~rQl·i~41·~·~~·t(j~·tJ·~~~l ~~~~41·aJr.z.~·~~qr;;r~~~r ~S .~~ ·~~r.z.·4·~·ur~'~ ~ .~q~.r.z.~ ~ .!~~~.~ ''1l~ N ot (~?I)

C)"'l No~) ~~·~~~~i·i'"~.·S~·'t:~~l

Is she a doctor?

~~·4'?J.· t1;i' 1~'~~'

~~. if- ~~'tN'J'~' q~'

rr~~'J·~'~~·q~l

t,

2. Yes, • she is a doctor.

t1]u.t~.~. ~'Q.' ~~. l';i ?~·fkX.·

ClJr'l.l' If l.c,,~~' ~&l'~'

QJ~~·l.ll F~~~'~'~ll

3.

No, she is

not a

doctor.

~ ~a.. ~~. ~. tJJ. ?~"d~'

i.J·~~1 }f 'J'~~' ~~. ~~.~.

. QJ~~'&I'~ll rr~~ll·i6·&I~X.l'

4.. Are you Japanese ?

~~. 'SS' ~~~.q~a. .~.

tQ~!. 6l'~~' ~e:.Q,''l~'q~' ~l·~~·Q,~Q,·'l~·~~·q~l

S. Yes, I am Japanese. ~UI~f~' ~O:Ja: ~or~~Q,·!J~a.:~·

QJ~~'fi:l~' c:: U:J~' t2.~l'2.·t.JI~·

QJ~~'t'il~ 1 ~ 'Q.E:.Q.''l~ 'fil~l

43

6,

Is

she a

nurse ?

~~. 4:)q. l'j

~l' if ~~. F£;.·~i·~iq~·~Crl.J~l

~~.~. Ilr:r~:u:r~,·

''1.

No, she is

not a

nurse.

If.il ~~. ~~. ~. ~

Ol·l.~ 1 If 1J'~l' ~~.

QJ~~'&J'~ I) 1 rr t;. ''''1) '~Ui~ 'IJ'~ 11

~:1\'~' ",.~'~~~'

Is this ~,~. ~~.

~I)' ~~.

a:~·~·~·~'1·l.J~1

Ii pen ?

lfj l.J~'

~~. ~~~r

Q.~·~·~~~'~1·l.J~1

9; No, this is not a pen.
~ ~~. ~~. W· l"l 'J"l'
q
&J~l..I).'! q~. or~I" ~.~' ~I'~'
Q!~~·0l·x..'11 Q.~·~·~·~·X.il
10. This is a pencil.
~~I' ~~i' ~! l.J~'~QJ'
q
Q.~. ~'i' ~~. ~'~"l'
Q.~·~·.~~·x..1)1 ~~'i'i·~~~~·~,'1 U.. Is

that a

fox ?

~iiJ' ~4J{" lfj ~~~.

~l' ~~. ~~. '2fij. 'J~1

rq~~·i"~i~·l.J~l ~·~'ifli~~~~'1·l'.J~l

44

12. No that is not a fox.
I
~ i~~' ~~. W' III! ill1~'
tot
&r~~' ~'~' ~.~". ~~. 'if~
n.j~~·if.J·~ll r.;j.~ '"tflf&l'~ '"
13. That is a dog.
i~f' ~~. ~ r~'
r.t
r.;j.~. ~~. ~~. rs'
T4'~~~1."
u Is it hot ?
~~. ~r' F'
~l' ~. as:q: l'.l~1
~'a;~l·l'.l~l
15. No, it 15 not hot.
~ ~~. ~~. W· F'
~'~l' ~. ~'~l' a;:q.
OJ~~'clJ'~ll ~ 'as:q&l'~ll
'16. It is cold.
~r' ~~' ~'lJr'
~. ~l' 9Jc::,'lf
~.~t:..~.~",
17" Is this my watch ?
~~r ~~. ~ilJa.· 9;i~'
x.l' n.~. ~?t. ~'~l' 'J~'
iJ,~·c.~·C&'~l'~l·rJ~l 45

18. No, this is not your watch.
,
'~ ~~. ~~. W· iXi~' 1a'
q
cJ.3·~i· q,~. ~'~i' rsi·~·· ~'i"i'
'lJCIl~·&l·l.i' a.~·rsi·~~~·~·i"i·'l·~il
19. This is his watch.
~~. ~~. ~~. 9fa'
~~. ~i' ~. ~'i'i'
~~'rr~~'~'~~'~~l
20:. Is that her bo~ ?
: ~~. i~~' 1.~' ~CIl4t·
r
I l.c)' rct·~· i1O,. ~&J'
I
t l<I'~'rr~ ~'~&J'~i ·r.t~1
l 21. No, that is not her box,
~ ~~ft· ~~. W· 'l~' {~4t'
&J'l.,y l<I~' &J'~i' iid.' ~&J'
1lJ~~'&J'~il l<I~·rr~·~·ti&l·&r~i 1
,22. he these your books ?
~~. ~~.~. '~~. S"1~·
Q
l.~' q,~~~ Bi'~' ~q.
q,~ '~i'~~ ~·~q·~i ·r.t~1
2,3'., No til are not my books,
" ese
~ ~~.~. ~~. W· &JUl'Q.· S~~·
Q
&J'~i' q,~.~ JJ'~i' ~-q. ~q.
1lJ~~·&l·l.i 1 a.~ .~~Q. ~q'&I'~i 1
46 24.

Is this Losang's"

~~.~,~. iq=lk.~~·

~~. a.~. iqi!"~'

o.~ 'i"l:;Ji! ~ 'Q.I~~r~ 'F" 'q'~')''J~I

house ?

~r.~:, -/~~.""

25.

No, this IS

not

Lo .. '.

sangs

house.

~ ~~. iJ:~l' o.~.

qJ~~'iJ"J'~111

~~. ~' il:;Ji!"'~'

o.r~')· il:;Ji!r:;,'~'

q~"iQi!~·Q.I~~·~·f"~tJ"&I'~ll

Zi)o:~. Ft:.·""

26. This is Sonara's" house.

~~. ~~. Q~')'~o.r~'~' ~~~.

Q,~,' x_ ')" . tJ~l'a;,c1J~'~' F"~"l"

a.~·q~1·"t&J4.1·~~~·~·FE::z:.r~11

apostrophe (~.~. ?~') ~~'qQ;·~r:q~ta.l·i~l ~a.'&J~"'~~'~'" 5 Q,~. G:-6~,·lJ"~·!.~'·~;f~·"'l:l~'Q,9,Qj·.~~~·f~·1..r~~,l ilJ~'~l iif"~9~~r Losang's (iGiI"'4!)'lfS"Q,5r~1 'i"~iI"~" ~41·'J~~~·X.ll ~·~~~·il,,·jJ)~·rbt.:·&J~·~~·

~it1''J-ti:l~\

47

9~ ~~1 rs~·~~,: ~t:_.:a, ~~~r~·~~,~(lJl lSo, ·Ul~·~·~4o.J·~~~',""S·~~T~~·~~~·UJ"~ .~t::~o; '~~9'Ul~ 1

(a) Possessive ~~'d. ·~z:r adjective ~~~ qr'f z~r

( b) Possessive

my (o.JUJQ., ') _ t::(J: _ mine (cJJUJo,')
your(~;.:.,·) ._ rs~ ';.:.,t::~. _ yours(~~'~')
hisfr;~') - F~'~'(lf) _ his ~~.)
her (1;':"') - f~~'(lf) - hers (1~'~')
our (l"l'Cij~.) - ~'ffi'l.' - ours(1§.J~~ .~.)
.r.t
your(~~') - ~~'~~'a¥J.' - yours(OJO: ;a:.,.~.)
their(~'Q.~ ~) - Fl:':~' - theit:s( ~Q.~.x.. ~~.) (a) ~ my, your iTQ]~~~'&l~~'~'~~'ffi~~~'C_~'!J~'~'~Sl1if~l

(b) mine, yours a:r~~·~·fa,'~~'~,,·i5'~·qS·q·'lJ~·CJ.l~~·~·~t:_·UJZ::

~9'iJ'lQf~1 l~~'~l

This is my book, q~·t:_~~q·l_11

This book ismine

1.

That is

his house.

i~'{r ~~. ,~. ,~. l'4~·x.l· rr"~' fC,'Z:f T4'~'rr~~'f"''J'~11

48

2. That house IS his.
~a..~. 1~~r ~~. ,~.
~''11' Ft:.·L,r 1.1· rr~''11'
F~·I,r~''11'f6'~·a,·l.ll
S'ffi"l
3. Is this your pen
~~. ~.~. ur~' 'J~'
q
l.l' a.~. 61'~' ~'~r
a.~'iSl·~t:_"~·~'~l·'J~l
4. Yes, this IS my
~~lN'~l ~,~. ~~. ~tQa.'
QJ,?'~ll a.~. :%';' t:_(t
QJ~lN'~ll a.~ 'c:.a. '~'~'~ll ?

pen. 'J~'

~'~r

/

S. Is this camera yours or Kesau.g's ?

~~. ~4J' ~ilI'~' ~~,~. ;;r~." ~QJ'CJ:r~:~'

~l' Q.~. ll:J~'C5~' i51·~·UJc:.'~· ~QJ·QifC.~· 'J'lN' lCJ~·a;~'a.~'al·~~~·~l·l&Jl ~tlJ'Q~"~'~ll

6. This camera is not mine.
~~. ~&J'~' ~~. W &J~~'
a.,. ll:J ~ .. :a;~r orl..i· "a..
ll.l~ 'C6~'a.~ 'c,'a ·~rl.ll 49

7.

