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IAS 2019


Public Administration Test Series 2019
TEST - 02

Time Allowed: 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 250


Attempt all questions:

1. Comment on the following into 150 words:
(a) “Decisions are something more than factual propositions, they have an ethical as
well as a factual content.” Comment.
(b) Channels of communication must be definitely known. Comment.
(c) Examine the view of Abraham Maslow on 'The Hierarchy of Need Theory

(d) ‘Leaders do the right things, manager do them rightly.’ [Bennis]. Comment.
(e) Discuss the dynamics of positivism in the study of public administration.


2. (a) Analyse the models of decision making and organizational influence as envisaged
by Simon.
(b) “No responsibility of government is more fundamental than the responsibility of
maintaining the higher standards of ethical behaviour in administration” (John F
Kennedy). Discuss.
3. (a) Whereas Downs’ model is largely dependent on a theory of psychological motivation,
Niskanen’s model is framed by neo-classical thinking. In the light of the above,
Discuss the public choice approach to decision-making.
(b) Peter Ducker “Leadership is the lifting of man’s visions to higher standard, the
building of man’s personality beyond its normal limitations”.
4. (a) ‘Abraham Maslow's contribution to motivation is of relevance even in contemporary
times’. Analyze.
(b) Discuss the Tradition and Modern Theories of Leadership and also bring out their
significance in organisational efficiency.

Public Administration [1]

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Attempt all questions:

5. Comment on the following into 150 words:
(a) Discuss operationalization of Learning Organisation

(b) Discuss the important phases of systems analysis

(c) What is Organisational Culture? Discuss types of Organisational Culture.
(d) Examine the relevance of Critical Theory in Public Administration.
(e) Public Private partnership is a lever to organisational efficiency. Discuss.


6. (a) ‘Simulation models are more appropriate than Optimisation models’. Critically
evaluate the statement.

(b) Organisational effectiveness is not ostensible with single dimension, rather required
depth perception to have an undistorted result. Discuss.
7. (a) Examine Chris Argyris's views on human personality and also his critique of formal
organisation. Comment.
(b) “Organisation means a planned system of cooperative effort in which each participant
has a recognised role to play and duties and tasks to perform” (Simon). Discuss.

8. (a) “The successful management leaders are found in Likerts’s ‘System-4’ approach to
organizational leadership.” Examine.
(b) Structural theory is, by and large, grounded in classical principles of efficiency,
effectiveness and productivity. Explain.

[ 2 ] Public Administration

Public Administration
Test Series 2019

Public Administration
Answer Hints: Test No.2
1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each:
1. (a) “Decisions are something more than factual propositions, they have an ethical as well
as a factual content.” Comment.
• What is decision making in organisation?

• Ethical perspective of decisions
• Factual perspective of decisions
• Which one is better?
• Support your argument with examples and case studies

Behaviour Alternative Model Defined:

Explaining Simon’s behaviour alternative model Peter Self says: “in any situation an administrator
ought ideally to examine all possible courses of action open to him trace through the consequences
of each alternative course and then sepa-rately evaluate the benefits and losses of each alternative.
It implies that after scrutinising the pros and cons of each alternative, he will finally accept one
alternative.” Let us put the above in the words of Simon.

“At each moment the behaving subject or the organisation composed of number of individuals, is
confronted with a large numbers of alternative behaviours, some of which are present in
consciousness, some of which are not Decision is the process by which one of these alternatives for
each moment’s behaviour is selected to be carried out. The series of such decisions which determine
behaviour over some stretch of time may be called a strategy.
The task of decision:
(a) The determination of all consequences that follow upon each of these strategies,and
(b) The comparative evaluation of these sets of consequences.
Simon says that an administrator separately evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of each
and every alternative and after this he takes a decision. All the stages constitute a strategy for the
administrator. He, while comparing studies all the aspects of the alternative by applying his
intelligence and experience. After this he takes a decision. Hence a comparative study is a “must”
for the person entrusted with the task of managing the organisation. Simon claims that his model is
far superior to all other models.
We thus find that the centrality of Simon’s behaviour alternative model is comparison among
different models or alternatives and in this comparison adminis-trator applies his intelligence and
Hints: Public Administration [1]

Why Administrative Behaviour?

Simon himself has admitted that the current or prevailing theories of public administration are
unsuitable to give proper guidelines to an efficient adminis-tration and for that reason he felt the
necessity of devising an alternative model. He says: “Administrative description suffers currently
from superficiality, oversimplification, lack of realism. It has confined itself too closely to the
mechanism of authority and has failed to bring within its orbit the other, equally important, modes
of influence on organisational behaviour. It has refused to undertake the tiresome task of studying,
the actual allocation of the decision-making function … until administrative description reaches a
higher level of sophistication, there is little reason to hope that rapid progress will be made towards
the identification and verification of valid administrative principles”. It is obvious that since Simon
was quite dissatisfied with the current theories of public administration he offered an alternative
He has said that the overall success or failure of a management shall be judged in the background
of overall efficiency of the organisation. The failure or success cannot be split into parts. One part
may achieve success whereas the other part suffers losses. This cannot be treated as the success of

the organisation. Simon emphasises this point. He has stressed the point that it is the duty of the
administrator to study all the possible and available alternatives with all seriousness. Let us quote
him “A valid approach to the study of administration requires that all relevant diagnostic criteria
be identified and each administrative situation be analysed”.
Nature of Simon’s Theory:
Let us try to identify the salient features of Simon’s Alternative Behaviour. First of all he has stressed
the idea that it shall be the foremost objective of the chief executive to maximise the efficiency of the
organisation and, simultaneously, the profit of the organisation. To achieve this double objective he

has propounded this theory. He further maintains that, in any society or in any organisational set-
up, there exist more than one alternatives and the executive shall select the best and most suitable
alternative. The credit of the organiser lies in selecting the right or most suitable one.
Efficiency and profit shall be the twin objectives of the executive. He writes: “The theory of
administration is concerned with how an organisation should be constructed and operated in order
to accomplish its work efficiently … A fundamental principle of administration, which follows

almost immediately from the rational character of good administration, is that among several
alternatives involving same expenditure, the one should always be selected which leads to the
greatest accomplishment of administrative objec-tives”. The point to note is that Simon’s
“administrative man” is simultaneously the “economic man”. In other words, in his theory of
behaviour alternative model, the administrative man is not different from economic man. It may
further be observed that in order to achieve supreme economic goal the executive will incessantly
try to be the best administrator.
Simon has contended that his behaviour alternative “model is superior to the traditional ends-
means approach by which most administrative action supposedly proceeds” Simon claims that the
divorce of ends from means is not the correct way of managing a corporate. We have already
highlighted his emphasis on rationality. Every administrator must follow the principles of rationality.
It is true that rationality sometimes appears to be vague. But m spite of this every intelligent and
efficient administrator tries to be rational
Simon has observed that value-judgement and factual-judgement both are essential ingredients of
the decision-making process. He says: In so far as decisions lead towards the selection of final goals,
they will be called value- judgement, so far as they involve the implementation of such goals they
will be called factual-judgement. But everything must be scrutinised by means of experience and
facts. If the decision bears fruits in reality then it may be said that the current decision has been
[ 2 ] Hints: Public Administration

What is behaviour alternative? By behaviour alternative Simon meant the following. Any
organisation at a particular time is confronted with a number of circumstances or situations all of
which may not be relevant for the concern. It is the primary duty of the organisation that is, the
head of the organisation to select the most useful alternative. It appears to be a strategy to choose
the most important or vital alternative. If the executive fails to do the job correctly that will do harm
to the organisation.
To decide the strategy is not only difficult but highly complicated. For example, a farm has been
manufacturing shoes for a pretty long time. Suddenly the head of the shoe manufacturing farm
planned to manufacture cloth. Should it stop the production of shoes and shift to the production of
cloth? Or, should he start a separate farm for the manufacture of cloth? These are the alternatives
and the chief executive will have to select one. But he cannot take a decision without considering all
the possible courses of action.
Herbert Simon’s behaviour alternative model is not free from blemishes or shortenings. Some of
these are noted below. It has been pointed out that in any society there are not innumerable

alternatives and the chief executive has very little freedom to select the most suitable one from these
alternatives. The chief administrator may have enormous power, but that power may not help him
to select the most appropriate alternative. This is a brain-storming problem and the administrator
has very little freedom to come out of it.
Again, it has been pointed out by critics that it is not always true that an organisation will always
have one or two ends or objectives, it may have number of objectives and, in that situation, it may
be difficult to select the most important and beneficial objective. But the executive may not be in a
position to do the job. Again, there may be a number of means or ways to achieve the goal. But

which will help most appropriately is the problem and it cannot be solved easily.
Peter Self points out that to select the most appropriate alternative is a very difficult task which all
executives cannot do successfully. In fact his task may be infinite. It is unfortunate that Simon
overlooked this aspect of his model.
Another drawback of Simon’s behaviour alternative model is the changes in the environment may
have clear impact upon the activities of the organisation and, m that case, the selection of an

alternative at a particular time may be inappropriate or irrelevant next time. The problem is that
once a decision has been taken it cannot be changed within a short time.
The selection and execution of a policy will take time and by that time physical environment may be
change which may make the selection of alternative fully irrelevant. The point is that the executive
has no control over the environment. Today we are all aware that our environment is an open one
and the impact of outside environment always falls upon any organisation. There is no way to stop
it. While analysing the behaviour alternative model we must take note of it.
Another problem is —there may be ten arguments in favour of a decision or proposal and seven or
eight arguments against it. The problem is how to make a compromise, or, how can the executive
arrive at a concrete decision? The executive has no capacity to measure the value or weight of any
argument or proposal. If so it will not be possible for the executive to reach a decision which will be
salubrious for the organisation.
Commenting on Simon’s behaviour alternative model Peter Self makes the following observation;
“The behaviour alternative model is much more compat-ible with economic analysis than is the
ends-means model. Simon’s decision maker should opt for that set of consequences which maximises
net satisfaction. The trouble with Simon’s administrative man is that he has no easy way to read the
prices attached to the consequences he examines. The notion of the “greatest accomplishment of
administrative objectives” is intrinsically resistant to any precise measurements of satisfaction.”
Hints: Public Administration [3]

Simon himself admitted that a complete agreement could never be reached on any issue.
Notwithstanding this difficulty the behaviour alternative model appears to be superior to other
1. (b) Channels of communication must be definitely known. Comment.
• What is communication?
• Why essential for effective organisation?
• Different channels?
• Various thinkers contribution
• Problems because of berriers

Organizational communication as a field has grown immensely in scope and depth over the last
few decades. Concomitant with the rise of the corporation and the managerial way of doing business,
it has become the norm for management theorists to define how, what and why an organization
should be the way it is. Hence, there have been several practitioners of management who have put
forward their views and posited theories on the theory of management.
Prominent among these have been Max Weber, Philip Tompkins and George Cheney who along
with Stanley Deetz have pioneered the field of organizational communication studies. This article
compares and contrasts the contributions of these experts to the art and science of organizational

Before launching into a detailed discussion, it would be pertinent to note that organizational
communication is indeed relevant and important for corporations all over the world as
communication defines the raison d’être of organizations and determines the success or otherwise
of companies.
Weber’s Classic Organizational Theory of Fixed Structures

The widely respected management theorist, Max Weber can be considered the pioneer of
organizational studies. His theory of bureaucratic organizations is the first attempt to define
organizational structure and give meaning to the communication processes that happen within
Weberian theory holds that organizations have clearly defined roles and responsibilities and
hence communication is hierarchical, structured, and clear. There is no scope for confusion in the
messages being sent from the top (the theory is inherently a top down one) and hence organizations
have rigid machine like structures where each individual contributes by way of defined and
unambiguous roles and responsibilities.
Of course, Weberian analysis gives a place of prominence to merit and the way organizations work
is by allocating work according to capabilities and seniority determined by fixed notions of these
Tompkins and Cheney’s Organizational Control Theory
Tompkins and Cheney’s organizational control theory is an extension of Weberian theory applied
to organizations that are moving past the bureaucratic mode but are yet to be totally amorphous.
This theory holds that there are four kinds of control that determine how organizations exercise
power within and they are simple, technical, bureaucratic, and concertive.
[ 4 ] Hints: Public Administration

In a way, these four types of control are defined according to the progression of the organization
from very simple organizational models to pure bureaucracies to overly technical and finally an
organization where everyone knows what is expected of him or her and has the purpose of the
organization’s mission and vision clearly etched within them. The point here is that Tompkins and
Cheney posit a model where control and communication is more than what Weber had envisaged
and less than what post modern theorists say about organizational control and communication.
Deetz’s Managerialism Theory
The evolution of organizational structure and models over the years has spawned theories that
reflect the changing organizational norms and Stanley Deetz’s Managerialism Theory is one such
attempt to define how organizational communication and organizational control happens in the
companies where classical notions are replaced with an acknowledgement of the political and
economic interests as well as the need to represent and give voice to these diverse interests.
The highlight of this theory is that Deetz goes beyond fixed notions of organizations and instead,
posits a view of organizations that take into account the democratic aspirations of the people
and the power centers in the organization. This combination of recognizing the fact that meaning

lies in people and not their words and to find out the interests behind these meanings is indeed a
progression from the faceless and nameless bureaucratic model of Weber and the slightly improved
control theory of Tompkins and Cheney.
The point here is that Deetz’s theory arose out of the need to recognize the preeminence of the
managerial class as a force to reckon with in organizations in the latter part of the 20th century and
hence represents the natural evolution of organizational theory of control and communication.
The point to note about these theories is that they are representations of reality as seen by the
proponents and also reflect the idealistic aspirations of these theorists. There is nothing to say that

such structures alone exist or that they are not valid. Instead, a nuanced view of organizational
theory that has emerged in recent years with the systems view of organizations is something that is
contemporary and relevant to the agile and nimble organizations of the 21st century.
Indeed, these theorists discussed here were pioneers during their time and likewise the emerging
crop of management experts now are taking the views of these theorists to the next level. In
conclusion, all management theorists acknowledge the natural progression of organizational models
and hence their contributions to the field of organizational control and communication are akin to

each wave of theorists standing on the shoulders of giants who were there previously.
Effective communication goes a long way in passing the correct and the desired information to the
recipient and the work is accomplished without errors in a short span of time. Effective
communication also nullifies the chances of misunderstandings, conflicts and errors which might
crop in cases where the message is not clear.
Role of communication barriers in ineffective communication
Let us now understand in details what the barriers to an effective communication are and how
they lead to an ineffective communication.
• Unorganized Thought - Unorganized and haphazard thoughts also are instrumental in
poor communication and a very important barrier to effective communication.
Mike to Monalisa -”Please come at 2 pm, okay not 2 come at 2.30 pm instead, fine let us
freeze it for 3 pm”
Monalisa is bound to get confused as Mike himself is not clear about the timings. The sender
must pass on crystal clear information to the receiver. The sender must first be himself very
clear what he wants to communicate and then only begin the conversation. Abstract ideas,
haphazard thoughts lead to ineffective communication. First know what you have to
communicate and then only speak.
Hints: Public Administration [5]

• Wrong interpretations: Wrong interpretations again play a very important role in

miscommunication. An information can be wrongly interpreted by the receiver leading to a
complete mess. “Tom went for a bash yesterday night”. The word bash can be decoded as
beating as well as a party. The sender might convey his message to the recipient in order
to provide some necessary information but the receiver might misinterpret it. It is the
responsibility of the receiver to give proper feedback to the speaker and clear all the doubts
before ending the conversation. Don’t keep things within yourself; ask if you are not clear
with anything.
• Not Understanding the receiver: The boss once wanted to address his young team. He
quoted examples from the year 1950 - the year when his team members were not even born.
Don’t you think, all the young chaps will lose interest after sometime? That’s the importance
of understanding the recipient. Don’t just prepare a speech, learn more about the culture,
habits, thought process of your listeners. The sender must understand the receiver first and
then pass on the information. If a sender is sad and you want to give him some exciting
news, he will neither respond nor understand and hence the effect will for sure get nullified.
Not understanding the receiver again is a barrier to effective communication.

Ignoring the content: One should lay emphasis on the content of his speech. The content
has to be clear, crisp and above all interesting. Don’t just speak; take some time to find
out what you are speaking. Find out whether the content is relevant or not? During
presentations, the speaker must use interesting words, funny one liner to capture the attention
of the listeners. Don’t make your speech monotonous otherwise the listeners after sometime
will definitely fall asleep. One should be smart enough to understand when to crack a slight
joke in mid of a conversation. It really works. Don’t just speak for the heck of it, understand
what you are speaking and try to make it more interesting, crisp and above all relevant.

