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What is the remainder when

3 2
𝑥 − 2𝑥 − 4𝑥 + 5 is divided by 𝑥 − 3?
What is the remainder when
99 49 39 29 19
𝑥 + 3𝑥 − 5𝑥 − 8𝑥 + 2𝑥 − 4
is divided by 𝑥 + 1?
CHAPTER II:
POLYNOMIALS & POLYNOMIAL EQUATION

THE REMAINDER THEOREM


AND THE FACTOR THEOREM
The Remainder Theorem
• If a polynomial 𝑝(𝑥) is divided by
𝑥 − 𝑐, then the remainder is equal
to 𝑝(𝑐).
Examples
1. Use the Remainder Theorem to find the
remainder when the polynomial 𝑝(𝑥) is divided
by the given binomial.
a. 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 4 + 3𝑥 2 + 4𝑥 − 1; 𝑥 − 1
b. 𝑝 𝑥 = 2𝑥 4 + 𝑥 3 − 16𝑥 2 + 18; 𝑥 + 2
c. 𝑝 𝑥 = 9𝑥 5 − 27𝑥 3 + 81𝑥 − 7; 3𝑥 + 2
Examples
2. Find the value of 𝑘 so that when (𝑥 3 + 8𝑥 2 +
𝑘𝑥 + 4) is divided by (𝑥 + 2), the remainder is
3.
3. For what value of 𝑘 will the remainder be the
same when 𝑥 2 + 𝑘𝑥 + 4 is divided by 𝑥 − 1 or
𝑥 + 1?
4. If 𝑥 2 − 3𝑥 + 1 is divided by 𝑥 + 2𝑐, the remainder
is -1. what is c?
The Factor Theorem and Its
Converse
If 𝑝 𝑐 = 0, then 𝑥 − 𝑐 is a
factor of polynomial 𝑝(𝑥).
Conversely, if 𝑥 − 𝑐 is a factor
of polynomial 𝑝(𝑥), then 𝑝 𝑐 = 0.
Examples
1. Determine which of the following binomials are
factors of 𝑝 𝑥 = 2𝑥 3 − 7𝑥 2 − 5𝑥 + 4.
a. 𝑥 + 1
b. 𝑥 − 2
c. 𝑥 − 4
1
d. 𝑥 − 2
Examples
2. Determine if the binomial 𝑥 + 2 is a factor of the
given polynomial 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 3 − 6𝑥 2 + 11𝑥 − 6.
3. Determine if the binomial 𝑥 − 3 is a factor of the
given polynomial 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 3 − 𝑥 2 − 5𝑥 − 3.
4. Determine if 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 3 + 6𝑥 2 + 11𝑥 + 6 is
divisible by 𝑥 + 1.
5. Determine if 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 3 − 2𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 4 is
divisible by 𝑥 + 2.
CHAPTER II:
POLYNOMIALS & POLYNOMIAL EQUATION

FACTORING POLYNOMIALS
Factoring an expression means finding all the
prime factors of the given product. If the only
factors of the polynomial are the polynomial itself
and 1, then the polynomial is said to be prime.

If a polynomial can no longer be written as


product of other polynomials of lesser degree, then
we call that polynomial as Irreducible
polynomial.
Leadi
Const
ng
Polynomial Factored Form ant
Coeffi
Term
cient

𝑥 3 + 2𝑥 2 − 𝑥 − 2 (𝑥 + 1)(𝑥 − 1)(𝑥 + 2) 1 -2

𝑥 4 − 11𝑥 3 + 44𝑥 2 − 76𝑥 + 48 (𝑥 − 2)(𝑥 − 2)(𝑥 − 3)(𝑥 − 4) 1 48

6𝑥 3 + 11𝑥 2 − 19𝑥 + 6 (2𝑥 − 1)(3𝑥 − 2)(𝑥 + 3) 6 6

8𝑥 4 + 28𝑥 3 − 54𝑥 2 + 29𝑥 − 5 (2𝑥 − 1)(2𝑥 − 1)(2𝑥 − 1)(𝑥 + 5) 8 -5


Examples
Factor each polynomial completely.
1. 𝑝 𝑥 = 12𝑥 5 − 4𝑥 4 + 28𝑥 3
2. 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 6 − 3𝑥 3 − 28
3. 𝑝 𝑥 = 36𝑥 4 − 73𝑥 2 + 16
4. 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 4 − 2𝑥 3 − 7𝑥 2 + 8𝑥 + 12
5. 𝑝 𝑥 = 6𝑥 3 + 4𝑥 2 − 14𝑥 + 4
6. 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 4 + 10𝑥 3 + 35𝑥 2 + 50𝑥 + 24
7. 𝑝 𝑥 = 4𝑥 4 + 8𝑥 3 − 13𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 3
Examples
1. One of the factors of 𝑘𝑥 3 + 3𝑥 2 − 2𝑘𝑥 + 1 is
𝑥 + 1. Find 𝑘.
2. The polynomial 3𝑥 4 − 2𝑥 3 + 𝑥 2 − 𝑘 is divisible
by 𝑥 + 1. Find 𝑘.
3. If the polynomial 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 + 3 𝑥 − 2 𝑥 − 𝑘 + 6 is
divided by 𝑥 − 3, the remainder is 12. what is
𝑘?