8.

10.

11.

I think this camera is

~ilJQ: E!~:"r. ~~. ~~'X_' ~~.

~. ~~&.rz:r q~. 1tJ;~:a;~·l..,~ .

~z:.]x_·a;,~·q~·~Cl,I·q.:a~~·:x.~·Q~o;J·~~l

Kesang's,

""

~Q..I'Q.ij .I:::~r

r...

~Q.l~Qi!~'~'

Is

that book yours or '," Lhamo's ?

.._._. '" -- ,_.._,_

UJCl,~'~' 3\,1~' ~'cJJ'~'

al'~' =v ~.ijq,.

~·ija:l..~l

That book 1S

Lh I,

amos

but this one is mine.

~qf' 9~' ~~. ~'if~r ~f1' ~~. ~~. ~~. ~~~.

~.~. ~l:l' l..l· ~.~. UJ~'UI~' q~.~. l..l· ~Q.l

~Q'~'~'~'~'~ll a.~ ~ ,,~~ 1 q~'~Q:UJa,l

Is

this ruler his

or

Dekyi says that this ruler is

Q~·ml·~q·~· iQ.{'r ~~. ~~'QJ~' ~~.

Q~'~l' ~~~'''l~~' q~. EJl:Il~4~' ~l'

Q~·~l·Cl,I~~·~(f.J~l.1l·~~·Cl,~~f~~·~l·~~~·~·q~"l

'ZIf~ .,~~~.a;"l:'~l:J~ 'l"l,~Q~l'~Q]~'Q~X_ =fj~~1~"l~'1 ~l'~~ 'Sl!'~~~c:\~'~~' UJ~'Uill S'ffi~' belong ~.~~.) ~~·Q~lQl"l·z:.]·fl.~l lQ[::QQ.~a,·l.ll

lQX_'a,l

~~. ~~. ~'3'Cl,IX_' ~~. ~X_'

-:::. '" eo.. co., ""r" '"

""l·... Cl,l' ,al.1l·~~· rZl~'~' Ull~:a,'

'El"l:·~c:.·Q,~·F~·~~l..l·lcJJl ~~'$tlJ'~'~ll

50

Namgyal's? ~~.~~.~.

'"

~~'!J~'~r

his.

",co.

1~'

- '"

FC_'''l'

12. This camera belongs- to Kesang.

~~. ~&I'~' ~.~~~. ~'3' ~~'~i1'"

a.~. 'iq::l\.t6~. ql~'!J' ~. ~~'Qi1~'

~Q::I\ 'a;~'o.~ ·~tll·l;J.q r_ 'ClJ'q~ CfJ:a,.·ur~ 'l,ll UI~'~ 1

1'" ~'a;~'o.~ '~I14'l;J.q r_.~ '"%..'11

• s'aJl1r belong ~·;{j~')1 ~'&l~ll'J~' S q~~·q'O.~~·l~~;q~%IlJ'~I11~·~~II1·~·S·

as-Qj' belong Q.·~rQ~arr;~i"Q']~·"l' SQ~~ 'lilf~·l.J'UJ~ 1

51

j

9(1~l·lS~·~z::J~· ~ll ~~~ ~~"'I·~·rsl·~o;ll ~~.~~.~. (~'l a.~~) l"· ~~1 ur~p ~~~·S·ffi~·~·qS·~·~· ~~ '" 'UJ~ ·i)·~S .~~~ 'iG"l'~ ~ '1 ')5 ~ .~~.~.~.~ %.. .~~ 1~?:J ~.~ ,

1. He is a boy - ft:_'S'~~':~~l
2. He is there. - f" .t4~ ~·Cl.~tTl lift:. '~'r;s ~ .~~ .a;-~ '~l::rr;"~ ~1 F r:;_ 's'r;~'Ul~ ·C·fQ ~~ ''J'~lJ' QJ~l "SQJ'~~~~~r::'UJ"'Q~~'&lr;l

a;~'~Q''I1~~''J'~ ~ iF" ''f1 ".~ ''I1~.~'C.J~ '~QJ~ 'l;J~.~ '!.J~~~ ~il' Cl.~ .~.~" UJ t:_ '1 ~ra;'I1' is ~. x. ~ 'lJ'~~~ ~ ~~ 'O:l~'~ x. .~. ~ ~ l. r; 1

Cl.~~ " ~~~·(fj"'~~·~-·Q,S·~·~~ 1

~. t.:_'_i3 'll'l "~l"·IQ']'~·q·Q.s· ~z::J~r~" 'a.~~,,~.~ ~,~'cJJ~,,~,

U)~l ~ ~r", 1

1.

I am a Tibetan. =: t:.·q-'l.·'-l·~tq·Ul~ 1
~~q' ~cIl' ~ ~''J~'l3~' -
1':1.
". tQ~. ~~. ~~'l:.Il
I am in India. =: r:. .S!.~%.. ·~·tfj""ll
t§.l~~. ~&l' If;)iJj • .ti;}~ 7'UJo
~'fil~' ~z;,.' !f~.z_· 2.

52

3, You are a TIbetan.;;;: B~·~E:.·Q,·tJ·~~'l.ll

tQ~. LJ4~' .~ S'QQ,13&'

'-11'". Q. "l

al'~'" ~1' ~~' Ql'Q'

They are abroad.

~a.' ~.~. . IJlQ'~?' (ffJ:::¥- Ui'Q]'X.c;' 9'~QJ'QJ'

you are

~S· ~~. Bc;'~'" l..i'

s.

6.

They are ~a.. ~~.

in Tibet == ~~·~I:.;q~·QJiJJ'~·~ll

~~. P~!JQ.~·

~~'rr~'

also Tibetans, = rr"·if'UJ":S-l·q·X.~l ilj~'~ ~.qa.'f:I~'

53

1. one ~~ . 11. eleven ~.~.~~.

2. two ~S· 12. twelve ~'~a.J.~.

3. three ~ .~". 13.. thirteen El'~ ~ .

4. four {;:t,.' 14.. fourteen ~.(t~.

5. five ~UJz:r 15. fifteen ~~r{teJi'

6. six ~~~. 16. sixteen ~~~·f~.·

7. seven ~~'~~' 17. seventeen ~q.~~.~~.

8. eight ~~(t' 18. eighteen~~'~CIil'

9. nine ~ ~irJ~' 19. nineteen ~irJ~'fro;'

10. ten ~.~. 20. twenty ~~o,.~.

30. thirty SJ'?/' 70. seventy ~q'~""r'

40. forty ~~. 80.. eighty ~a..~.

50. fifty ~~'f' 90. ninety "lV:J~ of'

60. sixty ~'fJ~'f' 100. one hundred lij~ ',~ ,'(~.

21. twenty one ~'ij~ .~. 9i~' - , .~ 'g-L11~"l'

22. twenty two ~¥j~'~' ~S· - ~'~'~~'4i'

31. thirty one ~'ro .~~. - ~&J':a'~"l~'l1'

"l~ 'Q~~ 'sa~~v" '~'l" '1 ~~'~'lf~~'~ :~~'~'~~'fl'~'~'~~r qr;~'''l~zq'~ ~.q~a; .. -fj'~~~'l:J~ 'q~ 'l:l~l af~lr~l

54

~9 PREPOSmON = ffi~'~ll

~4OJ·~~'lJ·~'ll·~'1·Q.~ 'ffi~'~S ~ ,~c;(€'ll' preposition ~.~ 'li'~' 4'0,.) ~~rQ.9arffiqr~·s·~~·~·x.~ 1 ~~ .~~:;q-~ til~~·a;-~·~~·~S· ~llJ'~~'S~'~ 1 tlJ~~ v '1 5 C;;'~ 1 Cl.StlJ·~ 1 Q,~ l:::~~~'~' ~1t1~.l.l 'Cl.S~'q~~ '!.l~ '~~'~l'~ .~.~~ .~~,U!~ 1

to ~~. = or( 'lJ~~ .)

at B'4~(r := .f.!J.' (~~~')

for ~:a;: :: ~'i'~' (~~~.)

m ~~. = "'~'~. (aJ~~ ')

of J)f~.= ~' (Q;S~'~')

from {-:(J,J';; ",~r(~ r.:.'~ r.:. ~.r)

by flUJQ,o = ~~rfi1~'(s~'~)

with 1J'.e;,' =~~~r~'

on lf4~' = ~r.:. .~.