• Not confirming with the recipient: Always cross check with the listeners, whether they
have received the correct information or not. For instance, if you are sharing some important
contact no, do make it a habit to verify the number with the receiver whether the receiver
has noted it correctly or not. Use words like “Did you get it? “Am I Audible?” in between
the conversation. Try to find out whether the listener is getting your message or not. Take
pauses in between, simply don’t rush. Make a habit to spell out words. If you want to pass
on your email id to your team, it is better to spell out each word of the email account.

Another effective way is to break each word into alphabets, like ant can be communicated
as a as in alpha, n as in Netherlands, t as in tango. The error rate will definitely go down
and the communication will be more effective.
• Not understanding the mood of the recipient: Try to understand the interest or the mood
of the second party and read the mind of the other person. Don’t just start speaking,
understand the mood of the other person first and then share the information. If you think,
the receiver is in the pink of his moods, don’t give him sad news, he will never bother to
listen. Wait for the correct time and then communicate if you want your communication to
create an impact.
• Impatient Listener: The listener also has to be patient enough to absorb the complete
information and then respond accordingly. Always jot down your points and start off with
your queries once the sender is through with the communication. Don’t just jump in between
the conversation as it leads to unnecessary confusions, misunderstandings and conflict and
the communication never reaches any conclusion.
• Different cultural level: In any organization, an individual can never think on the same
line as his boss does. There is always a difference in their thought process. The work
pressure, lack of transparency between the team members are also the barriers which lead
to an ineffective communication. These barriers are called internal barriers.
[ 6 ] Hints: Public Administration

1. (c) Examine the view of Abraham Maslow on 'The Hierarchy of Need Theory
• Introduce why Maslow is called “Third Force”
• Features of Maslow’s theory
• Criticism
• Views of Frederick Herzberg
Abraham Maslow’s interest and research in understanding human behaviour was the result of his
early career as a psychologist. He tried to understand human behaviour through psychoanalysis.
Maslow develops the concept of holistic psychology. This, he calls the ‘third force’ the other two
being Behaviourism and Psychoanalysis. Maslow directs his main efforts in the field of personality.
He argues that psychology had hitherto concentrated too much on human frailty and neglected

human strengths. He contends that human nature is essentially good. As human personality develops
through maturation, the creative capacity becomes more sharply defined. If human beings are
miserable, the fault lies with the environment, which makes them so. Human beings are not basically
destructive or violent: they become so only when they’re inner nature is twisted.
Maslow’s major works are:
• Motivation and Personality (1954.
• Toward a Psychology of Being (1962).

• The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance (1966).

• New Knowledge in Human Values (1970).
• The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (1971).
• Dominance, Self-Esteem, Self-actualisation: Germinal Papers of A.H. Maslow (edited by

Richard J. Lowry in 1973).

In addition, he published several research papers in journals and books. Initially, Initially, Maslow’s
writings generated interest among other clinical and personality psychologists, but hardly had any
influence on organisation theories. Managers and administrators began to read Maslow’s ideas
only after McGregor popularised them.
Abraham Maslow put forward three basic propositions based on the concept of need:
• Man is a wanting animal. He always has some need driving him to action.
• There is a hierarchy of needs. They are arranged in an order of priority with the most basic
needs to be satisfied first.
• A need satisfied is no longer a motivator.
Man is driven only by unsatisfied needs. If the physiological and the safety needs are satisfied, there
will emerge the love and affection and belongingness needs. These include desire for achievement,
adequacy, reputation, recognition, importance, appreciation and the like. According to Abraham
Maslow, self-actualisation “refers to man’s desire for self-fulfilment, namely, to the tendency for
him to become actualised in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to
become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming”.
Hints: Public Administration [7]

Human behaviour can be analysed from their actions and the motives behind them. These
assumptions about human motivation have been familiar since the days of Sigmund Freud. Social
Psychology has brought a new path in analysing human needs and motives through human
behaviour. Maslow’s theory of human motivation provides the framework to study and analyse
human motivation. As Maslow himself said, “Motivation theory is not synonymous with behaviour
theory. The motivations are only one class of determinants of behaviour. While behaviour is almost
always motivated, it is also almost always biologically, culturally and situationally determined as
well”. Among the most widely referred motivation theories, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory is
quite prominent.
The Hierarchy of needs theory
Maslow sees human needs in the form of a hierarchy, starting in an ascending order from the
lowest to the highest needs and concludes that when one set of needs are satisfied then the need for
other set arises. According to Maslow, human being is an organism, which drives into action to
satisfy its needs. The hunger drive or any other physiological drive cannot become a cantering point
in explaining the theory of motivation. A sound theory of motivation centres upon the basic goals of
human beings. Human behaviour is a reflection of more than one need. Classification of needs into

specific groups is a requisite in formulating a motivation theory. He says that classification of
motivations must be based upon goals rather than upon instigating drives or motivated behaviour.
He further says that a situation in which a human organism reacts is a valid point in motivation
theory, but the emphasis should always be on the behaviour of the organism rather than on the
Maslow arranges the human needs in order of hierarchy of prepotency. At the lowest end are the
physiological and security needs. The self-actualisation need is at the highest end. In between there
are social and self-esteem needs. Once the needs at the lower order are satisfied, then the need for

needs at the higher order arises. The basic human needs identified by Maslow in an ascending
order of importance are as follows:
• Physiological needs:
• Security or safety needs
• Affiliation or acceptance needs:

• Esteem needs:
• Need for self-actualisation:
The thrust of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is that one must satisfy one’s basic needs before moving
to the satisfaction of higher needs. Maslow draws attention to the larger range of needs needing
satisfaction. A manager must note that basic needs of workers must be satisfied, but there are other
needs as well. A satisfied need ceases to be a need and another makes its appearance.
Critical Evaluation
Maslow’s contribution in the form of his need hierarchy is a landmark in social psychological research.
His theory has had tremendous impact on modern management approach to motivation.
Maslow’s theory of need hierarchy was criticised mainly on grounds of sophistication and validity
of his research data and the order of hierarchy of needs. Research on the realities of Maslow’s
theory does raise questions about the accuracy of the hierarchical aspects of these needs. However,
his identification of basic needs has been quite useful. Research by Lawler and Suttle of 187 managers
in two different organisations does not support Maslow’s theory that human needs conform to a
hierarchy. Researchers do note, however, that there are two levels of needs – biological and other
needs – and that the other needs would arise only when biological needs are reasonably fulfilled.
Their research, further, indicates that at the higher level, the strength of the needs varies with
[ 8 ] Hints: Public Administration

individuals; in some individuals social needs predominate, and in others self-actualisation needs
are strongest.
Porter, in his study, also finds that needs do not follow a hierarchy, especially after lower-level
needs are satisfied. He finds that managers at all levels do have common security and social needs
and that the three higher needs in Maslow’s hierarchy vary greatly with managerial ranks, with
lower-level managers being less satisfied than higher level managers. Yet, at all levels, satisfaction
of these needs is definitely more or less deficient.
Hall and Nougaim likewise, in their study of Maslow’s theory involving a group of managers over
a period of five years, do not find strong evidence of a hierarchy. They discover that as managers
progress in an organisation, they’re physiological and safety needs tend to decrease in importance,
and their needs for affiliation, esteem, and self-actualisation tend to increase. They observe that
upward movement of needs results from career development and not from the satisfaction of lower-
order needs. The concept of self-actualisation and its characteristics as described by Maslow have
been subjected to criticism also. He does not elaborate the methodology adopted by him to select the
cases for study. Further, Maslow’s list of characteristics of a self actualised person also contains

several contradictory and overlapping features. Cofer and Apply observe that the emphasis on self-
actualisation suffers from the vagueness of its concept, the looseness of its languages and the
inadequacy of the evidence related to its major contentions. Thus the criticisms against Maslow’s
theory mostly rest on its lack of research support, on the dispute over the hierarchy of needs, and on
the imprecise nature of the term self-actualisation. Although Maslow’s theory has been subjected to
questioning and often not accepted, his identification of basic needs has been fairly popular. He has
made an important contribution to our understanding of the nature of motivation. His distinct
approach to motivation has greatly influenced the practice of modern management.

Comparison of Herzberg and Maslow Models

The models of both Maslow and Herzberg focus attention on the same relationship, that is what
motivates an individual. Maslow has suggested the theory of hierarchy of needs and as to how
people try to satisfy each higher level need successively. Thus, any unsatisfied need becomes a
motivating factor for the individual. In the economically advanced countries most of the lower-
order needs of workers are fulfilled and hence, only higher-level needs remain motivating factors.

This is what Herzberg has suggested. Maslow’s physiological, security and social needs come under
Herzberg’s maintenance factors while self-actualisation under motivating factors. There are some
divisions of esteem need: some parts coming under maintenance factors, e.g., status, and others,
advancement and recognition, going under motivational factors.
There is a particular difference between two models. Maslow emphasises that any unsatisfied need,
whether of lower order or higher order, will motivate individuals. Thus, it has universality in its
applicability. It can be applied to lower-level workers as well as higher-level managers. In the
underdeveloped countries, even lower-order needs are not reasonably satisfied. Hence, needs
continue to be motivators. However, according to Herzberg, these are hygiene factors and do not
help to motivate workers.
1. (d) ‘Leaders do the right things, manager do them rightly.’ [Bennis]. Comment.
• Characteristic of leadership
• Importance of leadership
• Role of leaders
• Leader versus anager
Hints: Public Administration [9]

Leadership is a process by which an executive can direct, guide and influence the behavior and
work of others towards accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation. Leadership is the
ability of a manager to induce the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.
Leadership is the potential to influence behaviour of others. It is also defined as the capacity to
influence a group towards the realization of a goal. Leaders are required to develop future visions,
and to motivate the organizational members to want to achieve the visions.
According to Keith Davis, “Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives
enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards
Characteristics of Leadership
1. It is a inter-personal process in which a manager is into influencing and guiding workers
towards attainment of goals.
2. It denotes a few qualities to be present in a person which includes intelligence, maturity and

3. It is a group process. It involves two or more people interacting with each other.
4. A leader is involved in shaping and moulding the behaviour of the group towards
accomplishment of organizational goals.
5. Leadership is situation bound. There is no best style of leadership. It all depends upon
tackling with the situations.

Importance of Leadership
Leadership is an important function of management which helps to maximize efficiency and to
achieve organizational goals. The following points justify the importance of leadership in a concern.
1. Initiates action: Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and
plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.

2. Motivation: A leader proves to be playing an incentive role in the concern’s working. He

motivates the employees with economic and non-economic rewards and thereby gets the
work from the subordinates.
3. Providing guidance: A leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding role for the
subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform
their work effectively and efficiently.
4. Creating confidence: Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through
expressing the work efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearly their role and giving
them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively. It is also important to hear the employees
with regards to their complaints and problems.
5. Building morale: Morale denotes willing co-operation of the employees towards their work
and getting them into confidence and winning their trust. A leader can be a morale booster
by achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work
to achieve goals.
6. Builds work environment: Management is getting things done from people. An efficient
work environment helps in sound and stable growth. Therefore, human relations should be
kept into mind by a leader. He should have personal contacts with employees and should
listen to their problems and solve them. He should treat employees on humanitarian terms.
[10] Hints: Public Administration

7. Co-ordination: Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with

organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective co-
ordination which should be primary motive of a leader.
Role of a Leader
Following are the main roles of a leader in an organization :
1. Required at all levels: Leadership is a function which is important at all levels of management.
In the top level, it is important for getting co-operation in formulation of plans and policies.
In the middle and lower level, it is required for interpretation and execution of plans and
programmes framed by the top management. Leadership can be exercised through guidance
and counseling of the subordinates at the time of execution of plans.
2. Representative of the organization: A leader, i.e., a manager is said to be the representative
of the enterprise. He has to represent the concern at seminars, conferences, general meetings,
etc. His role is to communicate the rationale of the enterprise to outside public. He is also
representative of the own department which he leads.

3. Integrates and reconciles the personal goals with organizational goals: A leader through
leadership traits helps in reconciling/ integrating the personal goals of the employees with
the organizational goals. He is trying to co-ordinate the efforts of people towards a common
purpose and thereby achieves objectives. This can be done only if he can influence and get
willing co-operation and urge to accomplish the objectives.
4. He solicits support: A leader is a manager and besides that he is a person who entertains
and invites support and co-operation of subordinates. This he can do by his personality,
intelligence, maturity and experience which can provide him positive result. In this regard,

a leader has to invite suggestions and if possible implement them into plans and programmes
of enterprise. This way, he can solicit full support of employees which results in willingness
to work and thereby effectiveness in running of a concern.
5. As a friend, philosopher and guide: A leader must possess the three dimensional traits in
him. He can be a friend by sharing the feelings, opinions and desires with the employees.
He can be a philosopher by utilizing his intelligence and experience and thereby guiding the

employees as and when time requires. He can be a guide by supervising and communicating
the employees the plans and policies of top management and secure their co-operation to
achieve the goals of a concern. At times he can also play the role of a counselor by counseling
and a problem-solving approach. He can listen to the problems of the employees and try to
solve them.
Leader versus Manager
“Leadership and managership are two synonymous terms” is an incorrect statement. Leadership
doesn’t require any managerial position to act as a leader. On the other hand, a manager can be a
true manager only if he has got the traits of leader in him. By virtue of his position, manager has to
provide leadership to his group. A manager has to perform all five functions to achieve goals, i.e.,
Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, and Controlling. Leadership is a part of these functions.
Leadership as a general term is not related to managership. A person can be a leader by virtue of
qualities in him. For example: leader of a club, class, welfare association, social organization, etc.
Therefore, it is true to say that, “All managers are leaders, but all leaders are not managers.”
A leader is one who influences the behavior and work of others in group efforts towards achievement
of specified goals in a given situation. On the other hand, manager can be a true manager only if he
has got traits of leader in him. Manager at all levels are expected to be the leaders of work groups so
that subordinates willingly carry instructions and accept their guidance. A person can be a leader
by virtue of all qualities in him.
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Leaders and Managers can be compared on the following basis:

Basis Manager Leader
Origin A person becomes a manager by A person becomes a leader on basis
virtue of his position. of his personal qualities.
Formal Rights Manager has got formal rights in Rights are not available to a leader.
an organization because of his
Followers The subordinates are the The group of employees whom the
followers of managers. leaders leads are his followers.
Functions A manager performs all five Leader influences people to work
functions of management. willingly for group objectives.
Necessity A manager is very essential to A leader is required to create cordial
a concern. relation between person working in
and for organization.

Stability It is more stable. Leadership is temporary.
Mutual All managers are leaders. All leaders are not managers.
Accountability Manager is accountable for Leaders have no well defined
self and subordinates accountability.
behaviour and performance.
Concern A manager’s concern is A leader’s concern is group goals and
organizational goals. member’s satisfaction.

Followers People follow manager by virtue People follow them on voluntary

of job description. basis.
Role continuation A manager can continue in A leader can maintain his position
office till he performs his duties only through day to day wishes of
satisfactorily in congruence followers.
with organizational goals.
Sanctions Manager has command over A leader has command over

allocation and distribution different sanctions and related task

of sanctions. records. These sanctions are
essentially of informal nature.
1. (e) Discuss the dynamics of positivism in the study of public administration.
• What is positivism
• Types of positivism
• Relevance in study of public administration
Positivism, as a philosophical term in contemporary use, is mostly an intellectual arti-fact of the
logical positivist movement of the early-20th century. But the philosophical tradition of positivism
is much older, and the infamy bestowed on it by the dissolution of Logical Positivism (LP) obscures
a striking continuity from the 19th century to the present. In a broad sense, the 19th century classical
positivism of Auguste Comte anticipated many key features of its logical positivist phase and continues
to wield influence even after LP’s dissolution and the rise of postmodernism (in PA) in the late
1980s. One way to visualize this history of positivism is in relation to other major philosophical
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traditions: empiricism, pragmatism, phenomenology, and postmodernism. The Google Books Ngram
Viewer statistical tool tracks the enduring use of these words from 1800 to 2008. The primary point
of this graph is not to draw conclusions about the greater popularity or influence of one of these
philosophies, but to show that they all trace individual paths, that intellectual history is dynamic,
and that while an idea may appear to have great influence or no influence, positivism has persisted.3
Despite the postpositivist and postmodernist assault on LP in the second half of the 20th century,
key features of positivism persist consciously and implicitly in American intellectual life. Positivism
thus maintains an important place in what Raadschelders has called the tradition of “scientific
knowledge” in PA. It is therefore due some systematic attention.
Classical Positivism
Positivism is a tradition of philosophy brought forth by the French philosopher Auguste Comte
(1798-1857) during the second quarter of the 19th century. Positivism became widely popular in its
second half and had a strong effect on the British empiricist J. S. Mill, whose ideas in turn influenced
Comte’s positivism. Both empiricism and positivism were themselves prefigured by the empiricism
of David Hume, among others in the 1700s, and both have persisted into the contemporary era.

