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Power system

studies for the oil · subsynchronous interaction

· electrical-steam and compression

and gas industry A big challenge is the very high de-

mand on availability and the related
guarantees of, for example, 3XX days
per year for an outage-free operation
Ensuring stability and reliability of power with minimum maintenance demand.
supply solutions and overall production To cover these risks intensive dynamic
studies are necessary to find the weak
processes points of the system and to take suita-
ble improvement and counter
measures in the design phase to re-
duce the operational risks. This in-
cludes, for instance, the definition of
the size of the gas turbines in a com-
At a glance · reduction of maintenance costs
bined cycle plant (CCPP) to cover the
Worldwide the importance of new oil
· reduction of CO2 emission temperature depending power reserve
and gas occurrences is increasing: In
of gas turbines or to decide the neces-
the U.S. a new industrial boom is trig- · improved guaranteed availability
sity of supplementary firing.
gered by gas fracking, in Australia gas
· high operation flexibility
is gaining in importance. Gas also In large islanded plants the spinning
plays an increasingly important role in · no outage tolerance reserve of the generators is of very
the energy market. New types of pro- high importance for the reliability of
In order to reach the new targets it is
duction plants like GTL (gas to liquid) the plant. In modern LNG plants the
of essential importance to investigate
or LNG (liquefied natural gas) will be loads are very large compressors (up to
the electrical systems in more detail. In
built in the U.S., Asia and Australia. 80 MW each) and the variable speed
former times steady-state investiga-
The new plants need larger compres- drive load is up to 90 % in total. Out-
tions have produced suitable solutions.
sors with a higher degree of flexibility. ages of individual VSDs or combination
Nowadays it is necessary to investigate
Electrical solutions like large VSD (vari- of groups of VSDs result in process in-
the dynamics of the oil and gas sys-
able speed drive)-driven compressors terruptions. To overcome these pro-
are necessary for the increasing pro- blems the flexible and fast control of
duction. The new sources for oil and Aspects of these dynamic investiga- the VSDs can be used to support the
gas are located far away from existing tions are: system’s reserve. The operational
infrastructure. Larger plants, operated range of the compressors is typically
· generation stability
under electrically islanded conditions, 90-105 %. In case of an outage of a
longer pipelines with large compres- · control of voltage, speed and fre- generator the process can be reduced
sion units and subsea locations outside quency to 90 % speed which reduces the pow-
the shelf sea with water depth of some er demand and stabilizes the system
· power reserve strategies
thousand meters, are some examples frequency (together with the classical
for today’s challenges in this sector. · local shedding philosophies countermeasures).
· design of filters for large compres- The use of electrically-driven compres-
The challenge
sion units sion in modern so-called eLNG-plants
These developments create new and
has many advantages as compared to
stronger requirements, including: · VSD (variable speed drive) interac-
classical direct gas turbine-driven com-
· reduction of energy costs pressor plants:
· compressor design process- · design of generation control parameterized and connected as a
optimized (not drive-optimized) SIMULINK data base (this can also be
· design of load shedding and
done for other processes like compres-
· high energy efficiency (> 50 % in support of loads for frequency
sion). A subroutine generates a PSS®-
CCPPs) stability
NETOMAC readable macro. The com-
· reduction of CO2 emission · optimization of control bined electrical and steam system can
be simulated using the design model
· low maintenance restrictions · detailed design studies
of the steam process.
· high availability and flexibility · interaction on control, influence
of harmonics and interharmonics
A combined cycle power concept is
necessary to reach these targets to- · reduction of risks from
gether with an elaborated power man- subsynchronos resonances
agement system which is responsible
· recommendations for control and
for the requirements of control action
and limitation, the electrical system
· protection studies Figure 1: Combined system to simulate electri-
balance and stability and the control of
cal systems and steam systems based on
the influence of the steam system SIMOPLANT steam design tool
(power generation and process de-
mand). The investigation of the overall system Figure 2 shows the electrical behavior
design allows the fast development (generation torque and frequency) and
Our solution and optimization of the overall control the steam behavior (header pressure
In the frame of technical feasibility all concept. One implicit simulation sys- and temperature) in case of process
aspects of the steady-state and dyna- tem guarantees stability and accuracy. outage (trip of one LNG train with
mic behavior will be investigated: It allows high flexibility for the cus- 35 % gas reduction and trip of two tur-
tomer challenges. The impact on inter- bines).
· load flow and short circuit investiga-
action between different processes can
be investigated (electrical steam com-
· harmonics / interharmonics pression process) critical situations and
outages can be detected and counter-
· dynamics of the electrical system
measures can be realistically coordi-
· fault and outage analysis, fre- nated. The example below shows the
quency stability, voltage reco- Siemens approach to solve complex
very, generator stability, impact questions in the oil and gas sector.
of VSDs, impact of generation
control Application example
Figure 2: Process outage (trip one train), N-
Figure 1 shows the combined system
· improvement of availability and operation (phase II) 35 % gas reduction, two
to simulate electrical systems and turbines tripped
steam systems based on the SIMO-
· design of power management PLAN steam design tool for the CCPP of
system a large LNG plant. The steam process is

Published by
Siemens AG 2016

Energy Management Division

Freyeslebenstrasse 1
91058 Erlangen, Germany
For more information, please contact
Subject to changes and errors. The infor-
mation given in this document only con-
tains general descriptions and/or perfor-
mance features which may not always
specifically reflect those described, or
which may undergo modification in the
course of further development of the
products. The requested performance fea-
tures are binding only when they are ex-
pressly agreed upon in the concluded con-