~

= Cl.~'Q.I'

= fBl'~' = l~''lJ'

under

lfj~',~' ~.~~.

before

after

~~'f~' ~'~~:(I'

~'~Ul'i' ~~,~atf'

~7i:(r4Jatf'

beside between inside outside

55

= ~iS~'OJ' /zq7cf"l'-'t'~ =: CJ·~ 'OJ'/ q.:.. ',SZl1'OJ'

= ~t:.'~~4J'Q.l'

= ~.C{f~~'Q.l'

in front of ~'i~.~'i 'f"lli~' =OJ~'i'4l!'

behind ~'1~'il' = ~q'QJ'

near ~a.~' = q~~'QJ'

far ~~'= ~qrx.r;:"!f

above ~'fj~' = lf~'ClJ'/UJo;'~'

below ~.~ = ~4clJ·ClJ'/0J~·Q.J·

~r; ·~~QJ·~~·!'jl·~OJ·~·o;~r to ~ 'q~~.~".~ ~ .. ~" ·qr~~r~~clJ· l"'l ~".a;~.~~~ ·l;l·~~·~·f;:r.. ·~"4·')lJ·~g~·q~·~~ 1 .

to me (~'3' .~a. ') .1; 'Q.l' / z::. ~ •

to us (~'3' ~.~.) r;·g.ClJ·/r;·g~o

to you (~~. ':S~.) 6~'~r;'Cll'

to her (~~. 1;:r.. ') rr I; oQJo(iij

to him (rg'3'~&I') (ifz::.'QJ'(lf)

to them (~~. ~clJ') rrt:,·g.QJ'/rrz::.·~~·

to school (~~' ~~~ClJ') il:l'9J'ClJ'/iq'9J~'

to Tibet (~~. a·tJ~·13·) Qi'QJ'

a;~·!il·L11~.~ ·~clJ~r~z::.·Efjt:. 'q",o; '~~4J'~~'~4J'S~ 'i"'l]

~~'Jlt:l'a5'~ ~'l~~ 'l:l{"~ 1

, He is good to us.

,~rJ.; ~~. W'~S~ I'f~'

fi'" tlii' lqlf1.:q.~. J::..g~.

1i~ '~'I'~'UJ~:qU;ll

56

She is

at

~. ~~. ~~~. f'" ur~·"i.~· Ill' rr"·~"·OJ·ur~·X.11

This is for

~i'4' ~~. _~.

Q;~' ~~. a;l'~'

r.t.""[5l'~" ~'(a;l'j') Ul<Jjl

I am

~u:td.·~,&J' t;_. arl,

,,;Ql ~OJi(f11

home.

~&r

~".(~." 'BaJ')

you. u.)r.r

....,""

in Tibet.

~~' 13'l.J~1J'

1lJ' Ql'

We are from Tibet.

~tijQ,' ~~'

"'C;.~ ~l'

,,·ft1 ~~~'fll", 1

He is

¥&l' ~ 'T.J~.~. ~~'lil'

a

~q' ~~. tfj

1i"'~l' ~~' ~"'z::.a.'9f~~;q~~ 1

friend of

~·.1\~·fr if.r~' irtr- ~'

mine.

OJ~~' r=:.q.

I came by this way.

~~~. ~&J' ~UJa.· ~il' ~Q,'

~: ur,,·~· ~~. ~~. QJ&I'~~~'

"'~&l'~~~'a.~ ~~iij'"r::: ''-J'Gl~ 1

57

She is

with them.

~~. ~~ '2!El' ~or

jS"t::.. q~~. cJJ'9cJJ~' rrC. 'i'"::t,.

F t::.·rs-c.·¥-iJ~iJ·~ "q.~~

f' My hat IS on the box.

clJ~Q.· ,~~.~.~. ~~. )' ~zq~.

r.q. ~'&f ~~~. ~".Q;t. ~cJJ'

t::.q·~·)f~cJJ·~t::.·IlJ·Q.~Q}

The cat is

under the chair.

~. ~~(1' ~~.

~.~. ~ClJ'

r; ·i.)·~Q·[J~ClJ;q~·Q,j·q~~

~"1'f;J;.'j' ~ClJ'Q,J'

i;tqx; :!lQ.q~~.

~? . He runs after a dog.

~Q.' ~~~~·~trr~· ~ ?~.

jit;..~~"l,J' ~~'Q.J.~~. ;S.

rr t::.·Bq·cJJ~~·Q.I·~~ ~.q~ ~

..

?~ He came before me ..

,a· ~.J.I' ~'i~' il'q'

fit::.· mQ~'tJ' f~'IlJ' t::.a..

Fc.·c.~·f~ ·Q,J·~l:J~·r.J·~~1

9~ She sits beside you.

~. ~~ ~.~tQ~. ~'3'

'fl:.' ~'i .. q. q'f9~'Q,J' 61.·~r:::·

fc:.'fS v= ·'Fi1'o.'f9~·Q,J·~l·~ ~o. ~.£l1

58

~~ you are between Losang and me,
':S~' ~~' ~·~Ul~· iQi1~' ~~7' il~'
ai' ar~'~i' q~'Qf iQ=!'" 1~' ".
I9,·~~·il:J~t:.'1t:.""a.·Q~·i9~·~·ur~'~'1
91{ He is inside the house.
,a.- ~~, ~~'~iQ(1' -l' r;~'
[Q'" ~~- ~t:.'~' ~c;..t.l'
pi"~ 'Fr:.'t.lo.~" '~'a.~ ~
9b She is outside the hall.
4~' ~~. ~~'~iil(7- ~. ~~'
jfi"'~~~' ~'Qi~~'Q,J' i'"~~'FJ'"
is' t:.'i"~~·Ft:. ~.~ ·dT~~·D,!'a.~ ~
I)" you are in front of me.
04Q.' tf4~' ~cr,' ~"lr lfrff ~a.'
~"
B,,~t:.' Q.~~' iJ.I~~' 1l.I' c_a_.
Be; .~" 'C_a.'~~" .~~~ ~ •
!1~ I am behind you.
~tQa· ~OJ' ~~~"l?' ~~'
1:.' ille;' !i1;r~~~rl1J' a')'~C_'
",'($')' ~r::. '~·!l:J·Cij'"~W'QJ·UJ11
9(1 Th,e chair 15 near the table.
~. ~tJ,f~. iJ.l~. ~a.~' ~. f~Q.J·
~Q'Q~~' a.~~' a.1!I~''lJ' ~~.~
~Q'Q~~'~~'~'a.1S(\J'QJ'Q,~~
59 1....- __ -

America

far

~'Cija..~". ~~. tI~·

~'~~'IT1'~l' EI"1·~t:.' ~4J'

114·&t·~ '1T1'a.; 'if\~'EJIl]'~~ ~.c; 1

from here.

~&I' C;;Q.~ .

a.~~'

~, The sky is above us.

l' ~1atQ: ~il' ~t:j~. YQ.~.

~'l0r ifi~'~i' i"i'Q.l' ".~. ~~~·t:.·;ra,~i·QJilf~·~c; 1

It is written. below the

~~. ~~. ~r'" ~.~ ~.

~. X.c;' S~·l.f ~"IJ'IlJ'

~ ."l.J~ ·~:q~·QrS4J·4~:

60

picture. '!.l~'~x.' E)'J,,'

.,"" TIlE (~.) = ~~~~I~ ·~·ffiqr 51~1 ~S~·tl:l~·~· (the ~.) ~~r~Q.·~~·~~·~·ffi'~·~~·"'~·Q~~;ql·Ul~· ~. ~~,'~" l"''''S'Q'~'~C;'~li'Sl'~'''l 1"2J~'~1: 'the book' ~~. &l::::'ffi~~tr~'f~ ~~. 'the' 9~·tql·~ l~Q''''~'~''~~'l'~~' ~~·q~~·~~·~·-oc;~~·Ul~·~·q~c;·~·~"·l UJ'" 'abook' ~~. i)"'ffi'~'~iQ'~'fa;~~' 'a' s;~rUT~'o;l'~Q~6~' ~'~'~r~r"'~i' ~"~Q;S ~~{Q"1'~~~~ ~~~" ~t:. '4~~'~~ '~'d.~~ ~~cll~Q~~ ·z:.r~11 ~"2:J~'~ 1

The book is

on the table.

~. $."1' ~~. ~~. ~ 'f~~'

~~·q~lfJ· ~~'Il.I' ~~.~.

~Q'~~'~'~~''lJ.q~~

,

A

book is

on the table.

~ 5"1' ~~. ~~. ~. ~~Il.I'

~Q~qr¥~·~·~It:.·'lJ·q~~

The doctor came to me.

~. f~'(7~' ~~. ~~. ~~.

~'l.~. m~~'Q' QJ' t:.~.

~&r~ .c_a.'.o~~~l:J~'~ r:_'1

61

., ~ ~~~'a;-qrl t:.,~~:a;qr~5r~~1

There is (~'d.~~~r) = r.:J~~ ~Q.~~ (~~qr~~)

There are (~q~. l!\l~') = ~~~'Q.~~ (~".~qp

~~tIl'ffi~'~ ".'~C;; ·~~·a.9·~.t:J~rs 'ffiCfl' are ~ ~' is a.~ '~'~'Q!.'

~:'~.~~~"Z:J;: ~ 1 OJ~ 'ill'''1''O~ '~'&l~ ·ill'''1T.1Qj·ffi 'Q~' s· {iIj'

There are two

cats" on the box
B~'~ ~~' )' ~~.~.
~'iQ' ~.~·ClJ· ~clJ' i~"" ~~. r§'3'

G4~~' c.~~' 1l1~~'

~ 'il~~~~' ~iJ.l'~~ ·ClJ·a.~ ~

There is a

cat on the box.
r.s~·f· ~~. ~. ~~~.
~'~' ~~.~. 'ki&l' fQ_~' ~~, ~

1 <:I

f4'~~' Q,~~' ~~.'

~'~'~~·~~r~.~ ·qrQ,~ ~

There is a pen

ia~· ~~. lfj q~'

lc!.~~, Cl.~~' ~lt]. ~.~.

~~.~ '~~'QJ'~'~~~"fl,~~

on the table.

lf~'~' (1I~' ~.c. 'Q1' ~tIl·~·

There are many pens on the

id.~· ~~' ~~Q_' q"1'~' t},' j'

l'4~ ~' 1l.~.~' .&ll:.:r:r ~'~r iiC.'IlI'

~~~~ ,~~.tl.I'~'~'JJr:.:~Cl.~~

62

table. (I~ar

<:I

i"lt].~.