Comte is widely considered not only the father of positivism but also of sociology and the social
sciences in general. As Babbie (2010) argued, “In a sense all social research descends from Comte.
His view that society could be studied scientifically formed the foundation for subsequent development
of the social sciences”. Hassard (1993) traced an intellectual lineage from Comte to Durkheim to
Parsons, which consolidated a substantial tradition of “sociological orthodoxy in the 20th century”.
In PA, the term positivism shows up frequently but seems to have been discussed only superficially
within the context of research methodology. Most texts do not mention Comte and mention positivism
only in passing, or wrongly attribute its origins to the logical positivist movement of the early20th

The silence of Comte’s classical positivism, however, is not specific to PA. As Laudan (1971) argued,
“in spite of the frequency with which the term ‘positivism’ is used . . . remarkably little has been
written about the details of Comte’s theory of scientific method and his philosophy of science”.
Thus, the contemporary meaning of the term positivism has substantially different connotations
than its classical form supposed. The word now stands ironically as both a badge of scientific
expertise and a term of abuse.

Logical Positivism (LP)

LP was for a short time a highly popular philosophical movement that spread from Vienna, Austria,
through Europe during 1920s-1930s and then throughout the United States during 1930s-1950s.
LP originated with the Vienna Circle of philosophers,4 which came to include circles in Germany
and Great Britain. Its pursuit of a scientific philosophy and the attendant rejection of theological
and metaphysical doctrines made LP a viable alternative to “philosophical irrationalists,” such as
Nietzsche and Heidegger, popular in Europe after the dissolution of Kantian philosophy. Such
irrationalism, as the Vienna Circle saw it, provided the intellectual atmosphere in which Nazi
fascism flourished. During the 1930s, logical positivists such as Herbert Fiegl, Rudolph Carnap, and
Carl Hempel migrated to the United States to avoid growing authoritarianism, where their ideas
were received by American philosophers such as Ernest Nagel, Sydney Hook, Albert Blumberg,
and Charles Morris. As a result, for a short while, LP was very popular in America. Indeed, as
Friedman (2006) argued, LP became “one of the central strands in the fabric of twentieth-century
thought”. Furthermore, it influenced not only philosophy but by the mid-20th century gained a
foothold in social science and the emerging study of PA as well.
For Further Reading refer: The Dynamics of Positivism in the Study of Public Administration: A
Brief Intellectual History and Reappraisal (Article)
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2. Answer the following questions:

2. (a) Analyse the models of decision making and organizational influence as envisaged by
• Simon’s model of decision making
• Simons view on organisation
• Criticism
• Conclusion
Herbert Simon’s celebrated work-Administrative Behaviour; A Decision-Making Processes was
published in 1945. His first task was to expose the contradictions and some inaccuracies of the

scientific administration theory and then to propound a new theory which would be most suitable
for a scientific public administration. Let us put it in Simon’s own words; “A theory of administration
should be concerned with the processes of decision as well as the processes of action.” Mere setting
up of a theory and no relation to reality is of no value.
Simon wanted to build up the fabric of a theory which would equally be suitable for practical
purpose. Simon claims that his theory will be applicable in practice. He believed that making of
decision is a very difficult task because, in an organisation, there are several complex and contradictory
situations and in the midst of these situations an administrator will have to arrive at a decision

which will be most suitable.

Talking about decision, Simon has said that decision is a matter of compromise because there are
several alternatives and the decision-maker will have to select one or few alternatives from them.
He will have to judge the most suitable alternative because his chief objective is to make a practical
and most suitable decision.
The acceptance of one alternative and the rejection of others does not indicate that they are absolutely

unsuitable. The mere fact is that at a particular moment the decision-maker selected a particular
method. Simon calls this a type of compromise. If in the next time situation changes he may adopt
a new course of action. Naturally there is always a scope of compromise.
Behind the acceptance and the concept, rationality always plays the most crucial role. If the decision
is not rational it is not expected that it will produce desired results. But in his opinion the concept of
rationality is associated with problems. To get rid of this Simon has suggested that a decision may
be “subjectively” rational and also “objectively” rational. Let us say what he means by these two
words. A decision is supposed to be “objectively” rational if it maximises given values in a given
Again, a decision will be subjectively rational if it maximises attainment relative to the actual
knowledge of the subject. A decision would be organisationally rational if it were oriented to the
organisation’s goals. In this way Simon has explained the various aspects of the decision-making
process of an organisation.
Simon’s theory of rationality of decision-making differs from his predecessors, particularly the
concept of POSDCORB. Simon claims that in all the earlier theories of public administration the
value or importance of rationality had no place. But only a rational approach can make an
organisation successful. His theory of rational decision-making has inflicted an attack upon the
scientific administration theory.
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He indirectly castigates that what is called scientific theory—it is not at all rational. It is based on
certain personal experiences. But personal experience cannot claim universal application. He thought
that the so- called scientific theory or approach to public administration cannot produce desired
results. That is why he wanted to find out a rational theory of public administration. Simon demands
that his rational decision-making is “an adequate framework for the expensive use of applied
behavioural research”
Limits of Rationality:
Rationality is the central part of Simon’s theory of decision-making. When an administrator is faced
with a number of alternatives, he will accept one or two alternatives or the ones he requires. In his
Models of Man he has analysed possible aspects of rationality. Taking of rational decision depends
upon several factors. For example, when an economic man goes to take a decision he will have to
consider a number of factors such as economic conditions that prevail around him, the international
economic situation, and his clear knowledge about the economic situation.
In the same ways an administrationist very often is faced with complicated situations and other
factors over which he has hardly any control. It has also been stated that the rationality of one

person is not detached from rational behaviour of other persons. But the problem is one rational
person has no control over the rationality of others. In the administrative world it is not an easy task
for a rational man to take a rational decision unilaterally.
Simon was fully aware of it. Not only this, an administrator cannot take a rational decision without
considering the environment that prevails around him but reality teaches us that an administrative
officer has hardly any control over the environment. Simon has said that the supply of information
is also an important factor that has clear impact upon rationality.
If the physical environment changes the choice will also suffer and in that situation the administrator

may have very little choice. In spite of all these limitations the rationality of decision-making is an
important concept in public administration. After the World War II the book was published and it
created ripples in the world of public administration He suggested that few principles cannot set
the public’ administration in right order Behind everything there must be rationality.
Bounded Rationality Model or Administrative Man Model:
Decision-making involve the achievement of a goal. Rationality demands that the decision-maker

should properly understand the alternative courses of action for reaching the goals.
He should also have full information and the ability to analyse properly various alternative courses
of action in the light of goals sought. There should also be a desire to select the best solutions by
selecting the alternative which will satisfy the goal achievement.
Herbert A. Simon defines rationality in terms of objective and intelligent action. It is characterised
by behavioural nexus between ends and means. If appropriate means are chosen to reach desired
ends the decision is rational.
Bounded Rationality model is based on the concept developed by Herbert Simon. This model does
not assume individual rationality in the decision process.
Instead, it assumes that people, while they may seek the best solution, normally settle for much less,
because the decisions they confront typically demand greater information, time, processing
capabilities than they possess. They settle for “bounded rationality or limited rationality in decisions.
This model is based on certain basic concepts.
a. Sequential Attention to alternative solution:
Normally it is the tendency for people to examine possible solution one at a time instead of identifying
all possible solutions and stop searching once an acceptable (though not necessarily the best) solution
is found.
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b. Heuristic:
These are the assumptions that guide the search for alternatives into areas that have a high probability
for yielding success.
c. Satisficing:
Herbert Simon called this “satisficing” that is picking a course of action that is satisfactory or “good
enough” under the circumstances. It is the tendency for decision makers to accept the first alternative
that meets their minimally acceptable requirements rather than pushing them further for an
alternative that produces the best results.
Satisficing is preferred for decisions of small significance when time is the major constraint or where
most of the alternatives are essentially similar.
Thus, while the rational or classic model indicates how decisions should be made (i.e. it works as a
prescriptive model), it falls somewhat short concerning how decisions are actually made (i.e. as a
descriptive model).

Some Common Errors in Decision-Making:
Since the importance of the right decision cannot be overestimated enough for the quality of the
decisions can make the difference between success and failure. Therefore, it is imperative that all
factors affecting the decision be properly looked into and fully investigated.
In addition to technical and operational factors which can be quantified and analyzed, other factors
such as personal values, personality traits, psychological assessment, perception of the environment,
intuitional and judgemental capabilities and emotional interference must also be understood and

Some researchers have pinpointed certain areas where managerial thinking needs to be re-assessed
and where some common mistakes are made. These affect the decision-making process as well as
the efficiency of the decision, and must be avoided.
Some of the errors are:
a. Indecisiveness:

Decision-making is full of responsibility. The fear of its outcome can make some people timid about
taking a decision. This timidity may result in taking a long time for making a decision and the
opportunity may be lost. This trait is a personality trait and must be looked into seriously. The
managers must be very quick in deciding.
b. Postponing the decision until the last moment:
This is a common feature which results in decision-making under pressure of time which generally
eliminates the possibility of thorough analysis of the problem which is time consuming as well as
the establishment and comparison of all alternatives. Many students, who postpone studying until
near their final exams, usually do not do well in the exams.
Even though some managers work better under pressures, most often an adequate time period is
required to look objectively at the problem and make an intelligent decision. Accordingly, a decision
plan must be formulated; time limits must be set for information gathering, analysis and selection of
a course of action.
c. A failure to isolate the root cause of the problem:
It is a common practice to cure the symptoms rather than the causes. For example, a headache may
be on account of some deep-rooted emotional problem. A medicine for the headache would not
cure the problem. It is necessary to separate the symptoms and their causes.
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d. A failure to assess the reliability of informational sources:

Very often, we take it for granted that the other person’s opinion is very reliable and trustworthy
and we do not check for the accuracy of the information ourselves.
Many a time, the opinion of the other person is taken, so that if the decision fails to bring the desired
results, the blame for the failure can be shifted to the person who had provided the information.
However, this is a poor reflection on the manager’s ability and integrity and the manager must be
held responsible for the outcome of the decision.
e. The method for analysing the information may not be the sound one:
Since most decisions and especially the non-programmed ones have to be based upon a lot of
information and factors, the procedure to identify, isolate and select the useful information must be
sound and dependable. Usually, it is not operationally feasible to objectively analyse more than five
or six pieces of information at a time.
Hence, a model must be built which incorporates and handles many variables in order to aid the
decision makers. Also, it will be desirable to define the objectives, criteria and constraints as early in

the decision-making process as possible. This would assist in making the process more formal so
that no conditions or alternatives would be overlooked. Following established procedures would
eliminate the efforts of emotions which may cloud the process and rationality.
f. Do implement the decision and follow through:
Making a decision is not the end of the process, rather it is a beginning. Implementation of the
decision and the results obtained are the true barometer of the quality of the decision. Duties must
be assigned, deadlines must be set, evaluation process must be established and contingency plans

must be prepared in advance. The decisions must be implemented whole heartedly to get the best
2. (b) “No responsibility of government is more fundamental than the responsibility of
maintaining the higher standards of ethical behaviour in administration” (John F Kennedy).

• Discuss role of values and ethics in administration

• Problems associated with value-free administration
• Case study
• Conclusion
The modern world has seen an increase in interest in the areas related to the ethics of the sovereign
good. A number of studies have focused on this subject matter and several academicians have
exposed a number of ethical and philosophical dilemmas related to the concept of ethics in public
administration. Despite the increasing number of studies that have focused on the importance of
administrative ethics, there has been very little effort spent on identifying what exactly constitutes
the crux of ethics in administration. The objective of this paper is to review the implications of the
basic principles of ethics for public administration in the context of new public governance and
discuss their impact on different administration imperatives which in turn act as the determinants
of ethics in public administration. This review will also focus on the importance of ethics in new
governance practices (privatization, decentralization, debureaucratization, devolution of budgets
etc.,) with reference to the push and pull of ethics and administration and how ethics mindsets and
basic approaches to administration and governance can be changed.
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Since the 1970s there has been a great deal of change associated with the implementation of
administrative ethics. These changes have been promoted and motivated by the concept of public
administration in the new era. An important position is given to the concept of ethical issues in
today’s civil governance. There has been a great deal of research associated with this concept which
has been supported by translation of evidences and theories into practice across different continents.
Frederickson and Ghere (2005) address both the managerial and individual/moral dimensions of
ethical behavior as well as new challenges to administrative ethics posed by globalization.
As promoted by Cooper (2001) ethics in public administration is not a transient concept but has
proven to be an approach which has shown a great deal of sustainability which is fundamental to
the area of public administration.
Public administration has certain issues with regard to ethics implementation and finds it troublesome
to come to terms with them. One reason for this is because ethics is embedded in an intellectual
framework. This framework is based on stable institutional as well as role relationship Since the
1970s there has been a great deal of change associated with the implementation of administrative
ethics. These changes have been promoted and motivated by the concept of public administration
in the new era. An important position is given to the concept of ethical issues in today’s civil

governance. There has been a great deal of research associated with this concept which has been
supported by translation of evidences and theories into practice across different continents.
Frederickson and Ghere address both the managerial and individual/moral dimensions of ethical
behavior as well as new challenges to administrative ethics posed by globalization. As promoted by
Cooper ethics in public administration is not a transient concept but has proven to be an approach
which has shown a great deal of sustainability which is fundamental to the area of public
administration. Public administration has certain issues with regard to ethics implementation and
finds it troublesome to come to terms with them. One reason for this is because ethics is embedded
in an intellectual framework. This framework is based on stable institutional as well as role

relationship levels, among both public employees as well as the organization. According to the
views of a number of researchers, current government perspectives believe that clarity and stability
at these levels would be problematic.
There is an example of American Society for Public Administration Codes for their members to be
• Advance the Public Interest: Promote the interests of the public and put service to the

public above service to oneself. Serve all persons with courtesy, respect, and dedication to
high standards.
• Uphold the Constitution and the Law. Respect and support government constitutions and
laws while seeking to improve laws and policies to promote the public good.
• Promote democratic participation: Inform the public and encourage active engagement in
governance. Be open, transparent and responsive, and respect and assist all persons in their
dealings with public organizations. Be open and transparent while protecting privacy rights
and security.
• Strengthen social equity: Treat all persons with fairness, justice, and equality and respect
individual differences, rights, and freedoms. Act affirmatively to reduce unfairness, injustice,
and inequality in society.
• Fully Inform and Advise: Provide accurate, honest, comprehensive, and timely information
and advice to elected and appointed officials and governing board members, and to
organizational superiors.
• Demonstrate commitment to duty, principle, and personal integrity: Adhere to the highest
standards of conduct to inspire public confidence and trust in public service. Exercise integrity,
courage, compassion, benevolence, and optimism.
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• Promote Ethical Organizations: Strive to attain the highest standards of ethics, stewardship,
and public service in organizations that serve the public.
• Strive for Professional Excellence: Strengthen individual capabilities to act competently
and ethically and encourage the professional development of others.
Nolan Committee, which outlined following Seven Principles of Public Life:
• Selflessness: Holders of public office should act solely in terms of the public interest. They
should not do so in order to gain financial or other material benefits for themselves, their
family or their friends.
• Integrity: Holders of public office should not place themselves under any financial or other
obligation to outside individuals or organisations that might seek to influence them in the
performance of their official duties.
• Objectivity: In carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding
contracts, or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office

should make choices on merit.
• Accountability: Holders of public office are accountable for their decisions and actions to the
public and must submit themselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office. ?
Openness : Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and
actions that they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information
only when the wider public interest clearly demands.
• Honesty: Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their
public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the

public interest.
• Leadership: Holders of public office should promote and support these principles by leadership
and example.
Futher reading 1) Ethics in Public Administration by D. Radhika 2) Public Service Values and
Ethics in Public Administration by Dr.Desh Raj Sirswal

