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10Remainder Factor Theorem

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3 2

𝑥 − 2𝑥 − 4𝑥 + 5 is divided by 𝑥 − 3?

What is the remainder when

99 49 39 29 19

𝑥 + 3𝑥 − 5𝑥 − 8𝑥 + 2𝑥 − 4

is divided by 𝑥 + 1?

CHAPTER II:

POLYNOMIALS & POLYNOMIAL EQUATION

AND THE FACTOR THEOREM

The Remainder Theorem

• If a polynomial 𝑝(𝑥) is divided by

𝑥 − 𝑐, then the remainder is equal

to 𝑝(𝑐).

Examples

1. Use the Remainder Theorem to find the

remainder when the polynomial 𝑝(𝑥) is divided

by the given binomial.

a. 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 4 + 3𝑥 2 + 4𝑥 − 1; 𝑥 − 1

b. 𝑝 𝑥 = 2𝑥 4 + 𝑥 3 − 16𝑥 2 + 18; 𝑥 + 2

c. 𝑝 𝑥 = 9𝑥 5 − 27𝑥 3 + 81𝑥 − 7; 3𝑥 + 2

Examples

2. Find the value of 𝑘 so that when (𝑥 3 + 8𝑥 2 +

𝑘𝑥 + 4) is divided by (𝑥 + 2), the remainder is

3.

3. For what value of 𝑘 will the remainder be the

same when 𝑥 2 + 𝑘𝑥 + 4 is divided by 𝑥 − 1 or

𝑥 + 1?

4. If 𝑥 2 − 3𝑥 + 1 is divided by 𝑥 + 2𝑐, the remainder

is -1. what is c?

The Factor Theorem and Its

Converse

If 𝑝 𝑐 = 0, then 𝑥 − 𝑐 is a

factor of polynomial 𝑝(𝑥).

Conversely, if 𝑥 − 𝑐 is a factor

of polynomial 𝑝(𝑥), then 𝑝 𝑐 = 0.

Examples

1. Determine which of the following binomials are

factors of 𝑝 𝑥 = 2𝑥 3 − 7𝑥 2 − 5𝑥 + 4.

a. 𝑥 + 1

b. 𝑥 − 2

c. 𝑥 − 4

1

d. 𝑥 − 2

Examples

2. Determine if the binomial 𝑥 + 2 is a factor of the

given polynomial 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 3 − 6𝑥 2 + 11𝑥 − 6.

3. Determine if the binomial 𝑥 − 3 is a factor of the

given polynomial 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 3 − 𝑥 2 − 5𝑥 − 3.

4. Determine if 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 3 + 6𝑥 2 + 11𝑥 + 6 is

divisible by 𝑥 + 1.

5. Determine if 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 3 − 2𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 4 is

divisible by 𝑥 + 2.

CHAPTER II:

POLYNOMIALS & POLYNOMIAL EQUATION

FACTORING POLYNOMIALS

Factoring an expression means finding all the

prime factors of the given product. If the only

factors of the polynomial are the polynomial itself

and 1, then the polynomial is said to be prime.

product of other polynomials of lesser degree, then

we call that polynomial as Irreducible

polynomial.

Leadi

Const

ng

Polynomial Factored Form ant

Coeffi

Term

cient

𝑥 3 + 2𝑥 2 − 𝑥 − 2 (𝑥 + 1)(𝑥 − 1)(𝑥 + 2) 1 -2

Examples

Factor each polynomial completely.

1. 𝑝 𝑥 = 12𝑥 5 − 4𝑥 4 + 28𝑥 3

2. 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 6 − 3𝑥 3 − 28

3. 𝑝 𝑥 = 36𝑥 4 − 73𝑥 2 + 16

4. 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 4 − 2𝑥 3 − 7𝑥 2 + 8𝑥 + 12

5. 𝑝 𝑥 = 6𝑥 3 + 4𝑥 2 − 14𝑥 + 4

6. 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 4 + 10𝑥 3 + 35𝑥 2 + 50𝑥 + 24

7. 𝑝 𝑥 = 4𝑥 4 + 8𝑥 3 − 13𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 3

Examples

1. One of the factors of 𝑘𝑥 3 + 3𝑥 2 − 2𝑘𝑥 + 1 is

𝑥 + 1. Find 𝑘.

2. The polynomial 3𝑥 4 − 2𝑥 3 + 𝑥 2 − 𝑘 is divisible

by 𝑥 + 1. Find 𝑘.

3. If the polynomial 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑥 + 3 𝑥 − 2 𝑥 − 𝑘 + 6 is

divided by 𝑥 − 3, the remainder is 12. what is

𝑘?

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