. 1

on a hand.

There are three breads on the table.

i)~~' ~~. f1.'~~' ~'~q_'~'

14~~' ~)~. ~~,JJ' ~~.q,~.

~~.~ '~r;;;. ·'1J'tJ~·~q·~~cJrq~L11

~~. lJj 1~f'

~"'Il.I' ~ ~'IlI~'Q'

in a week.
~~. ~ ~~.
~
~r;;;.' ~~. q5"l'~"1' in a

month.

There are five fin

gers

i~~' 9'ol~'~UJQ' ~r;;;.·~i~·il·

14~~' Q,)~'~' &l~'~'

'lJ~'Q'~~I:l]'Q,f'&l~'~'~ -ar~.x, II

There are seven days

~a.~. ~.~. ~o..t5~. ?~:~.

14'~;(.,' o;~~. Q~~' ~'&l'

q~~. ~~'CI1%"1'Q,f~';J'Q'J~ ·ur~ ·l.ll

There are thirty days

1~~' tJi4~. ~f' rQ.~~·

14~A.' Q,~~' ~~.~. ,.~.

i'z:r~%~'4'lJ' ·;J·~&l·~·a:rll]·~~l

~"l' lfj 3jt::.. c,~'

iJ"l'-~' ;1:1'

(' There are twelvemonths in a year.

;0.%: ~~. ~9:fQf~' OJ.~·EI·~· ~",. lfJ. Ul'\~'

l4''a)A.' ~~'11' Q~'~~~' ~"Q' ~r::.' ~~r Of

o:rlfJ~~'11l'''' ~ ·QJ·B1"J:J·Q~·'q~~ilf~~l. -; 1

S·~~·l:l~~(l~r5·a;-L11· are i'" is 4jt11~'aJ~'~l:l'~'~'Il'J,J'~~' a..9·l~~1 ~q~ 'B) 1

63

Are there many cats on

~ ~a.~. ~a.. ~~.~. ~~.

a,~~' f4~~' ~,,~ ~'il' ~"'IlJ'

~1.J·~"·IlJ~·il·~" ~a,~ ~'~~1

the box ?
~. ~~4l'
~~. 1

.1,

Is there a cat

~~. iQ.~· ~ r3~{1'

~~~. '4.~~. ~~. ~.~.

~iJ.l'~" 'Ql~:&l~~Q]'~~ ~~~~l

,
on the box ?
~~. ~. ~~it·
,q
~t::,'IlJ' ~~. ~~1 Yes, there is.

~UJ~·~' iQ.~· ~~. ~~Ql~·~,,·q~~·~·Cl.9·~IlJ'Q,~·~~·Rl"'l> ClJ~~"Q,~~' ~.~~. a,~~'

1lJ~~'~~~

Yes, there is a

cat on the box.

£l1UJ~'~' ia.~·~~· tIj 6~r~'~a:,'~' ~~~.

1lJ("C".\jL11' f4'~~' Cl.~~' ~'l1' ~'il" ~"'IlJ' ~~.

~r·C".\~~ ~~'~"'IlJ~'~~~'~~~ (S'IlJ~'C5'ffi"')

No, there are not many cats on the box.

~ iO_~' ~~. W ir~o_' ~~.~. lff~'~' ~~~,

ilC".\~~· 14~~~' i).r.l.~~ 1.J,,:q; ~~~. ~,t::,·ClJ' ~cJJ'

ilJ~~·;'Y.1.~~ ~~·~"·QJ·~·il·clJ,,:tj·i;J·a.~~

64

How many days are there

1~&J~Q.· ?~.~. lfj~' ~~:J\'

ll1'~'1' ~ 'cl.l' a.~ ~"'4'~:J\'

(1.~ ~ ':1~ '~~~'OJ~ 'J4 '~'as, ·tG"~·2..'1

How many weeks are there

1<j7i: ~~Q,' ~~'~4,'i~~

~.a:;~. q~~'~Q]' ~~~.~~.~:

~·'Q·~~~·ClJ,q~~·~l·ll1·a:;l i1TQ}'X.i 1

in a week?

~~.~. ~~'

,,~. ~1l1' Q~" ·S~·

ina month?

~'" tIj' i.i"el" ~". ~~ •. RJ·q·

on the desk?

~~. S· ril'~' ti"'~' fQ~'~~'

How many months arJ! "there in a year?

,"tr: ~~a.' ~~'~.~' lfj~' ~a.;J._ ~~. "f UlQ.~'

qp'l' iiJ'Q' Q.~~' '4'~~' ~~. f;111' ~

~CIl6'11'ill'm'Q'~'afl:urlf1'~ll

How many books are there

:;~ il~'Q.· s~il.: I!'j~' ia.~

~'afl' ~Q' ~~tI1.C4'~4,'

ti:!~"i'~ '~~ ''V~ Q'~ ·a;'l·a.~ ~

How many boys are there

~'a)'1' S· Q,~~' ~'~~'

r;r.f ir~a.· ~Q,.~. "j~' i~~

a.~" .~a. '''J:;·~·S·~·CS'l·Q.~ ~

65

in the class?

"r:.,,~, ~~'9]'

~'l' ~. ~~.~.

How many girls are there ?
~'ari' l:J'if a.~Il1' ~~.
"
it;: &J'~~' ~llJ"~' tfj~' ~a:%.
S'if~'e5"i '~~1l1
JJ Ho.w many children are there in the class?
~'asi' ~.~. a.~Il1' 1l1~' "l" '~' l'l.E:""l·~r
,~ il~a: at1J'r~' tfI,i~' ia.~ .:-.. ~~'~r
~~' ~
~~~ '~?J. -a, " 'OJ' ~.~ '~'a;~ 'Ul~ ,x. i 1 •

66

"11{ .NEW VOCABULARIES = ~"9a,qr~~ ~·tJ 1 ~~·fl~·S·Q.rx.a.·~· (~~~:Z'~r &It::..~~.)

son

father (~.~ ~:) z:.r~' ~~'l:J'7~")

th ) H H

motner (~·S~" ~'clJ'

daddy (ira. 9fQ..·) "l"l4" (~~~~'lcI'iJ:l\'~I~~'

mummy (~&r&Ja·) ~'&l' ~lZ·':;"S~:a.~l~ffi~)

grandfather (~~~ 'f' ~.~ ~.) ~

grandmother (~.~~ 'r ~'~~') l?tf

sister ~~rf~:) S'lF~~"

brother (~~i~') S'~'i'

uncle (~~.~~.) ~'~'l~~'~""

aunty , (lfj~ .~a.') ~~ 'lr::_"~rlf

elder sister (~~'~~~'f'~.) tf.l·ij~,/~~,~·lf

elder brother (~~'i!' ~~i ~ ')~~~~r /~~~ ~

younger s.ister(U]~ .'~.' ~~rr ~.) S'lF~~ .~~~ 'c.r

youngerbrotber ('-'Ii~'I" ~lA:lX.:) l:J'tJ3. ·z:n~3,·"l·

"1. ), ,,~,-I . :1"11'"1

(~~.) ~.c:. ~~ '.q"

IQ -,. -'1 '"'

(~f'~') ~.c:.~·S·if

(a;UJ~?') ~.~.

~QJ'r"l') ~'~9 (~t:. .tI;'~)

(~Q. ~a.") ~.~ 'iJ,l'Q,S ~ •

(~~.) ~; ~%.,·qryc:)

I'

. ,-da"§hte·r child

children baby

boy

67

girl

man

woman

husband wife friend

cousin brother

cousin sister father-in-law mother-in-law brother-in-law sister-in-law

. I son-in- aw

daughter-in-law parents

':rif

""

~. (~'ll')

S,'&J~' (m·,.~~') a-llr (q~q'ar)

~'~~"l' 9J~~:tf/9]~:~rjf

l~rrs 1 l§.l ~ 1 ~'C-; ~ '1 ~rifq'5~~'Sl

(:J'~'" '~~'(7 ~.) " " "" S·If

(~.~. .~~ .~) cil~'~~~l' ~~Q,'~Q..rq.

(~,r~' ~ii'~) " " ~.

'(~f''') " "z::J.!'tjCl·

t1 "'" v-I

~~r(7~''') " " S'if~a,'

(~~. ~~i'~) &l·a),,~·S·~·~~·r.J·

(~(7~' ") &l·a)~·~·S~·~a,Q.·~·

(CJ~ '~~'~') rq'~r

(~"-l.) (~~') (~"ifJ'a, .)

(1'~'~" 7')

......

(~~z:;J.)

(~~a,'f') (:r~~' ~~.)

!l Is she· your aunty?

~~. 4Q.· ~",' ~~.~~.

~1' jQc_. Bl·"'t:.~· ~f~ l:J~'

rr~"B'l·""t:.·~·~·~~"l~r~l·Q~l

.1

.'