3. Answer the following questions:

3 (a) Whereas Downs’ model is largely dependent on a theory of psychological motivation,
Niskanen’s model is framed by neo-classical thinking. In the light of the above, Discuss
the public choice approach to decision-making.
3. (b) Peter Ducker “Leadership is the lifting of man’s visions to higher standard, the building
of man’s personality beyond its normal limitations”.
4. Answer the following questions:
4. (a) ‘Abraham Maslow's contribution to motivation is of relevance even in contemporary
times’. Analyze.
• Maslow theory of motivation
• Criticism
• Other theories
• Relevance
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy of five needs in 1943. He postulated that human motivation
acted to satisfy the most basic needs first, and when those were met, the individual was motivated
to meet higher level needs. The hierarchy classified physiological needs such as food and shelter as
the most basic needs, followed by security needs such as personal safety and job security. Social
needs such as the need to belong to a group and friendship; self-esteem needs which include
recognition and competence; and self-actualization needs for growth and development round out
the five types of needs.
Organizational Needs
Translate Maslow’s needs into needs for organizational structures by identifying those that are
relevant to a work environment. The most basic needs require an organizational flexibility that lets
employees take breaks for snacks and meals. A stable organization with clear responsibilities provides
security. Making employees feel part of a team, allowing for recognition of achievements and

employee training programs can address the needs for social relationships, self-esteem and
professional development.
Higher Order Needs
Maslow divided his five needs into lower-level needs that were physical and high-level psychological
needs. He proposed that if the low-level needs were met, individuals would focus on the high-level
needs. In terms of a work environment, if a company meets an employee’s basic needs for a
comfortable workspace and job security, the employee is self-motivated to fulfil the higher-level
needs. A company merely has to provide the opportunity to fulfil such needs by offering appropriate

work. If the employee can fulfil his high-level needs by working on a team, successfully completing
a project and learning new skills in the course of carrying out the work, he can fulfill the three high-
level needs and will be motivated to do the work well.
Organizational Development
Applying Maslow’s theory to organizational development lets you ensure that your organizational
structure encourages employees to reach their full potential. While most organizations are flexible

enough for employees to satisfy the basic Maslow needs, promoting self-motivation through
opportunities to satisfy the higher-level needs is more challenging. Hierarchical organizations
sometimes limit employee interaction and the scope for professional growth. Matrix and team-
based organizations often contribute to employee insecurity if there is no job after a project is finished.
Their loose organization sometimes fails to acknowledge employee achievements. To apply Maslow’s
concepts effectively, your organization has to specifically support fulfillment of the high-level needs.
Design your company to allow social interactions that form the basis of a sense of belonging,
acknowledge accomplishments to engender self-esteem and provide opportunities for employees to
fulfill their potentials.
Implications of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory for Managers
• As far as the physiological needs are concerned, the managers should give employees
appropriate salaries to purchase the basic necessities of life. Breaks and eating opportunities
should be given to employees.
• As far as the safety needs are concerned, the managers should provide the employees job
security, safe and hygienic work environment, and retirement benefits so as to retain them.
• As far as social needs are concerned, the management should encourage teamwork and
organize social events.
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• As far as esteem needs are concerned, the managers can appreciate and reward employees
on accomplishing and exceeding their targets. The management can give the deserved
employee higher job rank / position in the organization.
• As far as self-actualization needs are concerned, the managers can give the employees
challenging jobs in which the employees’ skills and competencies are fully utilized. Moreover,
growth opportunities can be given to them so that they can reach the peak.
The managers must identify the need level at which the employee is existing and then those needs
can be utilized as push for motivation.
Limitations of Maslow’s Theory
• It is essential to note that not all employees are governed by same set of needs. Different
individuals may be driven by different needs at same point of time. It is always the most
powerful unsatisfied need that motivates an individual.
• The theory is not empirically supported.

• The theory is not applicable in case of starving artist as even if the artist’s basic needs are
not satisfied, he will still strive for recognition and achievement.
Unlike most scientific theories, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has widespread influence outside
academia. As Uriel Abulof argues, “The continued resonance of Maslow’s theory in popular
imagination, however unscientific it may seem, is possibly the single most telling evidence of its
significance: it explains human nature as something that most humans immediately recognize in
themselves and others.” Still, academically, Maslow’s theory is heavily contested.

Maslow studied what he called the master race of people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams,
Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that
“the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple
psychology and a cripple philosophy.” Maslow studied the healthiest 1% of the college student
Maslow proposed that if people grew up in an environment in which their needs are not meet, they

would be unlikely to function healthy, well-adjusted individuals. Research testing Maslow’s theory
has supported the distinction between the deficiencies and growth needs but showed that not all
people are able to satisfy their higher-order needs on the job.
According the results of the research managers from higher echelons of organisations are able to
satisfy both their growth and deficiency needs lower level managers are able to satisfy only their
deficiency needs on the job. Maslow’s theory has not received a great deal of support with respect
to specific notion it proposes. To them this model is theorised to be especially effective in describing
the behaviour of individuals who are high in growth need strength because employees who are
different to the idea of increasing their growth will not realise any physiological reaction to their
Centers&Bgental in their survey carried out among a cross-section of the working population in
Los Angeles, posited “background factors, altitudes and aspirations affects workers needs,
expectations and situation assessment”. According to Graham & Messner there are generally three
major criticisms directed to the need theory and other content theories of motivation.
(a) There is scant empirical data to support their conclusions,
(b) They assume employees are basically alike, and
(c) They are not theories of motivation at all, but rather theories of job satisfaction.
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This was supported by the views of Nadler & Lawler in Graham &Messner. Nadler & Lawler
cited in Graham & Messner where also critical of the need theory of motivation. They argue that the
theory makes the following unrealistic assumptions about employees in general that:
(a) All employees are alike
(b) All situations are alike and that
(c) There is only one best way to meet needs.
Another critic to this view was Basset-Jones & Lloyd. Basset-Jones & Lloyd presents that in general,
critics of the need theory argue that it is as a result of the natural feeling of employees to take credit
for needs met and dissatisfaction on needs not met.
Modern Theories of Motivation
We all are familiar with the classical theories of motivation, but they all are not empirically supported.
As far as contemporary theories of motivation are concerned, all are well supported with evidences.
Some of the contemporary / modern theories of motivation are explained below:

• ERG Theory
• McClelland’s Theory of Needs
• Goal Setting Theory
• Reinforcement Theory
• Equity Theory of Motivation

• Expectancy Theory of Motivation

4. (b) Discuss the Tradition and Modern Theories of Leadership and also bring out their
significance in organisational efficiency.
• What is leadership?

• Discuss traditional Leadership theories

• Its features and shortcomings
• Discuss Modern Leadership theories
• Its features and shortcomings
• Conclusion
Note: Read any Basic standard book on this topic and follow class notes and test discussion.
5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each:
5. (a) Discuss operationalization of Learning Organisation
• What is learning organisation
• Discuss Operationalization of learning organisation
• Traditional Versus Learning Organisations
• Conclusion
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There are a number of ways that the learning organisation can be operationalised into the actual
practice of management. For example, managers must be receptive to new ideas and overcome the
desire to closely control operations. Many organisations tend to do things the way they have done
them in the past. Learning organisations break this mould and teach their people to look at things
differently. Another way to operationalise the learning process in organisations is to develop systemic
thinking among managers. This involves the ability to see connections between issues, events, and
data as a whole rather than a series of unconnected parts. Learning organisations teach their people
to identify the source of conflict they may have with other personnel, units, and departments and
to negotiate and make astute trade-offs both skilfully and quickly. Managers must also learn,
especially how to encourage their people to redirect their energies toward the substance of
isagreements rather than toward personality clashes or political infighting. Another practice of
learning organisations is to develop creativity among the personnel. Creativity is the ability to
formulate unique approaches to problem solving and decision-making. Creativity also includes the
willingness to accept failure. Learning organisations see failure as feedback that contributes to
future creativity, and managers encourage this behaviour by providing a supportive environment.

Another practice is the development of a sense of personal efficacy, as characterised by an awareness
of personal and organisational values and a proactive approach to problem solving. In learning
organisations, the organisation clearly spells out its sense of mission and values. Then the personnel
are given the opportunity to identify and examine their own values. This helps employees better
understand and work into the linkage between the two. In addition, the personnel are taught to
evaluate the effects of their behaviour on others, so as to maximise their own effectiveness. In the
process, they also learn how to solve problems before critical situations develop.
This step-by-step approach helps employees analyse and evaluate situations with a view toward

both addressing problems early and preventing their recurrence.

A final practice in learning organisations is to instil a sense of empathy and sensitivity. Personnel
are taught to look at interpersonal relations over a long time dimension. When managers or
departments have disagreements, this conflict can result in continual problems. Learning
organisations teach their personnel to repair these relationships quickly through discussion of the
sources of misunderstanding, refusal to assign individual blame, mutual problem solving, and the
maintenance of confidence and trust in the other party. This proactive, empathetic approach ensures

that the personnel work together in dealing with organisational problem.

Senge summarises the difference between learning organisations and traditional organisations, which
is presented in table I. These differences help illustrate why learning organisations are gaining in
importance and why an increasing number of enterprises are now working to develop a generative
learning environment.
Learning organisations go beyond merely adapting to change, instead they strive to anticipate and
learn from change. Some of the common operational practices in learning organisations dealing
with people are openness, systematic thinking, creativity, and awareness of personal and
organisational values, empathy, and sensitivity. Learning organisations constitute an environment
for the study and application of organisational behaviour. The use of information technology and
total quality management is important to emerging organisations, but organisational learning takes
this process a necessary step further to ensure not only that organisations can compete and be
successful in the fast-changing, turbulent environment, but that they can even survive.
5. (b) Discuss the important phases of systems analysis
• What is system analysis ?
• Contribution of classical thinkers
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• Contribution of behavioural thinkers

• David Easton
• Bernard
• Modern system
• Structural functionalism
A modern organisation witnesses vast growth in size, complexity and scale of activity. Its growing
complexity and scale of operations demand that a successful administration must integrate them
within a framework. In an age of specialisation integration becomes more and more important in
an organisation. Organisations are transcending national boundaries. They are engaging in product
diversification. To explain such a growing phenomenon, systems approach of organisation become
important. The modern organisational approach is called systems approach. The structural
functionalism of Talcott Parsons, the political system theory of David Easton and the functional

theory of Robert Merton, Gabriel Almond and others influence this approach. The system approach
marks a departure from the earlier approaches of organisation. In present unit, an attempt is made
to know the views of David Easton and Chester Barnard on analyses of political and administrative
systems respectively.
A system is an interconnected set of elements that function as a whole. The theory of systems was
first developed in physical sciences, but it has been extended to other disciplines such as political
science, public administration, management etc. A system is characterised by three properties. First,
it is a set of interactions taking place within itself. Second, these interrelated activities or elements

have a boundary set around them. Third property constitutes the environment of a system. The
most important activity of a system is to maintain administrative order and equilibrium among sub-
According to systems approach administration is described as a system comprising sub-system,
structure, people, action and interactions that enable it perform certain functions. An administrative
system is divided into three distinct processes — inputs, through puts and outputs. The system’s
framework assumes interactions between the three processes. Environment forces influence the

administrative system. Systems theory portrays public policy as an output of the political system. It
is a useful aid in understanding the policy-making process. Systems approach helps us to
conceptualise the linkages between the environment, the political system and public policy.
David Easton in his analysis of political system argued that the political system is that part of the
society engaged in the “authoritative allocation of values”. The values held by the policy makers are
fundamentally assumed to be crucial in understanding the policy alternatives that are made. Both
internal and external environment have an influence on the policy making process is influenced by
the values and ideologies held by the decision makers in the system. The demands and supports
that the political system receives from the environment in the form of inputs go through a conversion
process within the system and take the form of outputs. A feedback mechanism is developed through
which the effects and consequences of out puts are put back into the system as inputs. To Easton a
political system is a complex cyclical operation where a set of processes, which converts inputs into,
outputs as a routine matter. Chester Barnard is considered to be the outstanding theorist in modern
administrative thought. He introduced social concepts into the analysis of managerial functions
and processes. While Taylor and his associates concentrated on improving the task efficiency of the
individual, Barnard on the other hand, started with individual, moved to cooperative effort, and
ended with executive functions. His views on motivation, executive leadership, authority,
organisational decision, national planning demonstrate a profound understanding of the complexity
of organisation process. His contributions vastly enriched organisation theory. He highlighted the
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broader issues of administration such as formal and informal organisational units, functional overlay,
organisational relation to the external environment, and equilibrium among organisational units.
A modern organisation witness vast growth in size, complexity and scale of operations. To analyse
the modern organisations systems approach is more appropriate and relevant. Systems approach
marks a departure from the earlier approaches of organisation. It places emphasis on studying
organisation as a open system.
Systems approach to organisations provides a useful framework for understanding how the elements
of an organisation interact among themselves and with their environment. In today’s dynamic
environment systems approach is more relevant for organisational analysis. David Easton and Chest
Barnard have adopted systems approach to analyse political and administrative systems respectively.
David Easton adopted this approach to analyse public policy marking in a political system, whereas
Chester Barnard adopted it to analyse processes of administration in an organisation.
5. (c) What is Organisational Culture? Discuss types of Organisational Culture.

Each organisation is unique in its own way, with a distinct organisational culture. The cultural
characteristics are relatively enduring over time and resist attempts to change. It can explain the
dynamic nature of an organisation. Some uniformity in the behaviour of employees is demonstrated,
i.e., the way they think, feel and behave in similar ways. It is this implicit agreement among employees
that binds every organisation and creates its culture. In other words, employees are captive of the
culture and also create the culture of organisation, which enables one to predict attitudes and
behaviours of the people of organisation. Organisations have cultures that, influence employees’

actions toward clients, competitors, superiors and subordinates.

Organisation Culture defined:
According to Pacanowsky and O’Donnell “A culture is not something an organisation has; a culture
is something an organisation. Thus organisation culture is described as:
• A concept created and resides in the minds of people.

• A submerged part of organisational iceberg.

• Pervasive, yet somewhat intangible.
• The personality of organisation - its overall orientation, values its unwritten codes and
• Cannot be discovered and verified, rather only inferred, conjured and interpreted and defined.
Campbell describe five-characteristics which tap the essence of organisation culture:
• Individual autonomy - includes individual responsibility, independence, and opportunities
for exercising individual initiative.
• Structure - degree of formalisation, centralisation, and direct supervision.
• Reward orientation-factors of reward, promotion-achievement orientation, and emphasis
upon profits and sales.
• Consideration - warmth and support provided by superiors.
• Conflict-degree of conflict present in interpersonal relationships between peers, as well as
the willingness to be honest and open about interpersonal differences.
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Types of Organisation Cultures
There are four different types of organisation cultures. They are presented below:
Rational Culture
Rational cultures focus on tasks and strategically planned organisation objectives/performance,
productivity and efficiency. Employees need goal-relevant competencies and skills; and they influence
organisational decision-making processes.
Organisations which face competitive environment such as those dealing with consumer products,
Banking and financial services, etc. often have a ‘rational culture.’
Developmental Culture
Development cultures have innovative environments with a futuristic orientation and emphasise
growth and development of people, ideas and society. Organisations encourage people to be creative,
develop multiple perspectives and to take risks in all job situations. Creative advertising firms,

software organisations and Research & Development departments are more conducive for nurturing
developmental cultures.
Consensual Culture
These are highly team-oriented cultures. Members are open, spontaneous, and informal and build
and maintain effective relationships. Supportive and Participative leadership is required for
managing this culture. Achievement of objectives in a set time limit is perceived as less important
then to maintain a stable and harmonious system.

Organisations such as small sized project teams, workshops, and educational institutions often
have this culture.
Hierarchical Culture
This culture has a static and non-changing environment, where tasks are achieved through
established rules, procedures and standard operating techniques. The leaders follow bureaucratic,
cautious and rule-bound approach and exert greater power and influence. Risk-taking is not

encouraged in this culture.

Drawing upon the current business scenario, emphases in public organisations has also shifted to
developing a learning organisation which demands a performance-oriented work culture with
commitment to continuous learning for improvement.
Senge (1990) describes a learning organisation as a place where “people continuously expand their
capacity to create the results they desire, where new patterns of thinking are nurtured, where
collective aspiration is set free and where people are continuously learning how to learn together.”
Having worked in hundreds of organisations and learning from the experiences of many leaders,
Miller identifies the key characteristics of a high performance work culture.
Characteristics of high Performance Work Culture
Aligned and Focused Organisation
Miller (1995) observes that in the contemporary world, organisations needs to manage their resources
with lightening speed to respond to changing conditions. This calls for alignment of all-important
elements of an organisation. Such an organisation provides a road map to a high performance
work culture.
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The aligned and focused organisation integrates its strategic initiatives to its mission, vision, external
environment, human resource systems, management practices and culture. All these elements are
consistently directed towards supporting the organisation mission. The focus and alignment create
synergy with a much more productive system than the sum of its individual parts.
Although every employee has to play his/her part in the change process, the support of union
leaders and other informal leaders is critical. Resolution of conflicts through open, honest
communication would help to promote organisational change.
5. (d) Examine the relevance of Critical Theory in Public Administration.
• What is critical theory?
• Features
• Criticism
• Relevance

Critical theory is grounded in the enlightenment, eighteenth century thought in Europe and America
that used science, reason, and individual self-determination to cast off religious and governmental
authority. Critical theory is associated with the Frankfurt School beginning in the 1920s and extending
through the later work of principal members Max Horkheimer, Theoder Adorno, and Herbert
Marcuse, in the 1960s and 1970s.
Frankfurt critical theory recognises the concrete temporal and cultural specificity of the individual.