1

No, she is not my aunty.

~ 40.' ~~.~. cJJ~~'-lfj'i'rQ;'

~'~~1 ~". cJJ'~l' ~~. ~'1f

~:94.1·~·-x..ll fit:.·~~ '~'if~Cil~'&J'~ll

68 .

"\ She is my mother.

~a.. ~~. ~U:JQ,' o.r~ .

fE'"t:.. ~,~, "a_... lf4'OJ'O;J~~'

(Qt:. ,~~ ~'~·aJ~~·X.~l

,t Are they your. £ri~l)ds? ~~. ~a.'~~" ~~~'?'

x.. 1 , F~'¥ rsl'~~'~' ~~~~ '-l41' ~z::.·~G1'~t:.~·i~~~~1·t.J~1'

.'{ No, they are not my friends,

~ ~Q.' ~I~'~' iJJUJa_· i1~~'r'

iJJ·x..~· F~·g. iJJ'x..;, ~a; 9lL1l~T.f

'lJ~~'c13'x..~ 1 f~ .g.~~ ·~L1l~~iJJ·x..ll

They are my brothers,

~a.. ~:~' iJJ;ClJa, ~l~~'

F"z::.'g. x..'l'z::.~· rr~·g.z::.Cl, ·S·~~ '~i 1

Is she your sister?

~iJ' 4'1\' ~~. ~~'r~'

~;' rr~' 61'~~~' S'lF~"1' l.l~'

'"

iG'z::. '6; .:t\t:. ~Q)'s'Jf~~'UJ~ ·l'.J~1

"

Yes, she is my elder sister ..

~~~i:t 4~' ~~, liJUlO,' !J4Q,j'·'·~~i·(1~·

O;J?:Ul.~·Fz::.· til~· t::;0,' ~~ '!J'~;if~~'

Q,j~41'1lJ~ 1 rrz::.·c:,a.~·~'ll·Q.J~~'UJ~l

69

Are you his brother ?

~~. ~~. ~~. ~~.

Ulo,' f5~'~~' Ffr::.~· S·~~· t.I~.

fSl'~"'f~ '~'S'~o, 'U) ~·l.J~1

Yes, I am his younger

~~~.~' ~~a.' ~"r ,~. UJt:.''l~'

ltIG'J~'Ula; 1 ". fila;' f"'~' G'J~~ '&.J' ~~~rfita;l ~'rr-"'~ ·s· ~o, .~t:. ol:J.tQo, 1

70

brother.

~~.

tJ'fj~'

".....,1

,ls ADJECTIVE (t~r~~'~r::!) = &l1;·~·6l·~~1
big ~~.) a~~
small ~'ifaJ') ~ J::, .~ 1:::
.Q
long (aj"t:.9) ~~~
~
short (~') ~~:~~:
high (,UJ~:) c'SJ~
low (~) ~cJ.Ja.~
~
hard (1a./") c'SJ~~~~ v: i~:q.
soft ~~'~'J ~~r~'l' ~~. &1~~~
rough (~ffO ~~~
smooth (~t\~') a.~i1~ /a.~ i1'4~i~
fat (t4~f') 4·~~~·q·~·~·
thin ~O\.) ~'~&1:q;/!:l~~
strong ~~r;:) ~~4r~~:q./~~~ (l:)
weak ~qn ~~~:-q./I~ (~)
good (~'f') UJ"l~
bad (QQ:'f') ~~ .. a;CIl·
sweet (~2rf") IJc:.x,,"&r-
sour (4j9f) ~~'if
Colour (:J'~~') ~~'~~1
white (iftQ f') ~11l~~
71 red (%..~?J ~~'~:rJ-

yellow (UlQr~) ~~:.£f

green <W~~ oj ("'rs'

blue ~~~.) f~~

black (q'QJ~') ~~.~.

bfown (.~ .. ~~~,.) ~'fA'l1'

grey ~.~",.) ~El"'l'OJ'f~'

mustard (&r~'(!'~I') ~~'~"l'

purple· ('J%..·t.lClJ,)CS·OJ~·

pink ~1c:.~·)1 ~" 'zr

orange (~~~.~.) ~'Cij".

dark blue <'r~~~~')F"l'l1'

light blue (~~~~~~~)Fl1ll~'

lemon (o.JQ.~'l~.) ~~'f'

maroon .~"'l'~~~') ~&!'~'~~'

~r::.·)·~~QJ·~~·~~·~~·l~·il,,·~r::.~~·~~f"l·~~·Cl.9·~~~r&lr::.~· r3i'i'~rf~''J''''~ "S'~ '~'i,~~'adjective :(~~.~ ~'~z:r) il"'~' rs1'i"~~ ~~rz:ff'i''J'~CJil

house (1~~r) = F~:E.r a.~·:rs'i·"l7;~i;)"·l"·'1

big ~~') = ffi~;q. a;~ ·6i·ffi~.r~·~'(qrq·X_~ 1

~5 ~,'~,i'~ ·rs'i·ar~~·r5'i·"l~!·~" ~~f"l ~ ~ ·~S·r.;J·,?j~·~ ,

big house ( '~~'1~~' )

~~~ ~".l.J:

rlU, ~t.r~a. ~ iY'~:l

r . -1' I ~I,,",

-_ ·,1

l

1

I

72

big house.

~~' fijq.~.

~3j;q:. f~~C,J'

This is a

~~' ~~' "'j'

Q.~' ~l' ~~. q~ r= ~t.l'a,,~~ f.i~ '~ll

That is

a

small house,

i4J~'~~' lfj' ~~C1J' ,q.~.

rq~' ~l' ~zq' ~~.~t::.. F"'tJ·

rq~'fI "'!,J'SS, t: '~"'~LlJ'~ II

She is

ood irl

a g gtr.

4;0.' ~~, lfj_'

jfc: X.l' ~'Il'

rr~ '~;lfut~'!i'~~'~" 1

~l' ~"4' tJ.l'll:r.r ~rif

That green book is mine.

; ~.{,. ~'~~' ~~' ~it .JltiJ~·

rq!iit. ~~'Ri'~'3' "%..l'''~'

~ ~'~~ 'r5'rq, ."a,~x_ ')1

.Axe you a good boy ?

~~. ~'3' w.1' ~'{. ~a..

~~. tsl' '9'1l' ll.I'Ilif S· tJ~l

f$5,'~" ·~rUJCf]'lj·~Cf]'U!~ 'Q~l

,

73

Yes, I am a

Q'lUJ~:r~' ~UJ~· ~&l' tJ.l

-I q

ClJ('~~' r:_' UJ~' ~~.

ClJ~~~~ 1 ~ ·:j·UJlf1:t.j·~lf1~~ 1

good boy.

~l' ~UJ~·

-

U!~·t.r S·

Whose is

that while house ?

~S'il' ~~.~~.~.

~a,' ~~. ~~.

fI ~ 'CJ'~1" :q.T4~'~Q. .~~ 1

2;fUJ~' '1~. ~."x,;ZY flC:'!J'

That white house is ours.

i~'r' ~~.,~. ~~. ~~~.

l'.:l.~. l'1l~;q. fI~·r.J· ~l' r::'~'

fl ~ 'tJ'llTl X, ~14.~ 't:..arq .~~ 1

74

"J:rJ ~ ~·~~~.rs .~~ = VERBS OF THREE TENSES lS~ ~~ ·~~·'l1~,~·s·a;'l1·"-J·~~·~~ ·s·~qr~t:.·l ~~'~l'S'ffi:~' ~~'f~'~~~r~JlS '~Q,J.tG"~ 1

(a) Regular Verbs « (~'~'i~:~' i?q4r) ~~.~o, 'S'a;-9

~~·~l.~·r'-Ja..·~Q~·~r5 ~~~.~~ ~.~. ed ~~'Q~~ '1~~r'-J'~~~' ~;~:c.~·~"l~"l·Q,J·if~·l~~·~~·S·ffi'l1·~~·~~·Q·Ul~l

I OJ~t:_~··~r I
-e:
I ~~·l.~· i ~.~.~. Q.~,~'~'
. Meaning Future Present past
I fzra.5l·q· . opened
open opemng
~~'l.J' stay staying stayed
~ I
~~~'QQ~''J' snow snowing snowed
a;~ ''-J'~~~ "'1' . raining rained
rain
a.~'Q' wash washing washed
If''l·Q.lJ.l·~~t:l~·Q· pray praying prayed
~ learn learning leamed
~t:l.l.J'
~l'C5~111''J' talk talking talked
~~'l:.l' wait waiting waited
~'i'~'r~r play playing played 75

~l'ara_s 'cr ask asking asked
~~~.rS~·'J· help helping helped
~~'Q' solve solving solved
1Lll~'Q' Jike liking liked
~1'~' live living lived
'9~ 'CJ' listen listening listened
iQ·I~·Sl·!·r study studying studied
~l'Il'sl'!J' use usmg used
t;;].~ ~.~ Q.~ 1 belong belonging belonged
lQ~'l;Jl (b) Irregular Verbs = (~~~'~"QJ::t... f;Q~') ~~r~lyS'~~ S·ffi~·Q.")·ffi-~~·Q.l~·lJ~·~Q~·~rs·~~·~·~~~~·~~~·~·~·~~· 'J%..·a.~~·a.~Q~·~~·~1·5·~~·~~·a.ql?.J:~~1

I I I . i
~~.~~. ~~~~.~~ l'llPr;r "'l~..rZJ· I.
ry
Meaning Future Present past Uj~'!,J' come coming came
""<- went
Q.~·.t~r go gomg
I :_ "
~.~. eat eating ate
Q.~I;'Q' drink driking drunk
F'~Q'CJ' .shut shutting shut
iqp~~' read reading read 76

~S'l:r write writing wrote
~B~,ar~'cr bring bringing brought
o..i~:~, .~~q' take taking took
o/q' buy buying bought
Q,g"'Q' sell selling sold
a~'~' leave leaving left
~~.q' put on putting on put on
Cl.S,'r_J' take off taking off took off
~~l·~~·q' sleep sleeping slept
i" z:J'l.J' get getting got
4~·!.J· know knowing knew
~l·!.J· have having had
~~~'l.J' break br~aking broke
&l1i"" 'q' see seemg saw
a5~~'~' become becoming becattte
~,·cs ~4~ '!.J' speak speaking spoke
~l·l.J· sit sitting sat
q~&J~~~" 'l~r think thinking thought 77

~~ ~~rIt1~~·s·~~~~·fl·5l·~'lJl

l5~ ~tqLt1 ~~·l·W·q~'a.S·~IlJ·F~·~~~·Oii 1 l ~ ~.~ ~ 'qryE:::' l'~'q'lZ:::'l ~'~·l:.J·~·S 'q'~Z::: f;·~·Sl·q~Bl·'J'd. '~~~'~l::J~'f",' 'J·q~~·Ul~l

(a) Simple Present = ~~0'~11.l' ~ot.l.'r~a;?·) ~;(·q'7r:.·l·~·z::ll 5 'ffi~ : to go (~~. ~) - a.~q'

...

Singular ~~·~·ClJ~·) = ~%~'a;~

I go = ~·a.~~·urll

You go - 6l·x..r.:.·Q,Sj~·~~~

He goes - .. fr.:.·a.~·~·a.~9

She goes - ft::. .a.Sj~~~ ~

It goes - ~ 'a.9j~'a.~~

Plural (l:.J~QJ~'~ o_J ') = &l ~ offiq'l .

.....,"'"" Q 01

We go - r.:.·~a.~·~·ar~l

You go .- G.l·%"I;:.~g.Q,~~·a.~Ltl

They go - Fr.:.·~a.Sj~·a.~~

Everyday I go teo school.

Wt1·x.~·ra· ~LQa· ~ ij~~ ~~~QJ'

~~ ''f~' 1:.' r.t.iz:r QI' iQ'9J"

t:.~,,\'~~ ·iQ·9]·Qrt1.9j~iij''il

78

Everyday you go to school.

~£r·~~·ra.· ~'3" ~. ~~. ~~~~'

~~.~~. 6l'~" '~l;J~'Q):iQ'~r ~~'~~~~'~~'il~f~~'~q~'~'Q,~~

Everyday Tashi goes to school.

~i;'~a.. f'd. 'Q~r4~' f6:~' ~' ~~SClJ'

~~'W~· q~:~4~·q~ , '~'iz:r9J'

Q~'4~~~"~ ~i~·9J~·q~'~'q~~

~ Diki and- r always go to school together.

~~.~~. ~~r' ~i1J'" ~ClJ~~· ~~~. ~~'3~' ~'~'d.'~'

~~ ~ ~

ql·~lr"ir::.·~' ~Q]~q~' q~'l;J' o.J' ~z::r9J' J.I~&l'~'

Q~'m, v ·r::.·~~·:.f~~j"Q·~~·o.J~IJ·~·q~·~·arl I

~"'~~~'5'a;~' to go = L\~~; "'~~·5·a;~:s-~~ 1 go ~~'l.J' ~~'~"ll CS:"l·~~·~Q.·f~·~~· to ~~·Q~l·'·r~~·l lf~'fQ"1~'5' ~~~Li!~I" ~~' ~"1'UJ~ ~q'&J~"1~'~~~9J~~" Q'~~~~nf'i ~~iij'"~. q~'l~~a,'~~~~'!,J~~~~l ~'il"l"~~~~'Q~~~l;r"1~~~'&l~l

(b) Present Continuous =(~~~ .. ~~.~. :J~'?{'~"lfj'~') ft1J·~·s~·

~~iJ. '''lea.. .c: ',!%2'l:;J 1

It1-1 1 ry

fQ.J·q·s l·r.J~~ '.!,Jq.~ 'W'z;r~S'1JiiQ~'5~a;-~'~'Qa, ~~~ ~~~. is,are, am lT~~·l·~·Qa.·S ·Qa,·a;-~·SJ~~·"'~·~ ~'~9'l~~~"1'5 ~~'~'Q'a: ~~ ~'~~ ·at~·",~,' ingq~o,·lqy~·q·iq~ '''ll

79

I am going. - ~ -Q_ ~q~ ~ our II / o.,ffi -~ -(ij"" II
you are g_oing. =.6l·~~·o.,9fq~~-o.,~'f1/o.,9j~-q~'f1
She is going. - f~·o.,~~~Oj 'Q_~ ~. / Q,~:a, 'Q_~ ~
He 15 going. - f ~ 'a.$~~'i 'o.,~ ~ /o.,ffi 4 'o.,~~.
It is going. - ~ 'o.,!r~~~ -o,~ ~ / 0.,954 'o.,~ ~
We are going, - ~ '~Q_ 9fq~ ~ -(fj"' II / a. 9j :a, '(fj"' II
'You . fSl'~~ .g.a.!f~~~ -o.,~Lll/Q.~~urll
are gomg. -
They are going. - F ~ -g.o.,~~~ afa.~ ~ / a.~-~UT~ 1
I am goirig to school.
-
~UJ~, ~&J' ij'fi),,' ~'3' ~~'lQJ'
". .«3",. a.9fi:Jr;~ 't,j' ctJ' ii:J 'l!l ,
"-ii:J'~~ 'a.~·'a,-UT1 , / c(g~~""UTll You are opening the door.

~~. W~· ~~c.' ~- ~;;{.:

fSl'~'" Q.~.'fl' Q,Sl't:J' ~

6')-~"-1il~·rlfc:a;Sl·q~~fc:a;~~· = lT~Sl'~'~~~

She is closing the

~Q.' ~~- ~'aA'~,,'~-

fi'''-1 a.~~' ~i:J'l.J-

rr"':a,~'~~'~" '~i:J~-a,~ ~

window.

~~.~ ~'3-r5'"

~,

He is teaching

'~' ~~, (fa'a;~:

F'" a.~~- j"q'l:J'

F"~~·l5~'~-iq·~'a.~zq

English, ~"'~-4' lS"'~-

('t1~~ '~'ii:J'C.J-)

80

We are learning English,

~lQ~' l"I~~ ~~c:: ~c:..~.~.

~ .. if- Of')" ir~rt.r l5ao,~'

c:.·¥1S~ f~:iQ·~-ari 1 (~~~i'iC:'l;1')

It is getting cold now.

~~. ~4J' ~~'fC:' ~'ll7' ~7i:

~. 1a.~,~·as~~-aJ,,· Q'~,,~i? ,') ..

~·9J~~ri.Fa5~~:Uir::.~·a.~~

JI! It 15 getting late .now.

~(t. ~~. ~~'(1'" ~~rf' ~7i:

~. a.~~r a5~~'U7'C:'Q' .~~ v

')·S~as~~·~~a.~~

~c) FUMe Tense = ~~~'(1~'ir) ~~'&l~~~~Ql ~~r5J~r:_~·l:J·a.S·~z;](trSl·l:J~·5J~ ~·~~·~~r=::~·l:Ja.·S·z;]a.·a;~~· '~~~i' will 1 ". shall ~'~;~'~''-l!~'~ ·~~·1af~·1.Jt~'" 1 It:JI~'~ 1

I shall go - r:::a.Sj·~·Ul~ 1

You will go - ~,·~t:.·~~·~·~'l

She will go - f,,·a.SJ~·~ll

He will go - ft:.·a.9j·~·~lll

It will go - ~l'l.9j~·~l'

We shall go -

81

You will go

They will go

rs~·~~~~Sj~·X.1l rr~ .g.",~.~.x. ~ 1

iff~·~·lf1~Cll·z:;J~·~~t:,~·qa.·a;Qr9f~~r shall l~~ will ",~·qf~·'·r

,,~''''~~~~I ~t:,'.=J~'~~~ ~·ll~·~·g.~'~rQf shall ?J~,'~l' Sl·l:.l·~~·li ~t:,·~~·1ll~~rt.ll ~~·:(_~·~t:,·l ~~·~~·~~&l·f.Jl (£f~·~"·f~·g.~~~·~· will QC)·f~·S~·q·Ul~l ~~ .. ~~~~.q. ~ ~ 'z:;Jry~ ·~~·f~·l.l·~~ 1 ~~'9f~~.~~.tl1~~.~t:, '=!'f1.~~.!'f1~' ~~:ql~~~'S~''J'Ul'''''''l Cl.l~t:.~''J~.q~a;.~~.~~~.a:;'~'a.~l;r ~ll ~?J~'a;1'

I shall go = t:,·o.~·~·~ll (~~'~~:r,:pryr::.·~·S'l"·P

I will go = ~··a.9J·~·Ul", 1 (~~·~~·ry~·~~·Cl.sr~·)

~'s~'iff~~~"'~ ·~~·~t:,·=!~·a)C:::·clJ~ '~~~'Q,~~ ~ 'Q?;~'

will ~t:,' shall ~~~·ffi~·~Q·~·~~·~~.:s~·f.J·O:J~·~ ~'ffi~'~'~~' f.J·~11 l~:(_'~l

Shall I go? = t::~~·'f1 (Q,~·~l',~·a.S·l:J·l~·P

Will I go? = "·Cl,!i~~~1·!.J~1 (~~'~~'l:Jry~'W'S~'Q,S'l:J~'O)')

We shall go to the

~U:ia.. 4'O,Ill' ~(i- f§':l' ~'

~.~ a"1'~~~' Q,9fl:J' Q,l' ~'~&l'~'a.~:a,-UJO) 1

market.