Consciousness-values and perceptions are shaped by the time and society in which we live, but
ultimately the measure of society is its effect on people, on their happiness and sense of freedom to
determine the future. Critical theory can be described as a “category of sociological thought” that
developed from the work of Marx.
The term critical theory is also applied to writers whose work began in the early part of the twentieth
century, such as Georg Lukacs and Antonio Gramsci, as well as to later twentieth-century writers
such as Jurgen Habermas. Because of differences in approach between authors and changes in the

work of individual authors over time, it is difficult to construct a unitary narrative of critical theory.
It will be helpful to identify a few common characteristics in this body of work, recognising that not
all authors treat them the same, or even agree on their status within critical theory.
Though critical theory has in important ways moved beyond Marx as times have changed and
problems have been identified in his work, it includes the three characteristics discussed below:
Contradiction, Dialectic and Change
A primary characteristic of critical theory is the idea that social systems change over time because
of built-in tensions, or contradictions, between how they are and how they could be. Each such
systemic contradiction is inherent in and cannot be solved without modifying, or ‘moving beyond’,
the basic structure in which it occurs. Critical theory shows the relationship between ideas and
theoretical positions and their social environment, and thus attempts to contextualise, or historicize,
ideas in terms of their roots in social processes.
The process of acquiring knowledge of alternatives to the status quo and encouraging constructive
change is dialectical. The Frankfurt School’s use of the Hegelian concept of dialectic is not
conceptually foundational and does not involve a predetermined outcome. In agreement with writers
such as Lukacs, Korsch, and Gramsci, Frankfurt theorists rejected “objectivistic Marxism”, a type
of Marxist thought that emphasised “economic laws and objective social conditions.
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Frankfurt theorists stressed reason and gave the term a specific meaning. Reason, signified a faculty
that went beyond more appearances, exploring “a deeper reality”, knowledge of the contradictory
opposite(s) of things, people, and situations, into which they may change over time.
Though critical theorists believe that reason have been used in support of systems of domination
and control, some also think people can use reason to imagine a different future. Critical theorists
who understand the “dialectic of enlightenment” and are committed to a non-foundational,
historically based process of change may seek to reconstruct critical reason as a counter to
contemporary instrumental rationality. Critical reason in practice involves the dialectical use of
imagination and fantasy to envision a better future. For critical theorists to abandon the idea of
radical change in societal institutions and practices that would allow for greater human freedom
and self determination.
Critical Theory in Public Administration
The development of critical theory as a philosophical and practical discipline has greatly influenced
social sciences in general, public administration in particular reiterating the need for the humanisation

of public organisations. It is a post-Weberian conceptualisation of the Frankfurt School. All Post-
modern public administration theories have given importance to people in the organisation than to
the formal structures of organisations. They also give importance to the subjective as well as inter-
subjective aspects of organisations and their functions.
Critical theory provides an opening for conceptualisation and practice that acknowledges the value-
based, normative character of public administration. The public professional who perceives
contradiction between current public practices and a future with reduced inequity and oppression
may use critical theory as a guide for taking action to create social change.

The communication theory of Habermas is the most commonly used version of critical theory in
public administration today. The idea of undistorted communication as a critical tool for social
change has been important in public administration. Robert Denhardt suggested that a critical
approach to organisational theory would be useful in public administration. Denhardt reviewed
the origins of critical theory, from Hegel and Marx to the Frankfurt theorists, but focused on
Habermas. He emphasised the Habermasian concern about value-free science and efficiency and
urged attention to the larger historical and normative context of public organisations as part of a

critical examination of bureaucracy and its relationships with clients.

Critical theory provides an ethical impulse toward substantive equality and democracy. Critical
theory has much to offer the filed of public administration and its intention is to create consciousness
such that theory and practice become one. Several articles and books in public administration related
fields have used concepts with critical elements though they are not explicitly built upon critical
Jurgen Habermas, the best-known exponent of critical theory. Like Weber, Hebermas refers to the
preponderance of technical efficiency in a modern state through the operation of public bureaucracy.
As the society gets increasingly bureaucratised, social power and discretion tend to be concentrated
in the hands of bureaucratic state apparatus. The expanding role of the public bureaucracy is not
matched by its popular acceptance. There is increasing criticism of the bureaucracy as a self-
aggrandising force alienated from the public who can rarely repose trust in it. Public interest and
bureaucratic interests seem at many places at loggerheads. The trend toward over bureaucratisation
causes concern about the social role of the bureaucracy that can be inquired into from the critical
perspective. The critical theory of public administration urges replacement of the stifling effect of
techno administrative domination of bureaucracy through debureaucratisation and democratisation
of administration based on free flow of communication and an expose of inherent contradictions in
hierarchical relationship.
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Despite a great variety of management structures and styles, the common assumption has been
that management is basically technical in nature whose primary motive is to produce practicable
results by manipulating human beings and materials.
A critical theory of public organisation would be interested in improving the quality of organisational
life. It would enquire into the conditions of power and dependence in an organisation and try to
reveal the inherent contradictions in hierarchical relationships as embedded in a bureaucracy. The
critical approach would concentrate on the distorted patterns of communication that characterise
present day organisations both in terms of internal and external relationships. As regards to
organisation – client relationship, the alienation takes the form of organisation distrust and occasional
hostility to the working of bureaucracy. The organisation tends to look at the client as a burden and
the client in turn tends to look at the organisation as unhelpful. In such a situation, the organisational
design and operation run counter to the basic purposes of a democratic public service. The critical
approach would suggests a different style of management The basic thrust of critical theory of
public organisation is toward reaffirmation of a commitment to the democratisation of all kinds of
social relationships by locative and removing the disabilities that have blocked the surfacing of true
needs of individuals in social and political spheres. Critical theory has inspired a movement for

improving the quality of organisational life by advocating self-reflection and self criticism on the
part of administrators and by pleading for a reordering of priorities so as to give primacy to the
growth of individual as against the productivity of organisation. This theory has strong individualistic,
subjectivist and anti-bureaucratic thrust.
A critical approach involves a systematic analysis of social conditions and a framework for action
guided by normative purpose. Critical social theory encourages academicians and practitioners not
only to view social structures and practices as vehicles of domination, repression and manipulation
but also as potential starting points for meaningful social change. Critical theory framework of
dialectical change, critical imagination, and self-determination may be applied to public service

and to local governance.

Recent decades have witnessed a great transformation and upheaval marked by technological
revolution and global restructuring of capitalism. It brought issues like heightened exploitation of
labour, corporate downsizing, great levels of unemployment, inequality and insecurity. There is
instability and violence in many places. All these issues are bearing influence on public governance.
In this context critical approach is very much needed to analyse them. Therefore, public

administration needed critical theory now more than ever.

Given societal conditions and the nature of research and practice in public administration, the
conceptual framework of critical social theory offers promise for those scholars who wish to critique
the status quo of professional practice in public organisations, with intent to imagine better options
for the future. Critical theory has had limited discussion and application in public administration.
This could be because in one-dimensional society people have become unaware of potential
alternative, or they do not want to see contradictions because it could be upsetting or dangerous to
challenge the status quo.
Critical theory is grounded during the period of renaissance in eighteenth century in Europe and
America that used science, reason and individual self-determination to cast off religious and
governmental authority. Critical theory is associated with the Frankfurt School beginning in the
1920’s. It recognises the concrete temporal and cultural specificity of the individual.
The development of critical theory as a philosophical and practical discipline has greatly influenced
social sciences in general, public administration in particular. It is a post-Weberian conceptualisation.
It offers critique of public institutions and provide a vision for a better future. This theory has strong
individualistic, subjectivist and audit bureaucratic thrust. In the present era of globalising world,
critical approach is very much needed to analyse the issues that are influencing governance. Critical
theory is needed now more than ever.
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5. (e) Public Private partnership is a lever to organisational efficiency. Discuss.

• What is PPP model ?
• How PPP will improve efficiency
• Discuss notable thinkers advocate for PPP
• Neo-liberals and Marxist Thought
• Criticism
Note: Follow Test Discussion for comprehensive Analysis
6. Answer the following questions:
6. (a) ‘Simulation models are more appropriate than Optimisation models’. Critically

evaluate the statement.
• Introduction
• Influence of a Simulation Model on the Efficiency of Services in Public Administration.
• Optimisation model

• Conclusion
Public administration is undergoing a series of reforms. These influence the management methods
and techniques originating in the private sector in the management’s everyday work. With the
intention to gain a more transparent overview of the administrative processes and to make them
more transparent and manageable, the simulation methods are being implemented. They expose

the weak points and bottlenecks of the organisation.

Providers of public services should provide the users with some of the essential information regarding
the processing of their matters, such as the time required to solve their case, possible complications,
additional obligations, and the current state of the application. This, however, requires a new
definition of public procedures, a new organisation, and a corresponding information technology.
These are the problems that are currently not controlled by the state and its institutions. There have
been some improvements in the phase of activities’ analysis, but there have practically been no
solutions to the problems regarding the prediction of the time required for a certain application.
Due to the nature of the problem, it is indeed very hard to make any prediction about the duration
of a public procedure. Moreover, this involves a high level of risk.
Hence, this problem demands a special methodology, which will allow simulations of various
situations and methods of their solving. The solving of problems, which arise during the provision
of services to citizens, has to aim at finding the optimum solutions. The services have to be provided
optimally both as far as citizens’ needs are concerned, taking into account all applicable norms, as
well as far as the provider’s financial and economic possibilities are concerned. In practice,
optimisation problems are often solved with simulation methods, although, regarding the nature of
the problems, it would be more reasonable to use more exact methods of operational research. With
the development of information and communication technology, this method of solving optimization
problems is becoming increasingly popular. Simulations have proven to be more useful with problems,
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where methods of operational research would demand development of too complicated software
or, in some cases, also hardware. There are several advantages of simulations in comparison to the
exact mathematical modelling: “Most mathematical and statistical models are static. They represent
a system at a fixed point in time. The passage of time is usually not a critical issue”, and similarly
Pidd: “Most mathematical models cannot satisfactorily cope with dynamic or transient effects”
There are several reasons to use the simulation models:
• Recognition of conditions of the process execution;
• Experimentation on the model before introducing the modifications into reality. This means
a study of alternative solutions, possibilities for the optimization of the system’s functioning
or the process implementation – “choose correctly”
• Forecasts of process development and changes of conditions during its execution,
• Analyses of process realisations, the differences in comparison to the plan and the factors
causing process’s modifications.

• Execution of other management and controlling functions in the area of management of the
process and its development. In the public sector, there are many processes that could be
dealt with simulation models. They involve particularly those, which are executed by the
state or local self-government bodies for citizens. Mathematical models, written by complicated
equations, would be too demanding and too hard for an ordinary citizen to understand. Due
to the nature of the problem, e.g. returning to the previous state, repeating of the activities,
simulations are the only way of fulfilling information demands in the management. That is
why simulation techniques are becoming increasingly popular as a decision tool in everyday

Influence of a Simulation Model on the Efficiency of Services in Public Administration. The efficiency
of the public sector service can be established if we can determine the method of assessing the level
of achievement of the service performance goal. This means that the process efficiency can be
established if we can define the goal in a form, which would allow, along with the process realisation,
evaluation of the goal achievement.

A simulation model is a method, which allows the prediction of process goals, along with taking
into account the parameters of the results of completed processes or the assessments of the predictions
of process parameters. According to its concept, the simulation method derives from the process
realisations, which increases the applicability of the method from the point of view of exactness of
the process efficiency evaluation. Simulations can be defined as procedures of determination of a
model, a computer programme, and experimental implementation of the studied processes. The
subject of the study may be a process or a system. The suitability (quality, applicability) of a simulation
model is verified by comparison of the real data with the data obtained by a simulation model. The
more these data are similar, the better the simulation model is. As can be seen from the above-
stated, the development of a simulation model for the studied process comprises:
• A good analysis and knowledge of typical characteristics of system operation and procedures
of process implementation,
• A development of an appropriate computer simulation model of the studied system and its
• A test of suitability of a simulation model and an interpretation of the results obtained.
Within the meaning of New Public Management, this is an important contribution to a new
organisation of administration and a step closer to work control and supervision as known in the
private sector.
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6. (b) Organisational effectiveness is not ostensible with single dimension, rather required
depth perception to have an undistorted result. Discuss.
• What comprises organisation effectiveness?
• Various phase of organisational development
• Closed system
• Open system
• Vonclusion
The Study of Organisations has fascinated researchers over centuries. Various approaches have
been adopted to analyse organisations. The earlier studies of systems approach adopted the
evolutionary perspective in analysing the development of social systems. These were the stages

societies or social systems undergo through social differentiation. The differentiation process was
also central to modernisation, in that a unit or sub-system divides into separate systems or units,
which differ in both structure and functional significance. The literature on Organisations is drawn
from a variety of sources and is multidisciplinary in nature, with contributions from sociology,
political science, public administration, economics and psychology, to name a few.
Undifferentiated social systems can best be illustrated by the kinship-centred household, which
combines both the units of residence and agricultural production. Our knowledge about the Systems
approach would be incomplete without an understnding about the basic assumptions/theoretical

underpinnings underlying the two main approaches central to the Systems analysis, the closed
systems and the open system models. One led to the other, in that the critique of the closed system
approach opened the way for the conceptualisation of the open systems model. Taken together,
they constitute the whole.
The two major schools of thought could be broadly analysed under the closed Systems Approach
and the open systems approach. In this unit we will be discussing the models under closed and

open system, cooperative system, and syntheses of closed and open system.
The Closed Systems approach is based on the theory of formal organisation. The three major
models under the Closed Systems are: (a) scientific management (b) administrative management
and (c) Weberian bureaucracy. These schools were based on the rational model according to which
a system could be closed, or if closure were not complete, the external forces acting on it would at
least be predictable.
Features of Closed Model
Under the closed model, work is systematically divided into different components, which follow
standardised work methods. The system is planned in such a way that there is no scope for any
part to malfunction. All the tasks are thus isolated from the outside environment. The model does
not take into account the human factors that are likely to impact on the organisation.
• Scientific Management
The scientific management movement headed by Frederick Taylor dominated the post World War
II industrial set up. His work, published in 1911, was titled Principles of Scientific Management.
The Scientific Management Movement which flourished at the beginning of the 20th century
continuous to remain very much in use in industry today.
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The Scientific Management Movement had its intellectual roots in America’s business and engineering
colleges. The focus of this approach is on improving organisational efficiency and increased
production. It primarily focuses on manufacturing and production activities. It employs economic
efficiency as its ultimate criteria and tries to maximise efficiency by planning out procedures, based
on technical logic. An important step is to set standards and exercise control to ensure that the
standards conformed to a technical logic. Scientific Management is more popularly known as time
and motion studies. The emphasis of this approach is on rationality. Scientific Management
sought to achieve conceptual closure of the organisation based on the assumption that goals are
known and tasks are repetitive. Taylor tried to standardise tasks based on the time and motion
study to quantify the amount of time each task would require. According to Taylor there was only
one best way to accomplishing a task. He set about breaking up each task into segments to study the
time each task required. Thus, through time and motion studies, he tried to standardize tasks, tools
and techniques.
Taylor’s scientific management demonstrated how production could be efficiently organised and
planned to meet specific targets. Scientific and systematic management was Taylor’s remedy to
inefficiency in production. The foundation of scientific management was built upon clearly defined

principles. To quote Taylor (1947) “This task specifies not only what is to be done but how it is to be
done and the exact time allowed for doing it”
Taylor demonstrated this concept with his experiments at Bethlehem Steel Company where loading
of pig iron per man per day increased dramatically as a result of his experiments. Taylor’s scientific
management had a universal message and relevance irrespective of the system of government.
Standardisation of work methods was the key to improved efficiency. According to Taylor “it is
only through enforced standardisation of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and
working conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured. And the duty

of enforcing the adoption of standards and of enforcing this cooperation rests with the management
As Waldo observes (1948): “Scientific management and public administration are related aspects of
a common phenomena: a general movement to extend the methods and the spirit of science to an
ever-widening range of man’s concerns”. The impact of Taylorism on administrative theory was
indeed far reaching.

• Administrative Management Movement

The administrative-management movement, drawing inspiration from the scientific management
movement, divided work according to a master plan. Gulick and Urwick (1969) set forth principles
of public administration, which had universal application since they were assumed to be based on
scientific principles.
The essence of their theory of organisation lay in the division of work and the co-ordination of the
parts with the whole. This could be accomplished in the following manner:
• By organisation, that is, by interrelating the subdivisions of work by allotting them to men
who are placed in a structure of authority, so that the work may be co-ordinated by orders
of superiors to subordinates, reaching from the top to the bottom of the enterprise.
• By the dominance of an idea, that is, ‘the development of intelligent singleness of purpose
in the minds and wills of those’ who are working together as a group, so that each worker
will, of his own accord, fit his task into the whole with skill and enthusiasm
Administrative management theorists designed the nuts and bolts for the administrative machine.
Their emphasis is on the organisation of work and the division and co-ordination of activities. They
spell out the principles of public administration by specifying its various aspects through concepts
such as span of control and unity of command. Span of control refers to the number of subordinates
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a supervisor can control effectively. Unity of Command implies that a workman, should have only
one boss if he is to perform his duties satisfactorily. Gulick and Urwick also propose seven Principles
of Public Administration (POSDCORB) they stand for:
• Planning
• Organising
• Staffing
• Directing
• Coordinating
• Reporting
• Budgeting
Administrative Management focuses on structural relationships among the units of the organisation
such as production, supply, personnel, and other units. According to its reasoning efficiency would

be maximised by specialising in tasks and grouping them into departments. Responsibilities are to
be fixed according to principles such as delegation, span of control and unity of command.
Administrative management assumes that it can achieve closure by strictly following a master plan
against, which specialisation, departmentalisation and control are determined.
• Weberian Bureaucracy
The third important model based on the rational or closed-systems approach is the Weberian theory
of bureaucracy. Max Weber identifies three types of authority: traditional, charismatic and legal-

rational. Among them, rational authority is grounded in the legitimacy of rational-legal rules. The
Weberian model achieves conceptual closure through defining offices according to jurisdiction in a
hierarchical structure. The Weberian theory focuses on staffing and structure as also on establishing
rules for all categories of activities.
Weber found the bureaucratic system “rational” as it assures predictability of the behaviour of
employees working in it. The bureaucratic organisation is designed to work in a “rational” manner
as tasks to be accomplished are divided into highly specialised jobs. The office functions on the

basis of well-defined rules. The assumption is that strict adherence to Rules ensures predictability;
it makes the system insensitive to pressures; it minimises discretion; I ensures objectivity, impartiality
and uniformity in the application of rules. Thus, the system is highly predictable and reliable as it
encourages vigorous application of rules. The organisational ethos further reinforces this. However,
the emphasis is more on discipline and conformity to tuels of the organisation, rather than innovation
and experimentation.
Rational authority is thus grounded in rational-legal rules. The emergence of the rational legal
authority system is dependent on the breakdown of particularistic traditionalised structures. It also
has a levelling influence when privileged status based on birth and social class give way to
universalistic norms. Unlike the traditional and charismatic authority systems where obedience is
owed to a person, under legal-rational authority obedience is owed to an impersonal order, which
has been legally established. However, as Henderson and Parsons (1947) observe, none of the historical
cases examined by Weber adhere to these three ideal types in their ‘pure’ form.
Unlike the other forms of organisation, bureaucracy is based on the legal-rational authority system.
The distinguishing features of bureaucratic administration are: hierarchically organised offices with
defined competence; selection on the basis of technical competence specialised knowledge and
merit criteria; separation of the ‘personal’ from the ‘public’ domain; a career system with advancement
based on seniority and /or achievement; salary paid in money; and a mechanism for disciplinary
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• Evolution Through Differentiation

An essential element in Weber’s conceptual approach is the concept of “differentiation.” He contends
that the fully developed bureaucracy would be as efficient as the mechanical process of production.
Similarly, the separation of personal from official interests of an incumbent could result in a clear
differentiation between the two. When this happens officials would transcend love and hate or
prejudice and hence would be impartial in their dealings with their clients. This would result in the
systematic application of law irrespective of who the clients are. The differentiation would involve
the following stages: (a) hierarchical organisation of office; (b) codification of laws; (c) appeals
from lower level to the higher level; (d) fixed and official jurisdictional areas governed by laws,
rules and administrative regulations; (e) fixed official duties; (f) stable distribution of authority to
give commands, and (g) selection to office of persons with requisite qualifications. Weber’s
bureaucratic theory had far-reaching implications. It held out the hope that rational bureaucratic
organisations could be developed anywhere in the world. There was no reason why this mechanical
device could not be imported into any country. The Weberian model highlighted formal rationality
– a belief in the possibility of quantitative calculation even in the relationship among men. Through
discipline, it is possible for leadership to be confident of uniform and predictable responses to the

exercise of formal authority.
Common to all three approaches Scientific Management, Administrative Management and Weberian
Bureaucracy is their worldwide relevance. Improved efficiency is the ultimate objective of all the
three models. Each tries to achieve efficiency through a closed - system strategy. For example,
scientific management focuses mainly on production activities through planned procedures and set
targets. Based on the assumption that goals are known and tasks are repetitive, the organisation
achieves conceptual closure.
The administrative-management model attempts to realise economic efficiency through the structural

relationships that exist between its several components (e.g., production, personnel and supply).
The emphasis is on specialised tasks being grouped into departments, which in turn would facilitate
fixing of responsibility based on principles such as span of control. Administrative management
obtains closure in that specialisation, departmentalisation and control, follow a master plan.
In the case of weberian bureaucracy, the focus is on staffing and structure. The office is organised
on a fixed pattern of super-subordinate relationships and strict observance of rules and regulations.

Thus, all three models offer the potential for applying their techniques across cultures. They could
be applied in democratic and non-democratic, developed and developing countries. They call for
controlled conditions and hold all other factors constant.
Features of Open System
Whereas the Closed Systems approach believed in the insulation of the organisation from outside
pressures, the Open Systems Approach conceives Organisations as part of a larger environment. It
argues that work cannot be strictly compartmentalised into watertight components. The Open
system is based on the assumption that human beings cannot be programmed to work like machines.
They have to be motivated to contribute their best towards attaining organisational goals.
The Human Relations school challenged the view of scientific management of scientific that factories
are essentially nothing more than production systems and that workers could be made to work as
machines. The Open-System Approach, which is also identified as the natural-system model. It
grew out of a challenge to the closed systems approach. As a natural system the complex organisation
is viewed in the context of inter dependent parts, which together constitute a whole. Each part is
expected to contribute something towards the whole. The whole in turn is inter-dependent with
the larger environment. Survival of the system is the ultimate goal wherein the relationship between
the parts is determined through an evolutionary process. Dysfunctions are conceivable, but the
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assumption is that an offending part will adjust in order to produce net positive contribution or
alternatively disengage itself. If this does not happen the system will degenerate. Whereas the
Closed System sealed off the organisation from influences from the environmental variables. The
Open-System, which is also, a cooperative system asumes interaction between the different parts.
The Open-System focuses on variables, which are not included in the rational models such as
sentiments, cliques, social controls through informal norms, etc. The informal or Open-System
organisation is considered as a spontaneous entity, which is essential for complex organisations to
function by permitting the system to interact with the environment, make suitable adaptations in
order to. We can trace the origin of the open-systems model to the Human Relations movement.
• The Hawthorne Experiment
The Hawthorne Studies conducted by Elton Mayo at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric
Company, located in Chicago, USA, marked the watershed in the way scholars viewed organisations.
The experiments at the Hawthorne plant centred around two groups of female workers, both
performing the same tasks. The two groups were made to work in different rooms with different
levels of illumination. However, the researchers observed that there was no difference in the output

of the two groups despite the varying levels of illumination at their work place. They concluded
that awareness on the part of the workers about the fact that they being observed had its impact on
the two groups. From this, the researchers inferred that paying more attention to workers rather
than treating them, as machines would lead to greater productivity.
One of the major contributions that came out of these research efforts was the birth of the informal
organisation, highlighting the role of groups in shaping the behaviour of workers. The Hawthorne
study opened up the field of organisation theory to the examination of a whole new set of variables
that could influence the work environment, and which were ignored by the Closed System theorists.

• Hierarchy of Needs
Theories of human motivation in course of time became an important area of research. Abraham
Maslow’s theory of “Hierarchy of Needs” is a seminal work in this area. According to Maslow there
are five categories of needs that need to be satisfied. They are physiological needs, safety and security
needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self – actualisation needs. The physiological needs form the
foundation of the human need system, which include the basics for survival such as food, water
and clothing. Once the physiological needs are satisfied, the next set of safety and security needs

have to be addressed. These are followed by satisfaction of the need for esteem and recognition,
which is also referred to, as ego needs. This need for self-actualisation is driven by the desire to
excel and be recognised. Once the lower level needs are satisfied, the individual may achieve self-
actualisation, thus fulfilling one’s potential to perform in a particular area. However, as needs are
satisfied they no longer serve as motivators. Thus, once each of the “lower” needs is satisfied, men
seek to fulfil the next higher need.
• Humanistic Organisation
Chris Argyris compares bureaucratic – pyramidal values, which dominate closed-Systems
organisations with humanistic – democratic value system, central to Open-Systems organisation.
He came to the conclusion that while bureaucratic values lead to shallow and mistrustful
relationships, humanistic or democratic values enhance inter-group cooperation and organisational
• Prismatic-Sala Model
Fred Riggs has formulated the Prismatic-Sala model for analysing the administrative sub-systems of
developing countries. His prismatic-sala model is based on a series of interconnected concepts.
Riggs places societies on a scale of differentiation, from fused or functionally diffuse ones, whose
structures perform a large number of functions, as opposed to diffracted or functionally specific
societies, with a limited number of functions and in which every function has a corresponding
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structure. A prismatic society is a transitional society which occupies an intermediate position

between the fused and diffracted ones. Sala is a Spanish word which means an office that merges
specialised administrative tasks with traditional functions. For example, a government office could
be a personal room at home from which both office functions and family tasks are undertaken. A
prismatic society is also characterised by heterogeneity. It refers to the simultaneous presence of the
mixture of traditional and modern practices and elements or different kinds of systems and norms.
Formation is yet another characteristic of prismatic societies. It refers to the gap between appearance
and reality or formally prescribed and effectively practised behaviour.
• Cooperative System
Our discussion of the open-systems model would be incomplete without highlighting the cooperative
approach as outlined by Chester Barnard. According to Barnard an organisation is a part of the
larger system-society. The organisation is in close interaction with its environment. Barnard adopted
a consensual approach in defining the concept of authority, which rests on the acceptability of
subordinates. Central to the cooperative system are communication channels, which need to remain
open so that the executive can communicate effectively with the employees both in terms of

communicating organisational objectives and for learning the employees’ requirements. These could
be written, verbal or observational. Again, authority is heavily dependent upon the system of
communication adopted by the organisation as also on the cooperation and personal attitudes of
individuals working in it. Acceptance of authority by individuals working in an organisation is
dependent upon he following factors: (a) communications have to be clear and understandable; (b)
they have to be consistent with the organisational goals and objectives; (c) they have to be compatible
with the personal interests of the employees; and (d) they should be designed in such a way that
they motivate individuals working in an organisation. Thus, authority is closely intertwined with
the system of communication as also with the spirit of cooperation amongst individuals working in

the organisation.
At the core of the cooperative model is participative management and mutual dependence of
management and employees in running the organisation. Further, an organisation is a mix of formal
and informal interactions and relationships. They both build on each other and one cannot survive
without the other. In fact, an informal organisation creates a formal structure in course of time
through an evolutionary process. Formal organisation in turn leads to the creation of informal
groups and structures.

The organisation has to abide by the rules of the game, which are arrived at through some kind of
contract. It could however negotiate if it so desires for a revised set of rules.
The assumptions on which the closed-system and the Open-System operate are thus based on
extreme positions. However, in reality organisations cannot afford to be either totally closed or
totally open. The Closed-System, which emphasised on rationality, came under severe criticism by
scholars such as Herbert Simon. He calls the principles of public administration as outlined by the
administrative management movement, as nothing more than proverbs. He points out that for
every set of principles there can be a contradictory set of principles. What we emphasise is that
these two extreme approaches need to be reconciled. As one can see some organisations which face
environmental influences require them to be flexible and informal, to be in consonance with the
open Systems model. On the other hand, organisations which by nature manage routine standardised
activities could be operated on the Closed-System model. Thus, as Thompson observes, organisations
are a combination of the two approaches. They are differentiated systems wherein some components
or sub-units could be designed to function as open-systems and some others as closed. James March
and Herbert Simon were the first to recognise and incorporate the open-systems approach into
organisational studies. Katz and Khan made a systematic and comprehensive attempt in
incorporating the Open Systems approach into organisational studies.
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The foregoing analysis describes the various approaches adopted in the study of Organisations.
Two broad streams of thought are identified – the Closed System and the Open Systems approaches
in organisation theory. The three main models under the Closed–System are the Scientific
Management; the Administrative Management Movement; and the Weberian bureaucracy. These
three models are also known as the “Rational” models. All the three models believe in the conceptual
closure of organisations. They believed that organisations could be sealed off from outside influences.
The Closed Systems approach is based on the formal theory of Organisation. Models following the
closed systems approach assume that by adopting rationality the Organisation could be managed
on scientific lines. According to them there is ‘one best way’ to organise men and matters irrespective
of cultural differences or variations in political systems. Differentiation is at the core of the systems
approach. The argument is that the more differentiated the structure or an organisation, the more
complex it is likely to be.
Coordination will then be the central issue.
The Open–Systems approach adopts a totally opposite approach in that organisations are

conceptualised as informal and open to environmental influences. The human relations school was
perhaps the first to follow the Open System model. The Cooperative Organisation also reflects the
views of Open Systems theorists. Communication is central to the Cooperative Organisation. The
advocates of this view argue that many variables impact on the Organisation such as human
emotions, inter-group relations, etc., which cannot always be anticipated in advance.
Though the two approaches are based on different sets of assumptions, we can argue that a synthesis
of the two approaches is possible at the theoretical level. An organisation can have components
that follow the Closed Systems approach and some other components might reflect the Open Systems
approach. In fact, the Open Systems theorists assume that the formal and informal organisations

are closely interrelated; and one leads to the other.

7. Answer the following questions:
7. (a) Examine Chris Argyris's views on human personality and also his critique of formal
organisation. Comment.

• Chris Argyris contribution

• Views on human personality
• His criticism on formal organisation
• Conclusion
Argyris’ contribution to organisation theory and behaviour can be summarised as:
• Chris Argyris (1923- ), belonging to the new management school, is one ofsthe first generation
contributors to the field of organisational development. A renowned organisational behaviour
theorist and pioneer in the application of T-Group technique, his influence on reform of
organisational structures and managerial practices is striking.
• Argyris critically examined the working of formal organisations and advanced theories and
strategies for both individual and organisational development. He argues that there is a basic
incongruence between the needs of a mature personality and the requirements of a formal
organisation. Discussing the basic conflict between the structure of formal organisations and
the psychological needs of mature adults, he proposed MaturityImmaturity theory and the
seven components of the continuum.
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• He suggests an analytical framework of individual behaviour, linking the concepts of

psychological energy, personality needs and abilities. Argyris hopes that if the potential for
self-actualisation present in each individual is properly tapped, it can benefit the individual
employee as well as the organisation. He suggests intervention strategies for organisation
• Argyris emphasises the importance of interpersonal competence in organisational development.
He elaborates the requirements and the type of behaviour to improve the interpersonal
• Discussing about the appropriate organisational structures for realising the selfactualisation
potential, Argyris prefers material structures to paramedical structures. He argues that the
leadership styles need to be consistent with administrative situations and structures.
• Argyris advocated an ambitious programme of education as an integral part of organisational
development activity. The T-Group (T for training) or sensitivity training is one such technique
suggested by Argyris for improving the personal effectiveness of employees.