&l~"~~' r5cJ.l'

82

l

- 1

..

~ You will come to India.

~~' ifill' ~cl.l' ~'3' ~~7'UJ'

rs')'~~'SJ~~~'~Q~f~'x'll

Shall we go to the

4·a.cq· ~~a.. f1i: ~~. ~'

~~'~~~' "'~ a.i'l;r a.,'

r.. ~af-l§'cl.l'QJ ~z;;J~'~~ 1 ~ i'~~l

market?

cl.l~·1~~'

i§"'~' "l~'

t: Will you come to my house?

~IlI' ~~. ~~. ~. cl.l~a,. 1~'

~~'~r' sv= Ui""'Q' Q,J' ~?t, ~'" "1~'

sv= '~a. '~r.. 'IlI~Q ~'~~1 Uf r.. '~~1

Will you wait ?

~Q,J' UlO: ~~~ •

....,..." ~J

~"1'9]r' rsl'~~' ~Ii}'~' lfl~'

6'l'~" 'r.,' ~"1'''l ~r.. '''1~1

She will wait for us.

~a.' iflll' ~~~. ~ lf4'~'

fr.,· ~"l·~r· ~~·tJ· ~~.~. r..'g.r-q'

(6"" '~~r" ·g.~r~r"1~"·~·~ II

for me
.~ ~Q.'
~"\.~. ,,'Q,J' It will rain tonight I think,

~~. isQJ' x.~' ~'Cljt4'f' ~UJq' ~r..1·

~. ~"1'~r' a;.~'!J' ~l~'" r,_' Q~cJr'J'

~l~r..'a;~ 'l.J'li}ry" ~·~l·Q~cl.l·!J·Cl.J"1

83

-

(d) Past Tense = (:f~'(V~'i'lp ~l~ra.~$J·tJl

~~·Q.~~·'.ra.9·~q~·'i&l~~·q~'lI·5·q~·a~·~~~~~41·~· ~~'~"'1 5·a;-~·~~r~~~·~4i·Q;~4i·t.la.·",q~f~·~~~~·~~·Q.!f q'~ ~'1 f~'~~~ ~.iJ.1~ Q'].~ :&\.~~.a.~' ed ~qp:J ~ar~ 'q~ ~'ffi'~' ~~a.9fl:r~l1 lq~'a:,l

,

I worked You worked She worked He worked It worked We worked

c.~·cl.l~·,·S~·t.J -tI:I~l 6i'~c::~~r "

F"'~4J' "

~ fln "

I .... ~· ... r~r

~~.

I went You went She went He went It went We went

"

, ,

You worked rsi·~~·ar~·" You went

They worked F,,·g,~r "They went

9 I worked whole
~i1J~' ~~f' ~11.1' ~~·S~·l.l-tQ~ 1 6l'''''' "

pi'"r::.. . .:z:.r::.. "

f"c:.'''''' "

~'

"

,,'af "
~,.a;. "
.._ ~ "
~£:;:aJ' day. ?Q.'

". 'll~'1' S~'~~:a)~: ~'cJ.J'

r:..~~~ ·~c:.·Q,J~r'tl·s~·tJ·U)~ 1

You played with him ..

UJIl,' q'~~~' ~El' ~ir

~~ I ~7

sv=: 8l'il%~' ~~(J.J'~' f"'or

6l·:t..t:. ·~~·f"·~~J.J·~ ·~·~~·q·~ll

84

'" She asked me many questions.

~. tfj"~'7' ~a· ~.~~. 1i~'~'~"'"~'

rr~: S4,I·t,r I:;.'~' ~I:;.:t:f S'q"

Fc:,·a,~·I:;."~~·~·~c:,·1j~4,I·§1:;."1

It solved many problems.

~f· ~~? ~~~. 1j:(~.~~~.

~. ~~'q. ~I:;.:t:f l'a.·l'"~·

~~·l11la.·f~·~I:;.:JJ-~~·q·~ll

I{ He wrote many letters.

~a." ~. ~~~" ~~·f~·~·

Fc:." 9~'CJ' ~c:.:J.f ~.~"

15'1:;. 'a,4,I-1ll.~'~ c:, ~ ·9~"~1:;. "1

u I took him to Lhasa with me.
~~~. ij~' ~~. ~'3' ~.~. ~Q' ~~.
r::::: a.~l·~· Fe, "OJ' OJ" ~.~. i.l~i.l"~" r:::. 'Ql"
1:;.~"15'r:::. "~f~~ '~~~'~'a.1.9~ .~.~~ 1 ~ They bought few things in Lhasa.
~~" ~. ~'3' ~c:.~' ~~. ~.~.
Ffc:,'~ ~~"~" f3'~~. ~·ClJ~· ~1:;."'lJ. ~.~"
Fr:::.·g~"~·4.I·~~·~·ClJ~·f3·4~~~·r.J·'X.ll '\ I read lot of books"
~~~. %..4tf· ~. tfi~· 9~~r
. .
r:::.' i~"!J' ~I:;. =t:r a," ~~"
- r:::.4.1~ tJ·~r:::. ~~.~.~~ 1
,.
85 ~~~~~~trQ~~~ra.'i~·z:J~~~~· did (f?r)~~.~~.

\

'aliIJ;f1~1:f11l'~%"~91~1 ~:;)l~'S~~Q,j511l~""_~

ed ~~.Q~"l.~~ ·OJ~~~·z:J~~ 1 C)?J~ ~l

Did i work whole day ?

?~. ~atQ; ij"ll]' ~QJ' fl.'

a;qr!r'~' 1lJ:~rl11!S~' ~t:.~c1)~ •. ~ ~&I' q~'

c;.41~~·~t:. ~~~'·S~·z;.rX.l ~q~1'

910 Did you play with him ?

~(,. ~~. QQJi\' ~Et" ~&S"

~~"ir' 6l'~'" ~.~ &I~iJ'~' F"z::.' q~'

~~·~t:.·rr" .~~~.~.~ '~~'CJ~l

99 Did she ask me many ,questions ?

r~" ~a.. ~.~~. &J~'

'~~"9i)~' F'" S~'CJ' ,,:1\'

rrt:.~~·z::.;I\~·Q"~,,:rJ:S~·iit:.·z::.~l

~~~. rr~r~r4~'~'

OJz::.:q; S'Q' ,,~.

" Did Kelsang go with you to the .zoo ?

?~·"iIlJ·Q~t:.· .~2;E1' '~~3" !~S' 5" ~~.

~~Q' I~~or~' ·Bl·:1\·t:.:· QoI" ~\l5~!lIJli!qI~~l:;l

"i~·q.:llt:.·Bl:·::I\t:.·&J,';&J~~~I~~,~~~~·Ft:.·~·S,,·z:.r~l·r.J~l

Did ffr

you see

u.Jo; ~~.

"....:t

Tserlng yesterday. ~*.r::.' ~UI~'~"'r7'

OJlfz::.·Q·[Q·~· F·~ral·::I\t:. ~JN'~.~t:. '~~~~'§ c:.·t:.411

86

87

f} ~ Did she take him to lhasa with her?

fr' ~a.. s~· i~' ~~. ~.~' ~~. 1~' Q,~~''J' fr::;' Ill' if~' ~\}&J'~' fi"""'Q)' F~ ;~4J~f5'J:. ,~,~",~~~.~ 'Q,1SC)'Q'X_~ 'rJ~ 1 I .if~rrr~r~" 'cl.l~~'~' Q.~l·rJ·l.l·l.l~l

-;(1 VERB (to have) =5·ffi~ (ai"l·t.J') ~;,:UTll

61·~t::·~ 'Q.~ 'l1/tl.i9·~ '11 fl~ ·QJ·~~'l1/·Uf~·X." 1 Flt::·'ll'Q.j~ / tif~·X.ll

~ ·::.~.·5. .. q~. I i'Ii"l.~ '" 1 ~'a)~~11

~l··~~·g~'Q.j~/ ~~·x..ll

ft;. ·ar~ 'Q,~ 'l1/lG'"~r~ II

I have -
You have -
She has -
He has -
It has -
We have -
You have - They haveExamples = ~?J"&lg~"FCIJ

I have a good English book.

~~a· ~J;I' ~. ~l' ~~'~4' S£f1'

t;,' ur~· ~£f1' ~£f1~ l5~~: ~Q'

r;.~ ''1S~ ~~~q~£f1·lj~q'f·aril

You have a

new watch.

~5' ~fr lfj' ~5' ~.

fsl·~t;,· Q,~~' f;~' CI1.~~''J' ~·arl· fSl·~"·Q.r~·g'1·CIJ~~ "tJ'f; "1.",~ CI1

She has a

~~. ~41'~' "j'

f~' C.~£f1' ~~. f~'~1S'~~'l:q~~~~~,

beautiful

~~~~QJ' ~~~7J-

dog.

rlll' is-

88

The dog has a long tail
~. f~' ~~'~r tJ;' ~E::.' ~~.
<:II Q
'6' ~~~. ~~' ~,,~ ~'~r
rs'~'~~'~~~ .2jJ~~'Q.~~ It has two meanings.

ilf'1~'~'~' il~l;.~r

~. a.~~' "1'(\f 1f"\l~' ~·QJ~~l~·~~~ra.~~' / UJ~'~'l

S·~~· have Q,~'q~~ ~·q'a..'~qp:;J~'1i1q~·~r:.·')r.:.·l ~t::afQ' ~ .~~.~ ~·q~~')!ff~·q1 lQ~'~ 1

Have you a

watch ?