• In the area of organisational learning, Argyris along with Donald Schon, developed single
and double-loop learning techniques.
• Argyris is highly critical of the approaches and work of writers on organisations including
Herbert Simon and forcefully presents his own view of organisational reality. But his own
theories are criticised for taking a benign view of man in relation to the organisation; the
antipathy to authority; and lack of empirical evidence.
• Argyris advocates a fundamental transformation of organisations to provide a suitable
environment for self-actualisation. Along with his other ideas like interpersonal competence

and matrix organisations, this advocssacy is of contemporary relevance.

Argyris has been able to sharpen the various facets of the human relations and participative schools
of thought on organisations. His objective is to build healthier organisations and to raise the quality
of life in them. Argyris advocates a fundamental transformation of organisations to provide a suitable
environment for self-actualisation. He has been pursuing this objective with a missionary zeal, even
to the point of transcending the boundaries of the conventional organisational theorist. However,

the ideas of Argyris are too contemporary to find a proper place in administrative theory. Some of
the propositions are normative and lack empirical validation. It is, therefore, difficult to place his
work in a clear historical perspective. The most important contribution of Argyris is in the realm of
interpersonal competence. Much of the research on the interpersonal behaviour of executives would
strongly support the idea that the abilities concept does have relevance for the study of personality
and interpersonal style to actually influence organisational effectiveness and how interpersonal
competence can be thought of as a skill that can be learned. Several studies also indicate the
importance of interpersonal competence of upper-level administrators. Argyris’ observation
concerning the frequent recourse to the use of defence mechanisms, group formation in particular,
when the higher-order needs of individuals go unattended, has considerable empirical support.
Another lesson that we learn from Argyris is that research on organisations cannot be separated,
beyond a point, from action.
Critique of Argyris
Criticisms of Argyris’ theories fall into three broad categories. The first set of criticisms concern
Argyris’ benign view of man in relation to the organisation; his characterisation of the concept of
self-actualisation seem to border to utopia and is without any precise operational indicators. To
Simon, self-actualisation is synonymous with anarchy. Simon also takes objection to the view that
organisations should be ‘be-all and end-all’ of selfactualisation; it would be more realistic for
organisations to plan for reducing the working hours and enhancing leisure to enable employees to
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seek self-actualisation. Secondly, Argyris’ antipathy to authority is considered to be without any

parallel. The view that “structure is devil” is influenced by Argyris’ obsession with the need for
power. As Simon points out “Argyris…tended to choose de-emphasis of authority elations as the
way out, but at the price of neglecting the consequences for organisational effectiveness…what
corrupts is not power, but the need for power and it corrupts both the powerful and the powerless”.
Thirdly, objections are raised against some of the key propositions of Argyris on methodological
grounds. For instance, there is little empirical support in favour of the statement that people in
organisations are singularly opposed to authority. On the contrary, there is considerable support to
the view that many employees seem to accept authority and organisation goals because such
acceptance is in congruence with their values and interests. If employees derive too much negative
satisfaction, they would rather withdraw from the organisation. Argyris’ assumption that the pursuit
of the goal of self-actualisation is a universalistic goal has also been questioned. It appears that not
all individuals, under all circumstances, would like to self-actualise themselves and that there are
many who feel happier under conditions of directive leadership.
7. (b) “Organisation means a planned system of cooperative effort in which each participant
has a recognised role to play and duties and tasks to perform” (Simon). Discuss.

Simon views on organisation
Simon emphasis on decision making
• Others contribution on similar line
• Criticism

• Conclusion
Simons Organizational Perspective Simon criticize the common principles of administration. These
principles claim that administrative efficiency is increased by:
1. A specialization of the organization according to purpose, process, clientele (customers), or

2. Arranging the organization in a determinate hierarchy of authority;
3. Limiting the span of control at any given point in the hierarchy to a small number. His
central thesis is that the applicability of administrative principles must be based upon an
understanding of the underlying conditions of the administrative process in terms of decisions.
The basic and appropriate analytic unit should be the premises for the decisions. How does
the organization fit the individuals behavior into an overall pattern; how does it establish
and maintain the premises that influences his decisions? Simon distinguish between two
principal sets of mechanisms or aspects of influence, external and internal: - External
mechanisms are “the stimuli with which the organization seeks to influence the individual”,
“those that initiate behavior in a particular direction”. - Internal mechanisms are those
“which determines his response the stimuli”, “those that cause behaviour to persist in a
particular direction once it has been turned in that direction”. Internal mechanisms are
mainly concerned with individual psychological factors (“their description and functioning
is a problem for psychology”) while external mechanisms are in focus since they “can be
invoked by someone other than the person they are intended to influence, and consequently,
they play a central role in administrative organization”. Organizational influence should
thus be seen within the external mechanisms.
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The organizational influences are of two principal kinds, expectations and stimuli/attention-directors:
• Organizations and institutions permit stable expectations to be formed by each member of
the group as to the behavior of the other members under specified conditions.
• Organizations and institutions provide the general stimuli and attention-directors that
channelize the behaviors of the members of the group, and that provide those members with
the intermediate objectives that stimulate action.
Organizational influence are manifested through five mechanisms: division of work, establishing of
standard practices (standard operational procedures), the transmission downwards of decisions,
providing channels of communication, and training and indoctrinating (internalization). These
mechanisms comprises different influential processes or modes of influence: -
Authority, defined as “the power to make decisions which guide the actions of another. It is a
relationship between two individuals, one “superior”, the other “subordinate.” The superior frames
and transmits decisions with the expectation that they will be accepted by the subordinate. The

subordinate expects such decisions, and his conduct is determined by them he sets himself a general
rule which permits the communicated decision of another to guide his own choices (i.e. to serve as
a premise of those choices) without deliberation on his own part on the expedience of those premises.”
Communication. Formal communication is expresses by media’s like the spoken word, memoranda,
letters, records, reports, and manuals. Informal communication is build around the social relationships
of the members of the organization.
Training “prepares the organization member to reach satisfactory decisions himself, without the
need for constant exercise of authority or advice”. Training includes both “pre-service” (educational

qualifications) and “in-service” (day-to-day supervision and formal training within the organization).
“Training is applicable to the process of decisions wherever the same elements are involved in a
large number of decisions. Training may supply the trainee with the facts necessary in dealing with
these decisions; it may provide him a frame of reference for his thinking; it may teach him “approved”
solutions, or it may indoctrinate him the values in terms if which his decisions are to be made”.
The criterion of efficiency, which “demands that, of two alternatives having the same cost, that one

be chosen which will lead to the greater attainment of the organization objectives; and that, of two
alternatives leading to the same degree of attainment, that one be chosen which entails the lesser
cost”. Since all administrative decisions are based on the limitation given in the resources available,
“the choice among possibilities can always be framed as a choice among alternatives involving the
same cost [largely measured in money terms] , but different positive values”. The problem is of
“comparing the values which are attained by the different courses of action. The efficiency criterion
neither solves nor avoids this problem of comparability”.
Organizational identification and loyalty. This concerns the “process whereby the individual substitutes
organizational objectives (service objectives or conservation objectives) for his own aims as the
value-indices which determine his organizational decisions”. This mean that “a person identifies
himself with a group when, in making a decision, he evaluates the several alternatives of choice in
terms of their consequences for the specified group” in contrast to personal motivation, where “his
evaluation is based upon an identification with himself or his family”
One main function of above organizational influences is to coordinate the activities of the members
in the organization. The proper mean for maintaining rationality at a high level is planning. This
involves the development of a plan for all members of the organization involved, the communication
of relevant portions of this plan to each member, and ensuring that each member is willing to be
guided by the plan Planning involves general decisions that influences future decisions by:
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• Limiting future possibilities by providing a strategy,

• Guiding future decisions by providing particular values as a decision criteria (e.g. in terms
of stated goals).
Simon views organizations as systems in equilibrium. The equilibrium balances incoming
contributions (money, time, and effort) with inducements in terms of the organizational goal itself,
the conversation and growth of the organization, and contributions like salaries. The equilibrium is
maintained by the “control group”, i.e. management. The organization offers three kinds of
inducements that corresponds to three kinds of interest groups4:
1. The organizational goal itself serves the “customer”, who contribute money to the organization
in return for its products: In order to survive, the organization must have an objective that
appeals to its customers, so that they will make the contributions necessary to sustain it.
Hence, organization objectives are constantly adapted to conform to the changing values of
customers, or to secure new groups of customers in place of customers who have dropped
away. The organization may also undertake special activities to induce acceptance of its
objectives by customers - advertising, missionary work, and propaganda of all sorts

The conversation, growth, and profit of the organization serves the “entrepreneur”. The
entrepreneur is interested “in nonmaterial values, such as prestige and power, as well as
profit”. The entrepreneurs “are distinguished by the fact that their decisions ultimately
control the activities of employees”.
3. Wages are offered to the employees in return for the time and efforts they provide.
Though this classification may provide a somewhat “old fashioned” description of the entrepreneurs

owing and managing the organization with its employees and customers, the idea of viewing
organizations as systems in equilibrium serving different groups is still of current interest.
A recent book by the ethnologist Thomas Hojrup has a similar perspective. He describes (commercial)
organizations as a temporary rendezvous involving three different “ways of living” or life styles:
the investor, the wage earner or employee, and the expert or the careerist:
• The investor views organizations as an object for investment where they invests money in

return for a share of the profit. The interest of the investor is to make the organizations draw
upon his capital in return for a dividend and capital gain. The investor must ensure the
actual value of his capital by moving it from less lucrative and productive organizations to
organizations believed to be more profitable.
• The employee views the organizations as possible workplaces. They offer their (working)
time to the labour market. To the employee the interest is getting the job which offers the
best salary and working conditions.
• The expert or careerist comprises e.g. managers and scientists. They offer their talents and
capacity to organizations in order to create a rapid or longterm growth. Their interest is the
ability to offer an expertise that only a few can offer so that this expertise can give the
organization the monopoly or an advantage compared to the competitors. The career oriented
experts thus compete with each other in getting desirable post’ and field of responsibilities
which they can use in the development of their own ideas, talents, experiences, and methods.
The secret is to make oneself irreplaceable and to turn to another organization whenever a
better position is offered. In this perspective the permanent resources are capital, working
capacity or manpower, and expertise not the organization. As long as the organization is
productive, i.e. is able to maintain the equilibrium, it can attract these three life styles -
otherwise the organization will cease to exist, and the involved life styles will be separated
and linked in other ways in other organizations.
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8. Answer the following questions:

8. (a) “The successful management leaders are found in Likerts’s ‘System-4’ approach to
organizational leadership.” Examine.
• Likert system approach
• Feature of system-4
• Criticism
• Evaluation
• Relevance
Linking Pin Model

The Linking Pin Model or organisation structure conceived by Likert is expected to remove the
hurdles found in traditional hierarchies and facilitate the growth of interaction-influence system.
The salient feature of his model is that each individual in the organisation has twin roles in two
overlapping groups. He is a member of a higher-level group and leader of alower-level group.
Group functions and processes become far more important than individual roles in this model.
They grow upwards from the organisational base in sharp contrast to top-down management of
classical organisation.
In developing his model Likert reinforces the upward orientation with horizontal linkages. He

illustrates with examples of

(a) Subordinates serving as linking pin for horizontal coordination,
(b) Vertical overlapping group linkages of line and staff departments,
(c) Vertical overlapping linkages of product departments, and
(d) Multipleoverlapping group structures with horizontal as well as vertical linkages.

Emphasis on processes within a functional group needs to be distinguished from mindless

superfluous multiplication of committees, as adjunct to the staff line organisation. No overlapping
workgroups should exist than are absolutely necessary to perform the linking process. Meaningfully
exploited, multiple linkages provide additional channels to share information and influence. They
become the link pins to hold the organisation together.
Participative System -4
Participative management systems are characterised by complete confidence and trust in their
employees, open communication flows and the employees participation in the decision process.
Subordinates freely express their views and teamwork exists. There is collective responsibility for
meeting organisational goals and objectives and collaborative teamwork exists. Employees are offered
rewards for achieving collectively determined goals. System 4 is considered to be the most productive
and ideal. When combined with good management and achievable goals, this system is expected to
result in better production, higher motivation, and more profit than the other systems. Likert favoured
System 4, because of its commitment to giving the decision-making power to the employees who
are trusted by the management and do not hesitate to share feedback and opinions. It is to each
employee’s advantage to share expertise and information that could help others in the organisation.
The three basic concepts of Likert’s System 4 are the principle of supportive relationships, group
decision-making and methods of supervision, and high performance goals for the organisation.

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Likert points out that the component parts of the management system should be internally consistent
with the overall pattern and philosophy of the organisation. Thus, an exploitative-authoritative
system displays a steep hierarchical structure, centralised decisionmaking, top-down communication,
tight supervision, man to man rather than group to group relations, performance under pressure,
and low degree of employee motivation. On the other hand, the participative management system
displays overlapping structures, crossfunctional linkages, group decision processes, open and
authentic three-way communication (up, down and lateral), adaptive supervision, individual and
workgroups with a high degree of achievement motivation (Systems 1 & 4).
The intermediate form of management systems 2 and 3 reveal transitory characteristics of progression
from management System 1 and 4 over a period. In System-2, management orientation is still
authoritative, but becomes less exploitative and more benevolent towards the members of the
organisation. In System-3, exercise of authority is broader based with delegation of power to middle
levels and consultation of affected interests at lower levels. To the extent motivation, communication
and involvement of subordinates replace reliance on exercise of formal authority; consultative
management systems will be well set to move forward to the Management Systems 4. After describing
the salient features of his four systems of management deduced from the empirical research, Likert

is somewhat equivocal in stating that the operational characteristics of one system cannot be grafted
abruptly to another. Illustrating the management systems further he states that in an authoritative
system decisions are taken at the top and the organisation requires more number of dependents
than leaders. On the other hand, in a participative system, decision-making is decentralised and
requires emotionally stable persons and a large number of leaders. Each form of organisation to
function at its best requires individuals and skills of interaction on the part of leaders and follows to
suit the particular system. And again each system tends to produce and perpetuate people to function
effectively within the system. In each system communication and motivation processes will be tailor-

made to fit their unique decision-making style. Any attempt to switch processes of one system
abruptly to the other is bound to impair the total system’s effectiveness. Nevertheless, Likert pleads
for a gradual change from System 1 to System 4. Likert marshals empirical evidence to show the
prevalence of Systems 1 and 2 management practices in low performance units, and Systems 3 and
4 management practices in high performance units. Even if the former occasionally produce high
performance, such high rate performance is short lived. On the other hand, the latter ensure high
level of performance over fairly longer periods. Further, the high level performance achieved by