~~' 'SS' B'J' ~~.

ttr,' a,'~~'~~' ~'i"l' CJ~' 6l'~E::.·t:q·!!~,~~-ur'~~~1

<,

Yes, I have a good watch.

"1~~'~' ~at~· ~~' lfj' ~?' ~~.

I1,I("Ufl:r ~. [ij'~. ~~. lij"1~ ~'i','

11,I"1~i1Jll t:: ~·~·ifl"D.l ~:q~~~ll

Has Sonam a new pen ?

:;~'4.1' ~irl'~,~~' If,i' ~S· q~'

Q.~CI1' z:lij'l'~il~' ~CI1' ~~~'l;J' ~.~. ~~1

z:l~l ~OJ~·QJ'~·'~JCI1~;:~:q~CI1·a.~ qT"1~l

89

J

How . many pencils ,~ ~~a.. l.J~ .~~~~.

"ar~' 'i'~~"

Fc.·~·~·~~'l:I1·a)~·Q.~~·~~l

has he ?

,~.~. ~a..

a.~~' jffc:.' ~~1

What kind of watch you have ?

~f' 'T1~~?' ~~. 'f~. ~5' ~~.

~c::a.~~~· ~.~". f5,,~c:.' ar,' Q~l

fS~ '~c:.'~'~ 'i'"~ 'zqc:. 'a.S lii~i1i"~ 1

l!ft:.·~~aJ·S·~~·I~ have c;t;.' has ~~~·(.lfc;~~·~·i.1\·~aJ~l S'~~'~'&l~~~~~l"lqr~r not Q,'S·lClf~·r.J·c;q~·~l have not l~'l has not ~'S'UJ"'l ~~·~~·~o.J·~~·~,·a;·4~·'r1ql~rar~· ~~~.~~~.~.a;~.~~~. haven't (~il'" '(7") It:.l hasn't (~.~~{?)

~~ ·~,~;ql·I~·5,·~i1fil

I haven't - ~~'~ll
You haven't - 6l:' ~c:. '''4 'il'Q,~~
She hasn't - Ft:.~~·&!·Q,~~
He hasn't - f~'~'~'Q,~~
It hasn't - ~'~'&l'a.~~
We haven't r:."i"~·~ll I
-
You haven't - (Sl':J\C,·afX. ·il·a.~~
They haven't - F~·g~·&!·q~~ ..

90

!J I haven't a new watch.

tf4i1l'c\' ~~~'~' tJ,i' ~~. 9fis'

J::.~' i:r,. ~~. ~4l~'q' ~'i"1'

J::.~'~ 0i", .~~~ 'CJ'i:!, 1

You haven't enough money.

~~S'~~Bff' ~',,\Cl' ~~'O,'

f5,'~J::.'~"Q.~~' ~J::.'~4l' ~SQJ'

i3l·~r;.·<J.I·~SQl·~" '~~r~'Q,~~

... He hasn't a watch

,a.. ~~~ 'r' lIj' ~~'

1i::::'~'. ~''''~~' ~~. ~'i'l'

1it:,.~'~'i", ·~·~~ctt

91

, '?;"l;J 1 b~'t:Jry"'l Verb:·to work = ~~·",·5i·ql
I work - ~'Ql~'11l'S~ ~~,)1
You work - ~ ') .~" '4lJ4J"1rs i·a ~~ "l
She works - F~·QJ~·11l·5i·~·q~~ (if)
He works - 1i~·tJ.l~·'ll·Sl·~·q~~ (Xf)
It works - ~ 'QJ{\J'IT1'S"'a'Q,~'ll We work - "'~~~'J1l'S~'~-aTl1

You work == ~'i·~,,·~tJ.l4.l·11l·5l·~T.I,~~

They work - 1i~·~QJ~·11l·5.1·~·q~'l1

,'c~rt:Jl f~·!;rS,·q~~·z:Jl

lam working You are working She is working He is working

It is working

We are working You are working They are working

- "·QJ4.I·11l·5i·Q~~·UJ""1

- ~i·~"·QJ~·"1·5;·l.l~~·Q,~~

- F"'QJ~'11l'Sl'Q~~'Q,j"l

r f"·tJ.l~·1ll·51'Q~~·Q,~~ - ~'C1J~'''1'Sl'~~~'Q,~''1

- "·~'lJ4J·"1·5l·Q~~·ar;1

- IS; ·"r~:ifQl4J·'lrs i 'l.l~~ 'Q,~ ~

- Fc:.·ar-tJ.l~·Ill·Sl·~"'·Q,~~

92

I shall (will) work You will work She will work

He will work

It will work

We shall(will) work You will work They will work

I worked You worked She worked He worked It worked We worked You worked They worked

I am You are She is

-~'IlJ~'1'Si~~'~~ 1

- 6,'~~:QJ~r'lrsl'~:~"1

- F~'Ql~'1T]'5,'~'~'1

- F~'Q,J~'1T]~Sl'~'~i 1

- ~'Q,J4r1T]'S~'~'~'1

- "·~Q,J~r"rs,·~·t1l~ 1

- 6,·~t:. ·~1lJ~·1·5,·~·1., 1

- Ft:.·af-~4r1T]·S'~~·~'1

- ~~'Q,J~''1rS~fl;J'U)~ 1

- B"~" ·~~·Q.J~·71rs ~~'-J,":x..'l

-f~'~~'<lJ4r111'S ~'(,J'~'1

- F~'~41'QJ~''1l'S~'(,J'~~l

- ~ ~'Q,J4I''l1'S ~'(,J.~ 11

- t:_·i'~·IlJ4l·111·S~·(,J·tQ~1

- i51·~"·~'1·QJ~·1T]·s~rr..J·~'1-

= F,,~af~·Q.l~·1·S 4l"r~ II

Verb: to be == f()~ .~ r;_ tx.,.

- "'Ul~l

- S, '~~·X.'1

- f,,·:x..'l

93

&J~"~.r'Jl
I shall (will) work - "·~~·'ll·5 i .~.~~ 1
You will work - 6 ~ .~" '~~""1's ~'~'l.. ; 1
She will work - rrr;:'~~''l1'5~ .~.x.~,
He will work - fr;:·QJ~"1"S1·~·l.~ 1
It will work - ~!~IW'Tr5i·~·~il
We shall(wiIl) work - "'~QJ4J ",·5 r; .~.~~ 1
You will work - ~'i·~"·g.QJ~"'"S~·~·x.,, 1
They will work - F~'afQJ~"'ll'S~'a'~i 1
qi~rl.Jl
I worked - ~~·Q.J~·1·5 ~.t.J'fi:l~ 1
You worked - 6 ~ .~~ ·~~·CI.I~"1·5~·l;J·~~ 1
She worked - F~~~·Ql~·Ill·S~·t.J·~i 1
He worked - fe:.~~·~~·'Tl·5~·!,J·x..~ 1
It worked - ~~·QJ~r"l·S~·!,J·x..~ 1
We worked - ~ ·ar~·QJ~·1·S ~rz:.rfi:l~ 1
You worked - 6i·~e:.·g~·~~·111·S~·~·x.~ 1
They worked :: Fe:. '~~'l1J~'1l1'S ~''J'%.. ; 1
l'~'l;ll Verb; to be = tl:l~'l"'~l'
I am - c:..~~ 1
You are - Bl"~,,·l.~l
She is - f,,·X.'il
93 He is - F~'~ll
",
Itis - ~'~ll
We are - ~:i'~~l
You are - 6~·~"·~1.'1
They are - F"'~~~
cJ-l~~~'~1
I shall (will) be - ''''a;~~r~'~ll
You willbe - 6l·~"·a5~~r~·~ll/~~·~·x..ll
She will be - F"·a;~~·~·~ll/Uj,, ·~·x..ll
He will be - f~'as~~'~'~ll
It will be - ~'a;~~r~'~ll
We shall (will) be - ,,·ar-a;~~r~·~ll
You willbe - ~l·~,,·g.a;'l1~r~·~ll
They wilIbe - FT"'~a;~~,r~'~ll
~'1~·'-l1
I was - ".U)~ 1
You were - fSl'~"'~ll
She was - F"'~ll
He was - Ft::~~l
It was = ~'~ll
We were - " '~'Ul"ll
94 Youwere

. " They were"

f 4

t' , I

.

- ~~·~t:.~~~"1

- jiZ:::'M-X_ll

95

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