System-1 management is generally under considerable stress and strain contributing to deterioration
if not breakdown, in the morale of members of the organisation. On the contrary, the high level
performance realised by System-4 management is under more durable conditions of achievement
motivation of individuals leading to their selfactualisation. Why do most organisations fail to recognise
the advantages of managementsystems 3 and 4 and persist in system 1 and 2 practices? To Likert,
it is mainly because of the widely prevalent notion among managers that consultative and
participative methods can be used only after high performance has been achieved. Therefore, top
managements have a tendency to persist in System 1 and 2 practices to reduce costs and improve
performance. Likert finds fault with the prevailing accounting methods and measures of efficiency
rating purely in terms of financial costs, profits and turnovers. He feels that the costs of running the
most important asset of organisation - its managers and workers - are equally important. Likert
emphasises the need to recognise the monetary value of human resources in organisations. Good
managers and workers joining or leaving organisation should be considered as increasing or
decreasing the assets of that organisation. Therefore, in calculating the value of human resources,
Likert suggests that the variables like level of intelligence and aptitude, communications and control,
capacity to use experience, level of motivation, capacity to achieve coordination, capacity to use
experience to introduce innovations, etc., should be taken into account.14 The cost of training is
conventionally regarded as avoidable and its value in human asset building is not fully appreciated.
Likert, therefore, pleads for better methods of accounting total cost and total assets of an organisation.
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Applications of System-4 Several research and experimental studies conducted in a variety of

organisations have convinced Likert about the validity of System-4 management for realising high
performance goals. He visualises the possibility of all organisations practicing System 1, 2 and 3
eventually shifting to System-4. Likert opines that his System-4 model provides a useful framework
to guide all types of organisation development efforts. He feels that uncoordinated and piecemeal
efforts such as team building, job enrichment, sensitivity training, participative decision-making
and management by objectives will not pay high dividends unless they are integrated into an overall
strategy of changing the management system. To guide the efforts for human resource development,
the management system should possess the following characteristics:
• The system should have been discovered by rigorous, quantitative research. This research
should have demonstrated that the model management system yields the best performance
and other desirable results in most working situations;
• It should be possible to define the management system by means of a limited number of
measurable dimensions;
• Such dimensions should have closer relationships to end-result variables such as productivity

and employee satisfaction than other organisational dimensions;
• Efficient procedures and instruments to measure these key organisational dimensions should
be available; and
• There should be ample research findings to show that as organisations shift towards the
management system, there is a corresponding improvement in performance and other desired
The research should demonstrate that these results occur in different kinds of industries and work

situations. Likert claims that his System-4 model fulfills all the above specifications. It has been
defined by a limited number of key human organisational dimensions. These dimensions have been
identified after extensive research and were found to be correlated with performance across a wide
variety of different kinds of organisations. Efficient instruments are available to measure the key
dimensions of any human organisations. A sizable number of studies in different kinds of work
situations have found that as organisations shift closer to System-4, there is a corresponding
improvement in performance and increase in other desired results. To Likert, another useful aspect

of the System 1-4 models for human resources development purposes is the recognition that certain
human organisational dimensions are casual in character. Causal variables are those which are
capable of being influenced or altered by the organisations leadership and which, when altered,
produce corresponding changes in the symptomatic, (intervening variables) and, in turn, in the
results that the organisation achieves. Using survey feedback method, Likert proposes an
organisational improvement cycle comprising of five steps. They are:
• Establishing an ideal model (System 4);
• Measuring the organisation’s scores on key dimensions of ideal model;
• Analysing and interpreting scores based on their relationship to the ideal model and preparing
diagnosis of organisational strengths and weaknesses;
• Based on this diagnosis, preparing an action plan to build on strengths and correct weaknesses
concerning structure, leader behaviour, organisational climate, subordinate behaviour: and
• Implementation of the action plan.
Likert lays down guidelines for using the proposedorganisationalimprovementcycle. They are:
• Focus the action efforts on the casual variables, such as leadership behaviour and structure.
Do not try to change by direct action the intervening variables such as motivation and
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control. If the casual variables are improved, there will be subsequent improvements in the
intervening variables;
• Move from System 1 to 4 gradually and do not attempt one big jump as both leaders and
members of the organisation lack the skills for interaction and adaptation and many find it
difficult to make a sudden, sizable shift from System 1 to 4.
• Involve those whose behaviour has to be changed to bring the desired improvement, in
planning the action to be taken. Involve all the persons affected in all the steps of the
improvement cycle;
• Use objective, impersonal evidence as much as possible in the action planning process;
• As far as possible, ensure the initiative and active participation of those in the most powerful
and influential positions in the improvement programme; and
• Conduct the action planning in a supportive, helpful atmosphere.
The guidelines have their utility for the application of System-4 concept of organisation improvements.

However, Likert was conscious of the problems involved in adapting System4 to all organisations.
This is clear when he says that differences in the kind of work, in the traditions of the industry and
in the skills and values of the employees of a particular company require quite different procedures
and ways to apply appropriately the basic principles of System-4 management. Actual realisation
of System-4 conditions of management, therefore, depends on the complex interplay of factors and
forces at work in real organisation life.
Likert considers System 4 as an ideal model of management and suggests applications for transfer
of systems from System 1 to System 4. He proposes improvement cycle with elaborate guidelines for

the application of organisational improvement. Likert suggested internal management and monitoring
systems of organisations based on causal, intervening and end result variables.
An Evaluation
The central features of System-4 viz., supportive relationships, group methods of decisionmaking
and supervision, high performance goals and achievement motivation contribute to better forms of
human organisation. It is only to be hoped that human organisations will move increasingly towards

this ideal-rational system of management. The linking pin model is often accused of doing nothing
more than drawing triangles around the traditional hierarchical structures. It is also criticised as
slowing down the process of decision-making. Notwithstanding these criticisms, the linking pin
model has its own advantages. It fosters the upward and horizontal linkage in contrast to the only
downward orientation of classical structure and strengthens the cross-functional linkages in complex
organisations. But the questions are: How do we push the Management Systems 1 and 2 towards 3
to 4? What holds up the transformation of the Management Systems -2? Why does top management
revert to management practices of System 1 and 2 in the face of a crisis? Is crisis management by
itself a reflection of the breakdown in supportive relationships, group decision processes and
performance goals? If that be so, is System-4 management fallible? How can one ensure the evolution
and enduring success of System-4 management? Can organisation systems and management practices
be isolated from the cultural constraints and social values? If social organisation is hierarchical and
its orientation is authoritarian, will it not also permeate organisation structures and management
processes? So long as the power dominates modern organisations, participative management remains
in the realm of the utopia. Again if conflict is inherent in the competing values, needs and expectations
of individuals and groups in organisations, how does one realise the supportive relationships and
other desirable features of System-4 management? Despite criticisms, Likert pins his faith in System-
4 leadership and interaction-influence networks to diffuse conflict situations and replace win-lose
strategies of conflict resolution by win-win strategies, wherein all parties to conflict stand to gain
leaving no one frustrated and embittered. System-4 structures and processes help to de-emphasise
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status, depersonalise problem-solving and use power to resolve conflict constructively instead of
suppressing them. The System-4 concepts of management developed by Rensis Likert hold out
prospects of development of advanced forms of human organisation. Some critics may underplay
the importance of ‘new patterns of management’ as little more than summary of good management
practices. But Likert’s most important contribution to management thought and practice is his
systematic analysis of good management practices and extending their frontiers of knowledge and
application. He earned his place among management thinkers and researches for laying the empirical
foundations for the development of management science.
8. (b) Structural theory is, by and large, grounded in classical principles of efficiency, effectiveness
and productivity. Explain.
• Define structural theory
• Components of structural theories

• Criticism
• Conclusion relevance
Structural theory relates to a rigid structure of the organization which is needed for effective and
efficient management of an organization. It is inherent in the writing of classical thinkers like

Fayol was born in 1841 in France. He worked as an engineer in a mining company. By 1888 he had
raised to the position of Managing Director of the company. He was one of the successful managing
directors under whom the company achieved great financial success. Based on his experience he
wrote a book ‘General and Industrial Management’ (1916). His papers on ‘The Theory of
Administration in the State’ (1923), is considered as a major contribution to the theory of public

Fayol is regarded as the founder of managerial approach. The later writers like Gulick and Urwick
have been greatly influenced by this works. Fayol’s major contribution is his principles of
administration. They are division of work; authority; discipline; unity of command; unity of direction;
subordination of individual interest to the general interests; remuneration; centralization; line of
authority; order; equity; stability of tenure; initiative and harmony. Fayol derived the managerial
functions in to five elements. They are: planning, organisation, command, coordination and control.
Though he has listed out certain principles, he himself was ambiguous in his writings as to what he
means by these principles. Some of them describe managerial activity; others lay down what manager
should do. Though they are limited in nature, the Fayol’s principles have provided basis for the
development of principles of administration by the later thinkers.
Scientific management approach developed in the early phases of industrial revolution. It tried to
address some of the problems of industrial society. The basic concerns of industrial society were to
improve efficiency, to reduce the cost of production and to increase the profits. This can be achieved
through twopronged strategy. One is related to improving the technology and the techniques of
work along with efficient management of workers. The second is expansion of market to the new
colonies. Taylor was trying to address the first concern of the industrial society. Hence he emphasised
more on scientific knowledge of doing things and scientific way of managing organisations.
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To overcome the deficiencies in the management Taylor formulated four new principles / new
duties to be assumed by the management which are known as the principles of scientific management.
They are: 1. The development of a true science of work 2. The scientific selection of workmen and
their progressive development 3. Bringing together of science of work and the scientifically selected
workers 4. The equal division of work and the responsibility between management and workers
Gulick and Urwick,
Luther Gulick was born in Osaka, Japan in the year 1892 and was educated in Columbia University.
He served the National Defence Council during first World War. He was associated with the City
Research Institute at New York. He also worked as administrator of New York City during 1954-
56. He also served as a professor in several universities and consultant in administration for several
countries. His important writings are‘Administrative Reflection from World War-II’, and ‘Papers
on the Science of Administration’ (1937), (jointly edited by Urwick) ‘Modern Management for the
City of New York’.
Lyndall Urwick was born in Briton in 1891. He was educated at Oxford University. He was a Lt.
Col. during the First World War in the British army, and he was considered to be an outstanding

consultant on industrial management. Some of his important publications were ‘A Management of
Tomorrow’, ‘The Making of Science of Management’, ‘The Elements of Administration’, (1943). He
also edited along with Luther Gulick ‘Papers on Science of Administration’ (1937).
Gulick and Urwick had a rich experience in the working of civil service and military and industrial
organisations. With these two writers we see a coming together of public administration and business
administration. Similar to other writers, in ‘Formal Organisations’ they were much influenced by
Taylor and Urwick was to rationalize the work process by bringing work together in a centralized
area. They have contributed to the development of classical theory of organisation, known as
administrative management theory. They believed that it is possible to develop a science of

administration based on principles. They felt that if the experience of administrators are processed
it could be possible to develop a science of administration. Administration hither to remained an art
and there is no reason why it can’t be developed in to a science. They gave importance to structure
of administration while almost neglecting the role of men in the organisation.
Based on this approach and their experience they evolved certain principles of organisation. The
principles enunciated by Gulick are (1) division of work or specialization (2) bases of departmental
organisation (3) coordination through hierarchy, (4) deliberate coordination, (5) coordination

through committees, (6) decentralization, (7) unity of command, (8) line and staff, (9) delegation
and (10) span of control.
Gulick also coined an acronym ‘POSDCORB’ indicating the seven important functional elements of
administration. They are planning, organisation, staffing, direction, coordination, reporting and
budgetingUrwick identified eight principles of administration. They are (1) the principle of objectives,
(2) the principle of correspondence, (3) the principle of responsibility, (4) the scalar principle, (5) the
principle of span of control, (6) the principle of specialization, (7) the principle of coordination and
(8) the principle of definition.
Mooney and Reiley
Mooney and Reiley in their book ‘Onward Industry’ (1931), provided a central frame work laying
down the principles of management. They have attempted to provide an elaborated historical account
of genesis of management and management thought. Like Fayol there appears to be some confusion
the use of the term ‘principle’ used by the Mooney and Reiley. They appear to be a set of statements
showing importance of leadership, authority and coordination. Mooney in his article included in
“Papers on Science of Administration” maintained that it was ‘coordination’ that is the fundamental
principle of any human organisation. He further writes “the term organisation and the principles
that govern it are inherent in every form of concerted effort, even where there are not more than
two persons involved”. He takes the example of the effort of two men to move a stone and says,
‘here we have coordination, the first principle of organisation’.
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Mooney and Reiley also referred to the functional principle of organisation. According to them all
jobs involve one of the three functions. They are determinative function (setting goals), the application
function (acting purposively to achieve the goals) and the interpretative function (decision making).
They argue that management must be aware of these functions to be prepared to discharge them
when necessary. Thus, they have contributed to the development of managerial theory of
Scientific management and theory of bureaucracy mark the first major developments in the theory
of organisation. These theories were responding to the needs of industrial organisations. Theory of
bureaucracy was needed to bring the efficiency in its functioning. As stated by Weber ‘no special
proof is necessary to show that military discipline is ideal model for the modern capitalist factory.
The example of most developed form of organisation, bureaucracy, the theory of which Weber
found, is developed from the Prussian military forces, and which enterprises such as the British
Railway Companies actually found in the ranks of the British Army, was to become the specific
form of management of big business. Weber felt that emergence of modern bureaucratic organisation

is ‘demanded’, he further says ‘a peculiarity of modern culture’, and specific of its technical and
economic basis, demands the very ‘calculability of results’. More specifically ‘today it is primarily
the capitalist market economy which demands the official business of the administration be
discharged precisely, unambiguously, continuously, and with as much speed as possible’.
Bureaucratisation offers above all, optimum possibility for carrying through the principle of
specialising administration functioning according to purely objective considerations.
Above lines show that the Weber’s theory of bureaucracy was a response to the demands of industrial
capitalist economy, which required an efficient administration. While Taylor attempted to rationalise
functions of modern factory, Weber made an attempt at the rationalisation of bureaucratic structures.

Both of them emphasised on control and discipline in the working of organisations.

Woodrow Wilson in his famous essay “The study of Administration” propounded scientific
management ,it is based on the concept of planning of work to achieve efficiency, standardization,
specialization and simplification. The approach to increased productivity is through mutual trust
between management and workers.
Fayol in The elements of administrative theory relate to accomplishment of tasks, and include

principles of management, the concept of line and staff, committees and functions of management.
Fayol considered management as a set of planning, organizing, training, commanding and
coordinating functions.
Gulick and Urwick further developed the structural system. They provided principles for structure
of Administration. Gulick and Urwick (1937) also considered organization in terms of management
functions such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting.
Mooney and Reiley’s principles of coordination, scalar process, functional differentiation and line
and staff are again based on those classical principles.
Considering the organization as a segment of broader society, Weber (1947) based the concept of
the formal organization on :
• Structure;
• Specialization;
• Predictability and stability;
• Rationality; and
• Democracy.
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Weber’s theory is infirm on account of dysfunctions such as rigidity, impersonality, displacement of

objectives, limitation of categorization, self-perpetuation and empire building, cost of controls, and
anxiety to improve status.
Follett and Bernard deviated from the idea of economic man and shifted their focus on the significance
of socio-psychological aspects of organizational behavior but Follett’s principles of planning and
coordination and Bernard’s principles of better communication have clearly been put forward with
a view of increasing the efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of an organization.
Many writers criticized the administrative management approach. The principles of administration
enumerated under this approach have become main targets of criticism. The basic criticism is that
there is little consistency in the work of any of these writers, either between them or with in them.
The term ‘principle’ is used in different ways by different
authors. Some times it has a descriptive connotation or it expresses the relation between organisation
variables: some writers have questioned the scientific validity of the principles. Normally a principle

is subject to verification. But such universality is absent in these principles. They appear more in the
nature of postulates of experienced men who has closely observed the working of organisations.
The major attack on principles came from Herbert Simon. Herbert Simon who commented on the
fact that the principles are ‘little more than ambiguous and mutually contradictory proverbs’. They
form neither a coherent conceptual pattern of determination nor an accurate description of concrete
empirical reality (Clegg &Dunkerley, 1980, p, 102). He says that, it is fatal defect of the current
principles of administration that like proverbs they occur in pairs. For almost every principle one
can find an equally acceptable contradictory principle (For example while the principle of division
of work is claimed as essential for the organisational efficiency the coordination principle is also

claimed as essential principle to bring efficiency).

One can see a contradiction between the principle of specialization and the principle of unity of
command. The specialist working in organisations are always subject to dual control of generalist
and technocrats. Similarly there is a contradiction between principles of specialization and span of
control. While span of control emphasizes on the limitations of supervisor and his capacity to supervise
a certain number of sub-ordinates, it has failed to arrive at a scientifically valid number of subordinates
less than one supervisor.

Simon felt that principles of administration are at best criteria for describing administrative situation.
He further felt that the principles are either universal, empirically applicable neither theoretically
The administrative management approach in general is criticized for its neglect of human element
in the organisation. Human being is considered insignificant in administrative processes. Gulick
and Urwick have shown concern only for ‘formal organisation’ neglecting informal variables, which
are important for the understanding of organisations.
V.Subramanyam points out two important limitation of this approach. In the first place, there is
lack of sophistication in the theory; they appear to be commonplace general knowledge propositions,
which do not appeal to the intellectual curiosity of the academicians and practitioners of
administration. Secondly, it has a pro-management biaswhere it mostly dealt with the problems of
management in the organisation and not the problem of lower level in the organisation.
In spite of the criticism the principle of administration continue to found relevant even today. We
find working of these principles such as division of work, coordination, delegation etc. in the present
day organizations. Organizations cannot function with out adhering to these principles. These
principles continue to be taught in the colleges and universities for the students of public
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administration and management. Many people have criticized the principles, but they have not
developed any alternatives to these principles. They have failed to replace them with better principles.
The principles of administration have provided basis for the development of later theories in
administration. With some modifications on the lines of changes taking place in the organizations,
these principles can find relevance in the present context also.
In spite of various criticism the administrative management approach and the principles of
administration have contributed significantly to the theory and practice of administration. This
theory emerged historically at a point of time when the organisations were becoming complex and
faced with problem of inefficiency and low production. This theory has enabled the large-scale
organisations to operate effectively. It is also relevant to understand the administrative processes of
the contemporary organisations. In spite of their limitations the principles continue to be practiced
in the organisations. They facilitate the smooth functioning of administration. To get benefited from
the principles one has to understand this theory in a proper perspective and apply it to the
contemporary situation with required modifications.

 RE

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